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# S0300-A8-HBK-010

APPENDIX E

ENGINEER’S TABLES

The following tables list physical properties of water and mechanical properties of common shipbuilding and structural materials, along
with section properties of steel structural shapes. For stowage factors of common materials, see Appendix E of U.S. Navy Ship Salvage
Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010); for trigonometric functions and roots of numbers, see Appendix D of the U.S. Navy Ship
Salvage Manual, Volume 1.

## Table E-1. Water Factors (at point of greatest

density - 39.2 °F). Table E-2. Temperature and Pressure Effects on Water Density.

## Seawater Fresh water

(γg = 1.025) (γg = 1.000) Density of Fresh Water as a Function of Temperature at Atmospheric Pressure

1 cubic foot = 63.99 62.426 pounds Temperature Specific Density Temperature Specific Density
≈ 64 62.4 pounds Gravity lb/ft³ Gravity lb/ft³
°C °F °C °F
= .02857 .02787 long tons
= 29.025 28.3 kilograms 0 32 0.99987 62.4183 40 104 0.99224 61.9428
1 cubic inch = .03703 .036124 pounds 2 35.6 0.99997 62.4246 42 107.6 0.99147 61.894
1 cubic meter (kiloliter) = 1.025 1.0 tonne
= 1,025 1,000 kg 4 39.2 1.00000 62.4266 44 111.2 0.99066 61.844
= 1.009 0.984 long ton 6 42.8 0.99997 62.4246 46 114.8 0.98982 61.791
= 2,260 2,205 pounds 8 46.4 0.99988 62.4189 48 118.4 0.98896 61.737
1 U.S. gallon = 8.554 8.345 pounds
= 3.88 3.78 kilograms 10 50 0.99973 62.4096 50 122 0.98807 61.682
1 English (Imperial) gallon = 10.27 10.02 pounds 12 53.6 0.99952 62.3969 52 125.6 0.98715 61.624
= 4.66 4.55 kilograms 14 57.2 0.99927 62.3811 54 129.2 0.98621 61.566
1 barrel = 379.33 350.37 pounds
= 162.96 158.9 kilograms 16 60.8 0.99897 62.3623 56 132.8 0.98524 61.505
1 pound = 27.006 26.68 cubic inches 18 64.4 0.99862 62.3407 58 136.4 0.98425 61.443
= .01563 .01602 cubic feet 20 68 0.99823 62.3164 60 140 0.98324 61.380
= .1169 .1198 U.S. gallons
= .0974 .0998 English gallons 22 71.6 0.99780 62.2894 62 143.6 0.98220 61.315
1 long ton = 35.008 35.883 cubic feet 24 75.2 0.99732 62.2598 64 147.2 0.98113 61.249
≈ 35 36 cubic feet
26 78.8 0.99681 62.2278 66 150.8 0.98005 61.181
= 261.88 268.423 U.S. gallons
= 218.07 223.516 English gallons 28 82.4 0.99626 62.1934 68 154.4 0.97894 61.112
Cubic meters 30 86 0.99567 62.1568 70 158 0.97781 61.041
= 0.991 1.016
(kiloliters)
32 89.6 0.99505 62.1179 72 161.6 0.97666 60.970
= 6.23 6.39 barrels
1 short ton = 31.26 32.04 cubic feet 34 93.2 0.99440 62.0770 74 165.2 0.97548 60.896
= 233.8 239.6 U.S. gallons 36 96.8 0.99371 62.0341 76 168.8 0.97428 60.821
= 194.7 199.6 English gallons
38 100.4 0.99299 61.9893 78 172.4 0.97307 60.745
1 tonne = 34.45 35.33 cubic feet
= 257.73 264.26 U.S. gallons
English (Imperial) Relative Volume of Water as a Function of Pressure and Temperature
= 214.6 220.04
gallons
= 0.976 1.0 cubic meters
Temperature Pressure in atmospheres
= 6.1 6.26 barrels
°C °F 0 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
1 cubic foot of ice ≈ 57.2 pounds 0 32 1.0000 0.9769 0.9566 0.9223 0.8954 0.8739
1 pound of steam occupies 26.8 cubic feet at atmospheric pressure
1 cubic inch of water makes approximately 1 cubic foot of steam at 20 68 1.0016 0.9804 0.9619 0.9312 0.9065 0.8855
atmospheric pressure (1 gallon makes approximately 200 cubic feet) 50 122 1.0128 0.9915 0.9732 0.9428 0.9183 0.8974
500 pounds of fresh water per hour ≈ 1 gallon per minute
80 176 1.0287 1.0071 0.9884 0.9568 0.9315 0.9097

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Table E-3. Mechanical Properties of Steel and Aluminum Alloy for Navy Ships.

Steel
Designation
Yield strength Tensile Strength
Specification
lb/in2 lb/in2

MIL-S-22698 (plate)
Medium Steel (MS),
34,000 60,000 MIL-S-20166
Ordinary Steel (OS)
(shapes)
MIL-S-16113 (plate)
High-Tensile Steel (HTS),
47,000 72,000 MIL-S-20116
High-Strength Steel (HS)
(shapes)
High-Yield Steel
MIL-S-16216 (plate)
HY-80 80,000 100,000 MIL-S-22958
(shapes)
MIL-S-16216 (plate)
HY-100 100,000 115,000 MIL-S-22958
(shapes)
Aluminum Alloy
Yield strength
Designation lb/in2 Tensile Strength
Specification
lb/in2
Base Metal Weld
Plate:
5052-H34 26,000 20,000 34,000
5086-H32 28,000 22,000 40,000 QQ-A-250/19
5086-H116 28,000 22,000 40,000 "
5086-H117 28,000 22,000 40,000 "
5454-H34 29,000 16,000 39,000 QQ-A-250/10
5456-H111 33,000 26,000 46,000 QQ-A-250/20
5456-H116 33,000 26,000 46,000 "
5456-H117 33,000 26,000 46,000 "
Shapes:
5086-H111 21,000 16,000 36,000 QQ-A-200/5
5454-H111 19,000 16,000 33,000 QQ-A-220/6
5456-H111 26,000 21,000 42,000 QQ-A-200/7
Tubing:
5086-H32 28,000 22,000 40,000
5086-O 14,000 14,000 35,000

## Table E-4. Typical Mechanical Constants of Metals.

E G K σu
µ
Elastic Modulus Shear Modulus Bulk Modulus Tensile Strength Fatigue limit
Poisson’s Ratio
1,000,000 psi 1,000,000 psi 1,000,000 psi 1,000 psi 1,000 psi

Steel:
Cold-rolled 29.5 11.5 23.1 0.287 60-150 25-75
Cast 28.5 11.3 20.2 0.265 60-80 24-32
Stainless (18-8) 27.6 10.6 23.6 0.305
All others, including high carbon and heat treated 28.6-30.0 11.0-11.9 22.6-24.0 0.283-0.292 44-200 16-80
Aluminum alloys 9.9-10.3 3.7-3.9 9.9-10.2 0.330-0.334
wrought 25-70 8-18
cast 18-40 6-11
Titanium 15-16 6.5 - 0.34 91 45
Monel 25.0 9.5 22.5 0.315 70-120 20-50
Inconel 31 11 - 0.27-0.38
Cast iron 13.5-21.0 5.2-8.2 8.4-15.5 0.211-0.299 20-50 6-18
Malleable iron 23.6 9.3 17.2 0.271 50 24
Copper 15.6 5.8 17.9 0.355 32-50 12-17
Brass (70-30) 15.9 6.0 15.7 0.331 25-75 7-20
Phosphor bronze 15.9 5.9 16.3 0.359 55 12
Tobin bronze, hard 13.8 5.1 16.3 0.359 65 21
Beryllium copper 17 7 - - - -
Magnesium alloys 6.3 2.5 4.8 0.281 20-45 7-17

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## Yield strength Tensile Strength Yield strength Ultimate (Tensile)

Designation Thickness range Designation Thickness range
lb/in2 lb/in2 lb/in2 Strength lb/in2

## Structural steel for ships High-strength low alloy steels

ASTM A131 (all grades) - 34,000 58-71,000 ASTM A242 to 3⁄ 4 in. 50,000 70,000
3
Structural Carbon Steel ASTM A440 to ⁄ 4 in. 50,000 70,000
3 1
ASTM A36 to 4 in. 36,000 58-80,000 ⁄ 4 to 1 ⁄ 2 in. 46,000 67,000

## ASTM A7 all 33,000 60-75,000 ASTM A441 to 3⁄ 4 in. 50,000 70,000

1
ASTM A373 to 4 in. 32,000 58-75,000 1 ⁄ 2 to 4 in. 42,000 63,000

## Grade A all 24,000 45,000 Grade 42 to 4 in. 42,000 60,000

1
Grade B all 27,000 50,000 Grade 45 to 1 ⁄ 2 in. 45,000 60,000
1
Grade C all 30,000 55,000 Grade 50 to 1 ⁄ 2 in. 50,000 65,000

## ASTM A284 Grade 60 to 1 in. 60,000 75,000

1
Grade A to 12 in. 25,000 50,000 Grade 65 to ⁄ 2 in. 65,000 80,000

## Grade D to 8 in. 21,000 60,000 Grade 42X to 3⁄ 8 in. 42,000 60,000

3
ASTM A285 Grade 945X to ⁄ 8 in. 45,000 60,000

## Grade A to 2 in. 24,000 44-55,000 Grade 945A, C to 1⁄ 2 in. 45,000 65,000

3
Grade B " 27,000 50-60,000 Grade 950X to ⁄ 8 in. 50,000 65,000
1
Grade C " 30,000 55-65,000 Grade 950A, B, C, D to 1 ⁄ 2 in. 50,000 70,000

## ASTM A113 Grade 955X to 3⁄ 8 in. 55,000 70,000

3
Grade A all 33,000 60-72,000 Grade 960X to ⁄ 8 in. 60,000 75,000
3
Grade B all 27,000 50-62,000 Grade 965X to ⁄ 8 in. 65,000 80,000

## Grade C all 26,000 48-58,000 Grade 970X to 3⁄ 8 in. 70,000 85,000

3
Heat-treated constructional alloy Grade 980X to ⁄ 8 in. 80,000 95,000
1
ASTM A514 to 2 ⁄ 2 in. 100,000 115-135,000 Stainless steels (nominal properties)
1
2 ⁄ 2 to 4 in. 90,000 105-135,000 AISI 302, annealed 40,000 90,000

## AISI 1141 95,200 112,000 AISI 502, annealed 30,000 70,000

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Steel Structural Shapes. In the United States, dimensional and material property specifications for steel plate, bar, and structural shapes are
given by ASTM standard A6/A6M, Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates, Shapes, Sheet Piling and Bars for
Structural Use. The shape dimensions and properties in the following tables are excerpted from ASTM Standard A6/A6M and/or the AISC
Manual of Steel Construction, Eighth Edition.

Structural shapes (other than angles) are identified by letter designations followed by numbers giving nominal depth and weight per linear foot.
Shape cross sections are illustrated in the tables giving dimensions and properties, and described below:

• "W" shapes are doubly symmetric, wide-flange shapes with inside flange surfaces essentially parallel, produced primarily for use
as beams and columns. The profiles of W shapes from different manufacturers are nearly the same except for the size of the fillets
between the web and flanges. A shape with dimensions and weight approximately the same as a W shape but with inside flanges
not parallel can be considered a W shape if the average flange thickness is essentially the same as the flange thickness of the W
shape. The larger W shapes were formerly called wide flange beams, designated by the symbol WF inserted between the nominal
depth and weight per foot, (e.g., 24 WF 76), while smaller sizes were called light beams, designated by the letter "B" (14 B 26).

