CORRECT your SPANISH BLUNDERS
How to Avoid 99% of the Common Mistakes Made by Learners of Spanish
JEAN YATES

Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-146014-4 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-143841-6. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGrawHill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071460144

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CONTENTS
Introduction v PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING 1 Pronunciation Spelling
10 3

Capitalization 17 Punctuation 20 GRAMMAR 23 Nouns
25 38 53 80

Numbers

Noun Determiners Verbs The Infinitive 96 Types of Verbs

Descriptive Adjectives

102 111 122 127

The Indicative Mood 110 The Present Tense The Preterite Tense The Preterite Perfect Tense The Imperfect Tense 132 The Pluperfect Tense 140 The Future Tense 143 The Future Perfect Tense 149 The Conditional 151 The Simple Conditional 152 The Conditional Perfect 155

iii

iv

CONTENTS

The Subjunctive Mood

158 161 177

The Present Subjunctive

The Preterite Perfect Subjunctive The Imperfect Subjunctive 184 The Pluperfect Subjunctive 197 Reported Speech
200

Subjects, Objects, and Their Pronouns Other Prepositions 257 Conjunctions
290

204

Adverbs and Prepositions with Adverbial Functions 231

VOCABULARY 297 Words 299 Constructions 323 Catch the Blunders 331 Answer Key 337 Index of Spanish Words and Expressions 351 Subject Index
356

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this book is to identify the most common trouble spots for English speakers learning Spanish, to provide a basis for understanding why these trouble spots cause difficulties, and to offer guidance and practice for avoiding potential errors. Many errors commonly made by speakers and learners of a second language are caused by transferring the patterns of the native language to the language being learned. This happens in all aspects of language, from pronunciation to word formation to sentence structure. Following are some examples of problems English speakers have when learning Spanish. 1. There are only a few sounds in Spanish that do not exist in English. Many sounds common to both languages, however, are represented by different letters in each language. For example, in certain situations the letter d in Spanish is pronounced like the “th” in the English “brother.” Also, English and Spanish have different pronunciation patterns for vowels, which can cause English speakers to mispronounce many words. 2. Although there are some clues as to whether Spanish nouns are masculine or feminine, many nouns seem to defy regular patterns. English speakers must learn the gender of Spanish nouns and be careful to use the correct corresponding articles and pronouns. 3. Although many Spanish words have cognates in English, there are also many false cognates, aptly called falsos amigos in Spanish. One example is sensible, an adjective in both languages; it means “levelheaded” in English but “sensitive” in Spanish. 4. In many cases, one word in English has two or more noninterchangeable translations in Spanish. One example of this is the verb “be” in English, whose correspondents in Spanish are ser and estar, as well as other verbs used idiomatically. Another is the English “for,” which has several Spanish translations, among them, por and para. 5. Particles, such as prepositions and conjunctions, have no one-forone equivalents in both languages. For example, the Spanish preposition en can be translated into English as “in,” “on,” “at,” “of,” and
v
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You will be made aware of potential trouble spots and shown how to break bad habits and correct your own mistakes. in fact. therefore.” for example. present perfect. It is. “the Sunday.” Again.” 6. and in a different way in the other. followed by exercises that test your understanding and help you avoid the pitfalls encountered when translating word for word. At the back of the book you will also find the answers to all the exercises. The largest section is Grammar. Several examples are given for each topic. You will find that many of the lists are structured for sense and meaning. detailed index at the back of the book serves as a guide to finding all the references to each topic. the pitfall is transferring the English pattern to the Spanish. you will find that most topics are mentioned in more than one place. the English “I like ice cream” is stated in Spanish as “Ice cream appeals to me. In English. Grammar. Every verb tense. In addition. from English. Actually. often assumed that the function of the present tense will be the same in all instances. This repetition allows for cross-referencing and provides multiple examples of the most problematic structures. the Spanish present tense can also be used for functions that are expressed in English in the present progressive. structure for structure. past. Nouns are grouped by their endings. and Vocabulary. one says “I am hungry. Because individual words of a language are used in connection with other words.” while in Spanish one says the equivalent of “I have hunger. Information can be expressed one way in one language. Suggestions for Using This Book The book is divided into three parts: Pronunciation and Spelling. and verbs are grouped by usage. 7. the translation of English “on Sunday” is el domingo. A more insidious type of falso amigo is encountered in the use of verb tenses. which identifies . for example.vi INTRODUCTION “about. for example.” Expressions of this type present more complications when their individual words are modified.” Likewise. for example. “I am very hungry” is the equivalent of “I have a lot of hunger. The present tense. adverbs are listed in order of nunca “never” to siempre “always.” Likewise. It is hoped that the materials presented here will help you improve your proficiency in Spanish and avoid the most common blunders. the comprehensive. represents a potential trouble spot for English-speaking learners of Spanish. and future tenses. In this book you will find the reasons behind these and many other common but lesser-known “blunders” through explanations of how regular patterns of Spanish differ from those of English. can be used identically in both languages for certain functions.

However. all blunders are printed in red type and marked by a stylized ✗. . Check all the cross-references to a topic you are interested in to find more examples.INTRODUCTION vii the various types of words according to traditional terminology. colleagues. Do the exercises on a separate sheet of paper. reread the pertinent sections. rather than the Contents. The best way to learn a language is to listen to its native speakers and practice by communicating with them. The biggest blunder of all would be to correct a native speaker. She especially appreciates the advice of Ligia Ochoa Sierra. or to in any way imply that he or she doesn’t speak “correct” Spanish. then do the exercises again. then read the related explanation. The guidelines here are based on current standard usage in all countries where Spanish is the native language. and sentences that are unacceptable. or if you find them more confusing than helpful. follow these suggestions: ] ] ] ] First look for the “Avoid the Blunder” headings in each section. and that certain items identified here as “blunders” are accepted as standard usage in some areas. Recognizing the differences you encounter in different places will enrich your Spanish and enable you to identify regional variations. Acknowledgments The author is indebted to her many teachers. phrases. be aware that language is constantly changing. Read the examples. and the help of Jeannette Walters Márquez and Luz Noemi Curet. and students. Use the Index. Throughout the book. that there are many different forms of expression. to find what you are looking for. then check your answers in the Answer Key at the back of the book. These are words. friends. from whom she continues to learn. If you are unfamiliar with these terms. If you have made mistakes. who read the entire manuscript and provided many insightful comments and suggestions.

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SYLLABLE VOWEL COMBINATIONS Any combination of a. or o with accented i or u ía EE-ah aí ah-EE íe EE-eh eí eh-EE ío EE-o oí o-EE úa OO-ah aú ah-OO úe OO-eh eú eh-OO úi OO-ee iú ee-OO úo OO-o Combinations that do not contain i or u and that have no accent mark ae ah-eh ao ah-o ea eh-ah ee eh-eh eo eh-o oa o-ah oe o-eh oo o-o CONSONANTS IN INITIAL POSITION AFTER VOWEL similar to: b/v c before a. i c before e. e.PRONUNCIATION ONE . e. o.SYLLABLE VOWEL COMBINATIONS Combinations of a. or o with the letter i or u ia ya ai eye ie yeh ei ay as in “say” io yo oi oy as in“boy” iu yu ui wee ua wa au ah-oo ue weh eu eh-oo ui wee iu you uo wo TWO .SYLLABLE VOWELS a e i o u ONE . i cc d b as in “boy” breathed through almost-closed lips i y t k as in “skate” r c as in “ceiling” (in Latin America) w q th as in “thumb” (in Spain) d as in “dog” cc as in “access” th as in “brother” 3 . u k qu before e.

x) (see ll) s as in “sun” (in Latin America) th as in “thumb” (in Spain) tl as in “bottle” d as in “body” rolling trill of the tongue x as in “extra” y as in “guy.” “boy” . i j x h l ll y m n ñ p r rr s t w x y z breathed through almost-closed throat i y t i y t ch as in Scottish “loch” or German “ach”. j. i t g before e.4 CONSONANTS PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING IN INITIAL POSITION AFTER VOWEL similar to: f f as in “find” g before a. u i g as in “girl” y gu before e. a voiceless.” “way. o. scratchy sound from the throat h as in “honest” (silent) l as in “love” yy as in “say yes” OR j as in “jar” m as in “man” n as in “next” ni as in “onion” p as in “spin” rolling trill of the tongue s as in “sun” t as in “stamp” w as in “wash” s as in “sun” (in native Mexican words) (see also g.

a pronounced like the a in “father.PRONUNCIATION 5 Spanish Letters and Sounds Because the Spanish and English alphabets are so similar. almost-closed position. ✗ finow u ✗ tacow pronounced like the beginning of u in “tuba” Do not make a /yu/ sound: Cuba. each vowel is pronounced clearly.” but cut short: fino pronounced like the beginning of o in “open” Do not glide into an /ow/ sound: fino. making them all sound something like “uh. ✗ kyuwba Unstressed vowels in English are usually pronounced with the mouth in a relaxed. AVOID THE Blunder Do not pronounce a single vowel with two vowel sounds.” but cut short: taco ✗ ta uh co e pronounced like the e in “bet”: bueno ✗ bwayno i o pronounced like the i in “machine. rosas buenos días AVOID THE “ro sas” “bwe nos dee ahs” ✗ row zuhs ✗ bway nuhz dee uhz Blunder . Vowels Spanish vowel sounds are produced by first positioning the mouth correctly. it is important to keep in mind that the sounds represented by most letters in Spanish are different from the sounds they represent in English.” In Spanish. then uttering the sound without moving the jaw.

e. however.6 PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING Any combination of the vowels i or u with a. leer coordinar AVOID THE “le ER” “co or dee NAR” Blunder Do not add a /y/ or /w/ sound. ✗ le yer ✗ co wor di nar . or o is pronounced as two syllables. as you would in English. the vowel is pronounced only once. or o is pronounced as two syllables when there is an accent mark over either vowel. pia no a gua Jai me Lau ra die ta bue no rei na Eu ro pa Ma rio rui nas oi go viu da cuo ta cui dar Any combination of the vowels i or u with a. No accent mark is used. the vowels are pronounced as two syllables that glide together. e. Ana anda al parque la casa de Eduardo AVOID THE “a nan dal par que” “la ca sa de duar do” ✗ Ana | anda | al parque ✗ la casa de | Eduardo Blunder When a vowel is repeated within a word. dí a grú a rí o ac tú a Ma rí a re ú ne le í Ra úl con ti nú e Any combination of the vowels a. like ee or oo. and the following word starts with the same vowel. or o is pronounced as one syllable unless there is an accent mark over one of the vowels. e. pa e lla AVOID THE fe o po e ma ca os le er ✗ Jaíme ✗ paélla Blunder ✗ oígo ✗ féo ✗ óigo ✗ poéma ✗ dia ✗ cáos ✗ Raul ✗ leér When a word ends with a vowel.

bebe g habas tuvo uva Keep a slight opening at the throat and let the air come through. However. b. ¿Cómo está usted? Vamos a la piscina a nadar un rato. when these letters fall between two vowels. (This sound is like the French r. v. v Keep the lips slightly apart and let the air come through. exactly like the th in “brother. and /t/ at the beginning of English words are followed by a puff of air. Pepe papá taco capa Paco tapas Blunder The sounds of the Spanish letters b. they are softer and may be lengthened. g. Say the following words aloud. “co mwe stau sted” “va mo sa la pi si na na da run ra to” AVOID THE ✗ co mo | está | us ted ✗ va mos | a la pis cina | a na dar | un ra to Consonants The sounds /p/.PRONUNCIATION 7 Words are connected in a stream of speech. and r like the English d. and d are similar to their English equivalents at the beginning of words. cada todo ida mide cara toro ira mire cedo dudo comed hablad cero duro comer hablar . pronouncing d like the English th. Do not produce this puff of air when pronouncing these sounds in Spanish. This sound is used for the Spanish r.) haga traigo mago llegue d Place the tongue between the top and bottom teeth. /k/.” cada dedo mide seda AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the English /d/ sound for the Spanish d in the middle or at the end of words. without a break between words.

and the tongue is suspended in the middle of the mouth without touching anything.” They must be pronounced with force to avoid misunderstanding. The sound is like the d in the English “body.8 PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING Remember that ll and y are consonants and are pronounced like the doubled y in “say yes” or the j in “jar.” ✗ Suzanna . AVOID THE Blunder ✗ rozez Pronounce the Spanish s (even in the middle or at the end of a word) like the s in “sun.” cara cero hora iré loro oro para Learn to make the trilled Spanish r by placing the tip of your tongue loosely on the ridge behind your top front teeth. a person might hear you say “I love myself” (me amo) rather than “My name is” (me llamo). se llama Yolanda ya me llamó AVOID THE “se yya ma yyo lan da” OR “se ja ma jo lan da” “yya me yya mó” OR “ja me ja mó” ✗ se ama Yolanda Blunder ✗ ya me amó The sound /r/ in Spanish is very different from the English /r/. The letter r before another consonant requires a half-trill. as in the second s of “Susan” or at the end of a word. For example. keep your lips in a flat position and tap the tip of your tongue once on the ridge behind your top front teeth. if the ll is not pronounced forcefully enough. río rama rosa carro perro cierra error The Spanish s is pronounced like the s in “sun. carta embargo cierto cerca forma The letter r at the beginning of a word is fully trilled. It is never pronounced like the English z. the top teeth are somewhat bared. then forcing air between the tongue and the ridge. the lips are rounded. but it’s worth learning. This takes practice. To pronounce the English /r/. as is the rr in the middle of a word. To pronounce the Spanish /r/. causing it to flap rapidly and automatically.” even in the middle or at the end of a word.

(See the chart on pages 3–4. and c. all of the doubled consonants represent sounds that are very different from the sounds of the single letters. ✗ intelligente . the only consonants that are doubled are l. r.) AVOID THE Blunder ✗ professor ✗ recommendar Do not use a double consonant in Spanish where it is used in the English cognate.PRONUNCIATION 9 In Spanish.

o. e. It can also be spelled with a g before the vowels e and i. and with qu before the vowels e and i. ja jaleo je OR ge OR xe jerga general México mexicano ji OR gi jitomate gigante jo joya ju jugo 10 . o. o. cua cuatro cue cueva cui cuidar cuo cuota The sound /th/ (in Spain) and /s/ (in Latin America) is spelled with z before the vowels a. gua guante güe güera güi pingüino guo antiguo The “stronger than /h/” sound (more guttural—from the throat—than the English h) is spelled with a j before the vowels a. and u. and with an x in the words México and mexicano.SPELLING Consonants The sound /k/ is spelled with c before the vowels a. and with c before the vowels e and i. ga gala gue guerra gui guitarra go goza gu gusano The sound /gw/ is spelled gu before the vowels a and o. and u. za zapato ce cero ci cinco zo zona zu zumo The sound /g/ is spelled with g before the vowels a. i. and gü before the vowels e and i. and u. ca casa que queso qui quieto co come cu cuna The sound /kw/ is always spelled cu. o and u. and with gu before the vowels e and i.

año baño pequeño niña AVOID THE “an yo” “ban yo” “pe ken yo” “nin ya” Blunder ✗ bano ✗ pequeno ✗ nina Do not forget to write the tilde. This consonant change occurs in the following situations: ] adding a plural ending to a noun or adjective un lápiz la actriz el arroz dos lápices las actrices los arroces ( ✗ lápizes) ( ✗ actrizes) ( ✗ arrozes) ( ✗ recogo) ( ✗ dirigo) ( ✗ sacé) ( ✗ jugé) ( ✗ empezé) (✗ (✗ (✗ (✗ sace) ruege) recoga) almuerze) ] present indicative yo forms recoger dirigir yo recojo yo dirijo ] preterite yo forms sacar jugar empezar yo saqué yo jugué yo empecé ] present subjunctive verb forms sacar rogar recoger almorzar saque ruegue recoja almuerce ] making an adjective from a noun Nicaragua nicaragüense ( ✗ nicaraguense) ] intensifying an adjective simpático feliz simpatiquísimo ( ✗ simpaticísimo) felicísima ( ✗ felizísima) . ✗ ano ] When grammar forces a vowel change.SPELLING 11 The sound of the letter ñ is similar to that of the ni in the English “onion.” The ñ represents a combination of the consonants n y. The tilde that distinguishes this letter from n may be written as a straight line over the n. this may affect the consonants described above. Always pronounce the /y/ sound clearly after the /n/ sound.

estoy estamos ] Certain verbs whose infinitive ends in -iar require accent marks over the i in the yo. but not in the nosotros(-as) and vosotros(-as) forms. slanting upward toward the right.12 PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING AVOID THE ✗ lápizes ✗ recogo ✗ sacé ✗ sace ✗ nicaraguense ✗ simpaticísimo ✗ felizísima Blunder ✗ actrizes ✗ dirigo ✗ jugé ✗ ruege ✗ arrozes ✗ empezé ✗ recoga ✗ almuerze Accent Marks ] Accent marks are used above both uppercase and lowercase letters. usted/él/ella. make a small mark directly over the vowel. estás está están estáis The following present-tense forms of the verb estar do not require an accent mark. ´ ´ ´ ✗ lapiz ✗ dificil ✗ saque ] The following present-tense forms of the verb estar require an accent mark. When writing the accent mark by hand. tú. When the accent mark is above a lowercase i. enviar guiar variar to send to guide to vary . and ustedes/ellos/ellas forms of the present tense. confiar (to trust) confío confías confía confían confiamos confiáis Other verbs of this type include the following. AVOID THE Blunder Do not “float” accent marks above words. do not dot the i.

He perdido mi tarjeta. “Why” is expressed with two words and has an accent mark: ¿Por qué? “Because” is expressed with one word and does not have an accent mark: porque. Fui yo quien vio el accidente. qué. ¿Cuál es su nombre? Quisiera saber cuál de los libros es el mejor. ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK NO ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK NO ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK NO ACCENT MARK . without which I can’t buy anything. dónde. I was the one who saw the accident. Él me dijo que lo haría. They do not require an accent mark in other contexts. estudiar (to study) estudio estudias estudia estudian estudiamos estudiáis Other verbs of this type include the following. cuál. cuándo. sin la cual no puedo comprar nada. ¿Cómo estás? No entiendo cómo lo haces. He told me he would do it. Who is it? I don’t know who it is. ¿Qué es esto? Él no sabía qué hacer.SPELLING 13 Other verbs that end in -iar do not have accent marks over the i in their conjugated forms. What’s your name? I would like to know which one is the best book. ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK NO ACCENT MARK ¿Quién es? No sé quién es. whether direct or indirect. You should work like your father does. I lost my card. What’s this? He didn’t know what to do. Debes trabajar como tu papá. abreviar cambiar limpiar to abbreviate to change to clean ] The words quién. cómo. How are you? I don’t understand how you do it. and por qué have an accent mark when they begin a question.

plus me yes only tea you aun de el mas mi si solo te tu even of. from the however my if alone you (object) your ] The following guidelines apply to the use of accent marks with other words. He works hard because he wants to earn more. you need to know how the word is pronounced and be able to identify the syllable that is stressed or slightly more emphasized. ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK NO ACCENT MARK ] The meaning of certain words is distinguished by the use of an accent mark. Vamos al restaurante donde comimos ayer. Let’s go to the restaurant where we ate yesterday. the exam is. fainted. Cuando lo vio.14 ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING NO ACCENT MARK ¿Dónde estás? Me preguntó dónde estaba su mamá. aún dé él más mí sí sólo té tú still give! (command) he more. Where are you? He asked me where his mother was. ~ When the emphasized syllable is the final syllable: ] there is no accent mark if that syllable ends in a consonant other than -n or -s. Why don’t you come with us? I can imagine why you did it. ¿Por qué no vienes con nosotros? Me puedo imaginar por qué lo hiciste. ACCENT MARK ACCENT MARK NO ACCENT MARK ¿Cuándo es la fiesta? When is the party? Tengo que averiguar I have to find out when cuándo es el examen. Trabaja mucho porque quiere ganar más. se When she saw him. she desmayó. verdad reloj animal error estoy arroz . In order to know where to put an accent mark.

SPELLING ] 15 an accent mark is required over the vowel of the final syllable if it ends in a vowel. e. -n. For example. fourth-. video cacao Corea poema paella ] there is no accent mark if the final syllable is a one-syllable vowel combination. examen joven AVOID THE exámenes jóvenes ✗ accion ✗ exámen Blunder ✗ leccion ✗ jóven ✗ acciónes ✗ examenes ✗ lecciónes ✗ jovenes . acción lección acciones lecciones Certain other words may not have an accent mark in the singular but may need one in the plural. habló comí comió comerán acción sabrás ~ When the emphasized syllable is the next-to-last syllable: ] there is no accent mark if the final syllable ends in a vowel. or -s. a one-syllable vowel combination (see page 3). it always has an accent mark. they lose it. anímate propósito estudiándolo dígaselo rápidamente ~ Adding a syllable can change the need for an accent mark. but when they are made plural. words that end in -ión always have an accent mark. Mario Colombia agua perpetuo superficie ] there is an accent mark over the stressed vowel if the stressed vowel is part of a normally one-syllable vowel combination (any vowel combination that includes i or u). and o). or fifth-last syllable. hablo supe comen sabes aprendemos ] there is no accent mark if the stressed vowel is part of a two-syllable vowel combination (any combination of the vowels a. -n. or -s. María maíz día país tío ríe Raúl ~ When the emphasized syllable is the third-.

1. rápidamente 2. C Write the number of syllables in each word on the line next to it. 2. The sound /h/ is spelled: ca ga za cu a gu a ja o e e e e e e/ u e i i i i i o o o o o i/ i u u u B Write an accent mark where necessary in the underlined words. The sound /th/ or /s/ is spelled: 4. video 5. The sound /gw/ is spelled: 6. Mi hermano no vino a clase porque no hizo la tarea. The sound /g/ is spelled: 3. ¿Quienes van al cine esta tarde? ¿Vas tu? ¿Va tu hermano? 3. 1. mi hermano va. pero solo si hace la tarea primero. Ahora esta en casa. Mario 3. Si.16 PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING Exercises A Fill in the blanks with the consonant or consonants that precede the vowel to produce the sound indicated. María 4. The sound /kw/ is spelled: 5. The sound /k/ is spelled: 2. 1. aprendemos .

Ud. Uds. but there are some important exceptions. t used with his or her first name AVOID THE ✗ Usted Blunder ✗ Ustedes January February March April May June July August September October November December ✗ Señor ✗ Señora ✗ Don ] The names of months and days are not capitalized in Spanish. Sres. y Da. Srta. you you all Mr. Mrs. Miss D. and doña are capitalized only in the abbreviated form. señores. señor. Gentlemen Sra. don. ustedes. Sr. señora. enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre AVOID THE lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday ✗ Enero Blunder ✗ Mayo ✗ Lunes ✗ Domingo 17 . ] The words usted. señorita. i friendly term of respect for an older person.CAPITALIZATION Many conventions used in English are the same in Spanish.

Gramática de la lengua española Don Quijote de la Mancha AVOID THE Grammar of the Spanish Language Don Quixote of la Mancha ✗ Gramática De La Lengua Española ✗ Gramática de la Lengua Española ✗ Don Quijote De La Mancha Blunder .18 PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING ] The names of languages and nationalities are not capitalized in Spanish. argentino(-a) colombiano(-a) español(a) francés/francesa inglés/inglesa mexicano(-a) AVOID THE Argentine Colombian Spanish French English Mexican náhuatl panameño(-a) peruano(-a) portugués/ portuguesa quechua Nahuatl Panamanian Peruvian Portuguese Quechua ✗ Español Blunder ✗ Inglés ✗ Peruano ✗ Colombiana ] The names of religions and religious affiliations are typically not capitalized in Spanish. only the first word and proper names are capitalized. budista católico(-a) cristiano(-a) hindú judío(-a) musulmán/ musulmana AVOID THE Buddhist Catholic Christian Hindu Jew Muslim el el el el el budismo catolicismo cristianismo hinduismo judaísmo BUT el Islam Buddhism Catholicism Christianity Hinduism Judaism Islam ✗ Cristiano ✗ Budismo Blunder ✗ Judía ✗ Catolicismo ✗ Musulmana ✗ Hinduismo ] In the titles of books and articles.

Septiembre 2. peruana . octubre 6. viernes 3. Inglés 5. Argentino 10.CAPITALIZATION 19 Exercises A Write the abbreviated form of the following words. señores B Circle the words below that have incorrect capitalization. usted 4. Católico 7. 1. español 4. don 2. 1. señora 3. Miércoles 9. judío 8.

and one identical to the English exclamation point at the end. —¿Qué piensa hacer usted. as in English. Tendré que hablarlo con mi familia. which is not necessarily at the beginning of the sentence. ¡Váyanse de aquí! ¡Déjame en paz! Get out of here! Leave me alone! The first question mark or exclamation point is placed at the beginning of the question or exclamation. Mr. Dad? Will you buy me a toy? Two exclamation points are required for every exclamation: an upsidedown exclamation point at the beginning. In Spanish. where are you going? Guys. A colon. The director asked him.” ] Quotation marks are used. “What are you planning to do. Sr. If the end punctuation of the quote is a question mark or exclamation point. this is followed by a period. a dash. In Spanish the symbols « . El director le preguntó: “¿Qué piensa hacer usted. to mark someone’s exact words within a text. it goes before the final quotation mark. Mr. Rodríguez?”. rather than quotation marks. Rodríguez? —No sé.PUNCTUATION ] Two question marks are required for every question: an upsidedown question mark at the beginning. » are often used for this purpose. and one identical to the English question mark at the end. papá? ¿Me compras un juguete? Where are you going. is used to introduce the quote. unlike English. “What are you planning to do. ¿adónde vas? Chicos. is used to indicate the spoken word or a change in speakers. . rather than a comma. ¡váyanse de aquí! Dad. Rodriguez?” “I don’t know. I’ll have to talk it over with my family. Papá. Rodríguez?” 20 . get out of here! ] In writing dialogue. . ¿Adónde vas. Sr.

No comma is used between the last two items (that is. and strawberries. Elena y Dolores están en México este verano. tendré que hablarlo con mi familia”. items in a series are separated by commas. tomates.” dijo Juan.” said Mr. 1. Me llamas más tarde 4. “No sé”. AVOID THE Luisa.” “I don’t know. Elena. Mr. y fresas Blunder Exercise A Punctuate the following sentences. I’ll have to talk it over with my family. AVOID THE ✗ Adónde vas. El Sr. dijo el Sr.PUNCTUATION 21 When a quote ends in a period or is followed by a comma. Rodríguez. Te voy a extrañar dijo Paco 6. Rodríguez answered. Luisa. Rodríguez. adónde vas? ✗ Déjame en paz! ✗ “No voy. queso. aguacates y fresas. the period or comma goes after the quotation mark. Sí te llamo a las ocho 5. ✗ Luisa. and Dolores are in Mexico this summer. No no puedo 3. tomates. Rodríguez contestó: “No sé. queso. avocadoes. before y). aguacates. y Dolores ✗ carne. María vas a estudiar conmigo hoy 2. En el mercado compramos carne. At the market we bought meat. Fueron a Guatemala El Salvador Honduras y Nicaragua . papá? ✗ ¿Papa. Elena. “I don’t know. Blunder In Spanish. cheese. tomatoes.

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a place. Nouns That Name People and Animals Many nouns end in -o for males and -a for females. and those that name female people or animals are feminine. an event. periods of time. words that name male people or animals are masculine. Generally. an action. an animal. Gender Every noun in Spanish has gender—it is either masculine or feminine. an idea. a state. AVOID THE Blunder Learn nouns with their articles. an object. el chico la chica el hermano la hermana el amigo la amiga el esposo la esposa the boy the girl the brother the sister the male friend the female friend the husband the wife el cartero la cartera el enfermero la enfermera the male mail carrier the female mail carrier the male nurse the female nurse 25 . and abstract notions are also either masculine or feminine. as if they were one unit. Words that name objects. The gender of a noun is indicated by the article that precedes it: el indicates a masculine noun. or other abstract notion. la indicates a feminine noun.NOUNS A noun is a word that names a person. places. but there are exceptions. events. a quality.

el estudiante i y the student la estudiante t el gerente la gerente i y the manager t el paciente la paciente el ayudante la ayudante i y the patient t i y the assistant t el hablante i y the speaker la hablante t el presidente i y the president la presidente* t *La presidenta is used in some countries but not in others.26 GRAMMAR Both males and females can be named by nouns that end in -e. . The article used indicates the gender of the person named. There are some exceptions. The article used indicates the gender of the person named. el optimista la optimista i y the optimist t el protagonista i y the main character la protagonista t el especialista i y the specialist la especialista t el periodista la periodista i y the journalist t Both males and females can be named by several common nouns that end in -o. el jefe la jefa el monje la monja the male boss the female boss the monk the nun Both males and females can be named by nouns that end in -ista. la for a female. el modelo i y the model la modelo t el piloto la piloto i y the pilot t el soprano i y the soprano la soprano t el miembro i y the member la miembro t el médico i y the doctor la médico* t el testigo i y the witness la testigo t *La médica is used in some countries but not in others. el for a male.