• "HP" shapes are wide-flange shapes with flanges and webs of the same nominal thickness, depth and width essentially equal, and
essentially parallel flange surfaces, produced primarily for use as bearing piles. The profiles of HP shapes from different
manufacturers are essentially the same. HP shapes were formerly called bearing piles, designated by the letters BP (14 BP 73).

• "S" shapes are doubly symmetric, flanged shapes produced to dimensional standards adopted in 1896 by the association of American
Steel Manufacturers for American Standard beam shapes. The inside flange surfaces have an approximate 162⁄ 3 percent (2 inches
in 12) slope. S shapes were formerly called standard I-beams, designated by the letter "I" inserted between the nominal depth and
weight per foot (24 I 100).

• American Standard Channels are designated by the letter "C" and are produced to dimensional standards adopted in 1896 by the
association of American Steel Manufacturers for American Standard channels. The inside flange surfaces have an approximate
162⁄ 3 percent (2 inches in 12) slope.

• Angles consist of two flanges (legs), of equal or unequal length, meeting at a right angle, and are designated by the letter "L."
The profiles of angles from different manufacturers are essentially the same except for the size of the fillets between the legs and
the shape of the ends of the legs. Angles are designated L shapes are designated by numbers giving length of each leg and nominal
thickness of the legs in inches, as 6 × 6 × 5⁄ 8. Angles were formerly indicated by the symbol ∠.

• The letter "M" designates doubly symmetric shapes that cannot be classed as W, HP, or S shapes. Similarly, "MC" designates
channels that cannot be classed as Standard Channels (C shapes).

• Structural Tees are formed by splitting the web of W, S, or M shapes and are designated by the letter for the shape from which they
are cut followed by a T (WT, ST, or MT). Although Tees can be formed by off-center or scalloped cuts, or by cutting along two
lines, the tables in this handbook are for Tees with depth equal to one-half the tabulated base beam depth.

The maximum length of shapes varies with producers, but is generally on the order of 60 to 75 feet. Structural shapes and plate (to 8-inch
thickness) are generally formed from ASTM A36 carbon steel, although ASTM A529, A441, A572, A242, A588, and A514 steels are also used
in some sizes.

To reduce bulk, the following tables reproduce only external dimensions, web and flange thicknesses, and structural section properties. Not all
standard sizes are included for all shapes. Properties for shapes not included can be interpolated from the tables with fair accuracy. Given the
designation (nominal depth and weight per foot) interpolated values of cross-sectional area, A, are accurate to two decimal places. Within groups
of shapes with the same nominal depth, there are subgroupings with the same nominal flange width. Interpolated values of I, Z, and J within
groups with the same nominal flange width are accurate to within 2 percent.

Standard dimensional specifications for structural shapes (and the resulting structural properties) have changed several times in the past. Shapes
used in older ships or from old stock may not match precisely the shapes given in the following tables or listed in the current edition of ASTM
Standard A6/A6M or the AISC Manual of Steel Construction, although properties for the next smaller shape or a shape with approximately the
same section area can be used for conservative estimates.

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tf Y

d X X
tw

Y
bf

## Flange Elastic Properties Plastic Moduli

Designation Torsional
Web
(Nominal depth × Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y Constant ZX ZY
Thickness Width Thickness
weight per linear foot) in. in2 J
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM I SM in4 in3 in3
in4 in3 in4 in3
W 36×300 36.74 0.945 16.655 1.680 88.3 20300 1110 1300 156 64.2 1260 241
36×260 36.26 0.840 16.550 1.440 76.5 17300 953 1090 132 41.5 1080 204
36×230 35.90 0.760 16.470 1.260 67.6 15000 837 940 114 28.6 943 176
36×210 36.69 0.830 12.180 1.360 61.8 13200 719 411 67.5 28.0 833 107
36×182 36.33 0.725 12.075 1.180 53.6 11300 623 347 57.6 18.4 718 90.7
36×160 36.01 0.650 12.000 1.020 47.0 9750 542 295 49.1 12.4 624 77.3
36×135 35.55 0.600 11.950 0.790 39.7 7800 439 225 37.7 6.99 509 59.7
W 33×241 34.18 0.830 15.860 1.400 70.9 14200 829 932 118 35.8 939 182
33×201 33.68 0.715 15.745 1.150 59.1 11500 684 749 95.2 20.5 772 147
33×152 33.49 0.635 11.565 1.055 44.7 8160 487 273 47.2 12.4 559 73.9
33×118 32.86 0.550 11.480 0.740 34.7 5900 359 187 32.6 5.30 415 51.3
W 30×211 30.94 0.775 15.105 1.315 62.0 10300 663 757 100 27.9 749 154
30×173 30.44 0.655 14.985 1.065 50.8 8200 539 598 79.8 15.3 605 123
30×132 30.31 0.615 10.545 1.000 38.9 5770 380 196 37.2 9.72 437 58.4
30×116 30.01 0.565 10.495 0.850 34.2 4930 329 164 31.3 6.43 378 49.2
30× 99 29.65 0.520 10.450 0.670 29.1 3990 269 128 24.5 3.77 312 38.6
W 27×178 27.81 0.725 14.085 1.190 52.3 6990 502 555 78.8 19.5 567 122
27×146 27.38 0.605 13.965 0.975 42.9 5630 411 443 63.5 10.9 461 97.5
27×114 27.29 0.570 10.070 0.930 33.5 4090 299 159 31.5 7.33 343 49.3
27× 84 26.71 0.460 9.960 0.640 24.8 2850 213 106 21.2 2.81 244 33.2
W 24×162 25.00 0.705 12.955 1.220 47.7 5170 414 443 68.4 18.5 468 105
24×131 24.48 0.605 12.855 0.960 38.5 4020 329 340 53.0 9.50 370 81.5
24×104 24.06 0.500 12.750 0.750 30.6 3100 258 259 40.7 4.72 289 62.4
24× 94 24.31 0.515 9.065 0.875 27.7 2700 222 109 24.0 5.26 254 37.5
24× 68 23.73 0.415 8.965 0.585 20.1 1830 154 70.4 15.7 1.87 177 24.5
24× 62 23.74 0.430 7.040 0.590 18.2 1550 131 34.5 9.80 1.71 153 15.7
24× 55 23.57 0.395 7.005 0.505 16.2 1350 114 29.1 8.30 1.18 134 13.3
W 21×147 22.06 0.720 12.510 1.150 43.2 3630 329 376 60.1 15.4 373 92.6
21×122 21.68 0.600 12.390 0.960 35.9 2960 273 305 49.2 8.98 307 75.6
21×101 21.36 0.500 12.290 0.800 29.8 2420 227 248 40.3 5.21 253 61.7
21× 93 21.62 0.580 8.420 0.930 27.3 2070 192 92.9 22.1 6.03 221 34.7
21× 73 21.24 0.455 8.295 0.740 21.5 1600 151 70.6 17.0 3.02 172 26.6
21× 62 20.99 0.400 8.240 0.615 18.3 1330 127 57.5 13.9 1.83 144 21.7
21× 57 21.06 0.405 6.555 0.650 16.7 1170 111 30.6 9.35 1.77 129 14.8
21× 44 20.66 0.350 6.500 0.450 13.0 843 81.6 20.7 6.36 0.77 95.4 10.2
W 18×119 18.97 0.655 11.265 1.060 35.1 2190 231 253 44.9 10.6 261 69.1
18× 97 18.59 0.535 11.145 0.870 28.5 1750 188 201 36.1 5.86 211 55.3
18× 76 18.21 0.425 11.035 0.680 22.3 1330 146 152 27.6 2.83 163 42.2
18× 71 18.47 0.495 7.635 0.810 20.8 1170 127 60.3 15.8 3.48 145 24.7
18× 60 18.24 0.415 7.555 0.695 17.6 984 108 50.1 13.3 2.17 123 20.6
18× 50 17.99 0.355 7.495 0.570 14.7 800 88.9 40.1 10.7 1.24 101 16.6
18× 46 18.06 0.360 6.060 0.605 13.5 712 78.8 22.5 7.43 1.22 90.7 11.7
18× 35 17.70 0.300 6.000 0.425 10.3 510 57.6 15.3 5.12 0.51 66.5 8.06

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## Flange Elastic Properties Torsional Plastic Moduli

Designation Web
(Nominal Depth × Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y Constant ZX ZY
Thickness Width Thickness
weight per linear foot) in. in2 J
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM I SM
in4 in 3
in3
in4 in3 in4 in3
W 16×100 16.97 0.585 10.425 0.985 29.4 1490 175 186 35.7 7.73 198 54.9
16× 67 16.33 0.395 10.235 0.665 19.7 954 117 119 23.2 2.39 130 35.5
16× 57 16.43 0.430 7.120 0.715 16.8 758 92.2 43.1 12.1 2.22 105 18.9
16× 45 16.13 0.345 7.035 0.565 13.3 586 72.7 32.8 9.34 1.11 82.3 14.5
16× 36 15.86 0.295 6.985 0.430 10.6 448 56.5 24.5 7.0 0.54 64.0 10.8
16× 31 15.88 0.275 5.525 0.440 9.12 375 47.2 12.4 4.49 0.46 54.0 7.03
16× 26 15.69 0.250 5.500 0.345 7.68 301 38.4 9.59 3.49 0.26 44.2 5.48
W 14×730 22.42 3.070 17.890 4.910 215.0 14300 1280 4720 527 1450 1660 816
14×550 20.24 2.380 17.200 3.820 162.0 9430 931 3250 378 670 1180 583
14×455 19.02 2.015 16.835 3.210 134.0 7190 756 2560 304 395 936 468
14×398 18.29 1.770 16.590 2.845 117.0 6000 656 2170 262 273 801 402
14×311 17.12 1.410 16.230 2.260 91.4 4330 506 1610 199 136 603 304
14×257 16.38 1.175 15.995 1.890 75.6 3400 415 1290 161 79.1 487 246
14×176 15.22 0.830 15.650 1.310 51.8 2140 281 838 107 26.5 320 163
14×145 14.78 0.680 15.500 1.090 42.7 1710 232 677 87.3 15.2 260 133
14×132 14.66 0.645 14.725 1.030 38.8 1530 209 548 74.5 12.3 234 113
14× 90 14.02 0.440 14.520 0.710 26.5 999 143 362 49.9 4.06 157 75.6
14× 82 14.31 0.510 10.130 0.855 24.1 882 123 148 29.3 5.08 139 44.8
14× 61 13.89 0.375 9.995 0.645 17.9 640 92.2 107 21.5 2.20 102 32.8
14× 53 13.92 0.370 8.060 0.660 15.6 541 77.8 57.7 14.3 1.94 87.1 22.0
14× 43 13.66 0.305 7.995 0.530 12.6 428 62.7 45.2 11.3 1.05 69.6 17.3
14× 38 14.10 0.310 6.770 0.515 11.2 385 54.6 26.7 7.88 0.80 61.5 12.1
14× 30 13.84 0.270 6.730 0.385 8.85 291 42.0 19.6 5.82 0.38 47.3 8.99
14× 26 13.91 0.255 5.025 0.420 7.69 245 35.3 8.91 3.54 0.36 40.2 5.54
14× 22 13.74 0.230 5.000 0.335 6.49 199 29.0 7.00 2.80 0.21 33.2 4.39
W 12×336 16.82 1.775 13.385 2.955 98.8 4060 483 1190 177 243 603 274
12×252 15.41 1.395 13.005 2.250 74.1 2720 353 828 127 108 428 196
12×190 14.38 1.060 12.670 1.735 55.8 1890 263 589 93 48.8 311 143
12×136 13.41 0.790 12.400 1.250 39.9 1240 186 398 64.2 18.5 214 98
12× 96 12.71 0.550 12.160 0.900 28.2 833 131 270 44.4 6.86 147 67.5
12× 79 12.38 0.470 12.080 0.735 23.2 662 107 216 35.8 3.84 119 54.3
12× 65 12.12 0.390 12.000 0.605 19.1 533 87.9 174 29.1 2.18 96.8 44.1
12× 58 12.19 0.360 10.010 0.640 17.0 475 78.0 107 21.4 2.10 86.4 32.5
W 12× 53 12.06 0.345 9.995 0.575 15.6 425 70.6 95.8 19.2 1.58 77.9 29.1
12× 50 12.19 0.370 8.080 0.640 14.7 394 64.7 56.3 13.9 1.78 72.4 21.4
12× 40 11.94 0.295 8.005 0.515 11.8 310 51.9 44.1 11.0 0.95 57.5 16.8
12× 35 12.50 0.300 6.560 0.520 10.3 285 45.6 24.5 7.47 0.74 51.2 11.5
12× 26 12.22 0.230 6.490 0.380 7.65 204 33.4 17.3 5.34 0.30 37.2 8.17
12× 22 12.31 0.260 4.030 0.425 6.48 156 25.4 4.66 2.31 0.29 29.3 3.66
12× 14 11.91 0.200 3.970 0.225 4.16 88.6 14.9 2.36 1.19 0.07 17.4 1.90
W 10×112 11.36 0.755 10.415 1.250 32.9 716 126 236 45.3 15.1 147 69.2
10× 88 10.84 0.605 10.265 0.990 25.9 534 98.5 179 34.8 7.53 113 53.1
10× 60 10.22 0.420 10.080 0.680 17.6 341 66.7 116 23.0 2.48 74.6 35.0
10× 49 9.98 0.340 10.000 0.560 14.4 272 54.6 93.4 18.7 1.39 60.4 28.3
10× 45 10.10 0.350 8.020 0.620 13.3 248 49.1 53.4 13.3 1.51 54.9 20.3
10× 33 9.73 0.290 7.960 0.435 9.71 170 35.0 36.6 9.20 0.58 38.8 14.0
10× 30 10.47 0.300 5.810 0.510 8.84 170 32.4 16.7 5.75 0.62 36.6 8.84
10× 22 10.17 0.240 5.750 0.360 6.49 118 23.2 11.4 3.97 0.24 26.0 6.10
10× 19 10.24 0.250 4.020 0.395 5.62 96.3 18.8 4.29 2.14 0.23 21.6 3.35
10× 12 9.87 0.190 3.960 0.210 3.54 53.8 10.9 2.18 1.10 0.06 12.6 1.74
W 8× 67 9.00 0.570 8.280 0.935 19.7 272 60.4 88.6 21.4 5.06 70.2 32.7
8× 31 8.00 0.285 7.995 0.435 9.13 110 27.5 37.1 9.27 0.54 30.4 14.1
8× 28 8.06 0.285 6.535 0.465 8.25 98.0 24.3 21.7 6.63 0.54 27.2 10.1
8× 24 7.93 0.245 6.495 0.400 7.08 82.8 20.9 18.3 5.63 0.35 23.2 8.57
8× 21 8.28 0.250 5.270 0.400 6.16 75.3 18.2 9.77 3.71 0.28 20.4 5.69
8× 18 8.14 0.230 5.250 0.330 5.26 61.9 15.2 7.97 3.04 0.17 17.0 4.66
8× 15 8.11 0.245 4.015 0.315 4.44 48.0 11.8 3.41 1.70 0.14 13.6 2.67
8× 10 7.89 0.170 3.940 0.205 2.96 30.8 7.81 2.09 1.06 0.04 8.87 1.66
W 6× 25 6.38 0.320 6.080 0.455 7.34 53.4 16.7 17.1 5.61 0.46 18.9 8.56
6× 15 5.99 0.230 5.990 0.260 4.43 29.1 9.72 9.32 3.11 0.10 10.8 4.75
6× 16 6.28 0.260 4.030 0.405 4.74 32.1 10.2 4.43 2.20 0.22 11.7 3.39
6× 9 5.90 0.170 3.940 0.215 2.68 16.4 5.56 2.19 1.11 0.04 6.23 1.72
W 5× 19 5.15 0.270 5.030 0.430 5.54 26.2 10.2 9.13 3.63 0.31 11.6 5.53
5× 16 5.01 0.240 5.000 0.360 4.68 21.3 8.51 7.51 3.00 0.19 9.59 4.57
W 4× 13 4.16 0.280 4.060 0.345 3.83 11.3 5.46 3.86 1.90 0.15 6.28 2.92

E-6
S0300-A8-HBK-010

Table E-7. Dimensions and Properties of Structural Tees Cut from W Shapes (WT).

bf
tf Y

y
X X d
tw

## Flange Elastic Properties

Stem
Designation Depth Area
Thickness Axis X-X Axis Y-Y
(Nominal Depth × weight per foot) Width Thickness
in. × lbs in. in. in. in 2
I SM y I SM
in.
in4 in3 in in4 in3
WT 18 × 150 18.370 0.945 16.655 1.680 44.1 1230 86.1 4.13 648 77.8
18 × 130 18.130 0.840 16.550 1.440 38.2 1060 75.1 4.05 545 65.9
18 × 115 17.950 0.760 16.470 1.260 33.8 934 67.0 4.01 470 57.1
18 × 105 18.345 0.830 12.180 1.360 30.9 985 73.1 4.87 206 33.8
18 × 91 18.165 0.725 12.075 1.180 26.8 845 63.1 4.77 174 28.8
18 × 80 18.005 0.650 12.000 1.020 23.5 740 55.8 4.74 147 24.6
18 × 67.5 17.775 0.600 11.950 0.790 19.9 636 49.7 4.96 113 18.9
WT 16.5 × 120.5 17.090 0.830 15.860 1.400 35.4 871 65.8 3.85 466 58.8
16.5 × 100.5 16.840 0.715 15.745 1.150 29.5 725 55.5 3.78 375 47.6
16.5 × 76 16.745 0.635 11.565 1.055 22.4 592 47.4 4.26 136 23.6
16.5 × 59 16.430 0.550 11.480 0.740 17.3 469 39.2 4.47 93.6 16.3
WT 15 × 105.5 15.470 0.775 15.105 1.315 31.0 610 50.5 3.40 378 50.1
15 × 86.5 15.220 0.655 14.985 1.065 25.4 497 41.7 3.31 299 39.9
15 × 66 15.155 0.615 10.545 1.000 19.4 421 37.4 3.90 98.0 18.6
15 × 58 15.005 0.565 10.495 0.850 17.1 373 33.7 3.94 82.1 15.7
15 × 49.5 14.825 0.520 10.450 0.670 14.5 322 30.0 4.09 63.9 12.2
WT 13.5 × 89 13.905 0.725 14.085 1.190 26.1 414 38.2 3.05 278 39.4
13.5 × 73 13.690 0.605 13.965 0.975 21.5 336 31.2 2.95 222 31.7
13.5 × 57 13.645 0.570 10.070 0.930 16.8 289 28.3 3.42 79.4 15.8
13.5 × 42 13.355 0.460 9.960 0.640 12.4 216 21.9 3.48 52.8 10.6
WT 12 × 81 12.500 0.705 12.955 1.220 23.9 293 29.9 2.70 221 34.2
12 × 65.5 12.240 0.605 12.855 0.960 19.3 238 24.8 2.65 170 26.5
12 × 52 12.030 0.500 12.750 0.750 15.3 189 20.0 2.59 130 20.3
12 × 47 12.155 0.515 9.065 0.875 13.8 186 20.3 2.99 54.5 12.0
12 × 34 11.865 0.415 8.965 0.585 10.0 137 15.6 3.06 35.2 7.85
12 × 31 11.870 0.430 7.040 0.590 9.11 131 15.6 3.46 17.2 4.90
12 × 27.5 11.785 0.395 7.005 0.505 8.10 117 14.1 3.50 14.5 4.15
WT 10.5 × 73.5 11.030 0.720 12.510 1.150 21.6 204 23.7 2.39 188 30.0
10.5 × 61 10.840 0.600 12.390 0.960 17.9 166 19.3 2.28 152 24.6
10.5 × 50.5 10.680 0.500 12.290 0.800 14.9 135 15.8 2.18 124 20.2
10.5 × 46.5 10.810 0.580 8.420 0.930 13.7 144 17.9 2.74 46.4 11.0
10.5 × 36.5 10.620 0.455 8.295 0.740 10.7 110 13.8 2.60 35.3 8.51
10.5 × 31 10.495 0.400 8.240 0.615 9.13 93.8 11.9 2.58 28.7 6.97
10.5 × 28.5 10.530 0.405 6.555 0.650 8.37 90.4 11.8 2.85 15.3 4.67
10.5 × 22 10.330 0.3.50 6.500 0.450 6.49 71.1 9.68 2.98 10.3 3.18

E-7
S0300-A8-HBK-010

tf Y

d X X
tw

Y
bf

## Flange Elastic Properties Plastic Moduli

Designation Torsional
Web
(Nominal Depth × Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y Constant ZX ZY
Thickness Width Thickness
weight per linear foot) in. in2 J
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM I SM in4 in 3
in3
in4 in3 in4 in3
S 24 × 121 24.50 0.800 8.050 1.090 35.6 3160 258 83.3 20.7 12.8 306 36.2
24 × 106 24.50 0.620 7.870 1.090 31.2 2940 240 77.1 19.6 10.1 279 33.2
S 24 × 100 24.00 0.745 7.245 0.870 29.3 2390 199 47.7 13.2 7.58 240 23.9
24 × 90 24.00 0.625 7.125 0.870 26.5 2250 187 44.9 12.6 6.04 222 22.3
24 × 80 24.00 0.500 7.000 0.870 23.5 2100 175 42.2 12.1 4.88 204 20.7
S 20 × 96 20.30 0.800 7.200 0.920 28.2 1670 165 50.2 13.9 8.39 198 24.9
20 × 86 20.30 0.660 7.060 0.920 25.3 1580 155 46.8 13.3 6.64 183 23.0
S 20 × 75 20.00 0.635 6.385 0.795 22.0 1280 128 29.8 9.32 4.59 153 16.7
20 × 66 20.00 0.505 6.255 0.795 19.4 1190 119 27.7 8.85 3.58 140 15.3
S 18 × 70 18.00 0.711 6.251 0.691 20.6 926 103 24.1 7.72 4.15 125 14.4
18 × 54.7 18.00 0.461 6.001 0.691 16.1 804 89.4 20.8 6.94 2.37 105 12.1
S 15 × 50 15.00 0.550 5.640 0.622 14.7 486 64.8 15.7 5.57 2.12 77.1 9.97
15 × 42.9 15.00 0.411 5.501 0.622 12.6 447 59.6 14.4 5.23 1.54 69.3 9.02
S 12 × 50 12.00 0.687 5.477 0.659 14.7 305 50.8 15.7 5.74 2.82 61.2 10.3
12 × 40.8 12.00 0.462 5.252 0.659 12.0 272 45.4 13.6 5.16 1.76 53.1 8.85
S 12 × 35 12.00 0.428 5.078 0.544 10.3 229 38.2 9.87 3.89 1.08 44.8 6.79
12 × 31.8 12.00 0.350 5.000 0.544 9.35 218 36.4 9.36 3.74 0.90 42.0 6.40
S 10 × 35 10.00 0.594 4.944 0.491 10.3 147 29.4 8.36 3.38 1.29 35.4 6.22
10 × 25.4 10.00 0.311 4.661 0.491 7.46 124 24.7 6.79 2.91 0.60 28.4 4.96
S 8 × 23 8.00 0.441 4.171 0.426 6.77 64.9 16.2 4.31 2.07 0.55 19.3 3.68
8 × 18.4 8.00 0.271 4.001 0.426 5.41 57.6 14.4 3.73 1.86 0.34 16.5 3.16
S 7 × 20 7.00 0.450 3.860 0.392 5.88 42.4 12.1 3.17 1.64 0.45 14.5 2.96
7 × 15.3 7.00 0.252 3.662 0.392 4.50 36.7 10.5 2.64 1.44 0.24 12.1 2.44
S 6 × 17.25 6.00 0.465 3.565 0.359 5.07 26.3 8.77 2.31 1.30 0.37 10.6 2.36
6 × 12.5 6.00 0.232 3.332 0.359 3.67 22.1 7.37 1.82 1.09 0.17 8.47 1.85
S 5 × 14.75 5.00 0.494 3.284 0.326 4.34 15.2 6.09 1.67 1.01 0.32 7.42 1.88
5 × 10 5.00 0.214 3.004 0.326 2.94 12.3 4.92 1.22 0.809 0.11 5.67 1.37
S 4 × 9.5 4.00 0.326 2.796 0.293 2.79 6.79 3.39 0.903 0.646 0.12 4.04 1.13
4 × 7.7 4.00 0.193 2.663 0.293 2.26 6.08 3.04 0.764 0.574 0.07 3.51 0.964
S 3 × 7.5 3.00 0.349 2.509 0.260 2.21 2.93 1.95 0.586 0.468 0.09 2.36 0.826
3 × 5.7 3.00 0.170 2.330 0.260 1.67 2.52 1.68 0.455 0.390 0.04 1.95 0.653