NOUNS 27 Both males and females can be named by nouns that end in -ía. el parlanchín i y the talkative one la parlanchina t el comilón la comilona el dormilón la dormilona el gruñón la gruñona i y the one who eats a lot t i y the one who sleeps a lot t i y the one who growls a lot t . The article is all you need to distinguish them. el policía la policía el guía la guía AVOID THE the male police officer the female police officer the male guide the female guide Blunder ✗ el artisto ✗ la modela ✗ el policío Do not change the endings of these nouns to -o or -a in an attempt to make them masculine or feminine. ✗ la estudianta Many nouns that name males end in -or. el profesor la profesora el doctor la doctora el ganador la ganadora el perdedor la perdedora el contador la contadora i y the teacher t i y the doctor t i y the winner t i y the loser t i y the accountant t el encantador i y the charmer la encantadora t An exception is the feminine equivalent of el actor: la actriz. Certain nouns that name males end in -ín or -ón. The counterparts for females end in -ina or -ona. Their counterparts for females end in -ora.

whether it is the arm of a male or a female feminine. el brazo (the arm) la pierna (the leg) la corbata (the necktie) el vestido (the dress) masculine. José is a very nice person. the masculine plural noun is used. if there is at least one male in the group. even though it is usually worn by females . the gender refers to the word. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ el persono ✗ el estrella ✗ el víctima Do not try to change the gender of these nouns. even though it is usually worn by males masculine. ✗ el persona ✗ el víctimo When referring to a group of people. la persona María es una persona muy simpática. whether it is the leg of a male or a female feminine. José is the victim of a tragedy.28 GRAMMAR A few nouns that name people do not change gender. la estrella Verónica es la estrella que le gusta más a Pablo. María is the victim of a tragedy. Verónica is the movie star that Pablo likes best. José es la víctima de una tragedia. Antonio es la estrella que le gusta más a Ana. dos hermanas dos hermanas y un hermano / tres hermanos two sisters two sisters and one brother / three siblings Gender of Other Nouns For all nouns that do not name people. not to the person the object belongs to. regardless of the gender of the person they refer to. Antonio is the movie star that Ana likes best. la víctima María is a very nice person. José es una persona muy simpática. María es la víctima de una tragedia.

others are feminine. Adjectives and other determiners that refer to these nouns are feminine. ✗ “no problemo” ✗ la programa Nouns that begin with a stressed a. Tengo mucha hambre.or ha. la trama la crema la yema AVOID THE the plot the cream the egg yolk Blunder ✗ la problema ✗ el crema ✗ la sistema Check the gender of -ma words that are unfamiliar to you.) . Te amo con toda el alma. (I love you with all my soul. I’m really hungry.) el agua el hambre el alma the water the hunger the soul el águila el asma the eagle the asthma El agua está fría. The water is cold.NOUNS 29 AVOID THE ✗ la braza Blunder ✗ el pierno ✗ el corbata ✗ la vestida Many nouns that end in -o are masculine. (See pages 55–56. Many nouns that end in -a are feminine.) I love you with all my heart. but they are preceded by el instead of la for pronunciation purposes. el el el el el problema sistema clima trauma drama the problem the system the climate the trauma the drama el el el el programa aroma síntoma carisma the program the aroma the symptom the charisma Nevertheless. (I have a lot of hunger.may be feminine. el carro el año el ojo the car the year the eye la casa la empresa la pulgada the house the enterprise the inch Certain nouns that end in -ma are masculine.

use feminine adjectives. ✗ La agua está fría.30 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not use la with these words. El día está muy bonito. use the article. If the article is el. She has pretty hands. ✗ El día está muy bonita. It’s a beautiful day. ✗ El agua está frío. Blunder Unless the noun begins with a stressed a. as a guide to gender. el día el mapa el tranvía the day the map the streetcar el planeta la mano the planet the hand Buenos días. Certain nouns that end in -o are feminine. Ella tiene las manos bonitas. not the noun’s ending. la foto la fotografía i y the photograph t i la moto y the motorcycle la motocicleta t AVOID THE ✗ el foto Blunder ✗ el moto . use masculine adjectives. ✗ Tengo mucho hambre. Certain nouns that end in -a are masculine. Do not use masculine adjectives with these words. If the article is la. Certain nouns that end in -o are feminine. and they are really just shortened forms of nouns that end in -a.or ha-. ✗ Ella tiene las manos bonitos. AVOID THE Good morning.

or -xión). -sión. or -umbre are feminine. -dad.NOUNS 31 All nouns that end in -ción. check the gender before using it. or -xión are feminine. -tud. la la la la la la libertad amistad facultad ciudad honestidad nacionalidad the liberty the friendship the university department the city the honesty the nationality the virtue the gratitude the attitude la costumbre la cumbre la muchedumbre the custom the summit the crowd la virtud la gratitud la actitud All nouns that end in -ie are feminine. la unión la reunión la región the union the meeting the region Other nouns that end in -ión are masculine. ✗ el nación All nouns that end in -tad. la nación la evolución the nation the evolution la tensión la conexión the tension the connection Certain other nouns that end in -ión are feminine. -sión. el avión el guión AVOID THE the airplane the script el camión el sarampión the truck the measles Blunder ✗ el región ✗ la avión ✗ la sarampión If an unfamiliar word ends in -ión (but not -ción. la serie la superficie la planicie AVOID THE the series the surface the plain ✗ el ciudad ✗ el muchedumbre Blunder ✗ el universidad ✗ el serie .

nouns that refer to females are changing—and changing differently in different parts of the Spanish-speaking world. MASCULINE FEMININE el el el el el el el el capital cólera coma cometa corriente corte cura defensa el editorial el escolta el guardia the money the cholera the coma the comet the current month the cut the priest the defensive back in soccer the editorial the male escort the male guard la la la la la la la la capital cólera coma cometa corriente corte cura defensa the capital city the anger the comma the kite the current the court of law the cure the defense the publisher the group of escorts. ] Add -s to most nouns that end in a vowel. Here are some of the most common. When in doubt about the gender of a noun. the guard unit. the female escort guard duty. casa casas libro libros house houses book books pie pies papá papás foot feet father parents .32 GRAMMAR A number of words change in meaning according to their gender. the female recruit la editorial la escolta la guardia el guía el orden el policía the male guide the arrangement the male police officer the male recruit la guía la orden la policía el recluta la recluta AVOID THE Blunder Be aware that as the role of women in society is changing. Plurals There are several different conventions for making nouns plural. check it in a current dictionary. the female police officer the recruitment. the female guide the command the police force. the female guard the guidebook.

change the -z to -c and add -es (see page 11). rubí rubíes esquí esquíes ruby rubies ski skis marroquí marroquíes hindú hindúes Moroccan Moroccans Hindu Hindus ] Add -es to a noun ending in a consonant. crimen crímenes orden órdenes AVOID THE crime crimes order orders ladrón ladrones reunión reuniones thief thieves meeting meetings Blunder ✗ esquís ✗ ladrónes ✗ relojs ✗ aviónes ✗ lápizes Double-check the spelling of plurals you use. los Santiago los Galván los Valdés los González los Pérez the Santiagos the Galvans the Valdeses the Gonzalezes the Perezes .NOUNS 33 sofa sofas ejercicio ejercicios ] exercise exercises sofá sofás Add -es to a noun ending in stressed -í or -ú. an accent mark may need to be added or deleted to indicate stress on the same syllable as in the singular form (see pages 14–15). ✗ rubís ✗ crimenes A family is referred to by the singular form of its surname. Keep in mind that accent marks may need to be added or deleted. lápiz lápices arroz arroces pencil pencils rice rice dishes cruz cruces cross crosses When making a noun plural. ladrón ladrones ciudad ciudades thief thieves city cities reloj relojes watch watches ] For nouns ending in -z.

They do not end in -s in Spanish. Mi hermana estudia física. la gente la ropa people clothes The people are very nice. The names of certain school subjects end in -s in English. ✗ Voy a comprar las ropas. ✗ los luneses Certain nouns are plural in English but singular in Spanish. even though they are singular. la política la economía la física politics economics physics My sister is studying physics. and do not use plural adjectives and verbs with them. Clothes are expensive.34 GRAMMAR Certain nouns are the same in the singular and the plural. . ✗ Las gentes son amables. La gente es muy simpática. el lunes los lunes el martes los martes el miércoles los miércoles el jueves los jueves el viernes los viernes AVOID THE Monday Mondays Tuesday Tuesdays Wednesday Wednesdays Thursday Thursdays Friday Fridays la crisis las crisis el virus los virus the crisis the crises the virus the viruses Blunder ✗ los viruses Do not try to pluralize these nouns. AVOID THE Blunder Do not pluralize these nouns. La ropa es cara.

Nouns that are compounds of a verb plus a plural noun are singular. Good afternoon. el el el el el el el el el cumpleaños lavaplatos abrelatas sacacorchos salvavidas quitamanchas paraguas parabrisas parachoques the birthday (the completion of years) the dishwasher (the washer of dishes) the can opener (the opener of cans) the corkscrew (the remover of corks) the life saver / lifeguard (the saver of lives) the spot remover (the remover of spots) the umbrella (the water-stopper) the windshield (the wind-stopper) the bumper (the accident-stopper/breaker) Their plurals have the same form. Tengo un paraguas. Buenas noches. I have an umbrella. Blunder ✗ Buena noche. ✗ Buen noche. Blunder Do not use these nouns in the singular. Good evening. ✗ Voy a tomar una vacación. AVOID THE ✗ Buena tarde. ✗ Buen tarde.” Buenos días. AVOID THE Good morning. las vacaciones los celos los aplausos las elecciones* the vacation the jealousy the applause the election *La elección means “the choice. *Buen día is used in some places. / Good night. even though they end in -s.NOUNS 35 Certain nouns are singular (or noncount) in English but plural in Spanish. ✗ La elección es en noviembre.* Buenas tardes. . My friend has two umbrellas. Mi amigo tiene dos paraguas.

✗ dos paraguases . Blunder ✗ los cumpleañoses Do not add -es to these nouns to make them plural. In his family they always celebrate the children’s birthdays with a party.36 GRAMMAR Hoy es el cumpleaños de mi amigo. En su familia siempre celebran los cumpleaños de los niños con una fiesta. AVOID THE Today is my friend’s birthday.

Pérez . ladrón 5. el miembro 8. 12. 7. brazo pierna problema día 5. 1. esquí 4. 6. 3. crema agua mano lección 9. 5. casa 2. lápiz 7. MASCULINE FEMININE 1. y la Sra. 4. 8. el Sr.NOUNS 37 Exercises A Complete the following chart by adding the male equivalent of the feminine nouns and the female equivalent of the masculine nouns. orden 8. 1. el paciente 6. el médico 4. domingo 10. el hermano 2. cumpleaños camión costumbre ciudad la jefa la amiga la especialista la profesora C Write the plural form of the following nouns. 7. 10. ciudad 6. libro 3. 2. 9. lunes 9. el hombre B Write the article that goes before each noun. 11. 3.

NUMBERS
Cardinal Numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince dieciséis diecisiete dieciocho diecinueve veinte veintiuno veintidós veintitrés veinticuatro veinticinco veintiséis veintisiete veintiocho veintinueve 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 treinta treinta y uno treinta y dos treinta y tres treinta y cuatro treinta y cinco treinta y seis treinta y siete treinta y ocho treinta y nueve cuarenta cuarenta y uno cuarenta y dos cuarenta y tres cuarenta y cuatro cuarenta y cinco cuarenta y seis cuarenta y siete cuarenta y ocho cuarenta y nueve cincuenta cincuenta y uno cincuenta y dos cincuenta y tres cincuenta y cuatro cincuenta y cinco cincuenta y seis cincuenta y siete cincuenta y ocho cincuenta y nueve 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 sesenta sesenta y uno sesenta y dos sesenta y tres sesenta y cuatro sesenta y cinco sesenta y seis sesenta y siete sesenta y ocho sesenta y nueve setenta setenta y uno setenta y dos setenta y tres setenta y cuatro setenta y cinco setenta y seis setenta y siete setenta y ocho setenta y nueve ochenta ochenta y uno ochenta y dos ochenta y tres ochenta y cuatro ochenta y cinco ochenta y seis ochenta y siete ochenta y ocho ochenta y nueve

38

NUMBERS

39

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 113 129 133 142 154 165 176 188 197 1000 1492 1776 1999 2000

noventa noventa y uno noventa y dos noventa y tres noventa y cuatro noventa y cinco noventa y seis noventa y siete noventa y ocho noventa y nueve cien ciento uno ciento dos ciento trece ciento veintinueve ciento treinta y tres ciento cuarenta y dos ciento cincuenta y cuatro ciento sesenta y cinco ciento setenta y seis ciento ochenta y ocho ciento noventa y siete mil mil cuatrocientos noventa y dos mil setecientos setenta y seis mil novecientos noventa y nueve dos mil 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 doscientos(-as) trescientos(-as) cuatrocientos(-as) quinientos(-as) seiscientos(-as) setecientos(-as) ochocientos(-as) novecientos(-as)

1.000.000 un millón 2.472.683 dos millones, cuatrocientos setenta y dos mil, seiscientos ochenta y tres

Ordinal Numbers
1o 2o 3o 4o 5o 6o 7o 8o 9o 10o primero(-a) segundo(-a) tercero(-a) cuarto(-a) quinto(-a) sexto(-a) séptimo(-a) octavo(-a) noveno(-a) décimo(-a) primer (before masculine noun) tercer (before masculine noun)

40
11o 12o 13o 14o 15o 16o 17o 18o 19o 20o 21o 22o 23o undécimo(-a) duodécimo(-a) decimotercero(-a) decimocuarto(-a) decimoquinto(-a) decimosexto(-a) decimoséptimo(-a) decimoctavo(-a) decimonoveno(-a) vigésimo(-a) vigesimoprimero(-a) vigesimosegundo(-a) vigesimotercero(-a)

GRAMMAR

30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o 90o 100o 1000o 1.000.000o

trigésimo(-a) cuadragésimo(-a) quincuagésimo(-a) sexagésimo(-a) septuagésimo(-a) octogésimo(-a) nonagésimo(-a) centésimo(-a) milésimo(-a) millonésimo(-a)

Fractions
1 2

⁄2 ⁄3 3 ⁄4 4 ⁄5 5 ⁄6 6⁄7 5 ⁄8 7 ⁄9 4 ⁄10

un medio dos tercios tres cuartos cuatro quintos cinco sextos seis séptimos cinco octavos siete novenos cuatro décimos

NUMBERS

41

Review the numbers in the charts on the previous pages. The Spanish and English numbering systems are very similar. There are, however, several notable differences.

Writing Numbers
In some countries, the numbers 1 and 7 are handwritten in a slightly different manner in Spanish.
uno siete

1 7

a one with a long tail (can look like a seven) a seven with a line through the center

In many, but not all, Spanish-speaking countries, a period is used to mark the thousands, and a comma is used for the decimal point— exactly the opposite of the English system.
2.763 3.892.359 4,25 3,75 two thousand, seven hundred sixty-three three million, eight hundred ninety-two thousand, three hundred fifty-nine four point two five three point seven five

The Spanish equivalent of the English nd and th, as in 2nd or 4th, is o when referring to a masculine noun and a when referring to a feminine noun. The equivalent of the English st, as in 1st, and rd, as in 3rd, is ero when referring to a masculine noun and era when referring to a feminine noun. The ero is shortened to er ( primer and tercer) before a masculine singular noun.
1ero 1era 1er 2o 2a primero primera primer segundo segunda 3ero 3era 3er 4o 4a tercero tercera tercer cuarto cuarta

Ones
] Note the spelling of seis and siete.

seis siete

“SEH ees” (rhymes with English “face”) “SYE teh”

Watch the spelling of cuatro.
AVOID THE

✗ sies

✗ seite

Blunder

✗ quatro

42

GRAMMAR

] The numbers from dos to cien (“two” to “one hundred”) are never pluralized.

cuatro manzanas siete alumnos noventa personas cien libros
AVOID THE

four apples seven students ninety people a hundred books

✗ cuatros manzanas ✗ noventas personas

Blunder

✗ sietes alumnos ✗ cientos libros

] In Spanish there are several ways to indicate “one.” ~ The word for “one” is the same as the indefinite article, which has three forms.

un, uno, una —¿Qué tienes? —Tengo un libro. —¿Cuántos libros tienes? —Tengo un libro. / Tengo uno. —¿Quiere un libro? —Hay uno en la mesa. —¿Quiere una pluma? —Aquí está una.

one “What do you have?” “I have a book.” “How many books do you have?” “I have one book.” / “I have one.” “Do you want a book?” “There is one on the table.” “Do you want a pen?” “Here is one.”

Numbers above 20 that contain “one” follow the same pattern.
Tengo veintiún libros. Mi hermano tiene treinta y un libros. Hay veinte niños y veintiuna niñas. Necesitamos cuarenta y una camisetas.
AVOID THE

I have 21 books. My brother has 31 books. There are 20 boys and 21 girls. We need 41 T-shirts.

Blunder
✗ un pluma ✗ veintiun libros ✗ veintiuno libros

Drop the -o from uno before a masculine noun. Use una before a feminine noun. Don’t forget the accent mark above the ú in veintiún.

✗ uno libro ✗ treinta y uno libros

NUMBERS

43

~ Ningún, ninguno, or ninguna is used to express “not one.”

No veo ningún libro. No hay ninguno. No tengo ningún amigo aquí. —¿Cuántas personas vinieron? —No vino ninguna.
AVOID THE

I don’t see a book. (I don’t see any books.) There aren’t any. (There isn’t a single one.) I don’t have any friends here. “How many people came?” “Not a single one came.”

Blunder

In English, “zero”—or “not any”—is followed by a plural noun. Do not use a plural with ninguno in Spanish.

✗ No tengo ningunos libros. ✗ No hay ningunas personas.
~ “Another one,” “one more,” and “a different one” are expressed with otro(-a) in Spanish. Alternatively, uno(-a) más can be used for “one more” and uno(-a) distinto(-a) can be used for “a different one.”

Tengo un libro. Quiero otro. Quiero otro. / Quiero uno más. Quiero otro. / Quiero uno distinto. Tiene una pluma. Quiere otra. Quiere otra. / Quiere una más. Quiere otra. / Quiere una distinta.
AVOID THE

I have a book. I want another one. I want one more. I want a different one. He has a pen. He wants another one. He wants one more. He wants a different one.

Blunder
✗ una otra amiga

Do not use un, uno, or una before otro or otra.

✗ un otro libro

In English, numbers are placed before the word “other.” In Spanish, they are placed after otros(-as). (See pages 71–72.)
Tenemos otros dos primos. Necesitan otras cuatro sillas. We have two other cousins. They need four more chairs.

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GRAMMAR

AVOID THE

✗ dos otros
Tens

Blunder

✗ cuatro otras

Watch the numbers once, doce, trece, catorce, and quince.
AVOID THE

✗ diez y tres

Blunder

✗ diez y cuatro

✗ diez y cinco

Note that the numbers from 16 through 29 are expressed as one word. It is no longer common to separate these into three-word expressions.
AVOID THE

✗ diez y seis

Blunder

✗ veinte y nueve

Note that the numbers 16, 22, 23, and 26 require an accent mark on the final syllable.
dieciséis veintidós veintitrés veintiséis

Watch the spelling and pronunciation of veinte. The first syllable is spelled and pronounced like the English word “vein.” Similarly, the vowels in the first syllable of treinta are pronounced (but not spelled) like the vowels in the English word “train.”
AVOID THE

✗ viente
Hundreds

Blunder
✗ trienta

Ciento is shortened to cien when it immediately precedes a noun and when it stands alone.
Hay cien alumnos. Tenemos cien cajas de libros. Hay cien. There are a hundred students. We have a hundred boxes of books. There are a hundred.

$1.000 $400. In Spanish. doscientos dólares trescientos pesos cuatrocientas libras two hundred dollars three hundred pesos four hundred pounds Thousands In English. the number “one” or “a” can precede “thousand.000 mil dólares cuatrocientos mil dólares cuatrocientos un mil dólares one thousand dollars four hundred thousand dollars four hundred and one thousand dollars AVOID THE ✗ un mil dólares Blunder . There are a/one hundred boys. there is no y after the hundreds.” In Spanish. there is a tendency to insert “and” after the hundreds. Hay ciento veinte chicas. ciento tres quinientos veinte doscientos cuarenta y cuatro AVOID THE one hundred and three five hundred and twenty two hundred and forty-four ✗ ciento y tres ✗ cuarenta cuatro Blunder ✗ quinientos y veinte ✗ treinta dos Multiple hundreds are always plural and are masculine or feminine to agree with the nouns they modify. In Spanish. y (“and”) is used in the tens. ciento and cien are never preceded by a form of uno.NUMBERS 45 In English. There are a/one hundred and twenty girls.000 $401. the number “one” or “a” can precede “hundred. mil is preceded by un only in cases of ambiguity. AVOID THE ✗ un ciento Blunder ✗ una cien In spoken English.” In Spanish. Hay cien chicos.

1867 1959 mil ochocientos sesenta y siete mil novecientos cincuenta y nueve AVOID THE Blunder Do not use this format to express 1959. years above 1000 are often expressed as multiples of hundreds. “more than” is expressed by más de. and Trillions Millón. it is preceded by de. mil is used. AVOID THE I have to wait more than two hours. Tengo que esperar más de dos horas. un millón de dólares tres billones de pesos AVOID THE one million dollars three billion pesos ✗ un millón dólares Blunder ✗ tres millones pesos Using Cardinal Numbers Comparisons When a comparison includes a number. Billions.46 GRAMMAR In English. Tiene menos de cien pesos. billón. they are pluralized. and trillón are preceded by un to express “one.” To express more than one. ✗ más que tres Blunder ✗ menos que cuatro . “less than” is expressed by menos de. He has less than a hundred pesos. ✗ diecinueve cincuenta y nueve Millions. un millón dos millones tres billones un trillón one million two million three billion one trillion When the item being counted is stated. In Spanish.

the second number indicates the month. if applicable. cero dos. ✗ 11/23/74 Do not use this format to express March 6.NUMBERS 47 Dates In Spanish. 2006. cincuenta y tres. and the second two as a two-digit number. ochenta y seis. Calle Villamil. 64.98. 2005 July 4. Apt. Third Floor. 1974. the first number is stated in isolation. when numbers are used to designate a calendar date.31 453-8679 301-220-0290 sesenta y cuatro. 1976 October 6. and the third number indicates the year. B AVOID THE ✗ 27 Villamil Calle Blunder . ✗ 3/6/06 Telephone Numbers Telephone numbers are expressed as a sequence of two-digit numbers in Spanish. 27 3eroB 27 Villamil Street. setenta y nueve tres cero uno. noventa y ocho. the first number indicates the day. 1964 Blunder Do not use this format to express November 23. dos veinte. treinta y uno cuatro. noventa Street Addresses Street addresses typically begin with the name of the street followed by the street number. When there are three digits in a group. then the floor and apartment or room number. 3/6/05 4/7/76 6/10/64 AVOID THE June 3.

What time is the meeting? It’s in the morning. It’s at 11 o’clock in the morning. ¿A qué hora es la reunión? Es en la mañana.” is expressed with de la mañana and “P. / It’s at 7:30 P.M. It’s in the afternoon.M. en la tarde.M. OR It’s in the evening. It’s at 10 o’clock at night. / Es por la mañana. It’s a quarter after ten in the morning.M. Following are some common responses. Es en la noche. ✗ son la una En la mañana. It’s 5:30 in the afternoon. Blunder . Son las cinco y media de la tarde.48 GRAMMAR Telling Time ¿Qué hora es? asks for the current time. AVOID THE ✗ Son las diez en la mañana. / It’s at 11 A. Son las diez y cuarto de la mañana. when the actual time is not expressed. Es mediodía. It’s in the evening. OR It’s at night. ✗ Son las once en la noche. Es a las siete y media de la tarde. / Es por la noche. The abbreviation “A. / It’s 5:30 P. Es a las diez de la noche. It’s at 7:30 in the evening. / It’s 1 A. (See page 58. Es en la tarde. / It’s at 10 P.M. and en la noche are correct when used to refer to parts of the day.M. ✗ Es la una en la tarde.M. ¿A qué hora es? asks the time of an event. Es medianoche. It’s 12 midnight.) Es la una de la madrugada. / It’s 10:15 A. Es a las once de la mañana. Blunder ✗ es las tres ✗ es cinco Use es la with “one o’clock” and son las with other times. / Es por la tarde.M. The answer is also expressed with a when a specific time is mentioned.” is expressed with de la tarde or de la noche. It’s 12 noon. AVOID THE It’s one o’clock in the morning.

primero and tercero. ✗ La clase es son las once. Two ordinal numbers. Let’s go to Fifty-fourth Street. Carlos V Alfonso XII Juan XXIII Carlos quinto Alfonso doce Juan veintitrés Carlos the Fifth Alfonso the Twelfth John the Twenty-third . Using Ordinal Numbers Review the ordinal numbers in the chart on pages 39–40. Está en el piso once. the names of kings and popes are expressed without the article el. cardinal numbers are usually used for ordinals higher than décimo. It’s on the eleventh floor.NUMBERS 49 AVOID THE Blunder A—not es or son—must be used when telling the time of an event. are shortened to primer and tercer when used before masculine singular nouns. el primer presidente el tercer piso AVOID THE the first president the third floor ✗ el primero año Blunder ✗ el tercero hombre All ordinal numbers change the final -o to -a before a feminine noun. In spoken language. ✗ La reunión es la una. los primeros días de enero las primeras llamadas del día the first days in January the first calls of the day Although there are ordinals in Spanish for “eleventh” and above. Vamos a la Calle Cincuenta y cuatro. la primera presidente la tercera calle la quinta milla the first president the third street the fifth mile Primero and primera can be used in the plural.

el el el el primero de enero dos de febrero dieciséis de septiembre veintiocho de diciembre January 1 February 2 September 16 December 28 AVOID THE ✗ el tercero de marzo Blunder ✗ el cuarto de julio Using Fractions “One-half” is expressed by using medio(-a) followed by a noun of quantity. We waited an hour and a half. una before medio ✗ un medio kilo ✗ una media docena “One and a half” is expressed by naming the noun of quantity followed by y medio(-a).50 GRAMMAR AVOID THE ✗ Carlos el quinto Blunder ✗ Alfonso el doce When giving dates. . AVOID THE Give me a half-kilo of butter. Do not use un. Esperamos hora y media. the “first” of the month is expressed with primero. Blunder noun. She bought a kilo and a half of flour. I brought a half-dozen eggs. All other days are expressed with the cardinal number. He traído media docena de huevos. / Give me half a kilo of butter. uno. Déme medio kilo de mantequilla. / I brought half a dozen eggs. Tomé taza y media de café. Ella compró kilo y medio de harina. I drank a cup and a half of coffee.

She robbed him of half of his assets. ✗ una taza y media “Half of” a commodity can be expressed by la media parte de or la mitad de. AVOID THE We waited two and a half hours. ✗ media parte sus tierras A whole number plus a half is always separated by a noun of quantity. la la la la tercera parte de cuarta parte de séptima parte de décima parte de one-third of one-fourth of / a quarter of one-seventh of one-tenth of AVOID THE ✗ una tercera de Blunder ✗ una cuarta de . Blunder ✗ tres y medio kilos the ordinal num- Do not put y medio or y media before the noun. Pablo sold half of his land. uno. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ una mitad sus bienes Be sure to use la and de with these expressions.NUMBERS 51 AVOID THE Blunder ✗ una hora y media Do not use un. ✗ dos y media horas When the top number of a fraction is “one. una before a quantity noun if a fraction follows. Ella le robó la mitad de sus bienes. I’ve lost three and a half kilos.” use la ber parte de. He perdido tres kilos y medio. Esperamos dos horas y media. Pablo vendió la media parte de sus tierras.

52 GRAMMAR Exercises A Write the words for the following numbers. 10:30 A.000. 202-490-3361 8. 21⁄2 kilos . 10 3. 14 4. 21 chicas 3. fifth el primer libro piso edificio año día novela vez casa calle persona C Express in words.000 6. 2007 B Write the words for the ordinal numbers in the chart. 146 7. 1. 203 niños 5. 22 5. 1. 2 2. 2/10/77 7. MASCULINE FEMININE 1. 9. 511 9. third 4. second 3. first 2. 473 8. $2. 100 libros 4.M. 1 ⁄2 kilo 10. fourth 5. 39 6. 1984 10. 21 chicos 2.

aquellas this these that those that (over there) those (over there) Possessives ALONE OR AFTER AN ARTICLE BEFORE A NOUN OR NOUN mi/mis tu/tus/su/sus su/sus su/sus su/sus nuestro(-a/-os/-as) vuestro(-a/-os/-as)/su/sus su/sus cuyo(-a/-os/-as) my your his her its our your their whose mío(-a/-os/-as) tuyo(-a/-os/-as)/ suyo(-a/-os/-as) suyo(-a/-os/-as) suyo(-a/-os/-as) nuestro(-a/-os/-as) vuestro(-a/-os/-as)/ suyo(-a/-os/-as) suyo(-a/-os/-as) mine/my yours/your his/his hers/her ours/our yours/your theirs/their 53 . los. esta. aquella aquellos. esto estos. unas a. esas aquel. an some Demonstratives este. estas ese. esa. las the Indefinite Articles un. una unos. la. eso esos.NOUN DETERMINERS Definite Articles el.

so many all. every the same the same the only the only both the rest several several a few each the aforementioned such (a) half a any . another (a) certain one’s own a lot of little so much.54 GRAMMAR Other Determiners algún/alguna(-os/-as) otro(-a/-os/-as) cierto(-a/-os/-as) propio(-a/-os/-as) mucho(-a/-os/-as) poco(-a/-os/-as) tanto(-a/-os/-as) todo(-a/-os/-as) el/la mismo(-a) los/las mismos(-as) el/la único(-a) los/las únicos(-as) ambos(-as) los/las demás varios(-as) unos(-as) cuantos(-as) unos(-as) pocos(-as) cada tal semejante(s) medio(-a) cualquier/cualquiera some other.

Es la primera águila que vemos. el el el el el agua águila área alma hambre the water the eagle the area the soul the hunger El does not replace la in the following situations. masculine plural los. Definite Articles The definite article—masculine singular el. feminine plural las—like English “the. feminine singular la. Noun determiners help identify nouns and are usually placed before the noun.NOUN DETERMINERS 55 Review the forms in the charts on the previous pages. ] If the el or la distinguishes whether the person referred to is male or female. however: ] If another determiner or an adjective separates the definite article from the noun. el árabe la árabe the Arab (male) the Arab (female) ] If the noun and definite article are plural.are preceded by el instead of la (see page 29).or ha. las las las las aguas águilas áreas almas the waters the eagles the areas the souls . The definite article may refer to the only noun possible or simply to one that both the speaker and hearer have mutual knowledge of. with a few exceptions. feminine singular nouns that begin with a stressed a.” refers to a particular noun. el hijo de Juan la cocina los hijos de Juan las llaves de mi casa Juan’s son the (only) kitchen (in this house or restaurant) Juan’s children the keys to my house ] Purely for pronunciation purposes. La otra área es más bonita. It’s the first eagle we’ve seen. The other area is prettier.

Ochoa. doctora. Páez last Friday. señorita. Rodríguez. I’m from the south of El Salvador. We’re going to El Salvador. Sr. Rodríguez. Hasta luego. See you later. señora. Voy a visitar a la señorita Díaz cuando vaya a Chile. doctor. Conocimos al doctor Páez el viernes pasado. no article is used before a title when addressing someone. Sra. Miss Díaz. Vamos a El Salvador. Mr. even though no article would be used in English. Mrs. I want to introduce you to Mrs. ✗ a el país Blunder ✗ de el hermano ] In Spanish. Díaz. or ingeniero when speaking about someone. We met Dr. Quiero presentarte a la señora Rodríguez. El señor Ochoa me llamó anoche. it must be contracted to al. AVOID THE We’re going to the market.56 GRAMMAR All other determiners and adjectives that relate to these nouns are feminine. Hola. I’m from the south of the country. . Soy del sur del país. Buenos días. as in English. This does not apply to El when it is part of a proper name. Soy del sur de El Salvador. I’m going to visit Miss Díaz when I go to Chile. Ochoa called me last night. Srta. When preceded by de. el agua pura el águila bella el área seca poca agua mucha hambre AVOID THE the clean water the beautiful eagle the dry area very little water a lot of hunger ✗ la área ✗ los almas Blunder ✗ todo el área ✗ mucho hambre ✗ este área ] When el is preceded by the preposition a. Good morning. Vamos al mercado. it must be contracted to del. In Spanish. Hello. Mr. a definite article is required before a title such as señor. Ochoa. Rodríguez.