E-8
S0300-A8-HBK-010

Table E-9. Dimensions and Properties of Structural Tees Cut from S Shapes (ST).

bf
tf Y

y
X X d
tw

## Flange Elastic Properties

Designation Stem
(Nominal Depth × weight Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y
Thickness Width Thickness
per linear foot) in. in2
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM y I SM
in4 in3 in. in4 in3
ST 12 × 60.5 12.250 0.800 8.050 1.090 17.8 259 30.1 3.63 41.7 10.4
12 × 53 12.250 0.620 7.870 1.090 15.6 216 24.1 3.28 38.5 9.80
ST 12 × 50 12.000 0.745 7.245 0.870 14.7 215 26.3 3.84 23.8 6.58
12 × 45 12.000 0.625 7.125 0.870 13.2 190 22.6 3.60 22.5 6.31
12 × 40 12.000 0.500 7.000 0.870 11.7 162 18.7 3.29 21.1 6.04
ST 10 × 48 10.150 0.800 7.200 0.920 14.1 143 20.3 3.13 25.1 6.97
10 × 43 10.150 0.660 7.060 0.920 12.7 125 17.2 2.91 23.4 6.63
ST 10 × 37.5 10.000 0.635 6.385 0.795 11.0 109 15.8 3.07 14.9 4.66
10 × 33 10.000 0.505 6.255 0.795 9.70 93.1 12.9 2.81 13.8 4.43
ST 9 × 35 9.000 0.711 6.251 0.691 10.3 84.7 14.0 2.94 12.1 3.86
9 × 27.35 9.000 0.461 6.001 0.691 8.04 62.4 9.61 2.50 10.4 3.47
ST 7.5 × 25 7.500 0.550 5.640 0.622 7.35 40.6 7.73 2.25 7.85 2.78
7.5 × 21.4 7.500 0.411 5.501 0.622 6.31 33.0 6.00 2.01 7.19 2.61
ST 6 × 25 6.000 0.687 5.477 0.659 7.35 25.2 6.05 1.84 7.85 2.87
6 × 20.4 6.000 0.462 5.252 0.659 6.00 18.9 4.28 1.58 6.78 2.58
ST 6 × 17.5 6.000 0.428 5.078 0.545 5.15 17.2 3.95 1.64 4.94 1.95
6 × 15.9 6.000 0.350 5.000 0.544 4.68 14.9 3.31 1.51 4.68 1.87
ST 5 × 17.5 5.000 0.594 4.944 0.491 5.15 12.5 3.63 1.56 4.18 1.69
5 × 12.7 5.000 0.311 4.661 0.491 3.73 7.83 2.06 1.20 3.39 1.46
ST 4 × 11.5 4.000 0.441 4.171 0.425 3.38 5.03 1.77 1.15 2.15 1.03
4 × 9.2 4.000 0.271 4.001 0.425 2.70 3.51 1.15 0.941 1.86 0.932
ST 3.5 × 10 3.500 0.450 3.860 0.392 2.94 3.36 1.36 1.04 1.59 0.821
3.5 × 7.65 3.500 0.252 3.662 0.392 2.25 2.19 0.816 0.817 1.32 0.720
ST 3 × 8.625 3.000 0.465 3.565 0.359 2.53 2.13 1.02 0.914 1.15 0.648
3 × 6.25 3.000 0.232 3.332 0.359 1.83 1.27 0.552 0.691 0.911 0.547
ST 2.5 × 7.375 2.500 0.494 3.284 0.326 2.17 1.27 0.740 0.789 0.833 0.507
2.5 × 5 2.500 0.214 3.004 0.326 1.47 0.681 0.353 0.569 0.608 0.405
ST 2 × 4.75 2.000 0.326 2.796 0.293 1.40 0.470 0.325 0.553 0.451 0.323
2 × 3.85 2.000 0.193 2.663 0.293 1.13 0.316 0.203 0.448 0.382 0.287
ST 1.5 × 3.75 1.500 0.349 2.509 0.260 1.10 0.204 0.191 0.432 0.293 0.234
1.5 × 2.85 1.500 0.170 2.330 0.260 0.835 0.118 0.101 0.329 0.227 0.195

E-9
S0300-A8-HBK-010

tf Y

d X X
tw

Y
bf

## Flange Elastic Properties Plastic Moduli

Designation Torsional
Web
(Nominal Depth × Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y Constant ZX ZY
Thickness Width Thickness
weight per linear foot) in. in2 J
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM I SM in4 in 3
in3
in4 in3 in4 in3
M 14 × 18 14.00 0.215 4.000 0.270 5.10 148 21.1 2.64 1.32 0.11 24.9 2.20
M 12 × 11.8 12.00 0.177 3.065 0.225 3.47 71.9 12.0 0.980 0.639 0.05 14.3 1.09
M 10 × 9 10.00 0.157 2.690 0.206 2.65 38.8 7.76 0.609 0.453 0.03 9.19 0.765
M 8 × 6.5 8.00 0.135 2.281 0.189 1.92 18.5 4.62 0.343 0.301 0.02 5.42 0.502
M 6 × 20 6.00 0.250 5.938 0.379 5.89 39.0 13.0 11.6 3.90 0.30 14.5 6.25
M 6 × 4.4 6.00 0.114 1.844 0.171 1.29 7.20 2.40 0.165 0.179 0.01 2.80 0.296
M 5 × 18.9 5.00 0.316 5.003 0.416 5.55 24.1 9.63 7.86 3.14 0.34 11.0 5.02
M 4 × 13 4.00 0.254 3.940 0.371 3.81 10.5 5.24 3.36 1.71 0.19 6.05 2.74

bf
tf Y

y
X X d
tw

## Flange Elastic Properties

Designation Stem
(Nominal Depth × Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y
Thickness Width Thickness
weight per linear foot) in. in2
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM I SM
in4 in3 y in4 in3
MT 7 × 9 7.0 0.215 4.000 0.270 2.55 13.1 2.69 2.12 1.32 0.660
MT 6 × 5.9 6.0 0.177 3.065 0.225 1.73 6.60 1.60 1.89 0.490 0.320
MT 5 × 4.5 5.0 0.157 2.690 0.206 1.32 3.46 0.997 1.53 0.305 0.227
MT 4 × 3.25 4.0 0.135 2.281 0.189 0.958 1.57 0.556 1.17 0.172 0.150
MT 3 × 10 3.0 0.250 5.938 0.379 2.94 1.54 0.624 0.531 5.80 1.95
MT 3 × 2.2 3.0 0.114 1.844 0.171 0.646 0.577 0.267 0.836 0.083 0.090
MT 2.5 × 9.45 2.5 0.316 5.003 0.416 2.78 1.05 0.527 0.511 3.93 1.57
MT 2 × 6.5 2.0 0.254 3.940 0.371 1.90 0.431 0.271 0.410 1.68 0.853

E-10
S0300-A8-HBK-010

tf Y

d X X
tw

Y
bf

## Flange Elastic Properties Plastic Moduli

Designation Torsional
Web
(Nominal Depth × Depth Area Axis X-X Axis Y-Y Constant
Thickness Width Thickness ZX ZY
weight per linear foot) in. in2 J
in. × lbs in. in. in. I SM I SM in3 in3
in4
in4 in3 in4 in3

HP 14 × 117 14.21 0.805 14.885 0.805 34.4 1220 172 443 59.5 8.02 194 91.4

14 × 102 14.01 0.705 14.785 0.705 30.0 1050 150 380 51.4 5.40 169 78.8

14 × 89 13.83 0.615 14.695 0.615 26.1 904 131 326 44.3 3.60 146 67.7

14 × 73 13.61 0.505 14.585 0.505 21.4 729 107 261 35.8 2.01 118 54.6

HP 13 × 100 13.15 0.765 13.205 0.765 29.4 886 135 294 44.5 6.25 153 68.6

13 × 87 12.95 0.665 13.105 0.665 25.5 755 117 250 38.1 4.12 131 58.5

13 × 73 12.75 0.565 13.005 0.565 21.6 630 98.8 207 31.9 2.54 110 48.8

13 × 60 12.54 0.460 12.900 0.460 17.5 503 80.3 165 25.5 1.39 89.0 39.0

HP 12 × 84 12.28 0.685 12.295 0.685 24.6 650 106 213 34.6 4.24 120 53.2

12 × 74 12.13 0.605 12.215 0.610 21.8 569 93.8 186 30.4 2.98 105 46.6

12 × 63 11.94 0.515 12.125 0.515 18.4 472 79.1 153 25.3 1.83 88.3 38.7

12 × 53 11.78 0.435 12.045 0.435 15.5 393 66.8 127 21.1 1.12 74.0 32.2

HP 10 × 57 9.99 0.565 10.225 0.565 16.8 294 58.8 101 19.7 1.97 66.5 30.3

10 × 42 9.70 0.415 10.075 0.420 12.4 210 43.4 71.7 14.2 0.81 48.3 21.8

HP 8 × 36 8.02 0.445 8.155 0.445 10.6 119 29.8 40.3 9.88 0.77 33.6 15.2

E-11
S0300-A8-HBK-010

Table E-12. Dimensions and Properties for American Standard Channels (C-Shapes).

Y tf

X X d
tw

Y
bf

## Designation Web Thickness Flange _ Axis X-X Axis Y-Y

Flange depth (d) × Nominal tw Area x
weight per foot in. Width (bf) Thickness (tf) I S I S
in. × lbs in2
in. in. in4 in3 in4 in3

## C 15 × 50 0.716 3.716 0.650 14.7 0.798 404 53.8 11.0 3.78

15 × 40 0.520 3.520 0.650 11.8 0.777 349 46.5 9.23 3.37
15 × 33.9 0.400 3.400 0.650 9.96 0.787 315 42.0 8.13 3.11
C 12 × 30 0.510 3.170 0.501 8.82 0.674 162 27.0 5.14 2.06
12 × 25 0.387 3.047 0.501 7.35 0.674 144 24.1 4.47 1.88
12 × 20.7 0.282 2.942 0.501 6.09 0.698 129 21.5 3.88 1.73
C 10 × 30 0.673 3.033 0.436 8.82 0.649 103 20.7 3.94 1.65
10 × 25 0.526 2.886 0.436 7.35 0.617 91.2 18.2 3.36 1.48
10 × 20 0.379 2.739 0.436 5.88 0.606 78.9 15.8 2.81 1.32
10 × 15.3 0.240 2.600 0.436 4.49 0.634 67.4 13.5 2.28 1.16
C 9 × 20 0.448 2.648 0.413 5.88 0.583 60.9 13.5 2.42 1.17
9 × 15 0.285 2.485 0.413 4.41 0.586 51.0 11.3 1.93 1.01
9 × 13.4 0.233 2.433 0.413 3.94 0.601 47.9 10.6 1.76 0.962
C 8 × 18.75 0.487 2.527 0.390 5.51 0.565 44.0 11.0 1.98 1.01
8 × 13.75 0.303 2.343 0.390 4.04 0.553 36.1 9.03 1.53 0.854
8 × 11.5 0.220 2.260 0.390 3.38 0.571 32.6 8.14 1.32 0.781
C 7 × 14.75 0.419 2.299 0.366 4.33 0.532 27.2 7.78 1.38 0.779
7 × 12.25 0.314 2.194 0.366 3.60 0.525 24.2 6.93 1.17 0.703
7 × 9.8 0.210 2.090 0.366 2.87 0.540 21.3 6.08 0.968 0.625
C 6 × 13 0.437 2.157 0.343 3.83 0.514 17.4 5.80 1.05 0.642
6 × 10.5 0.314 2.034 0.343 3.09 0.499 15.2 5.06 0.866 0.564
6 × 8.2 0.200 1.920 0.343 2.40 0.511 13.1 4.38 0.693 0.492
C 5×9 0.325 1.885 0.320 2.64 0.478 8.90 3.56 0.632 0.450
5 × 6.7 0.190 1.750 0.320 1.97 0.484 7.49 3.00 0.479 0.378
C 4 × 7.25 0.321 1.721 0.296 2.13 0.459 4.59 2.29 0.433 0.343
4 × 5.4 0.184 1.584 0.296 1.59 0.457 3.85 1.93 0.319 0.283
C 3×6 0.356 1.596 0.273 1.76 0.455 2.07 1.38 0.305 0.268
3×5 0.258 1.498 0.273 1.47 0.438 1.85 1.24 0.247 0.233
3 × 4.1 0.170 1.410 0.273 1.21 0.436 1.66 1.10 0.197 0.202

E-12
S0300-A8-HBK-010

Y tf

X X d
tw

Y
bf

## Web Flange Axis X-X Axis Y-Y

Designation Area
Thickness _
Flange depth (d) × Nominal weight per foot Thickness
Width (bf) I S x I S
in. × lbs (tf) in2
in. in. in4 in3 in4 in3
in.
MC 18 × 58 0.700 4.200 0.625 17.1 676 75.1 0.862 17.8 5.32
18 × 51.9 0.600 4.100 0.625 15.3 627 69.7 0.858 16.4 5.07
18 × 45.8 0.500 4.000 0.625 13.5 578 64.3 0.866 15.1 4.82
18 × 42.7 0.450 3.950 0.625 12.6 554 61.6 0.877 14.4 4.69
MC 13 × 50 0.787 4.412 0.610 14.7 314 48.4 0.974 16.5 4.79
13 × 40 0.560 4.185 0.610 11.8 273 42.0 0.963 13.7 4.26
13 × 35 0.447 4.072 0.610 10.3 252 38.8 0.980 12.3 3.99
13 × 31.8 0.375 4.000 0.610 9.35 239 36.8 1.00 11.4 3.81
MC 12 × 50 0.835 4.135 0.700 14.7 269 44.9 1.05 17.4 5.65
12 × 45 0.712 4.012 0.700 13.2 252 42.0 1.04 15.8 5.33
12 × 40 0.590 3.890 0.700 11.8 234 39.0 1.04 14.3 5.00
12 × 35 0.467 3.767 0.700 10.3 216 36.1 1.05 12.7 4.67
12 × 37 0.600 3.600 0.600 10.9 205 34.2 0.886 9.81 3.59
12 × 32.9 0.500 3.500 0.600 9.67 191 31.8 0.867 8.91 3.39
12 × 30.9 0.450 3.450 0.600 9.07 183 30.6 0.873 8.46 3.28
12 × 10.6 0.190 1.500 0.309 3.10 55.4 9.23 0.269 0.382 0.31
12 × 41.1 0.796 4.321 0.575 12.1 158 31.5 1.09 15.8 4.88
12 × 33.6 0.575 4.100 0.575 9.87 139 27.8 1.08 13.2 4.38
12 × 28.5 0.425 3.950 0.575 8.37 127 25.3 1.12 11.4 4.02
MC 10 × 28.3 0.477 3.502 0.575 8.32 118 23.6 0.933 8.21 3.20
10 × 25.3 0.425 3.550 0.500 7.43 107 21.4 0.918 7.61 2.89
10 × 24.9 0.377 3.402 0.575 7.32 110 22.0 0.954 7.32 2.99
10 × 21.9 0.325 3.450 0.500 6.43 98.5 19.7 0.954 6.74 2.70
10 × 8.4 0.170 1.500 0.280 2.46 32.0 6.40 0.284 0.328 0.270
MC 10 × 6.5 0.152 1.127 0.202 1.91 22.1 4.42 0.180 0.112 0.118
MC 9 × 25.4 0.450 3.500 0.550 7.47 88.0 19.6 0.970 7.65 3.02
9 × 23.9 0.400 3.450 0.550 7.02 85.0 18.9 0.981 7.22 2.93
MC 8 × 22.8 0.427 3.502 0.525 6.70 63.8 16.0 1.01 7.07 2.84
8 × 21.4 0.375 3.450 0.525 6.28 61.6 15.4 1.02 6.64 2.74
8 × 20 0.400 3.025 0.500 5.88 54.5 13.6 0.840 4.47 2.05
8 × 18.7 0.353 2.978 0.500 5.50 52.5 13.1 0.849 4.20 1.97
8 × 8.5 0.179 1.874 0.311 2.50 23.3 5.83 0.428 0.628 0.434
MC 7 × 22.7 0.503 3.603 0.500 6.67 47.5 13.6 1.04 7.29 2.85
7 × 19.1 0.352 3.452 0.500 5.61 43.2 12.3 1.08 6.11 2.57
7 × 17.6 0.375 3.000 0.475 5.17 37.6 10.8 0.873 4.01 1.89
MC 6 × 18 0.379 3.504 0.475 5.29 29.7 9.91 1.12 5.93 2.48
6 × 15.3 0.340 3.500 0.385 4.50 25.4 8.47 1.05 4.97 2.03
6 × 16.3 0.375 3.000 0.475 4.79 26.0 8.68 0.927 3.82 1.84
6 × 15.1 0.316 2.941 0.475 4.44 25.0 8.37 0.940 3.51 1.75
6 × 12 0.310 2.497 0.375 3.53 18.7 6.24 0.704 1.87 1.04

E-13
S0300-A8-HBK-010

Y
x
Z

X X
y
α
Y Z

## Designation Axis X-X Axis Y-Y Axis Z-Z

Weight per Foot Area
(leg width × leg width × thickness)
lbs in2 I S y I S x r
in. × in. × in. in4 in3 in. in4 in3 in. in.
tanα

L 8×8× 1 ⁄81
56.9 16.7 98.0 17.5 2.41 98.0 17.5 2.41 1.56 1.000
1 51.0 15.0 89.0 15.8 2.37 89.0 15.8 2.37 1.56 1.000
7
⁄8 45.0 13.2 79.6 14.0 2.32 79.6 14.0 2.32 1.57 1.000
3
⁄4 38.9 11.4 69.7 12.2 2.28 69.7 12.2 2.28 1.58 1.000
5
⁄8 32.7 9.61 59.4 10.3 2.23 59.4 10.3 2.23 1.58 1.000
1
⁄2 26.4 7.75 48.6 8.36 2.19 48.6 8.36 2.19 1.59 1.000
L 8×6× 1 44.2 13.0 80.8 15.1 2.65 38.8 8.92 1.65 1.28 0.543
3
⁄4 33.8 9.94 63.4 11.7 2.56 30.7 6.92 1.56 1.29 0.551
1
⁄2 23.0 6.75 44.3 8.02 2.47 21.7 4.79 1.47 1.30 0.558
L 8×4× 1 37.4 11.0 69.6 14.1 3.05 11.6 3.94 1.05 0.846 0.247
3
⁄4 28.7 8.44 54.9 10.9 2.95 9.36 3.07 0.953 0.852 0.258
1
⁄2 19.6 5.75 38.5 7.49 2.86 6.74 2.15 0.859 0.865 0.267
L 7×4× 3
⁄4 26.2 7.69 37.8 8.42 2.51 9.05 3.03 1.01 0.860 0.324
1
⁄2 17.9 5.25 26.7 5.81 2.42 6.53 2.12 0.917 0.872 0.335
3
⁄8 13.6 3.98 20.6 4.44 2.37 5.10 1.63 0.870 0.880 0.340
L 6×6× 1 37.4 11.0 35.5 8.57 1.86 35.5 8.57 1.86 1.17 1.000
7
⁄8 33.1 9.73 31.9 7.63 1.82 31.9 7.63 1.82 1.17 1.000
3
⁄4 28.7 8.44 28.2 6.66 1.78 28.2 6.66 1.78 1.17 1.000
5
⁄8 24.2 7.11 24.2 5.66 1.73 24.2 5.66 1.73 1.18 1.000
1
⁄2 19.6 5.75 19.9 4.61 1.68 19.9 4.61 1.68 1.18 1.000
3
⁄8 14.9 4.36 15.4 3.53 1.64 15.4 3.53 1.64 1.19 1.000
L 6×4× 3
⁄4 23.6 6.94 24.5 6.25 2.08 8.68 2.97 1.08 0.860 0.428
5
⁄8 20.0 5.86 21.1 5.31 2.03 7.52 2.54 1.03 0.864 0.435
1
⁄2 16.2 4.75 17.4 4.33 1.99 6.27 2.08 0.987 0.870 0.440
3
⁄8 12.3 3.61 13.5 3.32 1.94 4.90 1.60 0.941 0.877 0.446
L 6 × 3 1⁄ 2 × 3
⁄8 11.7 3.42 12.9 3.24 2.04 3.34 1.23 0.787 0.767 0.350
5
⁄ 16 9.8 2.87 10.9 2.73 2.01 2.85 1.04 0.763 0.772 0.352
L 5×5× 7
⁄8 27.2 7.98 17.8 5.17 1.57 17.8 5.17 1.57 0.973 1.000
3
⁄4 23.6 6.94 15.7 4.53 1.52 15.7 4.53 1.52 0.975 1.000
1
⁄2 16.2 4.75 11.3 3.16 1.43 11.3 3.16 1.43 0.983 1.000
3
⁄8 12.3 3.61 8.74 2.42 1.39 8.74 2.42 1.39 0.990 1.000
5
⁄ 16 10.3 3.03 7.42 2.04 1.37 7.42 2.04 1.37 0.994 1.000
L 5 × 3 1⁄ 2 × 3
⁄4 19.8 5.81 13.9 4.28 1.75 5.55 2.22 0.996 0.748 0.464
1
⁄2 13.6 4.00 9.99 2.99 1.66 4.05 1.56 0.906 0.755 0.479
3
⁄8 10.4 3.05 7.78 2.29 1.61 3.18 1.21 0.861 0.762 0.486
5
⁄ 16 8.7 2.56 6.60 1.94 1.59 2.72 1.02 0.838 0.766 0.489
L 5×3× 1
⁄2 12.8 3.75 9.45 2.91 1.75 2.58 1.15 0.750 0.648 0.357
L 4×4× 3
⁄8 9.8 2.86 4.36 1.52 1.14 4.36 1.52 1.14 0.788 1.000
L 31⁄ 2 × 21⁄ 2× 5⁄ 16 6.1 1.78 2.19 0.927 1.14 0.939 0.504 0.637 0.540 0.501
L 3×3× 3
⁄8 7.2 2.11 1.76 0.833 0.888 1.76 0.833 0.888 0.587 1.000
L 21⁄ 2 × 21⁄ 2× 5⁄ 16 5.0 1.46 0.849 0.482 0.740 0.849 0.482 0.740 0.489 1.000
L 2×2× 1
⁄4 3.19 0.938 0.348 0.247 0.592 0.348 0.247 0.592 0.391 1.000