San. El martes vamos a la playa. Anoche hablé con don Pablo. ✗ Conocimos el doctor Páez. On Tuesday we’re going to the beach. I want to introduce you to Brother Luis. She left on Wednesday. ✗ Sr. Te veo el lunes. When it immediately precedes the article el. No tenemos clase el jueves. ✗ en lunes Blunder ✗ en el martes The article los is used before the name of a day to indicate action that occurs regularly on that day of the week. fray. Quiero presentarte a fray Luis. sor. Ochoa me llamó. There are soccer games on Sundays. We don’t have class on Thursday. la señorita López. AVOID THE I’ll see you on Monday. They have fun on weekends. Last night I talked to don Pablo. ] The article el is used before the name of a day to indicate action oc- curring on that day. Hay partidos de fútbol los domingos. Blunder Do not forget the “personal a” before a direct object that is a person. No article is used when referring to people with the titles don.NOUN DETERMINERS 57 AVOID THE ✗ Hola. AVOID THE We have class on Mondays. doña. ✗ Conocimos doctor Páez. or Santo. the two words are contracted to al. Se divierten los fines de semana. Se fue el miércoles. monseñor. Santa. Tenemos clase los lunes. ✗ en lunes Blunder ✗ en los lunes ✗ en los fines de semanas .

Are you all going to class? I get out of class at four. I’m going to town / to church / to school. Está en la ciudad /en la iglesia / en la escuela /en el trabajo. La fiesta terminó a medianoche. Estamos en casa. an article is used to express movement to certain common destinations. In Spanish. He’s in town /at church / at school /at work. or presence at one’s own home. no article is used to express movement to. movement from. no article is used to express movement to or from a church service or class session. No hay clases en el verano. In Spanish the definite article is required before the names of seasons. It’s one o’clock. Salimos de misa a las once. As in English. I leave home at eight. We’re leaving at eight. We get out of mass at eleven. The party ended at midnight. I’m going to mass.) Es la una. Salgo de casa a las ocho. ] Definite article usage varies to express movement to. English typically does not use an article in these cases. Voy a misa. No article is used to express noon and midnight.58 GRAMMAR In telling time. Spring is a beautiful season. They eat at noon. as well as presence at certain locations. ¿Van Uds. AVOID THE There are no classes in (the) summer. It’s 10 o’clock. We’re at home. I’m going home. and presence at certain familiar places. Ellos comen a mediodía. Voy a casa. As in English. Son las diez. . They go skiing in (the) winter. Esquían en el invierno. a clase? Salgo de clase a las cuatro. (See page 48. Nos vamos a las ocho. Voy a la ciudad /a la iglesia / a la escuela. ✗ en verano Blunder ✗ en otoño ✗ Me encanta primavera. movement from. the article la is used to express one o’clock and las is used to express the other hours. La primavera es una temporada hermosa.

The boys took off their hats. Blunder ] In Spanish. Me lavo las manos. ] In Spanish. Blunder In Spanish. Se quitó el sombrero. when referring to one item that pertains to more than one person. Te mandé un paquete al cuidado del Sr. the singular noun is used and means “one each. ✗ Los chicos se quitaron el zapato. when more than one item is referred to. I sent you a package in care of Mr. ✗ Lavo mis manos. AVOID THE I wash my hands. unless you mean each one took off more than one hat.NOUN DETERMINERS 59 AVOID THE ✗ Voy a ciudad. an article is used to indicate “in care of”: al cuidado de. Alberto Sánchez. ✗ Va a iglesia. ✗ Se quitó su sombrero.” As in English. The boys took off their shoes. a definite article is used to refer to parts of the body and articles of clothing. Los chicos se quitaron el sombrero. . She brushes her teeth. Se lava los dientes. ✗ Está en escuela. unless you mean each one took off only one shoe. Use the plural noun. ✗ Los chicos se quitaron los sombreros. (one each) Los chicos se quitaron los zapatos. He took off his hat. ✗ Lava sus dientes. AVOID THE Blunder Use the singular noun. Alberto Sánchez. the plural noun is used.

Van a traducirlo del español al inglés. El español es el idioma más hablado en la América del Sur. They’re studying English grammar. AVOID THE Spanish is the most commonly spoken language in South America. ✗ Está escrito en el chino. Mi hijo habla español. Blunder . Están estudiando la gramática del inglés. ✗ Van a traducirlo de español a inglés. AVOID THE Blunder The article is written in Chinese.60 GRAMMAR ] In Spanish. El español y el francés son los idiomas que se enseñan en este colegio. My son speaks Spanish. El artículo está escrito en chino. Spanish and French are the languages taught at this school. English does not use a definite article before names of languages. ✗ la gramática de inglés The Spanish article is generally not used when en or a form of hablar precedes the name of the language. a definite article is used to indicate price per quantity. ✗ Hablamos el español. They’re going to translate it from Spanish to English.” 50 centavos la docena 30 pesos el kilo 20 euros el metro AVOID THE 50 cents a dozen 30 pesos a kilo 20 euros a meter ✗ 50 centavos una docena Blunder ✗ 30 pesos un kilo ] In Spanish. English uses “a” or “per. ✗ Español es difícil. ✗ Español y francés son los idiomas que se enseñan. the names of languages are generally preceded by a definite article.

Viene con la Anita. Las flores son caras.NOUN DETERMINERS 61 ] As in English. El pollo es rico. ] Spanish nouns that name abstract notions are generally preceded by a definite article. Las novelas me fascinan. El ruido es un estorbo. Blunder El or la before a first name can have a derogatory connotation unless there is a descriptive adjective between the article and the noun. La salud es más importante que la riqueza. ✗ Me fascinan novelas. Novels (all novels) fascinate me. ✗ Contaminación es un problema. ] Spanish nouns used in a general sense to represent all members of a class are preceded by a definite article.) Enchiladas (all enchiladas) are delicious. Comemos enchiladas. Viene con la adorable Anita. English usually does not use an article. Do not eliminate the article before the subject. ] Definite articles are sometimes used with proper nouns. He’s coming with adorable Anita. El pollo me gusta. ✗ Pollo es rico. I like chicken. She has flowers on the balcony. La contaminación del agua es un problema muy grande. Flowers (in general) are expensive. He’s coming with that Anita. English does not use an article. (Chicken appeals to me. . AVOID THE Water pollution is a big problem. nouns that represent some but not all of the members of a class are not preceded by an article in Spanish. ✗ Salud es importante. ✗ Flores son caras. AVOID THE Chicken (all chicken) is delicious. Hay enchiladas hoy. Había flores de toda clase. Blunder ✗ Me gusta pollo. There are enchiladas today. Health is more important than wealth. Las enchiladas son ricas. Tiene flores en el balcón. There were all kinds of flowers. We eat enchiladas. Noise (in general) is a disturbance.

. This usage varies. Following are some common examples. Washington. so these must be learned individually.UU. Miguel Alonso. Washington. director del colegio Washington. the director who attended the meeting Blunder Names of bodies of water and mountains are preceded by a definite article. ✗ Miguel Alonso. el Río Grande* el Guadalquivir el Misisipi the Rio Grande the Guadalquivir the Mississippi los Andes los Pirineos los Alpes the Andes the Pyrenees the Alps * The river at the border of the United States and Mexico is called “the Rio Grande” north of the border and el Río Bravo south of the border. la ciudad más grande del área Miguel Alonso. el director del colegio As in English.UU.62 GRAMMAR El can be part of a proper name. el director que asistió a la conferencia Washington. where it is always capitalized. ciudad capital de los EE. in an appositive phrase that expresses a superlative or simply gives information about the noun. the largest city in the area Miguel Alonso. la España del siglo XVI la bella Madrid 16th-century Spain splendid Madrid In an appositive phrase that is placed next to a noun and defines it. and places are traditionally preceded by a lowercase definite article. The names of certain other countries. as in El Salvador. la ciudad capital de los EE. the capital of the United States Miguel Alonso. an article is used in Spanish. cities. no article is used in Spanish. la Argentina el Ecuador los Estados Unidos la Habana el Perú El Morro When the name of a place is modified by an adjective or phrase. it is preceded by a definite article. the school principal AVOID THE ✗ Washington.

✗ Florida es sur de Georgia. as in English. / Miguel is Ecuadorean. when an adjective is added to further describe the person as a member of that category. . Humberto es católico. / Humberto is Catholic. an indefinite article is used in Spanish. religious. feminine singular una.” refers to an unspecified example of a noun. English often uses the indefinite article in such cases. However. Miguel es ecuatoriano. and feminine plural unas—like English “a. Blunder con objeto de con motivo de a orillas de en nombre de for the purpose of for the purpose of on the banks of in the name of Indefinite Articles The indefinite article—masculine singular un. We’re looking for some magazines. Sara es médico. Tengo un libro. Miguel is an Ecuadorean. Sara is a doctor.” and “some. Sara es una médico comprensiva. Buscamos unas revistas. or other affiliation in Spanish. Humberto is a Catholic.NOUN DETERMINERS 63 ] Names of the points of the compass are preceded by a definite article. Miguel is a famous Ecuadorean. el el el el norte sur este oeste north south east west al norte de al sur de en el norte de hacia el este north of south of in the north of toward the east AVOID THE ✗ Oregón es norte de California. I have a book. ] The indefinite article is not used when expressing nationality or professional. masculine plural unos. Sara is an understanding doctor. Miguel es un ecuatoriano famoso.” “an. ] The article is omitted in certain expressions with prepositions.

I note a certain air of indifference. sino cien. ✗ Es una mexicana. Tengo trabajo. a general. My friend has his own transportation. ¡Qué bella vista! ¡Qué chica más inteligente! AVOID THE I want another book. He’s a bad person. Quiero otro libro. Mi amigo tiene coche. What a beautiful view! What a smart girl! ✗ un otro libro ✗ un medio kilo ✗ un mil dólares ✗ ¡Qué una bella vista! ✗ ¡Qué una chica inteligente! ] When the indefinite article is omitted after the verb tener. I want a half kilo of sugar. mal. She’s a good friend. cierto. Es muy buena amiga. cien. Es buen católico. Blunder rather than specific. Ella tiene un novio guapo. buena.64 GRAMMAR AVOID THE ✗ Soy un profesor. Es mala persona. Tengo un trabajo interesante. Blunder ] The indefinite article may be omitted before gran. No tenemos mil dólares. ✗ Es médico bueno. or mala when showing a certain “affiliation” with a type. or after ¡Qué!. medio(-a). I have an interesting job. Mi amigo tiene un coche. He’s a good Catholic. We don’t have a thousand dollars. we have a hundred. My friend has a car. Quiero medio kilo de azúcar. meaning is implied. ] The indefinite article is not used before otro. Noto cierto aire de indiferencia. I am employed. She is unavailable. and mil. Ella tiene novio. . buen. She has a cute boyfriend.

English generally uses the indefinite article in such cases. Lo hace sin problema. ✗ No tenemos una visita. He travels without a suitcase. He attended the concert without a ticket. ✗ Tiene una fiebre. ✗ Tiene resfriado terrible. Tiene fiebre. No tenemos visita. She has a fever. ✗ Tengo una tos. I don’t have a car. He has a cold. Blunder ] The indefinite article is generally not used after sin. Tiene resfriado. AVOID THE ✗ No tengo un coche. Viaja sin maleta. AVOID THE She has a terrible cough. She does it without a problem / without any problems. when an adjective describes the noun. AVOID THE ✗ sin un problema ✗ sin una maleta ✗ sin un boleto Blunder .NOUN DETERMINERS 65 No article is used after tener in the following expressions of a condition. We don’t have a visitor / any visitors. Asistió al concierto sin boleto. I have a cough. Blunder ] The indefinite article is not used when expressing what one doesn’t have. Tengo tos. Nevertheless. Tiene una tos terrible. No tengo coche. ✗ No tenemos visitas. the indefinite article is used.

AVOID THE He has a cardboard box for a table. Usa su abrigo como manta. It’s a lie. Comparación de estilos Nuevo método para leer rápido Acercamiento al aprendizaje de lenguas AVOID THE A Comparison of Styles A New Method for Speed Reading An Approach to Language Learning ✗ Una comparación de estilos ✗ Un nuevo método para leer rápido ✗ Un acercamiento al aprendizaje de lenguas ] The omission of an article can indicate a slight change in meaning. ✗ por una mesa Blunder ✗ como una manta ] The indefinite article is generally not used as the first word in the title of a book or article in Spanish. Tiene por mesa una caja de cartón. It’s not true. Es una mentira. Es mentira. Tengo que leer unas cincuenta páginas. About 20 people are waiting. It’s the truth. Están esperando unas veinte personas. ] A plural indefinite article—unos or unas—can indicate an approximation. I have to read about 50 pages. It’s true. She uses her coat as a blanket. Demonstratives also serve as pronouns when it is un- . Blunder Es la verdad. Es verdad.66 GRAMMAR ] The indefinite article is generally not used when indicating purpose after por or como. Demonstratives Demonstratives indicate specific nouns in relationship to their distance from the speaker.

Éste/Este es interesante. Éstas/Estas no son correctas. These are corrected. perhaps close to the person being spoken to. When the demonstrative is placed after the noun. Ésas/Esas son correctas. Those answers are correct. These exams are corrected. Ese libro es aburrido. Use of an accent mark above the first vowel of a demonstrative pronoun is now optional. Esa novela es corta. Esta novela es larga. That one is short. Esas respuestas son correctas. Este libro es interesante. Blunder ✗ eso beso Do not use the pronouns esto and eso before nouns. That one is boring. Estos exámenes están corregidos. ✗ esto año . These are not correct. Estas respuestas no son correctas. Ésos/Esos no están corregidos. La niña esta me está fastidiando. This one is long. it has a negative connotation. That novel is short. Those are correct. Ésta/Esta es larga. Those exams aren’t corrected. Ésa/Esa es corta. This one is interesting. Éstos/Estos están corregidos. These answers are not correct.NOUN DETERMINERS 67 necessary to state the noun. The demonstrative can also refer to time. This novel is long. This book is interesting. This pesky little girl is annoying me. Those aren’t corrected. esta mañana esta noche esta semana este año estos días this morning tonight this week this year these days ] Ese(-a/-os/-as) indicates something that is farther away from the speaker. ] Este(-a/-os/-as) is used to indicate something that is so close that the speaker can touch it. AVOID THE That book is boring. Ése/Ese es aburrido. Esos exámenes no están corregidos.

and vuestro(-a/ -os/-as) identify the possessor or owner of something. Aquella novela no es cara. esa mañana esa tarde esa noche ese día that morning that afternoon that night that day ] Aquel/aquella/aquellos/aquellas refers to something farther away. Aquel libro es carísimo. it has a negative connotation. nuestro(-a/-os/-as). they are not used with parts of the body. (See page 59.) mi libro mis libros mi casa mis casas my book my books my house my houses . tu(s). ✗ la mujer esa Possessives The possessives. El chico ese vive cerca de mi casa. su(s). That annoying kid lives near my house. That book over there is really expensive.68 GRAMMAR When the demonstrative is placed after the noun. Aquellos exámenes no son míos. Those answers over there are interesting. aquel día aquella semana aquella primavera aquellos años AVOID THE that day that week that spring those years Blunder ✗ el profesor aquel ✗ los hombres aquellos Always put the demonstrative before the noun unless you want to indicate a negative connotation. The demonstrative can also refer to a distant time. Those exams over there aren’t mine. mi(s). That novel over there isn’t expensive. not close to either the speaker or the person being spoken to. The demonstrative can also refer to time. In Spanish. Aquellas respuestas son interesantes.

your (pl.) house your (pl. his house. his books. her books.” An -s at the end means that the things possessed are plural.) houses AVOID THE ✗ nuestros libro ✗ mi libros Blunder ✗ sus casa ✗ nuestras casa ] Remember that su(s) can mean “your.) house your houses.) books your (pl.) book your (pl. her book.” and “their. To distinguish between “your. their book.” “her. their books. her house.” “her.NOUN DETERMINERS 69 tu libro tus libros tu casa tus casas su libro sus libros su casa sus casas nuestro libro nuestros libros nuestra casa nuestras casas vuestro libro vuestros libros vuestra casa vuestras casas your book your books your house your houses your book.” “his. his book. their house.) books your house.) houses our book our books our house our houses your (pl. su coche el coche de usted i y t your car your cars his car his cars her car her cars i sus coches y los coches de usted t el coche de él los coches de él el coche de ella los coches de ella . their houses. his houses.” “his. your (pl.” and “their. her houses. your (pl.” a phrase with de may be used. your (pl.) book your books.

Los coches son de ellas. The flowers are ours.” “his. ✗ El coche es de mí.70 el coche de ustedes los coches de ustedes el coche de ellos/ellas los coches de ellos/ellas GRAMMAR your (pl.) car your (pl. Ours are here. ✗ La chaqueta es suyos.). “his. ✗ Esos paquetes son suyo. El coche es de ella. or a noun. The cars are yours (pl. The car is hers.” “hers. and suyo follow the verb ser. Los coches son de ustedes. Those packages are theirs.” and “theirs. El suyo está allí. tuyo. The car is his. The cars are theirs. ¿Es tuya esta chaqueta? No puedo encontrar la mía. El coche es mío. Los coches son de ellos.” Be sure the ending agrees in number and gender with the item that is possessed. ✗ Los coches son mío.” and “theirs” can also be expressed with a phrase using de. Blunder Suyo(-a/-os/-as) can mean “yours. The car is yours. Yours is over there. Is this jacket yours? I can’t find mine. Blunder ✗ El coche es de ti. AVOID THE The car is mine. AVOID THE This car is mine. and agree with the noun (or pronoun) in number and gender. The cars are theirs. El coche es de él.) cars their car their cars ] The possessive adjectives mío. “Mine” and “yours” (for tú) are not expressed with a phrase. Esos paquetes son suyos.” “hers. El coche es tuyo. an article. Este coche es mío. I don’t know where hers are. El coche es de usted. “Yours” (with usted and ustedes). No sé dónde están las suyas. The car is yours. . Las flores son nuestras. Los nuestros están aquí.

nouns. Algunos chicos vienen con nosotras. He wants to invite a girl. ✗ cualquiera día ✗ cualquiera manera unos cuantos and unos pocos Unos(-as) cuantos(-as) and unos(-as) pocos(-as) indicate “several” or “a few.NOUN DETERMINERS 71 Other Determiners algún Algún/alguna(-os/-as) refers to particular. Tráeme una chaqueta cualquiera. (See pages 43–44. but rather according to its position before or after the noun. I have several friends in this city. i Tráeme cualquier chaqueta. y Bring me any old jacket. I want another (a different) teacher. Do you know of a good novel? cualquier Cualquier and cualquiera indicate any one of a class or group. Do you have any other toys? I have some other ideas. Cualquiera is used after a noun. Me llamó como cualquier otro día. Algún día será feliz. otro Otro(-a/-os/-as) indicates one or several more of a noun.) Some boys are coming with us. ¿Conoce alguna novela buena? One day / Some day he’ll be happy.” Tengo unos cuantos amigos en esta ciudad.) Quiero otro profesor. t AVOID THE Blunder ✗ cualquiera persona ✗ un día cualquier Do not change cualquier according to gender. . Cualquier is used before a masculine or feminine noun. or one or several different ones. (I don’t know which one. t other day. i He called me just like any y Me llamó como un día cualquiera. but unidentified. Quiere invitar a alguna chica. ¿Tienen otros juguetes? Tengo otras ideas. Quiero comprar unas pocas cosas. I want to buy a few things.

Do not confuse poco with un poco. ✗ Hay un poco contaminación. AVOID THE I want to see two other movies. Quiero ver otras dos películas. He knows a lot of other people. There is very little pollution. He earns very little money. My neighbor has three other cars. Tiene otras pocas ideas. There is some pollution.72 GRAMMAR AVOID THE ✗ un otro Blunder ✗ otro uno ✗ unas otras ✗ otras unas Muchos(-as) and pocos(-as) can be placed before or after otros(-as). Hay un poco de contaminación. Gana poco dinero. We have very little water in the country. Numbers are placed after otros(-as)—never before.” Gana poco dinero. Tenemos poca agua en el campo. Hay poca contaminación. Poco emphasizes a lack. AVOID THE He earns very little money. He earns a little money. There are very few things to do there. Conoce a muchas otras personas. Hay pocos alumnos en esa escuela. Do not leave it out after un poco. Mi vecino tiene otros tres coches. Hay pocas cosas que hacer allí. un poco means “some. ✗ dos otros libros poco Blunder ✗ tres otros amigos Poco(-a/-os/-as) indicates a small number or amount of something. There are few students at that school. He has a few other ideas. . ✗ Gana poco de dinero. Gana un poco de dinero. Blunder Do not use de with poco.

(See page 311. She has so many debts that she can’t pay them. tanto Blunder Tanto(-a/-os/-as) refers to a number or amount that has consequences.) He reads a lot of books in summer. Hace mucho frío/calor/viento.) Tengo mucho miedo/frío/calor/ suerte.” In Spanish they are enhanced by mucho(-a). There is a lot of noise in the street. these are enhanced by “very. Tenía tanta sed que casi se muere. Tengo mucha hambre/sed. ✗ Hace muy frío. (I have a lot of hunger. Hay tanto trabajo que no sé dónde empezar. AVOID THE There is so much work that I don’t know where to start. ✗ Tengo muy miedo.) Many expressions with tener and hacer indicate a state or condition that is expressed with “be” in English. I’m very hungry. Tengo mucha hambre. ✗ tan mucho ✗ tan muchos Blunder .NOUN DETERMINERS 73 mucho Mucho(-a/-os/-as) indicates a large number or amount of something. Tiene tantos problemas que ya no puede más. Lee muchos libros en el verano. Hay mucho ruido en la calle. I am very hungry/thirsty. (I have a lot of wishes to see you. AVOID THE I am very afraid/cold/hot/lucky. She was so thirsty she almost died. I’m looking forward to seeing you. He has so many problems that he can’t go on. Ella tiene tantas deudas que no las puede pagar. It’s very cold/hot/windy. ✗ Tengo muy hambre. In English. Tengo muchas ganas de verte.

Use a plural verb with todos. Toda niña necesita una muñeca. Todo el mundo va a la fiesta. Every little girl needs a doll. Another way to emphasize the totality of the members of a category is todo(-a) plus a singular noun. y Lo va a saber el mundo entero. ✗ Todo el mundo van a la fiesta. todos los. i y t Everybody is going to the party.74 GRAMMAR todo The entirety of something is expressed by todo el. I work every day. Toda la clase está aquí. Todas las chicas están aquí. or el mundo entero. I’m going to work the whole day. Ya es toda una estrella de cine. She’s all grown up (a complete woman). or todas las plus the noun. Trabajo todos los días. toda la. All the girls are here. t AVOID THE Blunder Use a singular verb with todo el mundo and el mundo entero. Now he/she is a real movie star (in every sense of the word). Ella es toda una mujer. Voy a trabajar todo el día. “Everybody” can be expressed three ways. Todos van a la fiesta. . Voy a trabajar el día entero. Every worker deserves a break. The whole class is here. Everybody is going to find out about it. i Lo van a saber todos. Another way to emphasize the whole of a singular noun is by placing entero(-a) after it. Your son is all grown up (a complete man). The entire class is here. I’m going to work all day. La clase entera está aquí. Su hijo es todo un hombre. Todo trabajador merece un descanso. ✗ Lo van a saber el mundo entero. using todo el mundo. Todo un or toda una plus a noun emphasizes the achievement of becoming the embodiment of the noun. ✗ Todos va a la fiesta. todos.

Each mother picked up her children. Cada alumno recibió su diploma. AVOID THE Each boy went home. Blunder Do not use ambos(-as) unless you want to indicate separate circumstances. Both boys went home (together). but separate. / Both boys went home (separately). Cada uno recibió su diploma. It can be used before uno and una. To emphasize joint action. Cada madre recogió a sus niños.NOUN DETERMINERS 75 cada Cada is used to indicate all the items. Los dos and las dos are used to indicate either joint or separate states or actions. Each one received his diploma. Todos los alumnos recibieron su diploma. / The two boys went home together. . AVOID THE Blunder Do not use cada for “all” unless you want to emphasize the individuality of each member. Vine a visitar a los dos. state or action of two people. or things. I came to visit both of you (together). BUT Todas las madres recogieron a sus niños. All the students received their diplomas. BUT Each student received his diploma. Los dos chicos fueron a casa juntos. use los dos or las dos and add juntos(-as). Ambos chicos fueron a casa. All the mothers picked up their children. Los dos chicos fueron a casa. animals. Both boys went home (separately or together). ✗ Vine a visitar a ambos de ustedes. Cada una recogió a sus niños. emphasizing one at a time. ambos Ambos(-as) is used to indicate the same. Each one picked up her children.

ni un solo Sólo and solamente emphasize the small number or small amount of something. Juan y los demás chicos ya se fueron. It’s the only thing I have left. No tengo ni una sola amiga aquí. Ana y las demás chicas se quedaron. My sister never did anything like that. AVOID THE ✗ el sólo lápiz ✗ los sólos músicos tal Blunder ✗ la sóla cosa ✗ las sólas flores Tal can refer to something already mentioned. Me compró solamente una camiseta. Son las únicas flores que había. .76 GRAMMAR los demás Los demás or las demás refers to “the rest” or “the others. Mi hermana nunca hizo tal cosa. Son los únicos músicos en el pueblo. sólo. Sólo tres coches estaban en el garaje. and all the other boys left. solamente. Only three cars were in the garage. Juan. No me dio un solo centavo. They’re the only flowers there were. He didn’t give me a red cent. Es la única cosa que me queda. Es el único lápiz que tengo.” Miguel. She only bought me a T-shirt. A negative statement with the determiner un solo or una sola indicates a total lack. I don’t have even one friend here. Miguel. único A definite article plus único(-a/-os/-as) indicates the only one of something. They’re the only musicians in this town. usually of a negative nature. It’s the only pencil I have. Ana and the rest of the girls stayed.

Tenemos amigos varios. Hay un riesgo cierto. Put the descriptive adjective after it. There’s a definite risk. Hay cierto riesgo. Es hijo único. We have diverse friends. He’s the only boy in the class. He’s a unique boy. He has his own house. Es la misma mujer. You need half a cup of sugar. The woman herself appeared. We have several friends. ✗ Es de la media clase. He has an appropriate house. Tiene su propia casa.NOUN DETERMINERS 77 Un tal or una tal plus a noun indicates someone unknown to the speaker. Tenemos varios amigos. Ella hizo una cosa semejante. He’s an only child. ✗ Es su hijo único. She did a similar thing. He’s middle class. Es un chico único. ✗ No haría una semejante cosa. ¿Conoces a un tal Miguel Márquez? Te llamó una tal Jennifer. La mujer misma apareció. Es su único hijo. Do you know a Miguel Márquez? Somebody named Jennifer called you. Es de la clase media. Tiene una casa propia. It’s the same woman. Blunder Put the determiner before the noun. It’s his only son. AVOID THE There’s a certain risk. Es el único chico de la clase. Determiners with Different Meanings The determiners in the examples below have different meanings when they are placed after the noun. No haría semejante cosa. . Necesitas media taza de azúcar. I wouldn’t do such a thing.

(He doesn’t have a bicycle. (Elena is a teacher. Elena es 9.) 7. Tiene 13. 12. Se lava 16. SINGULAR PLURAL 1. Samuel Bueno. Me gusta martes (on Tuesday) martes (on Tuesdays) verano (in summer) norte (in the north) norte de (north of ) pollo. 2. the president of the class) 8. No tiene 15. presidente de la clase (Samuel Bueno. 4.) . un libro las águilas las lecciones aquellos días algunos chicos B Fill in the blank with the word or words necessary to complete each expression. 2. 1. (She washes her hands. este libro 3.) bicicleta. (I like chicken. (He has a new car. write an “X” in the blank. 11. If no word is necessary. aquella persona 7. Ella cocina sin maestra. (He has a fever.) manos. 6.) coche nuevo.) persona (another person) personas (two other people) persona (nobody) fiebre. 6. 3. el agua 5. (She cooks without a cookbook. Tiene 14. 4.78 GRAMMAR Exercises A Complete the chart with the corresponding singular or plural noun and its determiner. 8.) docena (30 cents a dozen) libro de cocina. 10. 30 centavos 17. 5.

NOUN DETERMINERS

79

C Match the words in the left column with the words in the right column that complete a sentence. 1. Alberto es 2. Buenas tardes, 3. El libro está 4. Éste es el libro 5. La película empieza 6. No conozco 7. Son 8. Van a traducirlo 9. Voy a. a la Srta. Ruiz. b. Srta. Ruiz. c. las cuatro. d. a las cuatro. e. a casa. f. en la casa de mi amigo. g. español. h. de español. i. al español.

D Indicate the correct order of the nouns in relation to their determiners. 1. ese / hombre es el padre de Carlos. (That man is Carlos’s father.) 2. cualquiera / libro Traiga un (Bring any book to the meeting.) 3. cualquier / libro Traiga (Bring any book to the meeting.) 4. propio / negocio Este es mi (This is my own business.) 5. propio / negocio Este es un para esta comunidad. (This is an appropriate business for this community.) 6. única / mujer Ella es la (She’s the only woman in the office.) 7. única / mujer Ella es una (She’s a unique woman.) 8. cierto / problema Hay que tenemos que hablar. (There’s a certain problem we have to talk about.) . en la oficina. . a la reunión. a la reunión.

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES
MASCULINE SINGULAR PLURAL FEMININE SINGULAR PLURAL

-e -ista -or -ón -ín -z any other consonant -o

-e -ista -or -ón -ín -z consonant -o

-es -istas -ores -ones -ines -ces -es -os

-e -ista -ora -ona -ina -z consonant -a

-es -istas -oras -onas -inas -ces -es -as

Review the forms in the chart above.