E-14
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## U. S. Standard Thickness Weight U. S. Standard Thickness Weight

Gage No. Gage No.
Decimals Fractions lb/ft2 Decimals Fractions lb/ft2
Inches Inches Inches Inches
30 .0120 0.500 11 .1196 About 1⁄ 8 5.000
1
28 .0149 About ⁄ 64 0.625 10 .1345 5.625
26 .0179 0.750 9 .1495 About 5⁄ 32 6.250
24 .0239 1.000 8 .1644 6.875
1
22 .0299 About ⁄ 32 1.250 7 .1793 7.500
20 .0359 1.500 6 .1943 About 3⁄ 16 8.125
18 .0478 About 3⁄ 64 2.000 5 .2092 8.750
1 7
16 .0598 About ⁄ 16 2.550 4 .2242 About ⁄ 32 9.375
14 .0747 About 5⁄ 64 3.125 3 .2391 About 1⁄ 4 10.000
12 .1046 4.375

## Thickness Weight Thickness Weight Thickness

lb/ft2 lb/ft2 Weight
Decimal in. Fractions in. Decimal in. Fractions in. Decimal in. Fractions in. lb/ft2
13
0.02 0.816 0.42 17.14 0.8125 ⁄ 16 33.15
7
0.04 1.632 0.4375 ⁄ 16 17.85 0.82 33.46
0.06 2.448 0.44 17.95 0.84 34.27
1
0.0625 ⁄ 16 2.550 0.46 18.77 0.86 35.09
7
0.08 3.264 0.48 19.58 0.875 ⁄8 35.70
1
0.10 4.080 0.50 ⁄2 20.40 0.88 35.90
0.12 4.896 0.52 21.22 0.90 36.72
1
0.125 ⁄8 5.100 0.54 22.03 0.92 37.54
15
0.14 5.712 0.56 22.85 0.9375 ⁄ 16 38.25
9
0.16 6.528 0.5625 ⁄ 16 22.95 0.94 38.35
0.18 7.344 0.58 23.66 0.96 39.17
3
0.1875 ⁄ 16 7.650 0.60 24.48 0.98 39.98
0.20 8.16 0.62 25.30 1.00 1 40.8
5
0.22 8.98 0.625 ⁄8 25.50 1.0625 11⁄ 16 43.35
0.24 9.79 0.64 26.11 1.125 1 1⁄ 8 45.90
1
0.25 ⁄4 10.20 0.66 26.93 1.1875 13⁄ 16 48.45
0.26 10.61 0.68 27.74 1.250 1 1⁄ 4 51.00
11
0.28 11.42 0.6875 ⁄ 16 28.05 1.3125 15⁄ 16 53.55
3
0.30 12.24 0.70 28.56 1.375 1 ⁄8 56.10
5
0.3125 ⁄ 16 12.75 0.72 29.38 1.4375 17⁄ 16 58.65
0.32 13.06 0.74 30.19 1.5 1 1⁄ 2 61.20
3
0.34 13.87 0.75 ⁄4 30.60 1.625 1 5⁄ 8 66.30
0.36 14.69 0.76 31.01 1.75 1 3⁄ 4 71.40
3 7
0.3750 ⁄8 15.30 0.78 31.82 1.875 1 ⁄8 76.50
0.38 15.50 0.80 32.64 2.00 2 81.60
0.40 16.32

E-15
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## Bending stress Compressive stress

Modulus of
American Standard psi psi
Species Elasticity
Tension in extreme Parallel Perpendicular to psi
Horizontal shear
fibers to grain grain

## Select 900 80 700 200 1,000,000

Cedar, Western red
Common 720 64 560 200 1,000,000
Select 750 70 550 175 800,000
Cedar, Northern and Southern White
Common 600 56 440 175 800,000
Select 1100 90 900 250 1,200,000
Cedar, Port Orford
Common 880 72 720 250 1,200,000
Select 1100 90 800 250 1,200,000
Common 880 72 640 250 1,200,000
Select 1300 100 1100 350 1,200,000
Cypress, Southern
Common 1040 80 880 350 1,200,000
Dense Select 1750 105 1285 380 1,600,000
Douglas Fir (Western Washington and Oregon) Select 1600 90 1175 345 1,600,000
Common 1200 72 880 325 1,600,000
Select 1100 85 800 275 1,200,000
Douglas Fir, Rocky Mountains
Common 880 68 640 275 1,200,000
Select 900 70 700 150 1,000,000
Fir, Balsam
Common 720 56 560 150 1,000,000

Fir, Golden, Noble, Silver, White Select 1100 70 700 300 1,100,000
(Commercial White) Common 880 56 560 300 1,100,000
Select 1300 75 900 300 1,400,000
Hemlock, West Coast
Common 1040 60 720 300 1,400,000
Select 1100 70 700 300 1,100,000
Hemlock, Eastern
Common 880 56 560 300 1,100,000
Select 1200 100 1100 325 1,300,000
Larch, Western
Common 960 80 880 325 1,300,000
Select 1400 125 1000 500 1,500,000
Oak, Commercial White and Red
Common 1120 100 800 500 1,500,000
Dense Select 1750 128 1285 380 1,600,000
Pine, Southern Yellow Select 1600 110 1175 345 1,600,000
Common 1200 88 880 325 1,600,000

Pine, Idaho and Northern White, California, Select 900 85 750 250 1,000,000
Lodgepole, Ponderosa, Sugar, Western Yellow Common 720 68 600 250 1,000,000
Select 1100 85 800 300 1,200,000
Pine, Norway
Common 880 68 640 300 1,200,000
Select 1200 70 1000 250 1,200,000
Redwood
Common 960 56 800 250 1,200,000
Select 1100 85 800 250 1,200,000
Spruce, Red, White, Sitka
Common 880 68 640 250 1,200,000
Select 750 70 600 175 800,000
Spruce, Englemann
Common 600 56 480 175 800,000
Select 1200 95 1000 300 1,300,000
Tamarack, Eastern
Common 960 76 800 300 1,300,000

Strength of wood depends on moisture content. For wet locations, working stresses should be reduced according to conditions and timber used.

E-16
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## Table E-18. Timber Sizes for Design.

Nominal Size American standard Section Weight per Moment of Section Nominal Size American standard Section Weight per Moment of Section
dressed size area foot Inertia Modulus dressed size area foot Inertia Modulus
2×4 1 ⁄8 × 3 ⁄8
5 5
5.89 1.64 6.45 3.56 12 × 12 11 ⁄ 2 × 11 ⁄ 2
1 1
132 36.7 1458 253
2×6 1 5⁄ 8 × 5 5⁄ 8 9.14 2.54 24.1 8.57 12 × 14 111⁄ 2 × 131⁄ 2 155 43.1 2358 349
2×8 1 5⁄ 8 × 7 1⁄ 2 12.2 3.39 57.1 15.3 12 × 16 111⁄ 2 × 151⁄ 2 178 49.5 3569 460
2 × 10 1 5⁄ 8 × 9 1⁄ 2 15.4 4.29 116 24.4 12 × 18 111⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 201 55.9 5136 587
2 × 12 15⁄ 8 × 111⁄ 2 18.7 5.19 206 35.8 12 × 20 111⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 224 62.3 7106 729
2 × 14 15⁄ 8 × 131⁄ 2 21.9 6.09 333 49.4 12 × 22 111⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 247 68.7 9524 886
2 × 16 15⁄ 8 × 151⁄ 2 25.2 6.99 504 65.1 12 × 24 111⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 270 75.0 12437 1058
2 × 18 15⁄ 8 × 171⁄ 2 28.4 7.90 726 82.9
3×4 2 5⁄ 8 × 3 5⁄ 8 9.52 2.64 10.4 5.75
3×6 2 5⁄ 8 × 5 5⁄ 8 14.8 4.10 38.9 13.8 14 × 14 131⁄ 2 × 131⁄ 2 182 50.6 2768 410
3×8 2 ⁄8 × 7 ⁄2
5 1
19.7 5.47 92.3 24.6 14 × 16 131⁄ 2 × 151⁄ 2 209 58.1 4189 541
3 × 10 2 5⁄ 8 × 9 1⁄ 2 24.9 6.93 188 39.5 14 × 18 131⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 236 65.6 6029 689
3 × 12 25⁄ 8 × 111⁄ 2 30.2 8.39 333 57.9 14 × 20 131⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 263 73.1 8342 856
3 × 14 25⁄ 8 × 131⁄ 2 35.4 9.84 538 79.7 14 × 22 131⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 290 80.6 11180 1194
3 × 16 25⁄ 8 × 151⁄ 2 40.7 11.3 815 105 14 × 24 131⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 317 88.1 14600 1243
3 × 18 2 ⁄ 8 × 17 ⁄ 2
5 1
45.9 12.8 1172 134
4×4 3 5⁄ 8 × 3 5⁄ 8 13.1 3.65 14.4 7.94
4×6 3 5⁄ 8 × 5 5⁄ 8 20.4 5.66 53.8 19.1 16 × 16 151⁄ 2 × 151⁄ 2 240 66.7 4810 621
4×8 3 5⁄ 8 × 7 1⁄ 2 27.2 7.55 127 34.0 16 × 18 151⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 271 75.3 6923 791
4 × 10 3 5⁄ 8 × 9 1⁄ 2 34.4 9.57 259 54.5 16 × 20 151⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 302 83.9 9578 984
4 × 12 35⁄ 8 × 111⁄ 2 41.7 11.6 459 79.9 16 × 22 151⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 333 92.5 12837 1194
4 × 14 35⁄ 8 × 131⁄ 2 48.9 13.6 743 110 16 × 24 151⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 364 101 16763 1427
4 × 16 35⁄ 8 × 151⁄ 2 56.2 15.6 1125 145
4 × 18 35⁄ 8 × 141⁄ 2 63.4 17.6 1619 185
6×6 5 1⁄ 2 × 5 1⁄ 2 30.3 8.40 76.3 27.7
6×8 5 1⁄ 2 × 7 1⁄ 2 41.3 11.4 193 51.6 18 × 18 171⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 306 85.0 7816 893
6 × 10 5 ⁄2 × 9 ⁄2
1 1
52.3 14.5 330 82.7 18 × 20 171⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 341 94.8 10813 1109
6 × 12 51⁄ 2 × 111⁄ 2 63.3 17.5 697 121 18 × 22 171⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 376 105 14493 1348
6 × 14 51⁄ 2 × 131⁄ 2 74.3 20.6 1128 167 18 × 24 171⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 411 114 18926 1611
6 × 16 51⁄ 2 × 151⁄ 2 85.3 23.6 1707 220 18 × 26 171⁄ 2 × 251⁄ 2 446 124 24181 1897
6 × 18 51⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 96.3 26.7 2456 281
6 × 20 51⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 107.3 29.8 3398 349
8×8 7 1⁄ 2 × 7 1⁄ 2 56.3 15.6 264 70.3
8 × 10 7 1⁄ 2 × 9 1⁄ 2 71.3 19.8 536 113 20 × 20 191⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 380 106 12049 1236
8 × 12 7 ⁄ 2 × 11 ⁄ 2
1 1
86.3 23.9 951 165 20 × 22 191⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 419 116 16150 1502
8 × 14 71⁄ 2 × 131⁄ 2 101.3 28.0 1538 228 20 × 24 191⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 458 127 21089 1795
8 × 16 71⁄ 2 × 151⁄ 2 116.3 32.0 2327 300 20 × 26 191⁄ 2 × 251⁄ 2 497 138 26945 2113
8 × 18 71⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 131.3 36.4 3350 383 20 × 28 191⁄ 2 × 271⁄ 2 536 149 33795 2458
8 × 20 71⁄ 2 × 191⁄ 2 146.3 40.6 4634 475
8 × 22 71⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 161.3 44.8 6211 578
10 × 10 9 1⁄ 2 × 9 1⁄ 2 90.3 25.0 679 143 24 × 24 231⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 552 153 25415 2163
10 × 12 91⁄ 2 × 111⁄ 2 109 30.3 1204 209
10 × 14 91⁄ 2 × 131⁄ 2 128 35.6 1948 289 24 × 26 231⁄ 2 × 251⁄ 2 599 166 32472 2547
10 × 16 91⁄ 2 × 151⁄ 2 147 40.9 2948 380
10 × 18 91⁄ 2 × 171⁄ 2 166 46.1 4243 485 24 × 28 231⁄ 2 × 271⁄ 2 646 180 40727 2962
10 × 20 9 ⁄ 2 × 19 ⁄ 2
1 1
185 51.4 5870 602
10 × 22 91⁄ 2 × 211⁄ 2 204 56.7 7868 732 24 × 30 231⁄ 2 × 291⁄ 2 693 193 50275 3408
10 × 24 91⁄ 2 × 231⁄ 2 223 63.0 10274 874

## All properties and weights are for dressed dimensions.

Weight per foot based on assumed average weight of 40 lb/ft3.
Moments of inertia assume timber set on edge, with max dimension perpendicular to plane of loading.