Forms
In Spanish, descriptive adjectives generally are placed after the nouns they describe, and their endings change to agree with them in gender and number.
] Many adjectives end in -o to describe masculine nouns and -a to de-

scribe feminine nouns. Their plurals end in -os and -as, respectively.
el hombre alto la mujer alta el edificio alto la casa pequeña los hombres altos las mujeres altas los edificios altos las casas pequeñas the tall man the tall woman the tall building the small house the tall men the tall women the tall buildings the small houses

80

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES

81

AVOID THE

Blunder

Be sure you know the gender of the noun, and make its adjectives match in gender and number. A number of adjectives end in -e to describe both masculine and feminine nouns. Their plurals end in -es.
el muchacho inteligente la muchacha inteligente los muchachos inteligentes las muchachas inteligentes the smart boy the smart girl the smart boys the smart girls

A number of adjectives end in -ista to describe both masculine and feminine nouns. Their plurals end in -istas.
el hombre optimista la mujer optimista los hombres optimistas las mujeres optimistas the optimistic man the optimistic woman the optimistic men the optimistic women

A number of adjectives end in -or to describe masculine nouns. Their feminine counterparts end in -ora. Their plurals end in -ores and -oras, respectively.
el chico encantador la chica encantadora los chicos encantadores las chicas encantadoras the charming boy the charming girl the charming boys the charming girls

Adjectives that end in -ín and -ón describe masculine nouns. Their feminine counterparts end in -ina and -ona (without accent marks), respectively. Adjectives that end in other consonants have the same form to describe masculine and feminine nouns. Their plurals end in -es. (Note that a final -z changes to -c- in the plural. See pages 11 and 33.)
el lápiz azul la mujer joven la niña feliz los lápices azules las mujeres jóvenes las niñas felices the blue pencil the young woman the happy girl the blue pencils the young women the happy girls

82

GRAMMAR

AVOID THE

Blunder

Do not assume that all masculine adjectives end in -o and all feminine adjectives end in -a.

✗ inteligenta ✗ optimisto ✗ encantadoro
] When two adjectives describe a noun, they are connected by y.

la rosa roja y bonita el estudiante listo y enérgico
AVOID THE

the pretty red rose the smart, energetic student

✗ la bonita roja rosa ✗ el enérgico, inteligente estudiante
When one adjective describes two nouns, the adjective is plural.
el coche y el camión nuevos la falda y la blusa caras la casa y el jardín hermosos
AVOID THE

Blunder

the new car and truck the expensive skirt and blouse the beautiful house and garden

Blunder

Do not use a singular adjective to describe more than one noun.

✗ la casa y el jardín hermoso ✗ la falda y el vestido caro
When two adjectives describe all components of a plural noun, both adjectives are plural.
las flores rojas y bonitas los estudiantes listos y enérgicos (both/all) the beautiful red flowers (both/all) the smart, energetic students

When two separate items are described by two different adjectives, both adjectives are singular.
las rosas roja y amarilla los coches blanco y azul both the red rose and the yellow one both the white car and the blue one

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES

83

AVOID THE

Blunder

Do not use a plural adjective to describe one component of a plural noun. Use singular adjectives to express one red rose and one yellow one.

✗ las rosas rojas y amarillas
Use singular adjectives to express one white car and one blue one.

✗ los coches blancos y azules
] While English nouns can function like adjectives when placed before other nouns, Spanish nouns must be preceded by a preposition in order to modify another noun.

un libro de español una mesa de vidrio una bolsa de papel una casa de adobe

a Spanish book* a glass table a paper bag an adobe house

*Un libro de español is a book for learning Spanish. Un libro español is a book written, manufactured, or published in Spain.
AVOID THE

✗ una mesa vidrio ✗ una bolsa papel ✗ una casa adobe

Blunder

Adjective Position
The placement of descriptive adjectives varies in Spanish.
] An adjective generally follows the noun it describes.

Adjectives of nationality and religion, as well as adjectives that classify a noun as part of a specific group, always follow the noun.
una mujer norteamericana un hombre judío la cocina mexicana una casa de estilo colonial a North American woman a Jewish man Mexican cuisine a colonial-style house

84

GRAMMAR

AVOID THE

✗ un judío hombre ✗ la mexicana cocina

Blunder

Adjectives that describe a physical quality and distinguish the noun from others of its kind generally follow the noun.
el lápiz amarillo la casa grande el coche viejo el pelo rizado el muchacho guapo la chica lista
AVOID THE

the yellow pencil the big house the old car the curly hair the cute boy the smart girl

✗ el amarillo lápiz ✗ el rizado pelo

Blunder

] When a descriptive adjective precedes a noun, it indicates that the quality is already known or inseparable from the noun. Compare the following examples.

las bonitas flores las flores bonitas las caras tiendas del barrio las tiendas caras del barrio mi nuevo novio mi novio nuevo

the beautiful flowers (all of which are beautiful) the beautiful flowers (only the beautiful ones) the expensive neighborhood stores (all of which are expensive) the expensive neighborhood stores (only the expensive ones) my new boyfriend (whom you know about) my new boyfriend (not my old one)

The adjectives bueno and malo are shortened when they immediately precede masculine singular nouns.
la buena muchacha el buen muchacho la mala mujer el mal hombre the good girl (who is known to be good) the good boy (who is known to be good) the bad woman (who is known to be bad) the bad man (who is known to be bad)

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES

85

The adjective grande is shortened before both masculine and feminine nouns, and it has a different meaning when placed before the noun. Compare the following examples.
la mujer grande la gran mujer el hombre grande el gran hombre la ciudad grande la gran ciudad the big woman the great woman the big man the great man the big city the great city

The adjectives listed below also have slightly different meanings depending on whether they are placed before or after the noun. Compare the following examples.
la antigua capital la capital antigua la tela de baja calidad la chica baja las dichosas llamadas las chicas dichosas diferentes maneras maneras diferentes distintos hombres hombres distintos el pobre muchacho el muchacho pobre el raro pájaro el pájaro raro un simple error una casa simple mi viejo amigo mi amigo viejo
AVOID THE

the former capital city the very old capital city the cloth of low quality the short girl the annoying calls the lucky girls various ways different ways various men different men the unfortunate boy the poor boy the rare bird the strange bird a mere error a modest house my long-time friend my friend who’s old

Blunder

Make sure you don’t call your best friend old!

] In English.) No te imaginas lo difícil que es. ✗ como difícil que es Blunder ✗ como aburrido es . Lo malo es que vive muy lejos. “one(s)” is not expressed. AVOID THE You can’t imagine how hard it is. (See pages 226–227. la roja el grande AVOID THE the red one the big one los pequeños las últimas the small ones the last ones ✗ la roja una ✗ los pequeños unos Blunder ✗ el grande uno ✗ las últimas unas Plural adjectives preceded by a definite article can be used as nouns that refer to an entire class.) Lo bueno es que ella está contenta.86 GRAMMAR Usage Descriptive adjectives can be used in different ways in a sentence. Me habla de lo aburrido que está. AVOID THE ✗ la buena cosa Blunder ✗ la cosa mala Lo before an adjective can also indicate the intensity of the adjective. The good thing (about it) is that she is happy. los los los los ricos orgullosos famosos ridículos the rich (ones) the proud (ones) the famous (ones) the ridiculous (ones) ] An adjective can be used as the subject of a sentence by placing lo before it. In Spanish. He tells me how bored he is. “the” plus an adjective plus “one(s)” distinguishes one or more persons or things from the others in a group. (See pages 226–227. The bad thing is that she lives so far away.

Adjectives generally express different meanings. The books are published in this country.) abierto La muchacha es abierta. La puerta es abierta por el guardia. La pareja está casada. and its ending changes to agree with the noun it describes. El niño está alegre. ✗ La puerta está abierto. Los libros son publicados en este país. bajo Mi hermana es baja. My sister is short. The teacher is bored. A sentence with estar plus a past participle tells the result of an action. Its ending reflects the gender and number of the noun it modifies. The couple is going to be married by the priest. alegre El niño es alegre. The teacher is boring. The child is enjoying himself. depending on whether they are used with ser or estar. The door is open. (See page 309. Los libros ya están publicados.DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES 87 ] The past participle of a verb (see page 122) can be used as an adjective. aburrido The girl is frank. The couple is married. La pareja va a ser casada por el cura. AVOID THE The door is opened by the guard. These tables are finished (already made). Estas mesas están hechas. Blunder Remember that a participle used after ser or estar is an adjective. . These tables are made in Mexico. La puerta está abierta. El maestro está aburrido. Estas mesas son hechas en México. Mi hermana está baja en la lista. Participles express different meanings. The child has a happy nature. ✗ Estas mesas son hecho en México. La puerta está abierta. depending on whether they are used with ser or estar. My sister is way down on the list. The door is open. The books are already published. El maestro es aburrido. A sentence with ser plus a past participle gives information about how an action is done.

I’ve gained a lot of weight. She’s sure about what she’s doing. This food is cold. frío Esa mujer es fría. El estudiante está listo. I’m a nervous person. . La mujer está despierta. I have an exam. despierto La mujer es despierta. The student is ready. ¡Estás muy bonita! callado You are a very pretty girl. These grapes are green. The student is smart. The girl is having fun. The actor is a strong man. Ella está segura de lo que hace. La chica está divertida. You must be crazy! La jefa es muy callada. Estoy muy gorda. That woman is unfeeling. verde This area is safe. fuerte El actor es fuerte. and I’m nervous. listo El estudiante es listo. loco El pobre es loco. Estas uvas están verdes. Tengo un examen y estoy nerviosa. The actor is in shape. The girl is a lot of fun. The woman is bright. débil El joven es débil. I’m very fat. Esta comida está fría. gordo Soy muy gorda. The boy is a weakling. ¡Estás loco! nervioso Soy nerviosa. These grapes aren’t ripe. seguro Esta zona es segura. Estas uvas son verdes. You look pretty today! The boss is not a big talker. The poor guy is crazy.88 bonito GRAMMAR Eres muy bonita. El actor está fuerte. El joven está débil. The woman is awake. The boss is very quiet today. The boy is in a weak condition. divertido La chica es divertida. La jefa está muy callada.

Estoy tan cansada que no puedo caminar más. The university is extremely expensive. Tú estás viejo. Use estar to indicate a present condition. / That car is too expensive. Los boletos son bastante caros. ✗ La mujer no murió. Esa mujer es viva. que The car is a little expensive. Esa mujer está viva. Los libros son recaros/requecaros/ requetecaros. La universidad es demasiado cara. That car is so expensive that I can’t buy it. That woman is “smart like a fox. ] Certain adverbs used before an adjective make the adjective more or less intense. Ese restaurante es bien caro. The blouse is somewhat expensive. Las clases son muy caras. / I’m too tired to walk. AVOID THE Blunder Use ser with an adjective to describe natural qualities. ✗ Soy nervioso por el examen. vivo You’re not old. La blusa es medio cara. The tickets are quite expensive. That restaurant is very expensive. The classes are very expensive. ✗ La puerta es abierta.DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES viejo 89 Tú no eres viejo. The books are really expensive. Ese coche es tan caro que no lo puedo comprar. I’m so tired that I can’t walk any farther. You look old. un poco medio bastante muy demasiado tan bien sumamente extremadamente re-/reque-/requeteEl coche es un poco caro.” That woman is alive. Es viva. .

Ese coche es muy caro y no lo puedo comprar / no lo quiero comprar. it is better translated as “extremely” because it does not imply a negative result. ✗ mucho caro Demasiado is often translated as “too”. Blunder Do not use demasiado to imply that you are not going to buy it.” However.” Before an adjective it means “very. ✗ una poca cara ✗ bastantes caros AVOID THE Blunder ✗ mucho viejo Do not use mucho before an adjective. AVOID THE That car is extremely expensive (no particular implication).means. Blunder Frijoles refritos are well known in English as “refried beans. AVOID THE You have to rewrite the letter. ✗ El vestido es demasiado caro. however.” .90 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder ✗ media cara ✗ demasiadas caras Do not change the endings of adverbs.before a verb.before an adjective with re. It’s a very boring class. “to do again. rather than being “refried. Before a verb re.” they are actually “well fried. Do not confuse re. Ese coche es demasiado caro. That car is too expensive and I can’t buy it / I won’t buy it. Es una clase reaburrida. as it does in English.” Tienes que reescribir la carta.

add -ísimo. el animal ferocísimo la niña felicísima AVOID THE the very fierce animal the extremely happy child ✗ jovenísimo ✗ felizísimo Blunder ✗ ricímo ✗ ferozísimo ✗ simpaticísimo ✗ terriblísimo que and menos ] Descriptive adjectives can be used with más que to compare people or things. adjectives that end in a vowel can be intensified by dropping the final vowel and adding -ísimo. -ísimos. Este coche es más caro que ese. Ese coche es menos caro que este. la mujer amabilísima el hombre notabilísimo the really. -ísima. -ísima. . -ísimas. el jefe jovencísimo the very young boss If the final consonant is z. some consonants change before adding -ísimo: ] If the final consonant is c. add -císimo. -císimos. -císimas. la película larguísima the very long movie Adjectives that end in -ble add an i between the b and the l. el maestro simpatiquísimo la comida riquísima the really nice teacher the delicious meal ] If the final consonant is g. really nice woman the very distinguished man For adjectives that end in -l. la lección facilísima el curso dificilísimo the really easy lesson the very difficult course / academic year For adjectives that end in -n. That car is less expensive than this one. it changes to c before -ísimo (see page 11). la carta importantísima el actor guapísimo the extremely important letter the gorgeous actor After the final vowel has been dropped. it changes to qu before -ísimo (see page 10). -ísimos. This car is more expensive than that one. -ísimas. it changes to gu before -ísimo (see page 10).DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES 91 ] To indicate the opinion of the speaker or writer. -císima.

. and possessives with possessives. Esteban and Pablo are better than the others. mayor. Esteban es mejor que Pablo. Esteban and Ricardo are older than Pablo. más joven. There are four irregular comparative forms: mejor. Esteban is older than Pablo. when it refers to people. She’s going with her older sister. The white shoes are prettier than the black ones. Los otros son peores que Esteban y Pablo. Do not use más malo unless you mean that Pablo is more diabolical. Yo soy menos alta que María. Blunder Always compare subjects with subjects. Pablo and Juan are younger than Esteban. Menor can mean más pequeño and. Pablo es peor que Esteban. I’m not as tall as María. peor.92 María es más alta que yo. and menor. The others are worse than Esteban and Pablo. Esteban y Ricardo son mayores que Pablo. AVOID THE Esteban is better than Pablo. Mayor can mean más grande and. más viejo. Pablo is younger than Esteban. Blunder Do not use más bueno unless you mean that Esteban is more saintly. Ella va con su hermana mayor. ✗ Pablo es más malo que Esteban. Pablo is worse than Esteban. ✗ María es más alta que mi. She is younger than her sister. Ella es menor que su hermana. Esteban es mayor que Pablo. ✗ Esteban es más bueno que Pablo. Los zapatos blancos son más bonitos que los negros. Pablo es menor que Esteban. Esteban y Pablo son mejores que los otros. Pablo y Juan son menores que Esteban. AVOID THE GRAMMAR María is taller than I am. when it refers to people.

Tus libros son tan caros como los míos. This computer is as light as the other one. Mario and Juanita are the best in the school. Julia es la más alta de todas las chicas. Blunder Do not use que in place of como. That is her best dress. Es la ciudad más bella del mundo. ✗ tan caro que el otro Do not forget the article before a possessive. Esteban is the best (one) in the class. como to show Tu libro es tan caro como el mío. Your books are as expensive as mine.DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES 93 ] Descriptive adjectives can be used with tan equality between people or things. Este coche es el más caro de todos. Julia is the tallest (one) in the group. Esteban es el mejor de la clase. These are as good as those. Blunder Do not use en in place of de. AVOID THE That’s my biggest problem. Estas son tan buenas como esas. This car is the most expensive of all. Ese es su mejor vestido. Mario y Juanita son los mejores de la escuela. Julia is the tallest of the girls. Esta computadora es tan ligera como la otra. AVOID THE Your book is as expensive as mine. It’s the most beautiful city in the world. Julia es la más alta del grupo. ✗ tan caro como mío ✗ tan buenas como tuyas ] Descriptive adjectives can be used to single out people or things as superlative. ✗ más grande en el mundo ✗ la más bonita en el mundo ✗ los mejores en la clase . Ese es mi mayor problema.

5. 3. nuevo / blusa / falda (the new blouse and skirt) 3. el chico interesante 2. . Ayer vi a mi amigo viejo | viejo amigo. Yesterday I saw my old friend. Mateo. rojo / blanco / blusas (the red blouse and the white blouse) C Circle the noun-adjective combination that reflects the English meaning. This is the new car I told you about. and the masculine equivalent of the feminine noun phrase. Éste es mi coche nuevo | nuevo coche. MASCULINE FEMININE 1. azul / bonito / zapatos (the pretty blue shoes) 4. La chica es de una familia pobre | pobre familia. El profesor es un hombre grande | gran hombre. These are the ruins of the former city. 5. los jóvenes encantadores 4. 1. las niñas felices la muchacha alta la mujer optimista B Write the correct form and order of the Spanish nouns and adjectives for each English phrase. hermoso / pequeño / casa (the pretty little house) 2. 2. 4. The girl comes from a poor family. 1. 3. Mateo.94 GRAMMAR Exercises A Complete the chart below with the feminine equivalent of the masculine noun phrase. The professor is a great man. Éstas son las ruinas de la ciudad antigua | antigua ciudad.

the big ones 3. aburrida. 3. Marta es nervios 8. The woman has gained weight. El niño The child is smart. La niña She’s a nervous child. nerviosa. Ana es (more energetic than Esteban) 7. Jorge es (the tallest boy in the class) 6. El jefe seguro de eso. La mujer gorda. alegre. 6. (a little) listo. 4. Enrique es list 5. . 1. divertido. Samuel es 2. Martín es 3. the interesting thing 5. the green one 2. (very) perezoso. F Write the Spanish equivalent of the English expressions in parentheses. listo. El chico The boy is a lot of fun. 8. the good thing 4. 1. (extremely nervous) . El dormitorio The bedroom is big. enérgico. 1. . grande.DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES 95 D Write the Spanish equivalent of the following English expressions. 5. The boss is sure about that. (extremely) . the interesting ones E Write es or está in the blank before each adjective to reflect the English meaning. Susana es (the most serious girl in the school) . La muchacha The girl has a happy nature. 7. Diego es 4. 2. (extremely) . La estudiante The student is bored.

It is simply the basic verb. indicates how the verb is conjugated.VERBS the infinitive Verbs are listed in the dictionary in their basic form. deber esperar necesitar pensar (ie) poder (ue) be obligated to hope to need to plan to be able to preferir (ie. The infinitive ending. ] Constructions with the Infinitive Conjugated Verb Infinitive Certain verbs may be immediately followed by the infinitive form of another verb. -er. the infinitive. which indicates the verb’s stem changes in the preterite. The Spanish infinitive is not equivalent to the English infinitive. the gerund. “to” plus the basic verb. Each infinitive ending has a different conjugation pattern in each tense. Additional Information in the Dictionary Most dictionaries provide additional information about a verb. An infinitive with -se attached after the -ar. ] One or two vowels in parentheses after the infinitive indicate the verb’s stem changes in the present tense and present subjunctive (see page 161). -ar. or -ir. the imperfect subjunctive. Following are some examples. i) querer (ie) saber encantar gustar prefer to want to know how to love to (see page 106) like to (see page 106) 96 . and the nosotros and vosotros forms of the present subjunctive (see page 161). -Ir verbs of this type also have a second vowel in parentheses. -er. or -ir ending indicates that the verb must always be accompanied by a reflexive pronoun (see pages 103 and 208–214).

Blunder ✗ cansados de esperando Preposition Infinitive preposition combinations are followed by an in- ✗ sin trabajando Conjugated Verb Many common verb finitive in Spanish. Fue a la biblioteca para estudiar. Esperamos visitar los museos. Preposition Infinitive In English. Están cansados de esperar. Prefiere vivir solo. We hope to visit the museums. start to empezar (ie) a begin to. Do not add a before the infinitive after these verbs. Mis padres vienen a comer con nosotros. No puedo ir contigo. In Spanish. No le gusta bailar. My brother doesn’t know how to drive. ✗ Quiero a dormir. Mi hermano no sabe manejar. They’re tired of waiting. She doesn’t like to dance.VERBS: the infinitive 97 Debes pagar la multa. He went to the library to study. ea aprender a learn to ayudar a help to comenzar (ie) a begin to. AVOID THE My parents are coming to eat with us. They’re planning to leave early. and others are followed by a verb in the “-ing” form. Piensan salir temprano. a verb that follows a preposition is always in the infinitive form. AVOID THE You have to pay the fine. Diego lleva dos meses sin trabajar. ✗ Necesitan a descansar. certain prepositions are followed by the infinitive form of a verb (“to” verb). ✗ No le gusta a bailar. I am not able to/can’t go with you. Diego has gone two months without working. start to ir a be going to volver (ue) a again . I want to sleep. Quiero dormir. He prefers to live alone. Blunder ✗ Prefiere a vivir.

He de hacerlo por mi madre. We’re going to have a party on Friday. He keeps on calling me every night. Sólo piensa en estudiar medicina. Tenemos que ir a casa. All she thinks about is studying medicine. She offered to pick us up. Está aprendiendo a cocinar. We have to go home. . Mintió y volvió a mentir. Hay que leer mucho en ese curso. I have to do it for my mother’s sake. She just learned to swim. Acaba de terminar el trabajo.98 GRAMMAR e de acabar de deber de dejar de haber de tratar de e en have just must be stop have to try to ed ing ing insistir en pensar (ie) en empeñarse en e para keep on ing concentrate on be determined to offer to be necessary to have to ing ofrecerse para e que* haber que tener que *Que acts like a preposition after haber and tener. He stopped smoking last year. Empiezo/Comienzo a trabajar el lunes. Ella se ofreció a recogernos. You have to read a lot in that course. Insiste en llamarme cada noche. She lied and she lied again. Acaba de aprender a nadar. Voy a tener que empezar a trabajar. Debe de estar en la oficina. I start working on Monday. Vamos a hacer una fiesta el viernes. She’s learning to cook. He must be at the office. I’m going to have to start working. Two or more expressions of this type can be used in sequence. Dejó de fumar el año pasado. following an initial conjugated verb. She has just finished the paper.

The teacher demanded that she apologize. Ver and oír Infinitive I saw the teacher walk in. ✗ Vi entrar el profesor. order. demand. the infinitive can be used after verbs that allow.) Following are some typical verbs of this type.VERBS: the infinitive 99 AVOID THE Blunder Do not leave out the preposition. i) prohibir allow allow prevent prohibit El profesor le exigió disculparse. My mom made us clean the house. prevent. Anoche oímos a Sara tocar el piano. ✗ Aprende cocinar. ✗ Oímos Sara tocar el piano. aconsejar recomendar (ie) sugerir (ie. Last night we heard Sara play the piano. cause dejar permitir impedir (i. Vi entrar al profesor. Mi mamá nos hizo limpiar la casa. The infinitive follows the verbs ver and oír to refer to the object’s action. (See page 168 for the use of the subjunctive. or prohibit another’s action. Other Uses of the Infinitive Expressing Orders As an alternative to the subjunctive. ✗ Tenemos ir. AVOID THE Blunder Do not forget the a to indicate that the direct object is a person. force. i) decir (i) exigir hacer advise recommend suggest tell demand make. . ✗ Empiezo trabajar.

Al ver el océano. ✗ Caminando sola no es buena idea. Querer es poder. When I saw the ocean. AVOID THE The teacher let us leave. ✗ Mi mamá hizo nos limpiar la casa. Their parents prevented them from seeing one another. He remembered the name as soon as he got home. Mi tío me prohibió hablar con mi amiga. The guard let him make a call. ✗ El maestro nos dejó a salir. (El) vivir en la ciudad puede ser peligroso. AVOID THE Living in the city can be dangerous. ✗ Queriendo es pudiendo. Do not add prepositions. It can be the subject of a sentence. ✗ El guardia le permitió a hacer una llamada. Recordó el nombre al llegar a casa. ✗ El guardia permitió lo hacer una llamada. Walking alone at night isn’t a good idea. Wanting to is being able to. The infinitive is used after al to indicate two simultaneous actions. Caminar sola por la noche no es buena idea. My uncle prohibited me from talking to my friend. the masculine article el is optional. El guardia le permitió hacer una llamada. Sus padres les impidieron verse. Expressing Subjects The infinitive can be used as a noun. Blunder ✗ Viviendo en la ciudad es peligroso. Use indirect object pronouns with these verbs. I felt happy.100 GRAMMAR El maestro nos dejó salir. Blunder Do not use English word order. me sentí contenta. . ✗ El maestro no dejó nos salir.

Exercise A Use an infinitive construction to write the Spanish equivalent of each of the following English sentences. No smoking. These books are easy to understand. No pisar el césped. 7. 5. They want to stop smoking. noun noun “be” adjective infinitive ser adjective de infinitive This book is easy to read. He has just arrived. Do not enter. . Describing Nouns To describe a noun. Spanish uses an infinitive directly after an adjective to describe an activity. Es fácil leer este libro. 8. She wrote the exercise again. No entrar. She made me work. 1. It will be difficult to find him. an infinitive follows an adjective ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN de. 4. It’s hard to study here. Do not walk on the grass. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN “be” adjective infinitive ser adjective infinitive It’s easy to read this book. 6. 2. He will be difficult to find. Expressing Commands The infinitive is often used to give commands to the general public. No fumar. Knowing how to ride a bike is important in this city. Será difícil encontrarlo. 9. Él será difícil de encontrar. Este libro es fácil de leer. 10. I saw the boss leave.VERBS: the infinitive 101 Describing Activities As in English. We love to go shopping. We have to study more. 3.

102 . caminar correr ir walk run go llorar nadar salir cry swim leave (go out) Eva runs. ✗ El niño lo lloró. El niño lloró en los brazos de su mamá. El niño lloró mucho. have no object. Eva runs fast. Eva runs in the park. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use object pronouns when there is no object. The child cried a lot. ✗ Eva se corre. The child cried. El niño lloró. Intransitive Verbs Intransitive verbs in Spanish. Eva corre. ✗ Eva lo corre en el parque. The child cried in his mother’s arms. Eva corre rápido. PATTERN subject verb ( adverb or prepositional phrase) Typical intransitive verbs follow. Do not use reflexive pronouns with verbs that do not have -se attached to the infinitive. Eva corre en el parque. like intransitive verbs in English.VERBS types of verbs Spanish verbs can be subdivided into several categories according to their usage with or without object nouns and pronouns.

even though it requires a reflexive pronoun. Levantarse “to get up” (“to raise oneself up”) is a typical verb with reflexive meaning. ✗ Octavio levanta a las seis. always use the reflexive pronoun that refers to the same person as the subject of the sentence. amar anunciar dejar escuchar llamar manejar love announce leave (something) listen to call drive mirar preferir (ie.) PATTERN subject reflexive pronoun verb ( adverb or prepositional phrase) Verónica hurt herself in the soccer match. Octavio se levanta a las seis. i) querer (ie) recoger ver visitar look at prefer want. Typical verbs that take direct objects follow. although the meaning is not expressed as a reflexive in English. AVOID THE David and his friends complain about everything. ✗ Verónica lastimó en el partido. te. Lastimarse “to hurt oneself” is a typical verb with reflexive meaning. Verónica se lastimó en el partido de fútbol. ✗ David y sus amigos quejan de todo. (See pages 211–214. These verbs are commonly referred to as reflexive verbs. os). Blunder If a verb is listed with -se at the end. although some of them do not have a reflexive meaning.VERBS: types of verbs 103 -Se Verbs Verbs that are listed in the dictionary with -se attached to the infinitive are always used with a reflexive pronoun (me. love pick up see visit . se. Transitive Verbs Transitive verbs that have only direct objects depict action by the subject on or toward a target—the direct object (see pages 104–106). nos. Octavio gets up at six. Quejarse “to complain” is a typical verb with no reflexive meaning. David y sus amigos se quejan de todo.

The girls are looking at the boys. I’m looking for my son. . These verbs are normally not followed by a preposition in Spanish. Several common transitive verbs are translated into English using a verb followed by a preposition (see page 215). Vamos a ver la película. Roberto escucha la música. ✗ Las chicas miran a los zapatos. Esperamos a los niños. Germán llamó el número equivocado. Roberto listens to the teacher. ✗ Vamos a ver la profesora. Blunder ✗ Roberto escucha a la música. We’re going to see the teacher. Vamos a ver a la profesora. do not forget to precede it with the “personal a.104 PATTERN GRAMMAR 1 subject verb direct object noun ( adverb or prepositional phrase) Germán called his dad every night. Estoy buscando a mi hijo. Roberto listens to the music. AVOID THE ✗ Estoy buscando por un libro. We’re going to watch the movie. buscar escuchar look for listen to esperar mirar wait for look at I’m looking for an interesting book. Estoy buscando un libro interesante. We’re waiting for the bus. However. AVOID THE Blunder When the direct object is a person or people. Las chicas miran a los chicos. Germán called the wrong number. Roberto escucha a la profesora. ✗ Estoy buscando para mi hijo. when the direct object is a person or people. Germán llamaba a su papá todas las noches.” ✗ Germán llama su papá. The girls are looking at the shoes. We’re waiting for the children. Esperamos el autobús. the “personal a” is required. Las chicas miran los zapatos. ✗ Esperamos por el autobús.

Use the direct object pronoun instead. deliver show demonstrate teach. i) tell tell. These verbs indicate an exchange of something (the direct object) from the subject to another person (the indirect object).VERBS: types of verbs PATTERN 105 2 (subject) direct object pronoun verb ( adverb or prepositional phrase) Germán called it (the number) two times. . Vamos a verla. ✗ Germán llama a él. relate send send ask for PATTERN 1 (subject) indirect object pronoun verb direct object noun ( a indirect object) Miguel gives me the money. Norman shows them to you. Contrary to English usage. Norman te muestra las fotos (a ti). AVOID THE Blunder Do not use a object pronoun (a él. Norman te las muestra (a ti). a ella. Germán lo llamó dos veces. We’re going to see it (the movie). PATTERN 2 (subject) indirect object pronoun direct object pronoun verb ( a indirect object) Miguel me lo da (a mí). Vamos a verla. a nosotros) for direct objects that refer to people. Germán lo llamó anoche. a mí. “Exchange” Verbs Certain transitive verbs have both a direct and an indirect object. dar entregar mostrar (ue) demostrar (ue) enseñar give hand to. the indirect object pronoun must always appear before the conjugated verb in Spanish. Typical “exchange” verbs follow. We’re going to see her (the teacher). show decir (i) contar (ue) enviar mandar pedir (i. ✗ Vamos a ver a ella. Norman shows you the pictures. Germán called him (his father) last night. even if it is also otherwise named. Miguel gives it to me. and place it before the verb. Miguel me da el dinero (a mí).