E-17
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## Approx. Specific3 Approx. Specific3

Average U/W weight2 Average U/W weight2
Specific gravity Specific gravity
Substance Density (seawater) Substance Density (seawater)
volume (referred to volume (referred to
lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3
ft3/lton fresh water) ft3/lton fresh water)
Metals Ores and Minerals
Aluminum, cast-hammered 165 13.6 101 2.55 to 2.8 Asbestos 153 14.6 89 2.1 to 2,8
Aluminum alloy, 2024-T3 173 12.9 109 2.77 Barytes 281 8.0 217 4.5
Aluminum alloy, 6061-T6 169 13.3 105 2.77 Basalt 184 12.2 120 2.4 to 3.2
Aluminum alloym 7079-T6 171 13.1 107 2.74 Bauxite 159 14.1 95 2.55
Antimony 534 4.2 470 8.55 Bluestone 159 14.1 95 2.5 to 2.6
Beryllium QMU 115 19.4 51 1.85 Borax 109 20.6 45 1.7 to 1.8
Bismuth 620 3.6 556 9.93 Chalk 143 15.7 79 1.8 to 2.8
Brass 510 4.4 446 8.17 Clay, marl5 137 16.4 73 1.8 to 2.6
Brass, cast-rolled 534 4.2 470 8.55 Coal5
Bronze, aluminum 481 4.7 417 7.70 anthracite 97 23.1 33 1.4 to 1.8
Bronze, 8-14% tin 509 4.4 445 8.15 bituminous 84 26.7 20 1.2 to 1.5
Bronze, phosphor 554 4.0 490 8.87 lignite 78 28.7 14 1.1 to 1.4
Copper, cast-rolled 556 4.0 492 8.91 peat, turf, dry 47 47.7 (17) 0.65 to 0.85
German silver 536 4.2 472 8.58 coke 75 29.9 11 1.0 to 1.4
Gold, cast-hammered 1205 1.9 1141 19.30 Copper ore, pyrites 262 8.5 198 4.1 to 4.3
Gold coin (US) 1073 2.1 1009 17.19 Dolomite 181 12.4 117 2.9
Gunmetal 530 4.2 466 8.49 Earth5 90 to 120 18.7 to 24.9 26 to 56 1.44 to 1.92
Irridium 1383 1.6 1319 21.8 to 22.4 Feldspar, orthoclase 162 13.8 98 2.5 to 2.7
Iron, gray cast 442 5.1 378 7.08 Flint 165 13.6 101 2.64
Iron, pig 450 5.0 386 7.21 Gneiss 175 12.8 111 2.7 to 2.9
Iron, wrought 485 4.6 421 7.77 Granite 165 13.6 86 to 126 2.40 to 3.04
Iron, ferrosilicon 437 5.1 373 7.00 Graphite 135 16.6 71 2.16
Lead 710 3.2 646 11.37 Greenstone, trap 187 12.0 123 2.8 to 3.2
Magnesium 109 20.6 45 1.75 Gypsum, alabaster 159 14.1 95 2.3 to 2.8
Magnesium alloy 112 20.0 48 1.79 Hornblende 187 12.0 123 3.0
Manganese 475 4.7 411 7.61 Iron ore, hematite 325 6.9 261 5.2
Mercury 847 2.6 783 13.57 Iron ore, limonite 237 9.5 173 3.6 to 4.0
Monel, rolled 555 4.0 491 8.89 Iron ore, magnetite 315 7.1 251 4.9 to 5.2
Molybdenum, wrought 643 3.5 579 10.30 Iron slag 172 13.0 108 2.5 to 3.0
Nickel 537 4.2 473 8.60 Lava 110 to 170 13.2 to 20.4 46 to 106 1.76 to 2.72
Platinum, cast-hammered 1330 1.7 1266 21.5 Limestone 160 14.0 96 2.1 to 2.86
Plutonium 1211 1.8 1147 19.40 Lead ore, galena 465 4.8 401 7.3 to 7.6
Silver, cast-hammered 656 3.4 592 10.4 to 10.6 Manganese ore, pyrolusite 259 8.6 195 3.7 to 4.6
Steel, cold-drawn 489 4.6 425 7.83 Magnesite 187 12.0 123 3.0
Steel, cast 492 4.6 428 7.88 Marble 170 13.2 106 2.56 to 2.86
Stainless steel, rolled 500 4.5 436 8.00 Mica 170 13.2 106 2.56 to 2.88
Tin, cast-hammered 459 4.9 395 7.35 Phosphate rock, apatite 200 11.2 136 3.2
Titanium alloy 290 7.4 to 7.9 218 to 238 4.52 to 4.84 Porphyry 172 13.0 108 2.6 to 2.9
Tungsten 1200 1.9 1136 19.22 Potash 130 17.2 66 2.08
Uranium 1170 1.9 1106 18.74 Quartz, quartzite 170 13.2 106 2.56 to 2.72
Zinc, cast-rolled 440 5.1 376 6.9 to 7.2 Tin ore, cassiterite 418 5.4 354 6.4 to 7.0
Zinc, cast alloy 414 5.4 350 6.63 Sandstone 143 15.7 56 to 86 1.92 to 2.46
Notes: Serpentine 171 13.1 107 2.7 to 2.8
1
Density of many referenced substances may vary; values given are typical or Slate, shale 162 to 205 10.9 to 13.8 98 to 141 2.59 to 3.28
average. Ranges of specific gravity are given to show density variations.
2
In seawater with density of 64 lb/ft3. Parentheses indicate positive buoyancy. Soapstone, talc 169 13.3 105 2.6 to 2.8
Add 1.6 lb/ft3 for weight in standard fresh water (γ = 62.4 lb/ft3). Sulphur 125 17.9 61 2.00
3
Referred to fresh water at 39.2 °F, p = 62.426 lb/ft3.
4
In seawater with density of 64 lb/ft3. Deduct 1.6 lb/ft3 for buoyancy in standard Syenite 165 13.6 101 2.6 to 2.7
fresh water (γ = 62.4 lb/ft3).
5
See also entry for loose, piled, forms under "Earth, Etc., as Excavated." Zinc ore, blende 253 8.9 189 3.9 to 4.2

E-18
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## Approx. Specific3 Approx. Specific3

Average U/W weight2 Average Buoyancy4
Specific gravity Specific gravity
Substance Density (seawater) Substance Density (seawater)
volume (referred to volume (referred to
lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3
ft3/lton fresh water) ft3/lton fresh water)
Earth, etc., as Excavated Other Nonbuoyant Solids
Clay, dry 63 35.6 (1) 1.0 Asphalt 90 to 130 17.2 to 24.9 26 to 66 1.44 to 2.08
Clay, damp, plastic 110 20.4 46 1.76 Bone 110 to 130 17.2 to 20.4 46 to 66 1.76 to 2.08
Clay and gravel, dry 100 22.4 36 1.6 Brick
Earth, dry, loose 76 29.5 12 1.2 hard 112 to 143 16 to 20 48 to 79 1.8 to 2.3
Earth, dry, packed 95 23.6 31 1.5 medium 100 to 125 18 to 22 36 to 61 1.6 to 2.0
Earth, moist, loose 78 28.7 14 1.3 soft 87 to 119 19 to 26 23 to 55 1.4 to 1.9
Earth, moist, packed 96 23.3 32 1.6 sand-lime 87 to 137 16 to 26 23 to 73 1.4 to 2.2
Earth, mud, flowing 108 20.7 51 1.8 fire 150 14.9 86 2.40
Earth, mud, packed 115 19.5 51 1.8 Cement 80 to 90 24.9 to 28.0 16 to 26 1.28 to 1.44
Riprap, limestone 80 to 85 27.0 27 1.3 to 1.4 Charcoal (twig, flake) 9 248.9 -55 0.14
Riprap, sandstone 90 24.9 26 1.4 Charcoal (flake pressed) 14 160.0 -50 0.22
Riprap, shale 105 21.3 41 1.7 Concrete
Sand, gravel, dry, loose 90 to 105 23.1 33 1.4 to 1.7 cement w/sand, stone 144 15.6 80 2.31
Sand, gravel, dry, packed 100 to 120 20.4 46 1.6 to 1.9 cement w/slag 130 17.2 66 2.08
Sand, gravel, wet 126 17.8 62 1.89 to 2.16 cement w/cinder 100 22.4 36 1.60
Coal and coke, piled reinforced 150 14.9 86 2.40
anthracite 47 to 58 43.0 (12) 0.75 to 0.93 Coral 160 to 170 13.2 to 14.0 96 to 106 2.56 to 2.72
bituminous 40 to 54 48.7 (17) 0.64 to 0.87 Cork, granulated 6 to 8 280.0 to 373.3 -56 to -58 0.10 to 0.13
lignite 40 to 54 48.7 (17) 0.64 to 0.87 Cotton, flax, hemp 93 24.1 29 1.49
peat, turf, dry 20 to 26 97.4 (41) 0.32 to 0.42 Cowhair, washed 6 373.3 -58 0.10
coke 23 to 32 81.5 (36.5) 0.37 to 0.51 Cowhair, unwashed 8 280.0 -56 0.13
charcoal 10 to 14 187 (52) 0.16 to 0.23 Ferro-cement 150 14.9 86 2.40
Ashes, cinders 40 to 45 52.7 (21.5) Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)
Loose portland cement 94 23.8 30 1.5 linear layup, 30% fiber 117 19.1 53 1.87
Stone, quarried and piled linear layup, 60% fiber 124 18.1 60 1.99
Basalt, granite, gneiss 96 23.3 32 1.5 laminate 94 23.8 30 1.50
Limestone, marble, quartz 95 23.6 31 1.5 Glass 160 to 170 13.2 106 2.72
Sandstone 82 27.3 18 1.3 common 162 13.8 98 2.4 to 2.8
Shale 92 24.3 28 1.5 crystal 184 12.2 120 2.9 to 3.0
Greenstone, hornblend 107 20.9 43 1.7 plate or crown 161 13.9 97 2.45 to 2.72
Loose lime or gypsum 53 to 64 38.3 (5.5) 0.85 to 1.0 flint 247 9.1 183 3.2 to 4.7
Buoyant Solids Ivory 120 18.7 56 1.92
Kevlar laminate 81 27.7 17 1.30
Approx. Specific3
Average Buoyancy4 Mortar, lime, set 103 21.7 39 1.4 to 1.9
Specific gravity
Substance Density (seawater)
volume (referred to Mortar, cement, set 135 16.6 71 2.1 to 2.35
lb/ft3 lb/ft3
ft3/lton fresh water)
Pitch 69 32.5 5 1.07 to 1.15
Butter 59 38.0 5 0.95 Plastics
Cork 15 149.3 49 0.24 Polystyrene 66 33.9 2 1.06
Ice 56 40.0 8 0.90 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 86 26.0 22 1.38
Polycarbonate,
India rubber 58 38.6 6 0.93 75 29.9 11 1.20
Plexiglass, Lucite
Latex/sponge rubber slab
6.5 344.6 57.5 0.10 ABS 70 32 6 1.12
Leather 59 38.0 5 0.95 Nylon 71 31.5 7 1.14
Paper 58 38.6 6 0.93 Teflon 136 16.5 72 2.18
Paraffin 56 40.0 8 0.90 Resin, rosin 67 33.4 3 1.07
Peat 11 203.6 53 0.18 Rubber goods 94 23.8 30 1.51
Plastics Salt 120 to 140 16.0 to 18.7 56 to 76 1.92 to 2.24
Polyethylene 57 to 60 37.3 to 39.3 4 to 7 0.91 to 0.96 Tar 60 to 75 29.9 to 37.3 (4) to 11 0.96 to 1.20
Polypropylene 56 40.0 8 0.90 Tiles 125 17.9 61 2.00
Plastic Foams Vulcanite 78 28.7 14 1.25
Rigid Urethane 1.4 to 2 1120 to 1600 62 to 62.6 0.02 to 0.03 Wool 82 27.3 18 1.31
Semi-rigid, MDI Urethane 8 280.0 56 0.13
Polystyrene 1.8 to 3.3 678.8 to 1244.4 60.7 to 62.2 0.03 to 0.05
Notes:
PVC (Flotation)(PFD’s, buoys) 4 560.0 60 0.06
1
PVC (Insulation) 6 373.3 58 0.10 Density of many referenced substances may vary; values given are typical or
PVC (shock absorbant) average. Ranges of specific gravity are given to show density variations.
2
(athletic mats)
7 320.0 57 0.11 In seawater with density of 64 lb/ft3. Parentheses indicate positive buoyancy.
Add 1.6 lb/ft3 for weight in standard fresh water (γ = 62.4 lb/ft3).
Pumice stone 17 131.8 47 0.27 3
Referred to fresh water at 39.2 °F, p = 62.426 lb/ft3.
4
Syntactic foam 40 to 47 47.7 to 56.0 17 to 24 0.64 to 0.75 In seawater with density of 64 lb/ft3. Deduct 1.6 lb/ft3 for buoyancy in standard
fresh water (γ = 62.4 lb/ft3).
Tallow 58 38.6 6 0.93 5
See also entry for loose, piled, forms under "Earth, Etc., as Excavated."
Wax 60 37.3 4 0.96