A mí me falta el tiempo. In Spanish. ellos) may be used if the subject is a person or people. ✗ Miguel da el dinero a mí. She fascinates Alejandro.) The movie fascinates Alejandro. ✗ Miguel lo da a mí. encantar faltar fascinar PATTERN enchant lack fascinate gustar molestar please. In English. If the subject is a thing. ella. A Alejandro le fascina la película. They bother him. Typical verbs of this type follow.106 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not leave out the indirect object pronoun before the verb. ✗ Norman muestra las fotos a ti. ¿Te gustan mis zapatos? ¿Te gustan? A él le molestan los mosquitos. A Alejandro le fascina (ella). It fascinates Alejandro. appeal to bother (A noun/pronoun) verb subject indirect object pronoun I don’t have time. it is replaced by a pronoun. ¿Te gustan mis zapatos nuevos? A él le molestan los mosquitos. A Alejandro le fascina. Do you like my shoes? Do you like them? (Do they appeal to you?) Mosquitoes bother him. Verbs of Feeling Certain verbs require an indirect object pronoun but do not have a direct object (see pages 220–223). Do you like my new shoes? (Do my new shoes appeal to you?) Mosquitoes annoy him. A Alejandro le fascina Ana. the subject pronoun (él. A él le molestan. . The movie fascinates Alejandro. (Time is lacking to me. ✗ Norman las muestra a ti. A Alejandro le fascina la película. no pronoun is used. Ana fascinates Alejandro. when the subject is not stated.

In Spanish.) I like chocolates. whether it is singular. ✗ A él le molestan los. (Chocolates appeal to me. PATTERN subject clause indirect object pronoun verb ( a noun/pronoun) que subjunctive clause The teacher advises the students to study.VERBS: types of verbs 107 AVOID THE Blunder Do not use direct object pronouns with these verbs to translate “it” or “them. (Chocolate appeals to me. ✗ Me gusta chocolate. Traffic bothers him.) AVOID THE Blunder Do not leave out the article before the subject. The parents don’t allow the child to watch television. La maestra les aconseja a los estudiantes que estudien. Los padres le prohíben al chico que vea la televisión. Me gustan los zapatos rojos. . The red shoes appeal to me. plural. whereas in English the usual position of the subject is before the verb. ✗ ¿Te los gustan? The subjects of sentences of this type often occur after the verb. Verbs Indicating Advice or Control Certain verbs that indicate advice or control over the actions of others are preceded by an indirect object pronoun and followed by a clause in the subjunctive (see pages 167–168 and 188–189). Me gustan los chocolates. Le molesta el tráfico. Me gusta el chocolate. an article is not used with plural and noncount nouns when they are used in a general sense.” Keep in mind that it is the subject (“it” or “they”) that “sends the feeling” to the indirect object. or noncount. In English. ✗ Me gustan chocolates. I like chocolate. an article must be used before a noun subject.

✗ Se me olvidó mi libro. . ✗ Se le quedaron sus cuadernos.) Pedro lost his key.108 GRAMMAR Verbs Indicating Unplanned Occurrences Certain verbs indicate unplanned occurrences (see pages 224–225).) Jorge left the notebooks in the car. and it is affecting Pedro.) AVOID THE Blunder Do not use a possessive adjective before the noun with these verbs. A Jorge se le quedaron los cuadernos en el coche. A Pedro se le perdió la llave. (The key lost itself. I forgot my book. acabársele caérsele olvidársele end. and it is affecting me. (The notebooks stayed in the car. Typical verbs of this type follow. (The book forgot itself. run out of fall forget perdérsele (ie) quedársele rompérsele lose remain break (A mí) se me olvidó el libro. ✗ Se le perdió su llave. and it is affecting Jorge.

Se nos acaba la gasolina. Se me olvida el nombre. 8. ¿A qué hora sales? 2. 11.VERBS: types of verbs 109 Exercise A Underline the main verb in each of the following sentences. 5. b. Les fascina el teatro. Te quiero mucho. then indicate which of the following is the appropriate category for the verb. 18. Los jugadores se lastiman mucho. . Los chicos caminan en el parque. 21. Me sugiere que escriba más. 17. 15. 3. Verbs that indicate advice or control over another person’s actions. Te aconsejo que estudies. with both an indirect object pronoun and a direct object e. Se le pierden las llaves. La profesora nos las envía. 16. Les dice que trabajen. with an indirect object pronoun f. 6. 13. Verbs that indicate a person’s feelings.) a. 14. 12. with an indirect object pronoun and a subjunctive clause g. Mi amigo me visita los sábados. Verbs that indicate unplanned occurrences. d. c. 20. Le encantan las chicas. with reflexive and indirect object pronouns 1. 4. Me gusta mucho el cuento. (Hint: There are three verbs in each category. Intransitive verbs (with no object) Verbs with a reflexive pronoun only Verbs with a direct object (noun or pronoun) only Verbs that indicate an exchange. 19. 10. 9. Marcos se queja mucho. 7. Todos vamos en el coche. Me levanto temprano. Se lo da a su jefe. Ella me cuenta sus ideas. Sara llama a su mamá.

VERBS the indicative mood The indicative mood is used to indicate that the action or condition stated by the verb is an objective fact. 110 .

VERBS the present tense Tense Formation Stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) endings Tense Endings -ar VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -o -as -a -an nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -amos -áis -er VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -o -es -e -en nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -emos -éis -ir VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas VERBS THAT END IN -o -es -e -en nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -imos -ís -uir construir construyo construyes construye construyen construimos construís huir huyo huyes huye huyen huimos huís 111 .

The change is normally indicated in a dictionary by an annotation after the infinitive. for example: dirigir recoger dirijo recojo Stem-changing Verb Patterns With these verbs. tú. i) siento sientes siente sienten sentimos sentís o Œ ue dormir (ue. the last vowel in the stem is replaced by another vowel or vowels in the forms for yo. An example is given below for each stem-changing pattern. u) duermo duermes duerme duermen dormimos dormís . verbs that end in -ger/-gir. The stem does not change in the forms for nosotros(-as) and vosotros(-as). usted/él/ella.112 GRAMMAR Verbs with Irregular yo Forms dar estar ir doy estoy voy decir hacer oír traer digo hago oigo traigo poner tener venir salir pongo tengo vengo salgo Also. verbs that end in -cer. -ar VERBS e Œ ie pensar (ie) pienso piensas piensa piensan pensamos pensáis o Œ ue almorzar (ue) almuerzo almuerzas almuerza almuerzan e Œ ie tener (ie) perdemos perdéis tengo tienes tiene tienen e Œ ie venir (ie. for example: conocer parecer conozco parezco Also. i) vengo vienes viene vienen venimos venís tenemos tenéis almorzamos almorzáis u Œ ue jugar (ue) juego juegas juega juegan o Œ ue poder (ue) puedo puedes puede pueden podemos podéis jugamos jugáis -er VERBS e Œ ie perder (ie) pierdo pierdes pierde pierden -ir VERBS e Œ ie sentir (ie. and ustedes/ellos/ellas.

i) viniendo morir (ue. These changes are indicated by the second annotation after the infinitive. eŒi oŒu eŒi sentir (ie. i) sintiendo dormir (ue. i) sirviendo venir (ie. u) durmiendo servir (i. i) pido pides pide piden pedimos pedís eŒi decir (i.VERBS: the present tense 113 eŒi pedir (i. i) digo dices dice dicen decimos decís Gerunds -ar VERBS No stem change Stem -ando hablar hablando pensar pensando almorzar almorzando jugar jugando -er VERBS No stem change Stem -iendo comer comiendo leer leyendo perder perdiendo creer creyendo volver volviendo caer cayendo Stem ending in vowel -yendo -ir VERBS Stem change as indicated below abrir Stem -iendo abriendo Stem ending in vowel -yendo construir construyendo partir partiendo oír oyendo vivir viviendo All -ir verbs that have stem changes in the present tense have stem changes in the gerund. u) muriendo decir (i. i) diciendo .

When the subject is not stated. Blunder Be sure to use the correct verb ending to correspond with the subject of the sentence. ahora en este momento actualmente hoy esta mañana esta tarde esta noche now at the moment currently today this morning this afternoon tonight esta semana este mes este semestre este año estos días this week this month this semester this year these days Stating Facts The Spanish present tense. Perú está en Sudamérica. Describing Usual Action The Spanish present tense. We have the tickets. Come después de las clases.114 GRAMMAR Review the forms on the preceding pages. She eats after school. like the present tense in English. the conjugated ending of the verb acts as the subject of the sentence. . is used to state facts about the present. like the present tense in English. We go to the beach in the summer. Llevan sus paraguas cuando llueve. Vamos a la playa en el verano. I’m responsible. Soy responsable. They take their umbrellas when it rains. is used to describe usual action. Tenemos los boletos. Spanish tenses express a different range of meanings than similarly named English tenses. Uses of the Present Tense The present tense is used with certain time expressions. AVOID THE I work at nine o’clock on Mondays. Peru is in South America. Trabajo a las nueve los lunes. They live in New York. Viven en Nueva York.

Están llevando sus paraguas. can be used to describe action in progress. that is. Mi prima anda diciendo mentiras. t i Llevan sus paraguas. formed by conjugating estar in the present tense and adding a verb in the gerund form (ending in -ndo).VERBS: the present tense 115 Describing Action in Progress The Spanish present tense. El chico va cantando por la calle. unlike the present tense in English. i y What are you doing? t i y I’m working. Está comiendo. can be used as an alternative. action that has begun but has not finished. . My cousin goes around telling lies.) ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN “be” “ ing” iendo/yendo present tense of estar ando OR ¿Qué haces? ¿Qué estás haciendo? Trabajo ahora. The girls keep on dancing. Estoy trabajando. and seguir. (Review the gerund forms on page 113. t *The progressive form of ir ( yendo) is not used in this construction. ir. this is comparable to the English present progressive. y They’re carrying their umbrellas. ¿Adónde van?* Come en este momento. A progressive construction. Las chicas siguen bailando. The boy goes down the street singing. t Where are you all going? i y She’s eating. AVOID THE ✗ ¿Adónde estás yendo? Blunder The gerund is also used after a conjugated form of the verbs andar.

✗ He trabajado aquí por dos años. SPANISH PATTERN r iu I have worked here for two years. ✗ He estado trabajando aquí por dos años. q 3 present tense / present progressive tense desde hace period of time r I have worked here for two Trabajo aquí desde hace dos años. Hace dos años que estoy trabajando aquí. yw I have been working here for tu two years. wI have been working here for u two years. The present tense is used to indicate how long it has been since the last time an action occurred. ENGLISH PATTERN “haven’t/hasn’t” past participle period of time present tense of llevar sin infinitive “for” SPANISH PATTERN period of time . iu years. unlike the present tense in English. is used to tell how long a current action has been taking place. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the word-for-word equivalent of the English present perfect tense to tell how long an action has been taking place. r I have worked here for two u years. q ago). Estoy trabajando aquí desde hace yw I have been working here for tu two years (since two years dos años.116 GRAMMAR The Spanish present tense. ENGLISH PATTERNS “have/has” past participle “for” period of time “have/has” “been ing” “for” period of time present tense of llevar period of time gerund SPANISH PATTERN 1 Llevo dos años trabajando aquí. q SPANISH PATTERN 2 hace period of time que present tense / present progressive tense Hace dos años que trabajo aquí.

. unlike the present tense in English. is used to state when an action began. ENGLISH PATTERN “the first/second/tenth time” past participle “have/has” que SPANISH PATTERN la primera/segunda/décima vez present tense Esta es la primera vez que estoy en México. It’s the second time he has eaten at our house. He hasn’t smoked in two months. iu January of 2003. second. unlike the present tense in English. AVOID THE I haven’t seen my best friend for three years. ENGLISH PATTERN Blunder “have/has” past participle time activity began present tense desde “since” SPANISH PATTERN time activity began r I have worked here since Trabajo aquí desde enero de 2003. etc. Es la segunda vez que come en nuestra casa. third. q AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the word-for-word equivalent of the English present perfect tense when stating when an action began. de 2003. Lleva dos meses sin fumar. Estoy trabajando aquí desde enero yw I have been working here since tu January of 2003. ✗ He estado trabajando aquí desde enero de 2003.VERBS: the present tense 117 Llevo tres años sin ver a mi mejor amigo. time. The Spanish present tense. ✗ No he visto a mi amigo por tres años. The Spanish present tense. is used to state that an action is taking place for the first. This is the first time I have (ever) been in Mexico. ✗ No ha fumado en dos meses. ✗ He trabajado aquí desde enero de 2003.

. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN “can” basic verb question mark question mark Can I help you? Can I bring him a glass of water? question mark present tense ¿Te ayudo? ¿Le traigo un vaso de agua? The Spanish present tense. is used to make a commitment or promise. La película empieza a las ocho. like the present tense in English. Sí.118 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the word-for-word equivalent of the English present perfect tense when stating the number of times an action has taken place. ✗ Esta es la primera vez que he estado en México. The present tense of ir a infinitive. Yes. I’ll marry you in December. unlike the present tense in English. The plane leaves at 5:30. me caso contigo en diciembre. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN future tense question mark question mark present tense question mark Will you help me? Will you bring him a glass of water? ¿Me ayudas? ¿Le traes un vaso de agua? The Spanish present tense is used to make an offer. Describing Future Action The Spanish present tense. present tense Te llamo esta noche. like the English “be going to” basic verb. is used to state a future plan. ✗ Es la segunda vez que ha comido en nuestra casa. the progressive—“be” verb in “-ing” form—can be used as an alternative. The Spanish present tense. The movie starts at eight. is used to make a request. El avión sale a las cinco y media. unlike the present tense in English. is used to state the time of a scheduled event. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN “will” basic verb I’ll call you tonight. In English.

you won’t be able to go. If you are late. w I’m having dinner with him Voy a cenar con él mañana. I’m going to the beach.” the present tense is used in Spanish after the word si to express conditional future action. nos estamos casando el año próximo. nos vamos a casar el año próximo. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN “if” si present tense present tense future clause future clause Si no llueve. Describing Conditional Action As in English clauses introduced by “if. we’re going to get married u next year. ✗ Sí.VERBS: the present tense ENGLISH PATTERNS 119 “be going to” basic verb “be ___ing” ir a infinitive form of verb SPANISH PATTERN r I’m going to have dinner with u him tomorrow. u tomorrow. ✗ Estoy cenando con él mañana. If it doesn’t rain. no podrás ir. we’re getting married q next year. This is expressed in English by the present perfect tense or the past tense with “just. Sí. q r Yes. Describing Past Action The present tense of the verb acabar de infinitive is used to express recently completed action. w u Yes. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the progressive form as you would in English to state a future plan.” (See pages 123–124 for an alternative way to express this meaning in Spanish. voy a la playa. Si llegas tarde.) ENGLISH PATTERNS “have/has just” past participle “just” past tense present tense of acabar de infinitive SPANISH PATTERN .

AVOID THE Blunder Do not use a past tense in Spanish with por poco or casi. Acabo de comer. He almost died. w q They just arrived. In English. (In the movie) the woman and her husband have an argument.120 GRAMMAR r I have just eaten. but in fact didn’t. and then she leaves the house and starts to cry. English uses the past tense in this situation. The present tense is used in Spanish to express action that almost happened. ] For additional Spanish equivalents of the English present tense. the present tense is often used to tell jokes or relate the events of a movie or play but not to write formal history. In Spanish the present tense can be used. Cristóbal Colón descubre el Nuevo Mundo en 1492 y lo reclama para España. ✗ Casi se murió. Christopher Columbus discovered the new world in 1492 and claimed it for Spain. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN “almost” past tense present tense I almost fell. (En la película) la mujer y su esposo tienen una discusión y luego la mujer sale de la casa y empieza a llorar. ✗ Por poco me caí. see the sections on the present subjunctive (pages 161–176) and reported speech (pages 200–203). w q I just ate. Casi se muere. r They have just arrived. por poco / casi Por poco me caigo. to narrate the past. both formally and informally. . Acaban de llegar.

I’ll help you. They almost had an accident. They’re building a new house. Mi primo ha estado | está | estás | hemos estado aquí desde el viernes pasado. En el verano voy a estar | estoy | ir | vamos a Costa Rica. mi amigo casi me caigo | se cayó | se cae | caigo.VERBS: the present tense 121 Exercises A Circle the correct verb form to complete the following sentences. 7. Will you help me? . Ayer. 5. 8. If you call me. 7. Si tú estudies | estudian | estudias | estudien. B Express the following in Spanish. 1. and the movie starts at seven. 3. Can we take you home? 6. Ana. 1. Esta es la primera vez que mi amiga cantamos | bailan | canta en público | ha cantado en público. We’re leaving at six. al caminar por la calle. 8. Beatriz y yo tener | tengo | tienen | tenemos clase los lunes a las dos. 6. Mi amigo está leyendo | lees | compras | lee el libro. No hablo bien porque hace un año que no hablo | he estudiado | han estudiado | hemos hablado español. 4. Mañana estamos estudiando | voy a estudiar | me están visitando | estoy saliendo. We have lived in this city for ten years. This is the first time I’ve ever eaten mole. 10. 2. vas a aprobar el curso. She has just read that novel. 4. 9. 9. 5. 3. ¿Qué hace | compra | hacen | compras los chicos ahora? 2. Are you going out with your friends tomorrow night? 10.

VERBS the preterite perfect tense Tense Formation Present tense of haber past participle The Present Tense of haber yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas he has ha han nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) hemos habéis Past Participle Formation Verb stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) -ar verbs -ado hablar hablado -er verbs -ido comer comido -ir verbs -ido vivir vivido IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES abrir cubrir descubrir decir predecir escribir describir prescribir hacer morir abierto cubierto descubierto dicho predicho escrito descrito prescrito hecho muerto poner oponer proponer ver prever volver devolver revolver resolver romper puesto opuesto propuesto visto previsto vuelto devuelto revuelto resuelto roto 122 .

✗ abrido ✗ ponido It is easy to make the mistake of thinking that this tense is equivalent to the English present perfect (“have” past participle). the uses are quite different. In some cases. in fact. like the present perfect tense in English. because the formations are similar. Uses of the Past Tenses The past tenses are used with certain time expressions.VERBS: the preterite perfect tense 123 Review the forms on the preceding page. . ayer anoche anteayer la semana pasada el mes pasado el año pasado hace dos semanas hace tres meses hace cinco años yesterday last night the day before yesterday last week last month last year two weeks ago three months ago five years ago AVOID THE Blunder ✗ tres meses pasados Do not confuse “last” with “ago.” ✗ dos semanas pasadas Uses of the Preterite Perfect Tense Describing Recent Action The Spanish preterite perfect tense. is used to express action that has been recently completed. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ escribido ✗ rompido ✗ hacido Be sure to learn the irregular past participle forms. however. the uses are equivalent. In many cases.

the word “just” is important in conveying the sense of recent action. We ate in the afternoon. r My dog has just died. In English. it is common to use the past tense for this purpose. the time of a recent action is often stated with the preterite perfect tense. Blunder When translating from Spanish to English. Mi perro ha muerto. r Your friends have just arrived. Expressing Time of Action In Spanish. ✗ Your friends have arrived a few minutes ago. SPANISH PATTERN He hablado con Juan. Also note that in American English. ✗ My dog has died last night. is used to express action that has already occurred or that has not . w q We just ate. My dog died last night. Use the past tense instead. do not use the present perfect if the time of action is stated. w q My dog just died. an equivalent word is not necessary. This usage is more common in Spain than in Latin America. Expressing “Already” and “Not Yet” The Spanish preterite perfect tense. In English. Mi perro ha muerto anoche.124 ENGLISH PATTERNS GRAMMAR subject subject (subject) “have/has just” past participle “just” past tense present tense of haber participle r I have just talked to Juan. r We have just eaten. Hemos comido en la tarde. AVOID THE I talked to Juan at three o’clock. Sus amigos han llegado. where the present tense of acabar de infinitive is more often used for this purpose (see pages 119–120). He hablado con Juan a las tres. In Spanish. w q I just talked to Juan. like the English present perfect tense. time is stated with the past tense—never with the present perfect tense. Sus amigos han llegado hace poco. w q Your friends just arrived. Your friends arrived a short time ago. Hemos comido.

is used to express the number of times an action has been performed. ENGLISH PATTERN “the first time (that)” past participle la primera vez que subject (subject) “have/has” present tense SPANISH PATTERN Esta es la primera vez que comemos en este lugar. Mis amigos no han llegado todavía. second. ✗ Esta es la primera vez que hemos comido en este lugar. ✗ No he escrito el trabajo. We have (already) eaten. Ya hemos comido. like the English present perfect tense. you must include the marker todavía. Hemos comido muchas veces en este lugar. He hablado dos veces con Juan. My friends haven’t arrived (yet). third. Ya he hablado con Juan. Note that the markers ya and todavía are necessary to convey this meaning in Spanish. Expressing the Frequency of an Action The Spanish preterite perfect tense. Blunder If you expect or hope that the action will occur. Don’t omit todavía if you expect your friends to arrive. Blunder . We have eaten at this place many times. but “already” and “yet” are optional in conveying this meaning in English. I haven’t written the paper (yet).VERBS: the preterite perfect tense 125 yet occurred. Don’t omit todavía if you plan to write the paper. etc. ✗ Es la segunda vez que he estado en este país. AVOID THE I’ve (already) talked to Juan. AVOID THE This is the first time we have eaten at this place. No he escrito el trabajo todavía. Unlike the English present perfect tense. I have talked to Juan twice. the Spanish preterite perfect tense is not used to express activity that is occurring now for the first. ✗ No han llegado mis amigos. time (see page 117).

1. 5.126 GRAMMAR The Spanish preterite perfect tense. 2.” ✗ He estado hablando con Juan por diez minutos. He hasn’t sent his application yet. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERNS subject (subject) (subject) “have/has” “been ing” present tense present progressive tense Hace diez minutos que hablo con Juan. AVOID THE Blunder Don’t use the preterite perfect tense unless you mean that the action is completed: “I talked to John for 10 minutes. She opened the window a few minutes ago. Ana acaba de recibir un mensaje. t I’ve been in this country for six months. B Express the following in Spanish. ¿Qué acabas de hacer? 3. 4. Hace diez minutos que estoy hablando con Juan. How many times have you all seen that movie? . 4. Acabo de terminar con mis exámenes. 2. Hace seis meses que estoy en este país. Hemos visto esa película. We have already written the letters. is not used to express how long an activity has been taking place. i I’ve been talking to Juan y for 10 minutes. unlike the English present perfect tense. 1. EXAMPLE Acabamos de ver esa película. Exercises A Change the verbs in the following sentences to the preterite perfect tense as an alternative to acabar de. They just arrived. Mis padres acaban de comer. 3.

di diste dio dieron dimos disteis 127 .VERBS the preterite tense Tense Formation Stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) endings Pattern 1 Verbs Tense Endings -ar VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -é -aste -ó -aron nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -amos -asteis -er AND -ir VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -í -iste -ió -ieron nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -imos -isteis Spelling Changes in yo Forms Verbs that end in -car Verbs that end in -gar Verbs that end in -guar Verbs that end in -zar -qué -gué -güé -cé The Preterite Tense of dar Dar is an -ar verb with -er/-ir endings in the preterite.

FORM INFINITIVE STEM 1 SG . The Preterite Tense of ir and ser fui fuiste fue fueron fuimos fuisteis . FORM andar tener estar poder poner saber haber anduvtuvestuvpudpussuphub- anduve tuve estuve pude puse supe hube hacer querer venir decir traer hicquisvindijtraj- hice quise vine dije* traje* Tense Endings yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -e -iste -o -ieron/-eron* nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -imos -isteis *The third-person plural ends in -eron after j. Irregular Preterite Stems INFINITIVE STEM 1 SG . u) dormí dormimos dormiste dormisteis durmió durmieron Pattern 2 Verbs The following verbs have irregular stems in the preterite and a different set of conjugated endings.128 GRAMMAR Stem-changing Verb Patterns -ar -er -ir VERBS No stem change VERBS No stem change VERBS Second stem change in third-person singular and plural oŒu dormir (ue.

Review the time expressions used with past tenses on page 123. We went to the party (on Friday). Blunder Do not use the imperfect tense unless you intend to tell what happened while you were in class. Fuimos a la fiesta (el viernes). -gar. Note that pattern 2 verbs whose stems end in j drop the i after the j. -zar. ✗ Estaba en clase ayer. No comió nada (anoche). ✗ piensé ✗ sentió ✗ juegó ✗ dormió ✗ almuercé ✗ servieron ✗ pierdió Note the third-person stem change in -ir stem-changing verbs. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ hizó ✗ pudé Note that pattern 2 verbs do not have an accent mark in their endings. ✗ trajieron ✗ dijieron Uses of the Preterite Tense Describing Terminated Actions The preterite tense in Spanish is used to describe actions that began and terminated in the past. They learned a lot (last year). AVOID THE I was in class (yesterday). He didn’t eat anything (last night).VERBS: the preterite tense 129 Review the forms in the chart on the preceding pages. . Aprendieron mucho (el año pasado). without giving details about other simultaneous or interrupting actions. Estuve en clase (ayer). ✗ sacé ✗ jugé ✗ almorzé Note that there is no stem change in the preterite of -ar and -er verbs. ✗ tuvé Note automatic spelling changes in the yo forms of certain verbs ending in -car.

I opened the door. For details and examples. He always knew it. Siempre lo supo. Flora never agreed with me. de repente de pronto a las tres y media suddenly suddenly at 3:30 Describing Constant Past Action The preterite tense is often used with siempre to emphasize that an action or feeling was constant during an entire period of time. Abrí la puerta. Empezaron a escribir. They started to write. We left at eight o’clock. Flora nunca estuvo de acuerdo conmigo. She sneezed. it is used with nunca to emphasize that an action did not occur during an entire period of time. . Salimos a las ocho. Estornudó.130 GRAMMAR Describing Actions Simultaneously Begun and Terminated The Spanish preterite tense is used to describe actions that began and terminated at the same time. This kind of action is often accompanied by the following types of expressions. Narrating The preterite tense is used in combination with the imperfect tense to narrate a story or an event. see pages 135–137.

1. fui 23. 5. 3. dormi 11. pudo 14. Nuestro equipo juega bien. busco 19. 10. Yo siempre pago las cuentas. escribi 20. corrio 6. lei 22. visito 21. tuve 5. 8. 4. Jorge baila bien. ¿Adónde vas? 6. hicieron 7. . jugue 2. A Beatriz no le gusta la película. oiste 15. estudie 9. Me da mucho gusto conocerlo. 2. comi 13. hizo 12. 9. fuimos 4. estuvo 8. leyo 16. vi 18. Los niños duermen toda la noche. sintio 24. changing the verb from the present tense to the preterite tense. No hacemos nada el jueves. supe B Rewrite each of the following sentences.VERBS: the preterite tense 131 Exercises A Write accent marks where necessary in the following preterite forms. almorzo 3. 7. 1. Está muy cansado. volvio 10. dio 17. Vamos al cine el sábado.

VERBS the imperfect tense Tense Formation Stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) endings Tense Endings -ar VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -aba -abas -aba -aban nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -ábamos -abais -er AND -ir VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -ía -ías -ía -ían nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -íamos -íais The Imperfect Tense of Irregular Verbs ser era eras era eran éramos erais ir iba ibas iba iban íbamos ibais ver veía veías veía veían veíamos veíais Formation of the Imperfect Progressive Tense Imperfect tense of estar estaba estabas estaba estaban estábamos estabais gerund i u y u t hablando/comiendo/escribiendo 132 .

My grandparents lived in the country. Cuando yo tenía 10 años. u I (always) used to do my assignments w in the afternoon. u u I would (always) do my assignments q in the afternoon. We had a lot of free time. . ✗ estabamos ✗ escribia Uses of the Imperfect Tense Describing the Past The Spanish imperfect tense is used to describe a past period of time— the way things were in the past. Nuestra casa era muy bonita. There were three schools in the city. the afternoon. Teníamos mucho tiempo libre. ✗ Mis abuelos vivieron en el campo. Mis abuelos vivían en el campo. era pequeña y muy tímida. activities that occurred on a regular basis are expressed with the imperfect tense. Our house was really pretty. ✗ Nuestra casa fue muy bonita. When I was 10 years old. Tenía una amiga que vivía cerca de mi casa. r I (always) did my assignments in Hacía mis tareas en la tarde. In English.VERBS: the imperfect tense 133 Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. Review the time expressions used with past tenses on page 123. When describing a past period of time. this can be expressed in three different ways. I was little and very shy. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the preterite tense to describe a past period of time. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ hablabamos ✗ veian ✗ comia ✗ leias Make sure you use accent marks where appropriate. Había tres escuelas en la ciudad. I had a friend who lived near my house.

nuestros padres estaban hablando. ✗ Estábamos jugando en la calle cada tarde. ✗ Se estaba preocupando todas las noches. Describing Simultaneous Past Actions The imperfect or the imperfect progressive tense is used to express an action that was in progress at the same time that another action was in progress. ✗ Estaba haciendo mis tareas todos los días. this type of action can be expressed in the past tense or the past progressive. AVOID THE Blunder Rather than translate word for word from English. q We would (always) play in the street. ✗ Mientras José leyó el periódico. consider the purpose of your remarks. Juana watched TV. Blunder Do not use the preterite tense to express two simultaneous past actions. Mientras José leía el periódico. ✗ Cuando jugamos. w We (always) used to play in the street. If you are describing activities that took place on a regular basis. Juana veía la televisión. In English. . Juana vio la televisión. nuestros padres hablaron.134 GRAMMAR Jugábamos en la calle. use the imperfect tense in Spanish. r We (always) played in the street. our parents were talking. When we were playing. AVOID THE While José read the newspaper. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the imperfect progressive tense if you are describing activities that took place on a regular basis. Cuando estábamos jugando.

Quería oler tu perfume. In English. when the preterite action occurred. I wanted to smell your perfume. the past progressive tense is used for this purpose. Pepe estaba leyendo el periódico u t cuando llamó Marta. INTRANSITIVE El cuarto olía mal. y when Marta called. u t ] The Spanish imperfect tense is used to describe a condition or state that had started. oler refers to the state of something. In English. but not ended. Estábamos jugando en el jardín cuando Ana se cayó. TRANSITIVE The room smelled bad. not to the conscious act of smelling (oler. Pepe leía el periódico cuando i u Pepe was reading the newspaper llamó Marta. the imperfect or imperfect progressive tense is used to describe an action that had started. . not the past progressive. even though they represent “being in the middle of” a state or condition. but not ended.VERBS: the imperfect tense 135 Narrating ] In a narrative. i u We were playing in the yard y when Ana fell down. Jugábamos en el jardín cuando Ana se cayó. when another action (expressed in the preterite) began (see pages 129–130). transitive). IMPERFECT PAST TENSE comprender contener creer encantar existir gustar necesitar odiar oír oler olvidar comprendía contenía creía encantaba existía gustaba necesitaba odiaba oía olía olvidaba understood contained believed loved existed liked needed hated heard smelled (intransitive)* forgot continued on next page *As an intransitive verb. COMMON VERBS DESCRIBING AN ONGOING STATE OR CONDITION IN THE PAST ENGLISH INFINITIVE 3 SG . verbs that describe states or conditions are usually expressed in the past tense.

✗ Tuvo tres coches cuando lo conocí. . (NOT wasn’t remembering) Blunder Do not use the preterite to express ongoing feelings or conditions. not to the conscious act of tasting ( probar. AVOID THE I wanted to keep on sleeping. (NOT was having) I didn’t remember his name at the time. Yo no recordaba su nombre en ese momento. INTRANSITIVE La carne sabía rica. seemed thought owned preferred wanted remembered knew tasted (intransitive)* was had saw *As an intransitive verb. Probamos la carne. TRANSITIVE The meat tasted delicious. the English past tense (rather than the past progressive) is usually used for this purpose. ✗ Quise seguir durmiento. We tasted the meat. Tenía tres coches cuando lo conocí. Quería seguir durmiendo. IMPERFECT PAST TENSE parecer pensar poseer preferir querer recordar saber saber ser/estar tener ver parecía pensaba poseía prefería quería recordaba sabía sabía era/estaba tenía veía appeared. While the Spanish imperfect tense is used to describe ongoing states or feelings in the past. (NOT was wanting) He had three cars when I met him. saber refers to the state of something.136 GRAMMAR COMMON VERBS DESCRIBING AN ONGOING STATE OR CONDITION IN THE PAST (continued) ENGLISH INFINITIVE 3 SG . transitive). ✗ No recordé su nombre en ese momento.

Cuando salió de la fiesta. no quería ir a su casa. I met two people. Pedro compró una computadora nueva porque su hijo no pudo arreglar la otra. Pedro llamó a su hijo porque no podía arreglar su computadora. Cuando Carlos salió de la fiesta. he didn’t want to go home. Supo que él estaba casado.” and both the imperfect and the preterite of tener que may be translated as “had to. I (already) knew two people. Expressing “Could” and “Had to” Both the imperfect and the preterite of poder may be translated as “could. When he left the party. Ana didn’t go to the party last night. quiso ir a su casa. he wanted to go home.” The imperfect is used to describe a situation before its resolution. no quiso ir a su casa. When Carlos left the party. The preterite refers to a situation after its resolution. conocía a dos personas. depending on whether they express an already-started (imperfect) action or condition or a newly initiated or terminated (preterite) action or condition.M. The woman (already) had two children. Cuando Carlos salió de la fiesta. Eran las diez de la noche. Ella estaba aquí a las ocho. . Pedro called his son because he couldn’t fix his computer. he refused to go home. he tried to go home (but was unable to). Pedro bought a new computer because his son couldn’t fix the other one. the Preterite Certain Spanish verbs have different English translations. It was 10 P. Ana no fue a la fiesta anoche. Cuando llegué a esta ciudad. She knew he was married. Cuando salió de la fiesta. When he left the party. She got here at eight o’clock.VERBS: the imperfect tense 137 The Imperfect vs. Ana quería ir a una fiesta pero no podía porque tenía que estudiar. She found out he was married. but she couldn’t because she had to study. conocí a dos personas. La mujer tenía dos niños. The woman gave birth to a child. Ana wanted to go to a party. Ella estuvo aquí a las ocho. Cuando llegué a esta ciudad. No pudo ir porque tuvo que estudiar. Sabía que él estaba casado. quería ir a su casa. She was (already) here at eight. La mujer tuvo un niño. She couldn’t go because she had to study. When Carlos left the party. When I arrived in this city. When I arrived in this city.

Tengo un perro y me gusta jugar con él.138 GRAMMAR Expressing Past Detail When telling what happened in the past. Ayer estaba en la casa de mi amigo cuando empezó a nevar. Blunder Exercises A Rewrite the sentences below. 1. 3. Use the preterite if you don’t intend to say any more about it. Voy al cine con mis amigas todos los miércoles. My dad was reading the newspaper and saw an item that surprised him. Mi familia y yo comemos en la casa de mi abuela los domingos por la tarde. use the imperfect if you intend to describe the situation in further detail. 2. AVOID THE Yesterday I was at my friend’s house when it started to snow. After that I went to my class. ✗ Anoche mi papá llegaba a casa a las ocho. Yesterday I was at my friend’s house for two hours. and then went out again. Luego fui a mi clase. ✗ Mi papá leía el periódico y luego salió de la sala. Last night my dad got home at 8 o’clock. 4. read the newspaper. Anoche mi papá llegó a casa a las ocho. changing the verbs from the present tense to the imperfect tense to describe activities that regularly occurred during a period of time in the past. . ✗ Ayer estaba en la casa de mi amigo y luego fui a mi clase. Soy pequeña y un poco seria. Ayer estuve en la casa de mi amigo por dos horas. leyó el periódico y salió de nuevo. leía el periódico y salía de nuevo. Mi papá leía el periódico y vio una noticia que le sorprendió.

5. Nosotros (estar) estudiando cuando de repente se (apagar) la luz. 6. 8. 3. 1. La actividad que me gusta más es leer. mi papá (ver) las noticias en la televisión. Mis hermanas y yo ayudamos en la casa. él) llevarme a casa (tener que. Por eso le dije que 6. 2. 4.VERBS: the imperfect tense 139 5. (querer. yo) a casa en un taxi. yo) ir a casa. (entrar) en la casa. Mientras mi mamá (cocinar). (poder. él) esperar a unos amigos. Anoche. mis hermanos . (ir. Cuando tú me (llamar) ayer. using the imperfect tense or the preterite tense. Juan me respondió que no todavía porque Por eso. cuando yo ( jugar) en la sala. Mis amigos van a la playa en el verano y a veces yo los acompaño. 7. B Fill in the blanks by writing the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Escribo mis tareas en la tarde después de las clases. No me sentía bien. El viernes pasado Juan y yo estábamos en un club. as appropriate. yo (estar) en la biblioteca.

VERBS the pluperfect tense Tense Formation Imperfect tense of haber past participle The Imperfect Tense of haber yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas había habías había habían nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) habíamos habíais Past Participle Formation Verb stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) -ar verbs -ado hablar hablado -er verbs -ido comer comido -ir verbs -ido vivir vivido IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES abrir cubrir descubrir decir predecir escribir describir prescribir hacer morir abierto cubierto descubierto dicho predicho escrito descrito prescrito hecho muerto poner oponer proponer ver prever volver devolver revolver resolver romper puesto opuesto propuesto visto previsto vuelto devuelto revuelto resuelto roto 140 .

M. pero ya lo había leído. is used to report what someone said about a past action (see pages 200–203). AVOID THE Blunder Remember to use accent marks in all forms of the imperfect of haber. Sara dijo que su hermana no había vuelto a la casa.) Le ofrecí el periódico.VERBS: the pluperfect tense 141 Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. Eran las dos de la madrugada y mi hermana todavía no había aparecido. I offered him the newspaper. like the past perfect in English. It was 2 A. Reporting What Was Said The Spanish pluperfect. Be sure to learn the irregular past participle forms. Expressing “Already” and “Not Yet” The Spanish pluperfect. is used to tell what had already happened or had not yet happened. like the past perfect in English. todavía on pages 124–125. and my sister still hadn’t shown up. but he had already read it. (See ya. like the past perfect tense in English. ✗ habia volvido ✗ habiamos resolvido ✗ habian descubrido Uses of the Pluperfect Tense Describing Pre-past Action The pluperfect tense in Spanish. María llegó a casa muy cansada. María got home exhausted. My friends told me that they had called me. . She had worked nine hours straight. Juan didn’t pass the test because he hadn’t studied. Juan no aprobó el examen porque no había estudiado. Mis amigos me dijeron que me habían llamado. Sara said that her sister hadn’t returned home. Había trabajado nueve horas seguidas. is used to describe actions that terminated before other past actions began.

Blunder ✗ Fue la primera vez que habíamos comido en ese lugar. etc. Habíamos comido muchas veces en este lugar. Margarita suspendió el examen ayer. Comí a las doce. I had talked to Juan twice. third. AVOID THE That was the first time we had eaten at that place. . ya sabía las noticias porque . porque . Había hablado dos veces con Juan. 3. It was the second time I had been in that country. second. Margarita no estudió para el examen. 1. 2. Unlike the English past perfect. Cuando Mario me invitó a comer. Era la segunda vez que estaba en ese país. A la una. like the English past perfect.142 GRAMMAR Describing the Frequency of an Action The Spanish pluperfect. Cuando Javier llegó a la oficina. Javier leyó el periódico antes de ir a la oficina. Margarita suspendió el examen ayer porque . the Spanish pluperfect is not used to express activity that was occurring for the first. time. Exercise A Use the pluperfect tense to complete the sentences below. ENGLISH PATTERN “the first time (that)” past participle la primera vez que subject (subject) “had” imperfect tense SPANISH PATTERN Fue la primera vez que comíamos en ese lugar. Mario me invitó a comer. le dije que no. ✗ Era la segunda vez que había estado en ese país. We had eaten at this place many times. is used to express the number of times an action had been performed.

FUTURE decir hacer dirhar- diré haré 143 . FUTURE poner salir tener valer venir pondrsaldrtendrvaldrvendr- pondré saldré tendré valdré vendré OTHER IRREGULAR STEMS INFINITIVE FUTURE STEM 1 SG .VERBS the future tense Tense Formation Infinitive endings Tense Endings yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -é -ás -á -án nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -emos -éis Irregular Future-tense Stems STEMS THAT DROP INFINITIVE e FROM THE INFINITIVE FUTURE STEM 1 SG . FUTURE haber poder querer saber caber habrpodrquerrsabrcabr- habré podré querré sabré cabré STEMS THAT REPLACE INFINITIVE e OR i WITH d FUTURE STEM 1 SG .

mañana pasado mañana la próxima semana el próximo mes el próximo año pronto dentro de dos días algún día nunca tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week next month next year soon in two days some day never Making a Prediction The Spanish future tense is used to predict the future. Usted tendrá buena suerte. Stating a Probable Action The Spanish future tense is used to indicate probability. Mi hijo será médico. ✗ hablarémos ✗ teneré ✗ ponerá Be sure to learn the future stems of irregular verbs.144 GRAMMAR Review the forms on the preceding page. Some day I’ll graduate. Iré al centro la próxima semana. The boys will probably be late. You will have good luck. . He’ll probably call you tonight. Lloverá en la tarde. Uses of the Future Tense The future tense is used with certain time expressions. Los muchachos llegarán tarde. It will probably rain this afternoon. Algún día me graduaré. My son will be a doctor. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ harémos ✗ quererán ✗ veniremos ✗ vendrémos Do not use an accent mark in the nosotros form of the future tense. Todos viajaremos a la luna. We will all travel to the moon. Te llamará esta noche. I’ll probably go downtown next week.

We’re going to buy a new house. I wonder what time it is. Estarán enojados.VERBS: the future tense 145 Stating Conjecture The Spanish future tense is used to indicate conjecture about a present state or situation.” The future tense is used in a question to indicate speculation about a present action. ¿Dónde estará mi hermano? ¿Qué hora será? I wonder where my brother is. Estarán llegando ahora. Clauses After the Future Tense Expressing Intended or Expected Action Certain expressions follow a present or future tense verb to indicate action intended or expected in the future. AVOID THE Blunder Do not assume that the future tense is the exact equivalent of the English future tense with “will.” Many uses of the English “will” are better expressed in Spanish in the present tense. These and other uses of the English “will” should be expressed in the present tense in Spanish (see page 118). They must be arriving about now. Vamos a comprar una casa nueva. . The present tense of ir a infinitive is used. Serán las seis. as in English. It must be about 6 o’clock. . Expressing “I wonder . The future tense in Spanish is not used to ask or offer favors. You must be tired. ALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTION FOR EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS In Spanish. They’re probably mad. plans for the near future are usually expressed with a “going to” expression. These expressions are followed by a clause with the verb in the present subjunctive (see pages 170–171). cuando en cuanto tan pronto como mientras when (as soon as) as soon as as soon as when/while (at the same time as) hasta que antes que después que until before after . Estarás cansada.

Comeremos antes que regresen los otros. SPANISH PATTERN Te sentirás mejor cuando salgas del hospital.146 ENGLISH PATTERN GRAMMAR subject future verb time expression present indicative verb (subject) future verb time expression present subjunctive verb You’ll feel better when you leave the hospital. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ después que termina ✗ hasta que se van ✗ mientras están When these Spanish expressions appear in clauses after a verb in the future tense. ✗ cuando sales ✗ en cuanto llego ✗ tan pronto como recibe ✗ antes que regresan Expressing Conditional Future Action Certain expressions indicate conditions on which future action depends. con tal (de) que siempre y cuando sin que a menos que en caso (de) que provided that. Viviremos en esta casa hasta que se vayan nuestros hijos. We’ll eat before the others get back. Lo llamaré en cuanto llegue a casa. as long as without (something happening / someone knowing) unless if it should happen that. as long as provided that. in case . not a verb in the indicative. These expressions introduce a clause with the verb in the present subjunctive (see pages 172–173). Estudiaré después que termine este programa. Nos divertiremos mientras estén ustedes en la ciudad. I’ll study after this program is over. I’ll call him as soon as I get home. She’ll be okay as soon as she gets a letter. We’ll live in this house until our children leave. We’ll have a good time when you all are in town. they are followed by a subjunctive verb. Ella estará bien tan pronto como reciba una carta.

AVOID THE We’ll have a party if the children behave. Viajará este verano si no tiene que trabajar. He’ll take his license just in case he wants to drive. Haremos una fiesta siempre y cuando los niños se porten bien.VERBS: the future tense ENGLISH PATTERN 147 subject future verb conditional marker present indicative verb (subject) future verb conditional marker present subjunctive verb I’ll lend him the money as long as he returns it. Viajará este verano a menos que tenga que trabajar. Haremos una fiesta si los niños se portan bien. He will travel this summer unless he has to work. He’ll take his license in case he wants to drive. not the subjunctive. ✗ si los niños se porten bien ✗ si no tenga que trabajar Blunder . Trabajaré sin que mi familia lo sepa. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the present indicative tense after these expressions when they appear in clauses after a verb in the future tense. I’ll work without my family knowing about it. He’ll travel this summer if he doesn’t have to work. ✗ con tal de que me lo devuelve ✗ siempre y cuando se portan bien ✗ sin que mi familia lo sabe ✗ a menos que tengo que trabajar ✗ en caso que quiere manejar Both the conditional markers si “if” and por si acaso “just in case” are followed by a verb in the present indicative. SPANISH PATTERN Le prestaré el dinero con tal (de) que me lo devuelva. We’ll have a party provided the children behave. Llevará su licencia por si acaso quiere manejar. Llevará su licencia en caso (de) que quiera manejar.

Ella no (tener. Mi papá me manda dinero para que pueda ir a visitarlo. Nos vamos a acostar temprano esta noche a fin de que nos podamos despertar temprano mañana. B Complete the following sentences by writing the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. yo) un coche nuevo. 4. Su espíritu 4. ustedes) aquí (comer) más. 1. (estar. (venir) a tiempo. (tener) el dinero para . Tú 3. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ a fin de que puedo comprarlo Do not use the present indicative tense after the expressions para que and a fin de que. (encontrar) un tesoro. para que a fin de que so that (expected result) so that (hoped-for result) My father sends me money so I can go visit him. (estudiar) mucho.148 GRAMMAR Expressing the Purpose of Future Action Certain conjunctions indicate the purpose of future action. (regresar) de las vacaciones. Haremos una fiesta mientras en diciembre. Te vas a enfermar si no 5. 1. ✗ para que puede ir Exercises A Fill in the blanks with the future tense of the verb in parentheses. Muy pronto 2. (vivir). Voy a llamarlo cuando 2. Ella se graduará siempre y cuando 3. These expressions are followed by a clause with the verb in the present subjunctive. We’re going to bed early tonight so we can wake up early tomorrow. No descansaré hasta que el viaje.

VERBS the future perfect tense Tense Formation Future tense of haber past participle The Future Tense of haber yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas habré habrás habrá habrán nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) habremos habréis Past Participle Formation Verb stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) -ar verbs -ado hablar hablado -er verbs -ido comer comido -ir verbs -ido vivir vivido IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES abrir cubrir descubrir decir predecir escribir describir prescribir hacer morir abierto cubierto descubierto dicho predicho escrito descrito prescrito hecho muerto poner oponer proponer ver prever volver devolver revolver resolver romper puesto opuesto propuesto visto previsto vuelto devuelto revuelto resuelto roto 149 .

✗ habre vido Uses of the Future Perfect Tense Predicting Termination of Future Action The future perfect is used to predict action that will have terminated by a certain future time. aprendido mucho sobre el medio . Nos habrán visto. Alguien 3. descubierto la cura del cáncer. Review the time expressions used with future tenses on page 144.150 GRAMMAR Review the forms on the preceding page. In a week he will have already gotten married. Habrás trabajado mucho. Yo . Los científicos 2. They must have seen us. Stating Conjecture About Past Action The future perfect is used to indicate conjecture about past action. In July I will have already graduated. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ habrémos hacido ✗ habran escribido Note that all forms of haber in the future tense have an accent mark except the nosotros form. Exercise A Predict what will have happened by the year 2030 by filling in the blanks. 4. En julio ya me habré graduado. You must have worked hard. En una semana ya se habrá casado. viajado a Marte. Nosotros ambiente. Be sure to learn the irregular past participle forms. En el año 2030: 1.

VERBS the conditional The simple conditional expresses what someone would do if the facts or circumstances were different. The conditional perfect expresses what someone would have done if the facts or circumstances had been different. It can also be used to express probability or conjecture about what had occurred before another past event. It can also be used to express probability or conjecture about the past. 151 .

CONDITIONAL poner salir tener venir pondrsaldrtendrvendr- pondría saldría tendría vendría OTHER IRREGULAR STEMS CONDITIONAL INFINITIVE STEM 1 SG . CONDITIONAL decir hacer dirhar- diría haría 152 . CONDITIONAL haber poder querer saber habrpodrquerrsabr- habría podría querría sabría STEMS THAT REPLACE e OR i WITH d CONDITIONAL INFINITIVE STEM 1 SG .VERBS the simple conditional Formation Infinitive endings Endings yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -ía -ías -ía -ían nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -íamos -íais Irregular Conditional Stems STEMS THAT DROP e FROM THE INFINITIVE CONDITIONAL INFINITIVE STEM 1 SG .

VERBS: the simple conditional 153 Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. Estarían en el centro. —¿Qué haría usted si fuera el jefe? —Yo sería más organizado. It must have been about 2:30. (What time would it have been?) I wonder where my friends were. Mario probably knew the truth. Indicating Probability About Past Action The conditional is used to indicate the probability of a past situation. ✗ comía ✗ querería Be sure to learn the irregular conditional stems. Tendría hambre. He must have been hungry. Uses of the Conditional Speculating About the Past The conditional in Spanish is used in a question to indicate speculation about a past situation. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ escribía ✗ podería ✗ tenería Make sure you keep the infinitive ending before adding -ía.” Use the conditional in a question instead. They were probably downtown.” . Serían las dos y media. Expressing Conditional Action The conditional is used in connection with si and the imperfect subjunctive (see page 195) to express conjecture. ¿Qué hora sería? ¿Dónde estarían mis amigos? I wonder what time it was. (Where would my friends have been?) AVOID THE Blunder Do not try to translate “I wonder. Mario sabría la verdad. “What would you do if you were the boss?” “I would be more organized.

1.” —¿Qué comprarías si tuvieras más dinero? —Compraría un coche nuevo.” “What would you buy if you had more money?” “I would buy a new car. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use a past tense in the indicative after a conditional followed by si. You must have been cold. I wouldn’t go out. ✗ ¿Adónde irían ustedes si tenían vacaciones? ✗ ¿Qué comprarías si tenías más dinero? Do not use an accent mark on si in these constructions. If I had more money. 4. She was probably sick. What would you do? . ✗ ¿Qué haría sí fuera el jefe? Exercise A Use the simple conditional to express the following in Spanish. I would buy a house. If I were you. Use the imperfect subjunctive instead.154 —¿Adónde irían ustedes si tuvieran vacaciones? —Iríamos a Chile. 3. as you would in English. 5. 2. GRAMMAR “Where would you all go if you had time off ?” “We would go to Chile.

VERBS the conditional perfect Formation Conditional of haber past participle The Conditional of haber yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas habría habrías habría habrían nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) habríamos habríais Past Participle Formation Verb stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) -ar verbs -ado hablar hablado -er verbs -ido comer comido -ir verbs -ido vivir vivido IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES abrir cubrir descubrir decir predecir escribir describir prescribir hacer morir abierto cubierto descubierto dicho predicho escrito descrito prescrito hecho muerto poner oponer proponer ver prever volver devolver revolver resolver romper puesto opuesto propuesto visto previsto vuelto devuelto revuelto resuelto roto 155 .

“What would you have done if you had been the boss?” “I would have been more organized. Uses of the Conditional Perfect Expressing “I wonder . —¿Qué habrías hecho si hubieras sido el jefe? —Habría sido más organizado. .” .156 GRAMMAR Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. Ellos habrían luchado. ¿Qué habrían hecho? ¿Qué habría dicho tu papá? I wonder what they would have done. —¿Adónde habrían ido si hubieran tenido más tiempo? —Habríamos ido a la Argentina también. ✗ habería ✗ habría decido Be sure to learn the irregular past participle forms. Expressing Conjecture The conditional perfect is used in connection with si and the pluperfect subjunctive (see page 198) to express conjecture about the past. They would have struggled. . Mi papá habría dicho la verdad. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ haberían ✗ habría hacido ✗ haberíamos ✗ habría morido Note that the conditional stem of haber drops the e from the infinitive. My dad would have told the truth.” The conditional perfect in Spanish is used in a question to indicate speculation about an action completed in the past. Indicating Probability The conditional perfect is used to indicate the probability of a past action.” “Where would you all have gone if you had had more time?” “We would have gone to Argentina as well. I wonder what your father would have said.

VERBS: the conditional perfect 157 The conditional perfect can also be used after the expression de haber past participle to express conjecture about the past. se lo habría dicho. I would have told him. . If I had heard that rumor. If I had had time. If we had known the truth. 2. I would have introduced him to you. De haber oído ese rumor. 4. Exercise A Use the conditional perfect to express the following in Spanish. If I had known him before. I wonder what we would have done. te lo habría presentado. we wouldn’t have worked here. you wouldn’t have done that. 3. I would have called you. 1. If your brother had been there. De haberlo conocido antes.

need.VERBS the subjunctive mood Expressions That Signal Use of the Subjunctive ] Lack of knowledge or existence no existir no haber nada/nadie que no saber nada que no conocer a nadie que not exist not be anything/anybody that not know anything that not know anybody who ] Desire. or search for the unknown buscar algo / a alguien que look for something/somebody that necesitar algo / a alguien que need something/somebody that querer algo / a alguien que want something/somebody that Desire for action by others querer que alguien preferir que alguien esperar que alguien desear que alguien ojalá que want somebody to prefer that somebody hope that somebody desire that somebody hope that ] ] Attempt to control the actions of others pedirle a alguien que ask somebody to rogarle a alguien que beg somebody to suplicarle a alguien que beg somebody to implorarle a alguien que implore somebody to recomendarle a alguien que aconsejarle a alguien que sugerirle a alguien que exigirle a alguien que mandarle a alguien que ordenarle a alguien que decirle a alguien que prohibirle a alguien que impedirle a alguien que recommend to somebody that advise somebody to suggest to somebody that demand that somebody command somebody to order somebody to tell somebody to prohibit somebody from stop somebody from 158 .

VERBS: the subjunctive mood 159 ] Declaration of feeling ser bueno que ser maravilloso que ser fantástico que ser sorprendente que ser malo que ser horrible que ser una lástima que alegrarse de que estar contento de que sentir que lamentar que be good that be wonderful that be fantastic that be surprising that be bad that be horrible that be a shame that be glad that be happy that be sorry that regret that doubt that not believe that not be sure that it’s not certain that it’s not true that be possible that be impossible that be probable that be improbable that maybe perhaps perhaps when while as soon as as soon as before after until as long as providing unless in case without ] Doubt dudar que no creer que no estar seguro (de) que no es seguro que no es cierto que ser posible que ser imposible que ser probable que ser improbable que tal vez quizá/quizás acaso ] Later action cuando mientras en cuanto tan pronto como antes que después que hasta que Conditional action siempre y cuando con tal (de) que a menos que en caso (de) que Avoidance of interference sin que ] ] .

The subject’s feelings are expressed with an indicative verb in a beginning clause that triggers use of the subjunctive in the clause that follows. verbs are expressed in the subjunctive mood according to set patterns when the subject feels some emotion. Review the expressions that trigger use of the subjunctive in the chart above. .160 ] GRAMMAR Purpose of action para que a fin de que por que Wish ojalá (que)* so that so that so that wish (that) ] *This triggers use of the imperfect subjunctive. In Spanish. uncertainty. or desire about the action or situation.

i) dormir (ue.VERBS the present subjunctive Formation Stem (yo form of the present indicative tense minus o/oy) EXAMPLES endings pedir pido pidtener tengo teng- hablar hablo habl- pensar pienso piens- comer como com- volver vuelvo vuelv- decir digo dig- escribir escribo escrib- Endings -ar VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -e -es -e -en nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -emos -éis -er AND -ir VERBS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -a -as -a -an nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -amos -áis Stem Changes -Ar and -er stem-changing verbs do not change stems in the nosotros and vosotros forms. i) sentir (ie. u) morir (ue. i) pedir (i. u) arrepintamos divirtamos sintamos pidamos sirvamos durmamos muramos arrepintáis divirtáis sintáis pidáis sirváis durmáis muráis 161 . i) servir (i. INFINITIVE nosotros FORM vosotros FORM arrepentir (ie. -Ir stem-changing verbs have a stem change (the second one indicated in parentheses) in the nosotros and vosotros forms. i) divertir (ie.

162 GRAMMAR Automatic Spelling Changes in Conjugations VERBS THAT END IN -car -que -ques -que -quen nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -quemos -quéis yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas VERBS THAT END IN -gar -gue -gues -gue -guen nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -guemos -guéis yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas VERBS THAT END IN -guar -güe -gües -güe -güen nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -güemos -güéis yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas VERBS THAT END IN -zar -ce -ces -ce -cen nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -cemos -ceis yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas VERBS THAT END IN -ger -ja -jas -ja -jan OR -gir nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -jamos -jáis yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas Verbs That Are Irregular in the Present Subjunctive ser sea seas sea sean ir vaya vayas vaya vayan seamos seáis ver vea veas vea vean haber haya hayas haya hayan veamos veáis saber sepa sepas sepa sepan sepamos sepáis vayamos vayáis hayamos hayáis .

FORM d hablar comer escribir hable coma escriba hablen coman escriban hablemos comamos escribamos habla come escribe hablad comed escribid Object pronouns are attached to the end of affirmative commands. IRREGULAR FORMS OF AFFIRMATIVE tú COMMANDS hacer ir poner salir tener venir haz ve pon sal ten ven Negative Commands usted no SUBJUNCTIVE INFINITIVE ustedes no SUBJUNCTIVE nosotros no SUBJUNCTIVE tú no SUBJUNCTIVE vosotros no SUBJUNCTIVE nosotros FORM vosotros FORM Ud. FORM Ud. comer sentarse dar cómalo siéntese déselo cómanlo siéntense dénselo comámoslo sentémonos* démoselo* cómelo siéntate dáselo comedlo sentados dádselo *Drop the s from -mos when it is followed by nos or se. FORM Uds. comer no lo coma no lo coman no lo comamos no lo comas no lo comáis sentarse no se siente no se sienten no nos sentemos no te sientes no os sentéis dar no se lo dé no se lo den no se lo demos no se lo des no se lo deis . FORM Uds.VERBS: the present subjunctive 163 Commands Affirmative Commands usted SUBJUNCTIVE INFINITIVE ustedes SUBJUNCTIVE nosotros SUBJUNCTIVE tú INDICATIVE vosotros INFINITIVE MINUS PLUS nosotros FORM r Ud. FORM tu FORM hablar comer escribir no hable no coma no escriba no hablen no coman no escriban no hablemos no comamos no escribamos no hables no comas no escribas no habléis no comáis no escribáis Object pronouns are placed between no and the verb.

✗ No hay nada que me gusta. No existe nadie que cocine mejor. ✗ No hay nadie que me comprende. Expressing What Seems Not to Exist The present subjunctive in Spanish is used to express that somebody or something doesn’t exist. ✗ tena ✗ pense Be sure to make stem changes in -ar and -er verbs. AVOID THE There is no job that interests me. No hay nadie que me comprenda. the verb in the clause that follows is in the present subjunctive. There is nobody who understands me. There’s nobody who cooks better. Uses of the Present Subjunctive When the verb that triggers subjunctive use is in the present or future tense.164 GRAMMAR Review the forms in the charts on the preceding pages. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ haca ✗ volva ✗ pona ✗ perda Be sure to use the yo form of the present indicative tense to determine the correct subjunctive stem. at least in the opinion of the speaker. I don’t see anything I like. Do not make stem changes in the nosotros and vosotros forms of -ar and -er verbs. No veo nada que me guste. ✗ piensemos ✗ vuelvamos ✗ pierdais Be sure to make stem changes in the nosotros and vosotros forms of -ir verbs. ✗ No conozco a nadie que vive aquí. No hay ningún trabajo que me interese. ✗ dormamos ✗ almuerze ✗ averigue ✗ divertamos ✗ busce ✗ recoga ✗ servamos ✗ juege ✗ finga Be aware of automatic spelling changes. Blunder .

INDICATIVE Nuestros amigos tienen una casa que tiene piscina. but the actual person or object sought is as yet unknown. quien me comprende. We want (to find) a house that has a swimming pool.” indicating that the direct object is a person. is not used when the person is as yet unknown. INDICATIVE Germán tiene un puesto que le paga bien. even if they are unknown. Germán needs (to find) a job that pays him well. Nevertheless. Busco un amigo que hable español. INDICATIVE Necesito a mi novio.VERBS: the present subjunctive 165 Expressing Desired Characteristics The present subjunctive is used to describe the characteristics desired in someone or something. the “personal a” is used before alguien and nadie when they are direct objects. INDICATIVE Busco a mi amigo que habla español. who understands me. Germán has a job that pays him well. AVOID THE Blunder Use the indicative if you can picture the actual person or item in question. SUBJUNCTIVE Germán necesita un puesto que le pague bien. SUBJUNCTIVE I’m looking for my friend who speaks Spanish. SUBJUNCTIVE Nosotros queremos una casa que tenga piscina. ] The “personal a. Use the subjunctive if you only have an idea about what the wished-for person or item should be like. . I need (to find) a boyfriend who understands me. ✗ Germán quiere un puesto que le paga bien. I’m looking for a (possible) friend who speaks Spanish. Our friends have a house that has a swimming pool. Necesito un novio que me comprenda. ✗ Busco un asistente que habla español. SUBJUNCTIVE I need my boyfriend.