E-19
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## Approx. Specific3 Approx. Specific3

Average Buoyancy4 Average Buoyancy4
Specific gravity Specific gravity
Substance Density (seawater) Substance Density (seawater)
volume (referred to volume (referred to
lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3
ft3/lton fresh water) ft3/lton fresh water)
Timber, Air Dry
Apple 44 50.9 20 0.66 to 0.74 Mahogany, Cuban 34 65.9 30 0.54
Mahogany, Honduras
Ash, black 34 65.9 30 0.55 44 50.9 20 0.56 to 0.85
and African
Ash, white 42 53.3 22 0.64 to 0.71 Mahogany, Spanish 53 42.3 11 0.85
Aspen 27 83.0 37 0.43 Maple, black and sugar 43 52.1 21 0.69
Australian gums 50 44.8 14 0.80 Maple, white 33 67.9 31 0.53
Balsa 2 to 24 93.3 to 1120 40 to 62 0.03 to 0.38 Oak, chestnut 46 48.7 18 0.74
Balsam fir 25 89.6 39 0.40 Oak, red, black 42 53.3 22 0.64 to 0.71
Bamboo 20 112.0 44 0.32 Oak, white 48 46.7 16 0.77
Basswood 26 86.2 38 0.42 Oak, English 48 46.7 16 0.77
Beech 45 49.8 19 0.72 Oak, Riga 43 52.1 21 0.69
Birch, yellow 43 52.1 21 0.69 to 0.72 Obeche 24 93.3 40 0.38
Cedar, Port Orford 30 74.7 34 0.48 Pecan 48 46.7 16 0.77
Cedar, white, red 22 101.8 42 0.35 Peroba 45 49.8 19 0.72
Cherry, black 35 64.0 29 0.56 Pine, lodgepole 39 77.2 35 0.46
Cherry, wild red 27 83.0 37 0.35 Pine, northern 30 74.4 34 0.48
Chestnut 30 74.7 34 0.48 Pine, Norway 34 65.9 30 0.54
Cottonwood, black 22 101.8 42 0.35 Pine, Oregon 32 40.0 32 0.51
Cottonwood, Eastern 28 80.0 36 0.45 Pine, Ponderosa 28 80.0 36 0.45
Cypress 29 77.2 35 0.45 to 0.48 Pine, red 30 74.7 34 0.48
Douglas fir 32 70.0 32 0.48 to 0.55 Pine, shortleaf 36 62.2 28 0.58
Eastern fir 25 89.6 39 0.40 Pine, white (eastern) 27 93.3 40 0.38
Ebony 60 to 70 32.0 to 37.3 -6 to -4 0.96 to 1.12 Pine, white (western) 27 83.0 37 0.43
Elder pith 4 560.0 60 0.06 Pine, white (Idaho) 26 86.2 38 0.42
Pine, yellow (southern,
Elm, American (white) 35 64.0 29 0.56 40 56.0 24 0.61 to 0.67
longleaf or pitch)
Elm, English 30 74.7 34 0.48 Pine, yellow (shortleaf) 25 89.6 39 0.40
Elm, rock 44 50.9 20 0.70 Poplar 27 83 37 0.43
Elm, Wych 40 56.0 24 0.64 Redwood, close grain 39 77.2 35 0.46
Gaboon or Gaboon Mahogany 25 89.6 39 0.40 Redwood, open grain 26 86.2 38 0.42
Greenheart 62 to 68 32.9 to 36.1 -4 to -2 0.99 to 1.09 Rosewood 62 36.1 2 0.99
Hemlock, eastern 28 80.0 36 0.45 Satinwood 60 37.3 4 0.96
Hemlock, western 29 77.2 35 0.46 Sawara 21 106.7 43 0.34
Hemlock, mountain 32 70.0 32 0.51 Spruce, white, red 28 80.0 36 0.45
Hickory, shagbark 50 44.8 14 0.80 Spruce, Engelmann 24 93.3 40 0.38
Hickory 48 47 16 0.74 to 0.80 Spruce, Sitka 29 77.2 35 0.46
Jarrah 50 44.8 14 0.80 Sweetgum 36 62.2 28 0.58
Kauri 33 67.9 31 0.53 Sycamore 37 60.5 27 0.59
Lancewood 50 44.8 14 0.80 Teak, African 62 36.1 2 0.99
Larch 38 58.9 26 0.61 Teak, Indian 48 46.7 16 0.66 to 0.88
Lignum Vitae (ironwood) 83 27.0 -19 1.33 Tupelo 35 64.0 29 0.56
Lime 25 89.6 39 0.40 Walnut 37 60.5 27 0.59
Locust 45 50 19 0.67 to 0.77 Willow 28 80.0 36 0.42 to 0.50
Luan (Phillipine mahogany) Yew 45 49.8 19 0.72
white 30 74.7 34 0.48
red 37 60.5 27 0.59
Mixed Woods, Average Properties
Coast Woods (US) 26 to 34 65.9 to 86.2 30 to 38 0.42 to 0.54 Hem-fir 28 80.0 36 0.45
Northern Woods 24 to 34 65.9 to 93.3 30 to 40 0.38 to 0.54 West Coast Woods 24 to 34 65.9 to 93.3 30 to 40 0.38 to 0.54
White Woods (western
Spruce-Pine-Fir 27 83.0 37 0.43 24 to 34 65.9 to 93.3 30 to 40 0.38 to 0.54
US)

Notes:
1 Density of many referenced substances may vary; values given are typical or average. Ranges of specific gravity are given to show density variations.
2 In seawater with density of 64 lb/ft3. Parentheses indicate positive buoyancy. Add 1.6 lb/ft3 for weight in standard fresh water ( = 62.4 lb/ft3).
3 Referred to fresh water at 39.2 F, p = 62.426 lb/ft3.
4 In seawater with density of 64 lb/ft3. Deduct 1.6 lb/ft3 for buoyancy in standard fresh water ( = 62.4 lb/ft3).
5 See also entry for loose, piled, forms under "Earth, Etc., as Excavated."

E-20
S0300-A8-HBK-010

## Density Density Volume Volume

Specific Gravity
LB/FT3 LB/GAL FT3/LTON GAL/TON
Alcohol, ethyl (100%) 49 6.6 45.7 342 0.789
Alcohol, methyl (100%) 50 6.7 44.8 335 0.796
Acid, muriatic (40%) 75 10.0 29.9 223 1.20
Acid, nitric (91%) 94 12.6 23.8 178 1.50
Acid, sulphuric (87%) 112 15.0 20.0 150 1.80
Acid, hydrochloric (37%) 75 10.0 29.9 224 1.20
Battery electrolyte
fully charged 81 10.8 27.6 207 1.30
discharged 69 9.2 32.6 244 1.11
Beer 63 8.4 35.5 266 1.01
Ammonia @ 32°F 39 5.2 57.6 431 0.62
Chloroform 95 12.7 23.6 176 1.52
Diesel fuel (DFM, Nato F-76) 52 7.0 42.7 320 0.83
Ether 46 6.2 48.7 364 0.74
Ethylene Glycol (anti-freeze) 70 9.4 31.9 239 1.12
Fuel oil, No 6 60 8.1 37.1 278 0.96
Fuel oil, No 5 58 7.8 38.4 287 0.93
Fuel oil, No 2 55 7.3 40.9 306 0.88
Fuel oil, No 1 51 6.8 44.3 332 0.82
Gasoline 44 5.9 50.6 379 0.70
Jet fuel (JP-5) 51 6.9 43.5 326 0.82
Kerosene 50 6.7 44.9 336 0.81
Milk 64 8.6 34.8 260 1.025
Linseed oil 59 7.8 38.3 286 0.95
Lye, soda (66%) 106 14.2 21.1 158 1.70
Oil, vegetable 58 7.8 38.6 289 091 to 0.94
Oil, lubricating 56 7.5 39.9 298 0.88 to 0.94
Olive oil 57 7.6 39.2 293 0.91
Petroleum, crude 44 5.8 51.3 383 0.70
Sugar-in-water solution
20% @ 68°F 67 9.0 33.2 248 1.07
40% @ 68°F 73 9.8 30.5 228 1.12
60% @ 68°F 80 10.7 27.9 209 1.28
Turpentine 54 7.2 41.5 310 0.86 to 0.87
Vinegar 67 9.0 33.2 249 1.07
Water, pure, @ 39°F 62.426 8.3 35.9 269 1.000
Water, seawater, standard 63.987 8.6 35.0 262 1.025
Water, ice 56 7.5 40.0 299 -.88 to 0.92

Note: Liquids consisting of a mixture of compounds, such as petroleum products and vegetable derivatives, may vary in density
from sample to sample. The densities given in this table are average or typical values. Liquid densities, especially those
of petroleum products, can also vary significantly with temperature. See the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 6
(S0300-A6-MAN-060) for a more extensive list of petroleum products.