Ojalá que no llueva. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. ✗ Esperamos que no llegan tarde. I haven’t found anybody who knows how to do this. Quiero que estudies. Esperamos que no lleguen tarde. (May God grant that we see each other this summer. Mis padres prefieren que trabaje con ellos.) I hope we will be able to see each other this summer. . Blunder Expressing Desire for Action The subjunctive is used when the subject expresses a desire for action by another person or other people. María would like you to leave. Quiero que estudies. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I want to study. Ojalá que podamos vernos este verano. When the action of the second verb is to be performed by the subject of the first verb. I hope it doesn’t rain. I want you to study. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Quiero estudiar. ✗ Busco mi amiga Susana. ✗ Busco alguien. No he encontrado a nadie que sepa hacer esto. (May God grant that it not rain. ✗ Quiero tú estudiar. ✗ No busco nadie. We hope they don’t arrive late.) AVOID THE Blunder Do not translate the English construction word for word.166 GRAMMAR Busco a alguien que me pueda ayudar. I want you to study. ✗ Ojalá que no llueve. My parents prefer that I work with them. AVOID THE I’m looking for somebody who can help me. María prefiere que te vayas.

SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS We prefer to eat here. Expressing Attempt to Control an Action The present subjunctive is used to indicate an attempt to control the actions of others. He begs me to forgive him. ] To give advice El consejero me recomienda que estudie un idioma. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (Ella) espera ser médico. The doctor advises her to lose weight. Me suplica que lo perdone. Le implora que tenga paciencia. AVOID THE ✗ Ella espera que (ella misma) pueda ser médico. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS Espero que puedas ir a la fiesta. I beg you all to let me go. El médico le aconseja que pierda peso. The counselor recommends that I study a language. . ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN Blunder subject verb direct object infinitive que (subject) indirect object subjunctive verb verb The subject has one of several different intentions: ] To make a request Te pido que me acompañes. Les ruego que me dejen ir. I hope I can go to the party. She hopes to be a doctor. Preferimos que coma aquí. He begs her to be patient.VERBS: the present subjunctive INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT 167 Preferimos comer aquí. I’m asking you to go with me. We prefer that he eat here. She hopes he will be a doctor. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Espero poder ir a la fiesta. I suggest that you go home. ✗ Preferimos que (él) come aquí. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS (Ella) espera que (él) sea médico. Yo te sugiero que vayas a casa. I hope you can go to the party.

✗ Sus padres prohíben que se casen. La maestra le manda a él que se siente. ✗ El oficial ordena a ellos que marchen. Their parents forbid them to marry.168 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the infinitive to indicate requests or to give advice. El oficial les ordena a ellos que marchen. ✗ La maestra manda a él que se siente. The boss demands that we work. . AVOID THE Blunder Do not leave out the indirect object pronoun. ✗ Pido a ti acompañarme. ] To prohibit an action Sus padres les prohíben que se casen. AVOID THE Blunder Do not leave out the indirect object pronoun. Mi madre me dice que la ayude. El guardia nos impide que entremos. The teacher orders him to sit down. ✗ El guardia impide que entremos. This construction is an alternative to the infinitive construction described on pages 99–100. This construction is an alternative to the infinitive construction described on pages 99–100. The officer orders them to march. The guard stops us from entering. ✗ El jefe exige que trabajemos. Both patterns are correct. ✗ Sugiero a ti ir a casa. Both patterns are correct. ] To make a demand El jefe nos exige que trabajemos. My mother tells me to help her.

INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Estoy contenta de estar aquí. AVOID THE ✗ Estoy contenta que estoy aquí. ✗ Siento que no puedo visitarte. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Siento no poder visitarte. Es una lástima que te vayas. No creo que Julia venga mañana. I’m not sure it’s Martín. probability. I’m sorry you can’t visit me. INDICATIVE Estoy segura de que es Martín. if the second verb indicates an action performed by the subject of the first verb. Es fantástico que estés aquí conmigo. It’s a shame that you’re leaving. I’m sorry I can’t visit you.VERBS: the present subjunctive 169 Expressing Feelings About a Fact The subjunctive is used when there is an expression of personal feeling or emotion about a fact. It’s fantastic that you’re here with me. I’m so glad you feel better. or improbability in the present or future. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I’m glad I’m here. Siento mucho que no te guste. . INDICATIVE Blunder Creo que Julia viene mañana. I don’t think Julia is coming tomorrow. impossibility. Me alegro mucho de que te sientas mejor. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS Siento que no puedas visitarme. possibility. SUBJUNCTIVE No estoy segura de que sea Martín. Estoy contenta que estés aquí. SUBJUNCTIVE I think Julia is coming tomorrow. When expressing emotion. an infinitive construction after a preposition is used instead of the subjunctive after que (see page 97). I’m sorry you don’t like it. I’m sure it’s Martín. Expressing Doubt The subjunctive is used when there is an expression of doubt. I’m glad you’re here.

There’s no doubt that it’s a good course. it is followed by a verb in the indicative. AVOID THE Blunder Use the indicative to indicate certainty. I know she’s at home. Te lo digo cuando llegues a casa. It’s not possible that he’s her boyfriend. I’ll tell you when you get home. You always call me when I’m busy. INDICATIVE No hay duda de que es un buen curso. I doubt it’s a good course. while Claudio prepares breakfast. SUBJUNCTIVE Tal vez / Quizá(s) no esté en su casa. I’ll call you when you’re not busy. ✗ No creo que Julia viene mañana. the subjunctive to indicate uncertainty. Natalia lee el periódico. Maybe she’s not at home. INDICATIVE Sé que está en su casa. Es imposible que sea su novio. SUBJUNCTIVE It’s certain that he’s her boyfriend. En la mañana. ✗ Creo que Julia venga mañana. In the morning. ] cuando and mientras when they refer to a future action Te llamo / Te voy a llamar / Te llamaré cuando no estés ocupada. Natalia reads the newspaper. mientras Claudio prepara el desayuno. When cuando or mientras indicates simultaneous action. Expressing the Time of a Future Action The subjunctive is used after certain expressions that indicate the time of future action. Siempre me llamas cuando estoy ocupada.170 INDICATIVE GRAMMAR Es cierto que es su novio. Mis primos visitarán todos los museos mientras estén aquí. SUBJUNCTIVE Dudo que sea buen curso. . My cousins will go to all the museums while they’re here.

She’s going to wash the dishes after she eats. Ella se casará tan pronto como se gradúe. ] Blunder en cuanto and tan pronto como Vamos a empezar en cuanto vengan los otros.VERBS: the present subjunctive 171 AVOID THE ✗ Te lo digo cuando llegas a casa. (después que ) (después de ) Ella va a lavar los platos después de comer. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT We’ll eat before he leaves. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS We’ll eat before we leave. (antes que ) Comeremos antes que se vaya él. Margarita is going to study until she gets her doctorate. She will get married as soon as she graduates. AVOID THE She’s going to wash the dishes after we eat. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS Ella va a lavar los platos después que comamos. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (antes de ) Comeremos antes de irnos. Ricardo will graduate before his sister begins her studies. ] Blunder hasta que Margarita va a estudiar hasta que tenga su doctorado. We’re going to start as soon as the others get here. When expressing “before” or “after. . We’re going on vacation after Ricardo graduates. an infinitive construction after a preposition is used instead of the subjunctive after que (see page 97).” if the second verb indicates action to be performed by the subject of the first verb. ✗ Comeremos antes que nos vamos. Vamos de vacaciones después que Ricardo se gradúe. ✗ Siempre me llamas cuando esté ocupada. ✗ Comeremos antes que se va él. ] antes que and después que Ricardo se graduará antes que su hermana empiece a estudiar.

172 GRAMMAR Expressing Conditions Required for the Occurrence of an Action The subjunctive is used after certain expressions that indicate the conditions necessary for the occurrence of some other action. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (con tal de ) Iré contigo con tal de no tener que volver sola. ] con tal (de) que Te enseño a tocar la guitarra con tal de que me ayudes con la computadora. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I’ll go with you as long as I don’t have to come back alone. ✗ Iré contigo con tal que no tengo que volver sola. I’ll teach you to play the guitar provided you help me with the computer. if the second verb indicates action to be performed by the subject of the first verb. AVOID THE I’ll go with you as long as you come back with me. an infinitive construction is used after a preposition instead of the subjunctive after que (see page 97). Take your umbrella in case it rains. They’ll pay us if and when we finish the job. ] en caso (de) que Llévate el paraguas en caso de que llueva. I’ll call you unless my cell phone doesn’t work. The boy can watch television as long as he does his homework first. ✗ El niño puede ver televisión siempre que hace sus tareas. ] Blunder a menos que Te llamaré a menos que no funcione mi celular. ] siempre que El niño puede ver televisión siempre que haga sus tareas primero. (con tal (de) que ) Iré contigo con tal de que vuelvas conmigo. . ✗ Nos pagarán siempre y cuando terminamos. ] siempre y cuando Nos pagarán siempre y cuando terminemos el trabajo. When using con tal.

VERBS: the present subjunctive 173 Les voy a dar mi número en caso de que necesiten algo. Expressing Avoidance of Interference The present subjunctive is used after sin que to indicate the avoidance of interference with the action of the first verb. Felipe le va a mandar un boleto a su madre para que ella lo visite. Ella va a salir con el chico sin que su madre lo sepa. (para que) Su mamá trabaja para que él pueda estudiar. When expressing purpose. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (sin ) Quiero practicar sin molestar a nadie. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (para) Su mamá trabaja para poder estudiar. if the second verb indicates action performed by the subject of the first verb. . I’ll give you my friend’s address so that you can contact him when you arrive. if the second verb indicates action performed by the subject of the first verb. I’m going to give you all my number in case you need anything. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive (see page 97). Te doy la dirección de mi amigo a fin de que puedas localizarlo cuando llegues. I want to practice without anybody listening to me. I’m going to read the novel in class without the teacher noticing it. (sin que ) Quiero practicar sin que nadie me escuche. Expressing Purpose of Action The present subjunctive is used after para que and a fin de que to indicate the purpose of the action of the first verb. Felipe is going to send a ticket to his mother so she can visit him. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I want to practice without bothering anyone. She’s going to go out with the guy without her mother knowing about it. When using sin. Voy a leer la novela en clase sin que la maestra se dé cuenta. His mother works so he can study. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS His mother works so she can study.

✗ no cómalo ✗ no siéntense ✗ no déselo Affirmative commands of the verbs ir and irse in the nosotros form use the indicative instead of the subjunctive. Put your coat on. Let’s sit here. No vayamos al cine. Vamos al cine. y Vamos a sentarnos aquí. vamos a plus the infinitive can be used. Blunder Commands The present subjunctive is used in the formation of some commands. Blunder Do not attach object pronouns to the verb in negative commands. Let’s not leave. Abríguese. As an alternative to the nosotros command for other verbs.) Tell it to him. Comamos. Váyanse de aquí. Review the forms in the chart on page 163. . Let’s go to the movies. Dígaselo. Let’s not go to the movies. Let’s go. Vamos a comer. No nos vayamos.174 GRAMMAR AVOID THE ✗ Su mamá trabaja para que (ella misma) pueda estudiar. Get out of here. ✗ Su mamá trabaja para que él puede estudiar. / Let’s leave. Vámonos. Cómalo. (Wrap yourself up. i Sentémonos aquí. An accent mark must be added to the stressed syllable of the verb. i y t Let’s eat. AVOID THE Eat it. t Negative commands of the verbs ir and irse use the subjunctive. Object pronouns are attached to the end of affirmative commands.

(escribir) (llamar. tú) por la mañana. indicative. She advises you to work harder. or subjunctive—of the verb in parentheses. He doubts that I can do it. 7. I’ll call you as soon as I know the news. Esperamos 10. Conozco a una persona que idiomas. Voy a buscar trabajo tan pronto como a la ciudad. 2. . We’re looking for a manager who speaks Spanish. ellos) mañana. 4. I hope you come to the party. 3. 7. ustedes) a la reunión. Por favor. 1. It’s wonderful that you’re here! 6. 5. Estoy segura que 8. 5. Esperamos que B Express the following in Spanish. (llegar) (venir. (tener) cuatro (hablar) cinco (gustar) a él. El profesor nos exige que en español. no me 6. 2. (aceptar. 1.VERBS: the present subjunctive 175 Exercises A Write the appropriate form—infinitive. ellos) (ir) a la reunión. 3. No hay ningún postre que le 4. Buscamos una casa que dormitorios. There’s nobody who cooks like my mother. Jaime no cree que lo en la universidad. 9. (ir.

(venir) 2. C Write commands for the following situations. 9. 10. 1. Tell a child to come with you. She goes out without his knowing it.176 GRAMMAR 8. Tell someone you hardly know to please sit down. (levantarse) 4. Suggest to your friends that you go to the movies. They’ll save money so they can travel. 3. I’ll pick you up unless I have to work. 1. . (ir) D Now write the commands in Exercise C as negative commands. Tell a group of people to stand up. 4. (sentarse) 3. 2.

VERBS the preterite perfect subjunctive Formation Present subjunctive of haber past participle The Present Subjunctive of haber yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas haya hayas haya hayan nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) hayamos hayáis Past Participle Formation Verb stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) -ar verbs -ado hablar hablado -er verbs -ido comer comido -ir verbs -ido vivir vivido IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES abrir cubrir descubrir decir predecir escribir describir prescribir hacer morir abierto cubierto descubierto dicho predicho escrito descrito prescrito hecho muerto poner oponer proponer ver prever volver devolver revolver resolver romper puesto opuesto propuesto visto previsto vuelto devuelto revuelto resuelto roto 177 .

✗ que yo ha decido ✗ que él ha escribido Uses of the Preterite Perfect Subjunctive The preterite perfect subjunctive is used to express present or future emotion. AVOID THE Blunder Note that the present subjunctive tense of haber is irregular. AVOID THE I don’t see anybody who studied with me last year. the subjunctive is used in Spanish to refer to someone who is needed by the subject. but who is as yet unknown to him or her. doubt. No veo a nadie que haya estudiado conmigo el año pasado. hope.178 GRAMMAR Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. The preterite perfect subjunctive describes what kind of person this could be by telling what he or she has already done. Expressing What Seems Not to Have Existed The subjunctive is used to express what—at least for the speaker or writer—doesn’t exist. Be sure to learn the irregular past participle forms. and other feelings about what may or may not have occurred in the past. ✗ No veo nadie que haya estudiado conmigo. There isn’t a single recipe here that’s been kitchen-tested. The preterite perfect subjunctive describes that person or thing according to something that may or may not have occurred in the past. It follows a “subjunctive signal” that is expressed in the present or future tense. No hay ninguna receta aquí que haya sido comprobada en la cocina. ✗ No conozco nadie que haya vivido aquí. Expressing Desired Characteristics Based on Experience Contrary to English usage. . Blunder Do not forget the “personal a” before nadie.

✗ Busco los exámenes que no han sido corregidos. Queremos un apartamento que haya sido pintado recientemente. AVOID THE We want an apartment that has been painted recently. I want a boyfriend who has already started his career. I hope it didn’t rain. ✗ Quiero un novio que ha empezado su carrera. Busco los exámenes que no hayan sido corregidos. A passive construction in the preterite perfect subjunctive is used to describe what is desired according to what has been done to it. Expressing Other Desired Characteristics The subjunctive in Spanish is also used to refer to something that is needed by the subject. Esperamos que no hayan llegado tarde. Ojalá que no haya llovido. Blunder Do not forget the “personal a” before alguien. We hope they didn’t arrive late. Use the subjunctive instead. as you would in English. ✗ Queremos un apartamento que ha sido pintado. Do not use an indicative form. Blunder . ✗ Busco un asistente que ha estudiado español.VERBS: the preterite perfect subjunctive 179 Necesito a alguien que haya vivido en ese pueblo. ✗ Necesito alguien que haya vivido allí. Expressing Hopes About a Past Event The preterite perfect subjunctive is used when the subject indicates a hope or wish about a past event. I’m looking for the exams that haven’t been corrected. Quiero un novio que haya empezado su carrera. I’m looking for an assistant who has studied Spanish. AVOID THE I need someone who has lived in that town. Busco un asistente que haya estudiado español. but is as yet unknown to him or her.

possibility. Es una lástima que se haya ido. ✗ Ojalá que no llovió. as you would in English. AVOID THE It’s fantastic that you were here with me. Me alegro que te hayas mejorado. . Siento no haber podido visitarte. I’m sorry you couldn’t visit me. When the second verb expresses an action performed by the subject of the first verb. I’m glad you got better. Siento mucho que no te haya gustado. Expressing Present Feelings About the Past The preterite perfect subjunctive is used when there is an expression of present feeling or emotion about a past occurrence. TWO DIFFERENT PEOPLE I’m sorry I couldn’t visit you. ✗ Me alegro que te mejoraste. an infinitive construction (haber past participle) is used instead of the subjunctive. or improbability about what occurred in the past. It’s a shame that he left. ✗ Esperamos que no llegaron tarde. impossibility. ✗ Es una lástima que se fue. TWO DIFFERENT PEOPLE She’s glad she was here. Siento que no hayas podido visitarme. Es fantástico que hayas estado aquí conmigo. Ella está contenta que hayas estado aquí.180 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not use a past indicative tense. Expressing Present Doubt About Past Action The preterite perfect subjunctive is used when there is a present expression of doubt. probability. ONE PERSON Blunder Ella está contenta de haber estado aquí. I’m very sorry you didn’t like it. ONE PERSON She’s glad you were here.

I’ll stay at my parents’ house until I have found a job. as you would in English. You can watch television after dinner unless you haven’t done your homework. AVOID THE I don’t think Julia went to the party. Dudo que haya sido muy buen curso. ] en caso de que He hecho una sopa en caso de que no hayas comido. ✗ No estoy segura que era Martín. do not use a past indicative tense. Blunder When there is present doubt about a past occurrence. They’ll pay us only when we have finished the job. I made soup in case you haven’t eaten. I doubt that it was a very good course. Expressing Possibility of Occurrence The preterite perfect subjunctive is used after the following expressions to indicate what may or may not have happened at some future time. No estoy segura que haya sido Martín. ] siempre y cuando Nos pagarán siempre y cuando hayamos terminado el trabajo. The lawyer is going to help him provided he has told him the whole truth. ] hasta que Me quedaré en la casa de mis padres hasta que haya encontrado trabajo. It’s not possible that that happened. I’m not sure it was Martín.VERBS: the preterite perfect subjunctive 181 No creo que Julia haya ido a la fiesta. ] con tal (de) que El abogado lo va a ayudar con tal que le haya dicho toda la verdad. Es imposible que haya ocurrido eso. . ✗ No creo que Julia fue a la fiesta. ] a menos que Puedes ver la televisión después de cenar a menos que no hayas hecho tus tareas.

When the action is to be performed by the subject of the first verb. . Iré contigo al cine con tal que hayas arreglado el coche. en cuanto. Call me when you have solved the problem. Expressing Completion of Future Action The preterite perfect subjunctive is used after cuando. and tan pronto como to indicate when future action will have been completed. ] tan pronto como Ella se casará tan pronto como su novio haya empezado a trabajar. The preterite perfect subjunctive is used after the following expressions when the verb in the first clause expresses future action and the subject of the second clause is different from that of the first. (con tal (de) que ) SUBJUNCTIVE — TWO DIFFERENT PEOPLE I’ll go to the movies with you provided you have fixed the car. ✗ Llámame cuando has solucionado el problema. ✗ Vamos a empezar en cuanto todos se han sentado. I’ll go to the movies with you provided I have fixed the car. Vamos a celebrar cuando ellas se hayan graduado. We’ll celebrate when they have graduated. ✗ Me quedaré en la casa de mis padres hasta que he encontrado trabajo. She will get married as soon as her boyfriend has started to work. ] cuando Llámame cuando hayas solucionado el problema. ✗ El abogado lo va a ayudar con tal que le ha dicho toda la verdad. INFINITIVE — ONE PERSON (con tal de ) Iré contigo al cine con tal de haber arreglado el coche. there is no que and an infinitive construction (haber past participle) is used instead. ] en cuanto Vamos a empezar en cuanto todos se hayan sentado. as you would in English. We’re going to start as soon as everybody has sat down.182 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the indicative with these expressions.

INFINITIVE — ONE PERSON She’ll find out before she has left. 4. ✗ Lo sabremos antes que ha salido mi hermano. Exercise A Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. tú) visitarnos la semana (poder) atenderte ayer. Iré de compras con tal que mi jefe me (estudiar) español (terminar) sus estudios. Lo sabremos antes que haya salido mi hermano. Ella va a lavar los platos después que hayamos terminado de comer. Nos alegra que pasada. (después que ) (después de ) Ella va a lavar los platos después de haber terminado de comer. Use the subjunctive when they are different. Blunder Use the infinitive when the subjects are the same. Siento mucho no 5. No hay nadie aquí que 3. 2. ✗ Ella lo sabrá antes que ha salido. (antes que ) SUBJUNCTIVE — TWO DIFFERENT PEOPLE We’ll find out before my brother has left. 1. AVOID THE SUBJUNCTIVE — TWO DIFFERENT PEOPLE She’s going to wash the dishes after we have finished eating. She’s going to wash the dishes after she has finished eating.VERBS: the preterite perfect subjunctive INFINITIVE — ONE PERSON 183 (antes de ) Ella lo sabrá antes de haber salido. (poder. . (pagar). Carmen busca una asistente que por más de dos años.

VERBS the imperfect subjunctive Formation Stem (ellos form of the preterite minus -ron) 3 PL . INFINITIVE PRETERITE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE STEM endings hablar comer escribir dormir tener ir hablaron comieron escribieron durmieron tuvieron fueron hablacomieescribiedurmietuviefue- Endings yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -ra -ras -ra -ran nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -ramos -rais ALTERNATIVE ENDINGS yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas -se -ses -se -sen nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) -semos -seis The Imperfect Subjunctive of Pattern 1 Verbs -ar VERBS hablar hablara hablaras hablara hablaran habláramos hablarais OR hablase hablases hablase hablasen hablásemos hablaseis 184 .

CHANGING VERBS dormir durmiera durmieras durmiera durmieran durmiéramos durmierais OR durmiese durmieses durmiese durmiesen durmiésemos durmieseis The Imperfect Subjunctive of Pattern 2 Verbs tener tuviera tuvieras tuviera tuvieran ir fuera fueras fuera fueran tuviéramos tuvierais OR tuviese tuvieses tuviese tuviesen fuese fueses fuese fuesen tuviésemos tuvieseis fuéramos fuerais OR fuésemos fueseis .VERBS: the imperfect subjunctive 185 -er VERBS comer comiera comieras comiera comieran leer leyera leyeras leyera leyeran comiéramos comierais OR comiese comieses comiese comiesen leyese leyeses leyese leyesen comiésemos comiesen leyéramos leyerais OR leyésemos leyeseis -ir VERBS escribir escribiera escribieras escribiera escribieran escribiéramos escribierais OR escribiese escribieses escribiese escribiesen escribiésemos escribieseis -ir STEM .

I didn’t see anything I liked. No había nadie que me comprendiera. AVOID THE ✗ estara ✗ leera ✗ dormiera ✗ tenera Blunder Be sure to write an accent mark on the third-last syllable of nosotros forms. No existía nadie que cocinara mejor. Keep in mind the various irregularities in the formation of the preterite tense. A subjunctive signal expressed in the imperfect or preterite tense is followed by a clause in the imperfect subjunctive that refers to a past action or situation. No vi nada que me gustara. etc. ✗ trabajaramos ✗ leyeramos ✗ vivieramos Uses of the Imperfect Subjunctive Review expressions that trigger the use of the subjunctive (see pages 158–160). delete the -ron ending.186 GRAMMAR Review the forms in the charts on the preceding pages. There was no job that interested me. and add the endings -ra. begin with the thirdperson plural form of the preterite indicative tense. No había ningún trabajo que me interesara. -ras. There was nobody who understood me. To form the imperfect subjunctive in Spanish. . Expressing What Seemed Not to Exist The imperfect subjunctive in Spanish is used to indicate that—for the speaker—something or someone did not exist. There was nobody who cooked better.

is not used when the person was as yet unknown.” indicating that the direct object is a person. as you would in English.VERBS: the imperfect subjunctive 187 Expressing Desired Characteristics The imperfect subjunctive is used to describe the characteristics that were desired in someone or something. SUBJUNCTIVE I needed my boyfriend. Blunder Do not use a past indicative tense in the second clause. Queríamos una casa que tuviera piscina. Germán necesitaba un trabajo que le pagara bien. ✗ Queríamos una casa que tenía piscina. who understood me. but the actual person or object sought was as yet unknown. quien me comprendía. Buscaba a alguien que me pudiera ayudar. Germán needed a job that paid him well. I didn’t find anybody who knew how to do this. I was looking for somebody who could help me. ] The “personal a. the “personal a” is used before alguien and nadie when they are direct objects. Necesitaba un novio que me comprendiera. AVOID THE I was looking for / looked for an assistant who spoke Spanish. Buscaba/Busqué un asistente que hablara español. María wanted you to leave. María prefería que te fueras. Expressing Desire for Action The imperfect subjunctive is used when the subject expresses a past desire for action by another person or other people. I needed (to find) a boyfriend who understood me. ✗ Buscaba un asistente que hablaba español. Yo quería que estudiaras. No encontré a nadie que supiera hacer esto. INDICATIVE Necesitaba a mi novio. Nevertheless. We wanted a house that had a swimming pool. even if they were unknown. I wanted you to study. .

I wanted you to study. The doctor advised her to lose weight. ✗ Ella esperaba que él sería médico. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I wanted to study. We hoped they wouldn’t arrive late.188 GRAMMAR Esperábamos que no llegaran tarde. ✗ Yo quería que tú estudiar. He begged me to forgive him. My parents preferred that I work with them. When the action of the second verb is to be performed by the subject of the first verb. Mis padres preferían que trabajara con ellos. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Quería estudiar. I begged you all to let me go. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (Ella) esperaba ser médico. The counselor recommended that I study a language. Yo te sugerí que fueras a casa. Les rogaba que me dejaran ir. El médico le aconsejó que perdiera peso. Quería que estudiaras. She hoped he would be a doctor. Le imploró que tuviera paciencia. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS (Ella) esperaba que (él) fuera médico. The subject has one of several different intentions: ] Blunder To report a past request Te pedí que me acompañaras. She hoped to be a doctor. AVOID THE ✗ (Yo) quería que yo estudiara. ✗ Ella esperaba que (ella misma) fuera médico. Expressing Attempt to Control an Action The imperfect subjunctive is used to indicate an attempt in the past to control the actions of others. . Me suplicaba que lo perdonara. I asked you to go with me. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. ] To report past advice El consejero me recomendó que estudiara un idioma. I suggested that you go home. He begged her to be patient.

The officer ordered them to march. This construction is an alternative to the infinitive construction described on page 99. ✗ Pedí a ti acompañarme. My mother told me to help her. La maestra le mandó que se sentara. Both patterns are correct. Fue fantástico que estuvieras aquí conmigo. The teacher ordered him to sit down. Sentía mucho que no te gustara. Expressing Past Feelings About Past Action The imperfect subjunctive is used when there is an expression of past personal feeling or emotion about a fact. It was a shame that he moved away.VERBS: the imperfect subjunctive 189 AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the infinitive to indicate requests or to give advice. ✗ Sugerí a ti ir a casa. Fue una lástima que se mudara. Me alegraba mucho de que te sintieras mejor. . El oficial les ordenó que marcharan. Mi madre me dijo que la ayudara. ] To report a past demand El jefe nos exigió que trabajáramos. This construction is an alternative to the infinitive construction described on page 99. Sus padres les prohibieron que se casaran. I was sorry you didn’t like it. The guard stopped us from entering. El guardia nos impedía que entráramos. ] To report a past prohibition ENGLISH PATTERN subject past-tense verb infinitive direct object SPANISH PATTERN subject indirect object preterite or imperfect indicative verb que verb in imperfect subjunctive Their parents forbade them to marry. The boss demanded that we work. Both patterns are correct. It was fantastic that you were here with me. I was so glad you felt better.

INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Estaba contenta de estar allí. Estaba contenta que estuvieras allí. INDICATIVE Fue cierto que era su novio. I was glad you were there. or improbability in the past. AVOID THE ✗ (Yo) estaba contenta que yo estuviera allí. ✗ Yo sentía que no pudiera visitarte. INDICATIVE Estaba segura de que era Martín. No creía que Julia viniera. SUBJUNCTIVE It was certain that he was her boyfriend. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I was glad to be there. Fue imposible que fuera su novio. SUBJUNCTIVE No estaba segura de que fuera Martín. Expressing Past Doubt The imperfect subjunctive is used to indicate doubt. I was sorry I couldn’t visit you. I didn’t think Julia was coming. probability. impossibility. SUBJUNCTIVE Dudaba que fuera buen curso. I was sorry you didn’t come to visit me. INDICATIVE Blunder Creía que Julia venía mañana. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT Sentía no poder visitarte. SUBJUNCTIVE I thought Julia was coming tomorrow. It wasn’t possible that he was her boyfriend. There was no doubt that it was a good course. I was sure it was Martín. possibility. I wasn’t sure it was Martín. I doubted it was a good course. .190 GRAMMAR When the second verb indicates an action performed by the subject of the first verb. INDICATIVE No había duda de que fue un buen curso. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS Sentía que no vinieras a visitarme.

Expressing the Time of a Later Action The imperfect subjunctive is used after certain expressions that indicate the time of later action. ] cuando when it refers to later action Te iba a llamar cuando no estuvieras ocupada. Siempre me llamabas cuando estaba ocupada. ✗ Se lo iba a decir cuando llegaba a casa. ✗ Creía que Julia viniera mañana.VERBS: the imperfect subjunctive 191 AVOID THE Blunder Use the indicative to indicate certainty. Ella se iba a casar tan pronto como se graduara. Ella siempre me traía flores cuando venía a mi casa. . it is followed by a verb in the imperfect indicative. She was going to get married as soon as she graduated. ✗ No estaba segura de que fue Martín. When cuando indicates simultaneous action in the past. ✗ Ella siempre me traía flores cuando viniera a mi casa. I was going to tell him when he got home. ✗ Estaba segura que fuera Martín. AVOID THE You always called me when I was busy. the subjunctive to indicate uncertainty. ✗ No creía que Julia venía. ] Blunder en cuanto and tan pronto como Íbamos a empezar en cuanto vinieran los otros. Se lo iba a decir cuando llegara a casa. I was going to call you when you weren’t busy. ✗ Te iba a llamar cuando no estabas ocupada. ✗ Siempre me llamabas cuando estuviera ocupada. She always brought me flowers when she came to my house. We were going to start as soon as the others got here.

Fuimos de vacaciones después que Ricardo se graduara. ✗ Ella lavó los platos después que comió. We went on vacation after Ricardo graduated. ] Blunder hasta que Ricardo estudió hasta que supiera todos los datos importantes. They paid us if and when we finished the job. AVOID THE She washed the dishes after we ate. Ricardo graduated before his sister began her studies. (después que ) Ella lavó los platos después que comiéramos. (antes que ) Comimos antes que se fuera mi hermano. ] siempre y cuando Nos pagaban siempre y cuando termináramos el trabajo. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS We ate before we left home. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS She washed the dishes after she ate. Ricardo studied until he knew all the important facts.192 ] GRAMMAR antes que and después que Ricardo se graduó antes que su hermana empezara a estudiar. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT We ate before my brother left. Expressing Conditions Necessary for the Occurrence of an Action The imperfect subjunctive is used to indicate the conditions that were necessary for the occurrence of some other action. (después de ) Ella lavó los platos después de comer. . ✗ Ella lavó los platos después que comimos.” if the second verb indicates action to be performed by the subject of the first verb. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (antes de ) Comimos antes de salir de casa. When expressing “before” or “after. ✗ Comimos antes que se fue mi hermano. ✗ Comimos antes que salimos de casa.

I taught him to play the guitar on the condition that he help me with the computer. if the second verb indicates action to be performed by the subject of the first verb. When using con tal. Les di mi número en caso de que necesitaran algo.VERBS: the imperfect subjunctive 193 ] con tal (de) que Le enseñaba a tocar la guitarra con tal de que me ayudara con la computadora. ✗ La ayudaba con su tarea con tal de que podía repasar ✗ Trabajaba mucho con tal de que podía ganar dinero. AVOID THE He worked a lot so that his daughter could study. ] en caso (de) que Las chicas llevaron el paraguas en caso que lloviera. He always called me at eight unless his cell phone wasn’t working. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS Trabajaba mucho con tal de que su hija pudiera estudiar. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (con tal de ) La ayudaba con su tarea con tal de repasar un poco las lecciones. ] Blunder las lecciones. (con tal (de) que ) La ayudaba con su tarea con tal de que ella le prestara su coche. . SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS He helped her with her homework so he could review the lessons a bit. I gave them my number in case they needed something. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT He helped her with her homework provided she would lend him her car. He worked a lot in order to earn money. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. The girls took the umbrella in case it rained. (con tal (de) que ) (con tal de ) Trabajaba mucho con tal de ganar dinero. a menos que Siempre me llamaba a las ocho a menos que no funcionara su celular.

I gave you my friend’s address so you could contact him when you arrived. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (sin ) Quería practicar sin molestar a nadie. Expressing Past Purpose The imperfect subjunctive is used after para que and a fin de que to indicate the purpose of the action of the first verb. She went out with the guy without her mother finding out. an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. Blunder When expressing purpose. INFINITIVE — SAME SUBJECT (para) Su mamá trabajaba para poder estudiar. . an infinitive construction is used instead of the subjunctive. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS His mother worked so she could study. AVOID THE I wanted to practice without being bothered by anyone. (para que) Su mamá trabajaba para que él pudiera estudiar. I was going to read the novel in class without the teacher noticing it. SUBJUNCTIVE — DIFFERENT SUBJECTS I wanted to practice without bothering anyone. When using sin. Iba a leer la novela en clase sin que la maestra se diera cuenta. (sin que ) Quería practicar sin que nadie me molestara. if the second verb indicates action performed by the subject of the first verb. Te di la dirección de mi amigo a fin de que pudieras localizarlo cuando llegaras. Felipe le mandó un boleto a su madre para que ella lo visitara. if the second verb indicates action performed by the subject of the first verb. ✗ Quería practicar sin molestando a nadie. His mother worked so he could study. which is in a past tense. Felipe sent his mother a ticket so she could visit him.194 GRAMMAR Expressing Past Avoidance of Interference The imperfect subjunctive is used after sin que to indicate the avoidance of interference with an action in the past. Ella salió con el chico sin que su madre lo supiera.

✗ Si eras rico. ✗ Su mamá trabajaba para que él podía estudiar. I would go to the beach.” A conditional clause. what would you do with the money? ✗ Si podrías viajar. usually accompanies this construction (see pages 153–154). what country would you go to first? If you were rich. I wish it didn’t rain so much. Expressing What Appears to Be True The imperfect subjunctive is used after como si to indicate an action or situation that appears to be true but isn’t.VERBS: the imperfect subjunctive 195 AVOID THE ✗ Su mamá trabajaba para que (ella misma) podía estudiar. He talks about the actress as if he knew her. I wish you were here. iría a la playa. Blunder . They treat him as if he were their son. If you could travel to South America.. we would have fun. Si estuvieras aquí. ¿a qué país irías primero? Si fueras rico. telling what would happen in such a case. The girl smiles as if she didn’t have so many problems. Ellos lo tratan como si fuera su hijo. Si tuviera un coche. ¿qué harías con el dinero? AVOID THE If you were here. If I had a car. nos divertiríamos... La chica sonríe como si no tuviera tantos problemas. Ojalá que estuvieras aquí. ✗ Si podías viajar.. Ojalá no lloviera tanto.. Blunder Expressing Wishes The imperfect subjunctive is used after ojalá (que) to indicate a wish that something were true at the present time.. Habla de la actriz como si la conociera. Expressing “If Only” The imperfect subjunctive is used after si to express the notion “if something were true. Si pudieras viajar a Sudamérica.

(practicas todos los días) 4. B Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. Quisiéramos hablar con el médico. (estudiar) medicina. (no contesto el teléfono) 3.196 GRAMMAR Expressing a Polite Request The imperfect subjunctive of querer is used to make a polite request. Guardé el periódico para que tú sobre tu amigo. (compro un coche) Si tuviera dinero. 1. 1. Él no me llama todas las noches. No lo quiero. (me ayuda) . 2. Quisiera hacerle una pregunta. Mi hermana quería encontrar un hombre que tuviera | tenía | haya tenido | tiene buen trabajo. EXAMPLE No tengo dinero. Mi papá no está aquí. (leer) el artículo C Write a sentence that indicates what would happen if the first sentence in each item below were true. No quieres tocar el piano. 1. 4. We would like to speak with the doctor. (ver) la nueva película cubana. Les pedí que me acompañaron | acompañaran | acompañaban | hayan acompañado a casa. Sus padres preferían que ella 2. 3. Exercises A Circle the most appropriate form of the verb in each of the following sentences. Pablo fue al cine para 3. El gerente le sugirió a Antonio que solicitaba | solicitó | haya solicitado | solicitara un puesto en la compañía. compraría un co che . (me caso con él) 2. Íbamos a salir en cuanto nuestro amigo nos llame | llamaba | llamara | haya llamado por teléfono. I would like to ask you a question.

VERBS the pluperfect subjunctive Formation Imperfect subjunctive of haber past participle The Pluperfect Subjunctive of haber yo tú usted/él/ella ustedes/ellos/ellas hubiera hubieras hubiera hubieran nosotros(-as) vosotros(-as) hubiéramos hubierais Past Participle Formation Verb stem (infinitive minus -ar/-er/-ir) -ar verbs -ado hablar hablado -er verbs -ido comer comido -ir verbs -ido vivir vivido IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES abrir cubrir descubrir decir predecir escribir describir prescribir hacer morir abierto cubierto descubierto dicho predicho escrito descrito prescrito hecho muerto poner oponer proponer ver prever volver devolver revolver resolver romper puesto opuesto propuesto visto previsto vuelto devuelto revuelto resuelto roto 197 .

indicating what would have occurred in such a case. Using the Pluperfect Subjunctive as an Alternative to the Conditional Perfect The pluperfect subjunctive can be used as an alternative to the conditional perfect. ✗ Si lo había visto.. A clause with a verb in the conditional perfect. as you would in English. If I had seen him. lo habría saludado. usually accompanies this construction.. yo te hubiera ayudado. I would have helped you. If I had seen him. I would have said hello.. Si tú me hubieras llamado.198 GRAMMAR Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. .) Si tú me hubieras llamado. lo hubiera saludado. Si yo lo hubiera visto. AVOID THE Blunder Be sure to learn the irregular past participle forms. Blunder Do not use the pluperfect indicative tense. ✗ Si me habías llamado. yo te habría ayudado. If you had called me.. ✗ hubiera oponido ✗ hubiéramos veído Uses of the Pluperfect Subjunctive Expressing “If Only” Concerning Past Action The pluperfect subjunctive in Spanish is used to express “if something had been true” in the past. (See page 156. Si yo lo hubiera visto. AVOID THE If you had called me. I would have helped you. I would have said hello.

You should have seen what happened! You guys should have been in class today. 1. Exercise A Change the following sentences to indicate what would have happened if the first part had been true.” ¡Hubieras visto lo que pasó! Uds. (me ayudó) . (no contestaba el teléfono) 3. Mi papá no estuvo aquí. (practicabas todos los días) 4. (me casé con él) 2. Él no me llamaba todas las noches.VERBS: the pluperfect subjunctive 199 Expressing “Should Have” The pluperfect subjunctive can be used to express “should have. No lo quería. hubieran estado en clase hoy. No quisiste tocar el piano.

” FUTURE Dice que trabaja duro. Dijo que había trabajado duro. He said he worked hard. When reporting what someone “said. when reporting what someone “says. Dijo que iba a trabajar duro. He said he would work hard.” PRETERITE PERFECT Dice que trabajará duro. He says he works hard. “I’ll work hard.” a past tense is used. PRETERITE PERFECT Dijo que trabajaría duro. The subjunctive is used to report what someone tells or told someone else to do. He says he’s going to work hard. TENSE OF ORIGINAL QUOTE INDICATIVE PRESENT PRESENT IMPERFECT TENSE AFTER TENSE AFTER dice que dijo que “Trabajo duro”. Dice que va a trabajar duro. Expressing “Say” Decir without an indirect object usually means “to say. The indicative is used to report what someone says or said. “I worked hard.” Dice que ha trabajado duro. 200 .” “Voy a trabajar duro”. PLUPERFECT “He trabajado duro”. FUTURE Dijo que trabajaba duro. He said he was going to work hard. “I’m going to work hard.” In Spanish. “I work hard. He says he has worked hard. as in English. He said he had worked hard.REPORTED SPEECH Reported-speech expressions are used to relate someone’s words without using a direct quote. He says he will work hard. CONDITIONAL “Trabajaré duro”.” the tense used in the original statement is also used in the reported-speech expression.

cómo. In English it is enclosed within the quotation marks. if the ending punctuation is a period or comma. PLUPERFECT “Trabajé duro”. / He says that he worked hard.” In Spanish. ✗ “Trabajé duro. que is not optional. He asked me what I was going to do. Me dijo que trabajara duro. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE COMMAND IMPERATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE “¡Trabaje duro!” “Work hard!” Me dice que trabaje duro. PRETERITE Dijo que trabajaba duro. “that” is optional in reported speech: “He says he worked hard. . dónde. Me preguntó qué iba a hacer. cuándo. ~ Questions seeking information are expressed by using preguntar question words (qué. ✗ Dice va a trabajar. He asks me what I’m going to do. ✗ Dijo trabajaba. He says he worked hard.” Dice que trabajó duro. He tells me to work hard. Remember that in Spanish. cuánto.) Me pregunta qué voy a hacer. They follow the same patterns of reported speech as decir. and por qué ). “I worked hard. “I worked hard.” Expressing “Ask” Preguntar and pedir are both translated as “ask” and are both used with an indirect object pronoun. AVOID THE Blunder In English. ] Preguntar is used to ask a question and is followed by a verb in the indicative. He told me to work hard. quién. it is placed after the quotation marks. He says he worked hard. He said he had worked hard.REPORTED SPEECH TENSE OF ORIGINAL QUOTE IMPERFECT TENSE AFTER TENSE AFTER 201 dice que IMPERFECT dijo que IMPERFECT “Trabajaba duro”. He said he worked hard.” PRETERITE Dice que trabajaba duro. (See pages 231–253. Dijo que había trabajado duro.

202 Les pregunto dónde viven. They asked me if I spoke Spanish. Le preguntó cuánto había costado. He asks her how much it cost. He asks them if they plan to work there. AVOID THE Blunder Do not forget the accent mark in the question word. When reporting what someone “asked. He asked her how much it (had) cost. Le pregunté si vivía cerca. . ✗ Me pregunta que voy a hacer. Les pregunto por qué lo han hecho.” use a past tense. Me preguntaban cómo lo hacía.” use the same tense as in the original question. I asked them where they lived. AVOID THE Blunder When reporting what someone “asks. We asked them when they would leave. ✗ Le pregunté si vive cerca. Le pregunta cuánto costó. I asked him if he lived nearby. We ask them when they’ll leave. GRAMMAR I ask them where they live. Les pregunté por qué lo habían hecho. They asked me how I did it. Le pregunto si vive cerca. Les pregunta si trabajarán allá. ~ Yes-or-no questions are expressed by using preguntar si. They ask me how I did it. I asked them why they had done it. Me preguntaron si hablaba español. I ask him if he lives nearby. Me preguntan si hablo español. He asked them if they would work there. They ask me if I speak Spanish. Les preguntamos cuándo saldrían. Les preguntamos cuándo saldrán. Les preguntó si trabajarían allá. Me preguntan cómo lo hacía. Les pregunté dónde vivían. ✗ Les pregunto donde viven. I ask them why they did it. ✗ Me preguntaron si hablo español.

Paco le pide a María que Paco le pidió a María que 4. Les pidió que la corrigieran. They asked us not to talk. . . ✗ Me pregunta acompañarlo. PACO: “Quiero ir al cine”. Nos piden que no hablemos. She asks them to correct her.REPORTED SPEECH 203 ] Pedir is used to ask a favor and is followed by que subjunctive. Les pido que me disculpen. AVOID THE He asks me to go with him. .” ✗ Te pedí dónde vives. Les pedí que me disculparan. . 1. María dice que María dijo que 3. He asked me to go with him. a verb in the Me pide que lo acompañe. Paco dice que Paco dijo que 2. . María le pregunta a Paco si María le preguntó a Paco si . Blunder Do not confuse “ask a question” with “ask a favor. MARÍA: “¿Vas a estar en casa esta tarde?” . María. ✗ Les pregunto disculparme. I asked them to forgive me. Nos pidieron que no habláramos. Exercise A Change the following sentences from direct quotes to reported speech. PACO: “Por favor. . They ask us not to talk. MARÍA: “Fuimos al cine ayer”. ayúdame con la computadora”. I ask them to forgive me. She asked them to correct her. Me pidió que lo acompañara. Les pide que la corrijan. .

SUBJECTS. contigo. OBJECTS. REFLEXIVE me/myself you/yourself him/himself her/herself it/itself me te/se se se se us/ourselves you/yourselves them/themselves nos os/se se DIRECT OBJECT me you him her it me te/lo/la lo la lo/la us you all them nos os/los/las los/las INDIRECT OBJECT me you him her me te/le le le us you all them nos os/les les 204 . AND THEIR PRONOUNS Subject Pronouns I you he she it yo tú/usted él ella él/ella we you all they nosotros/nosotras vosotros/vosotras/ustedes ellos/ellas Object Pronouns AFTER PREPOSITIONS me you him her it mí* ti*/usted él ella él/ella us you all them nosotros/nosotras vosotros/vosotras/ustedes ellos/ellas *conmigo.

except for proper first names. The book is on the table. ✗ Tiempo vuela. Subjects ] Subjects can be nouns. Sánchez isn’t here. La señorita Martínez es la jefa. plural and noncount noun subjects are not preceded by “the” when all members of the noun class are intended. AVOID THE Blunder ✗ Leche es buena fuente de calcio. ✗ Ventanas son de vidrio. Gómez está aquí. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN — plural or noncount noun el/la noncount noun los/las plural noun Milk is a good source of calcium. El tiempo vuela. In English. El Sr. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 205 Review the forms in the chart on the preceding page. El libro está en la mesa. are always preceded by an article or other determiner. The meal is ready. Dr. . Time flies. In Spanish. Campos is good. singular noun subjects. La leche es buena fuente de calcio. Windows are made of glass. La señora Sánchez no está aquí. Mario is here. AVOID THE Mr. ✗ Señora Sánchez no está aquí. María es simpática. In Spanish. OBJECTS. Gómez is here. Men are all alike. pronouns. Campos es buena. Mrs. In English and in Spanish. noun subjects are always preceded by an article or other determiner (see pages 53–79). but not in English. Las ventanas son de vidrio.SUBJECTS. Los hombres son todos iguales. La comida está lista. La Dra. Mario está aquí. Gómez está aquí. Miss Martínez is the boss. names with a title are preceded by an article (see page 56). or infinitives. María is nice. Blunder ✗ Sr.

NORMAL STATEMENT Voy a pagar la cuenta. ✗ Yo soy Ana. then match it with the corresponding noun or pronoun. (El) saber español lo ayudará. Yo voy a pagar la cuenta. Once it is established who you are talking about. (El) vivir aquí es difícil. AVOID THE STATEMENT WITH EMPHASIS ON THE SUBJECT Blunder Do not keep repeating subject pronouns. Living here is hard. . Ella vive muy cerca de mi casa y ella trabaja en la misma parte de la ciudad que yo. Yo trabajo en un restaurante. In Spanish. We (others may not) visit her often. ENGLISH PATTERN SPANISH PATTERN I/you/he/she/it/we/they (subject pronoun) verb verb with subject ending I’m going to pay the bill. Yo soy de Nueva York y ahora yo vivo en Chicago. which may be in a previous sentence. use the pronoun only for emphasis— the equivalent in English of underlining the word or saying it louder. The subject of the sentence is expressed in the conjugated ending of the verb (see individual verb tenses). She (not someone else) is coming tomorrow. Knowing Spanish will help him. Ella viene mañana. She’s coming tomorrow. NORMAL STATEMENT STATEMENT WITH EMPHASIS ON THE SUBJECT Viene mañana. I (not you) am going to pay the bill. We visit her often. pronouns are used as subjects only for emphasis or clarification. first find the conjugated ending of the verb. Nosotros la visitamos con frecuencia. NORMAL STATEMENT STATEMENT WITH EMPHASIS ON THE SUBJECT La visitamos con frecuencia.206 GRAMMAR The definite article el is optional before an infinitive subject (see page 100). ] To determine the subject of a sentence. ✗ Elena es mi amiga.

as well as different usage patterns. AVOID THE The presents are for him. estamos bien. In Spanish. Pronouns After Prepositions In Spanish. Objects In English. each type of object pronoun has its own set of forms. llama todos los días.SUBJECTS. Is it your house? I went to the movies without them. and objects that follow prepositions. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 207 ] The Spanish subject is not necessarily at the beginning of a sentence.” “you.” “them”) and are used to replace direct objects. They did it because of her. the subject pronouns (except yo and tú) are used after prepositions. Thanks to you. Blunder Do not use direct object pronouns after prepositions. We’re going with you all. we’re okay. Vamos con vosotros.” “it. ✗ para lo ✗ para la ✗ de nos ✗ por los . ¿Es la casa de ustedes? Fui al cine sin ellos. indirect objects. object pronouns have only one form (“me. SPANISH PATTERN object Me verb llama Juan SPANISH PATTERN adverb Todos los días verb subject llama Juan.” “her. OBJECTS.” “him. SPANISH PATTERN subject Juan object me verb subject object me adverb adverb todos los días. Lo hicieron por ella. Los regalos son para él. Gracias a usted. ENGLISH PATTERN subject John 1 2 3 verb calls object me adverb every day.” “us.

Bring your passports with you. there is no accent mark in ti. They are placed before the conjugated verb. ella. They did it because of you. Are you coming with me? I want to talk to you.208 GRAMMAR The pronouns mí and ti are used for “me” and “you” after a preposition. I look at myself in the mirror. Marcos llevó la maleta consigo. . Traigan sus pasaportes consigo. ✗ de me ✗ por te ✗ de yo ✗ para tú There is an accent mark in mí to distinguish it from the possessive mi. El regalo es para mí. She takes care of herself. ✗ Voy al cine consigo. Blunder Do not use other object pronouns after prepositions. Consigo is used when the object of the preposition is the same person as the subject él. usted. ¿Tiene usted los boletos consigo? Ella trae la comida consigo. mí and con ti. ✗ ¿Vienes consigo? Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns indicate that the subject and the object are the same person or thing. Do you have the tickets with you? She’s bringing the food with her. AVOID THE Marcos took the suitcase with him. Ella se cuida. ✗ para mi ✗ para tí Conmigo and contigo are used instead of con ¿Vienes conmigo? Quiero hablar contigo. Me miro en el espejo. AVOID THE The present is for me. Blunder Do not use consigo if the object of the preposition is a different person from the subject. or ustedes. Lo hicieron por ti.

INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION Nos vamos a servir. ] When an infinitive construction (see page 96) or gerund construction (see page 113) is used. ✗ Miro me. Vamos a servirnos. t i y She’s taking care of herself. t Me estoy mirando en el espejo. GERUND CONSTRUCTION i I’m going to look at myself in y the mirror. INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION Me voy a mirar en el espejo. Blunder Do not put the pronoun after the verb. i y I’m looking at myself in the mirror. t Ella se está cuidando. GERUND CONSTRUCTION i y She’s going to take care of herself. t i y We’re going to serve ourselves. t i The kids are going to hurt y themselves. We serve ourselves at these parties. t i y The kids are hurting themselves. . GERUND CONSTRUCTION Nos estamos sirviendo. ✗ Ella cuida se. Los chicos van a herirse. Los chicos están hiriéndose. OBJECTS. Voy a mirarme en el espejo. GERUND CONSTRUCTION Los chicos se están hiriendo. Ella va a cuidarse. Estoy mirándome en el espejo. AVOID THE The kids hurt themselves.SUBJECTS. Nos servimos en estas fiestas. ✗ Los chicos hieren se. Ella está cuidándose. t INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION Ella se va a cuidar. t i y We’re serving ourselves. Estamos sirviéndonos. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 209 Los chicos se hieren. the reflexive pronoun can be placed either before its corresponding conjugated verb or attached to the end of the infinitive or gerund. ✗ Servimos nos. INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION Los chicos se van a herir.

Please stand up. The kids hurt each other. ✗ mirandome ✗ hiriendose Do not add an accent mark to the gerund if it does not have a pronoun attached. Nos servimos (el uno al otro). Don’t sit here. Take care of yourself.210 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder ✗ cuidandose ✗ sirviendonos Do not forget to add an accent mark to the gerund if you have attached a reflexive pronoun. . Los chicos se hieren (el uno al otro). Levántense. the reflexive pronoun is attached to the end of the verb and an accent mark is added to the thirdlast syllable. por favor. No te sientes aquí. Don’t get lost. No se levanten. Don’t get up. Sit here. We serve each other. ] Reflexive pronouns used with plural verbs can also indicate reciprocal action.” Use a plural reflexive pronoun (nos or se) ( el uno al otro) to express this. In negative commands (see page 163). Siéntate aquí. No se pierda. Cuídese. AVOID THE Blunder Do not try to translate the words “each other. ✗ Los chicos hieren cada otro. ✗ mirándo ✗ hiriéndo ✗ cuidándo ✗ sirviéndo In affirmative commands (see page 163). the reflexive pronoun is placed between the no and the verb. El uno al otro can be used to distinguish the reciprocal meaning from the reflexive meaning.

The child’s name is Nicolás. Me enfadé con el oficial. Su mamá lo llama todos los días. Los niños se divierten en el parque. We wake up at eight. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 211 ] Many reflexive expressions in Spanish have equivalents in English that are not expressed in reflexive terms. His mother calls him every day. Me preocupo mucho por mi prima. . The children have fun (entertain themselves) at the park. The clown entertains the children. My cousin worries me a lot. OBJECTS. Nos despertamos a las ocho. The officer made me mad. I got mad at the officer. El oficial me enfadó. We wake the kids up at nine. i) be named worry sit down get tired get excited get mad get cold get mad get organized get dressed acostarse (ue) Despertamos a los chicos a las nueve. TRANSITIVE VERBS DIRECT OBJECT NOUN VERB OR PRONOUN REFLEXIVE VERBS VERB REFLEXIVE PRONOUN acostar (ue) afeitar arreglar bañar despertar (ie) divertir (ie. Following are some examples. Mi prima me preocupa mucho. i) put someone to bed shave someone else arrange something bathe someone else wake someone up entertain someone get someone up / lift something call someone worry someone seat someone tire someone out excite someone make someone mad cool something make someone mad organize something dress someone else lie down / go to bed afeitarse shave arreglarse freshen up bañarse take a bath despertarse (ie) wake up divertirse (ie. El niño se llama Nicolás. I worry a lot about my cousin.SUBJECTS. i) levantar llamar preocupar sentar (ie) cansar emocionar enfadar enfriar enojar organizar vestir (i. i) have a good time levantarse get up llamarse preocuparse sentarse (ie) cansarse emocionarse enfadarse enfriarse enojarse organizarse vestirse (i. El payaso divierte a los niños.

Blunder ✗ Lavo mi cara. She brushes (washes) her teeth.212 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Note that in Spanish you do not say “I get dressed. (Ellas) se llaman Margarita y Julia. (Ella) se llama Margarita. Se pintan el pelo.” “get. (Yo) me llamo John. AVOID THE (Nosotros) nos llamamos John y Sara. Se lava los dientes. Unlike English.” but rather “I dress myself. To express the same meaning with llamarse.” or “have” in this type of expression. Me lavo la cara. AVOID THE I wash my face.” “down. ✗ Conseguí enfadarme con el oficial. ✗ Pintan su pelo. ✗ Se lava sus dientes. . ¿(Vosotros) os llamáis María y Elena? ¿(Ustedes) se llaman Eduardo y Javier? (Ellos) se llaman José y Francisco. Nos pintamos las uñas. ✗ Despertamos arriba a los niños. ✗ Los niños tienen diversión en el parque. ¿(Tú) te llamas María? ¿(Usted) se llama Eduardo? (Él) se llama José. ✗ Los niños tienen un buen tiempo en el parque. Use the reflexive verb instead.” “take. you must use the reflexive pattern. In Spanish you can say su nombre es or mi nombre es . Spanish uses a definite article rather than a possessive (see page 59). They color their hair. ✗ Su llamo es Nicolás. Blunder ] A reflexive construction is used when indicating action to or on one’s own body. ✗ Mi llamo es John.” Do not try to translate “up. We polish our nails.

Following are some examples. Mi hermana se queda aquí. I feel really bad. OBJECTS. AVOID THE acordarse (ue) de aprovecharse de remember take advantage of a person make fun of eat up say good-bye to fall asleep refuse to offer to do something remain feel burlarse de comerse despedirse (i. i) fire someone dormir (ue. Blunder Be sure you know the different meanings indicated by a reflexive pronoun. Siento no poder acompañarte. u) negarse a (ie) ofrecerse a/para quedarse sentirse (ie. The boss said good-bye. Me duermo en el coche. We’re staying with you all. . Me siento muy mal. i) de dormirse (ue.SUBJECTS. ✗ Siento muy mal. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 213 ] Certain verbs have different meanings when used with reflexive pronouns. agree sentir (ie. I sleep eight hours. ✗ Mi hermana queda aquí. i) be sorry El jefe despidió a tres empleados. El jefe se despidió. Nos quedamos con ustedes. u) sleep negar (ie) deny ofrecer offer something to someone quedar result in. That dress fits you well. I’m sorry I can’t go with you. Duermo ocho horas. Quedamos en vernos esta tarde. acordar (ue) decide aprovechar de take advantage of an opportunity burlar evade comer eat despedir (i. fit. i) The boss fired three employees. We agreed to meet this afternoon. I fall asleep in the car. Ese vestido te queda bien. My sister is staying here.

Ganaron el partido. ✗ Arrepiento de haberlo dicho. Los profesores se obstinan en no cambiar la fecha del examen. i) regret stand firm on. arrepentirse (ie. This word order requires including a direct object pronoun as well as the direct object noun. They won the game. The students complain about the food. El partido lo ganaron los Tigres. a pronoun. Direct Objects A direct object can be a noun. Following are some examples. Me quedo aquí contigo. Juan perdió dinero. The professors stand firm on not changing the date of the exam. I watched a movie. El dinero lo perdió Juan.214 GRAMMAR ] A few verbs that do not have a reflexive meaning must nevertheless be used with reflexive pronouns. stay complain laugh I regret having said that. or an infinitive (see page 99). direct object nouns may follow the verb. . AVOID THE Blunder Do not try to find a reflexive meaning in these verbs. Nos reímos mucho anoche. We bought the house. The Tigers won the game. Juan lost the money. In contrast to English. Vi una película. Compramos la casa. Juan lost money. ] As in English. I saw that movie last night. but do always use reflexive pronouns with them. direct object nouns may precede the verb in Spanish. Los alumnos se quejan de la comida. La casa la compramos ayer. We laughed a lot last night. ✗ Los alumnos quejan. i) obstinarse en quedarse quejarse reírse (i. ✗ Reímos. insist on remain. I’m staying here with you. Me arrepiento de haberlo dicho. We bought the house yesterday. Esa película la vi anoche.

AND THEIR PRONOUNS 215 When the direct object is a person. García. Luisa compra el periódico. Carlos is looking at his dad. They visited their friends. the preposition a must precede the person’s name or any other noun that refers to that person. AVOID THE Carlos is looking at the car.” and esperar means “wait for” (see page 104). Reconozco al Sr. He is eating it. Compare the following sentences. Susana lee las novelas. Alberto is eating the tortilla. Vimos a su hermano. The “personal a” is a signal that the direct object is a person. García. She’s waiting for a check. Carlos mira el coche. Los ve. Marta ve los programas. Miguel ayuda a María. García. She reads them. I’m looking for an apartment. This a has no English translation (see pages 261–262). . Remember that mirar means “look at. ✗ Carlos mira su papá. AVOID THE Miguel helps María. OBJECTS. Espera a su esposo. ✗ Reconozco Sr. Carlos mira a su papá. ✗ Vimos su hermano.” buscar means “look for. Busco un apartamento.SUBJECTS. Lo compra. La come. ] In contrast to English. ✗ Miguel ayuda María. We saw his brother. ✗ Espera por un cheque. Blunder Alberto come la tortilla. direct object pronouns are placed immediately before the conjugated verb in Spanish. Blunder ✗ Reconozco el Sr. She buys it. García. I recognize Mr. Las lee. Marta watches the programs. I’m looking for Pepe. No preposition is necessary unless the direct object is a person. She watches them. Visitaron a sus amigos. Susana reads the novels. She’s waiting for her husband. Luisa buys the newspaper. Busco a Pepe. Espera un cheque. ✗ Busco por un apartamento.

AVOID THE My friend calls me. (los programas) ✗ Susana los lee.216 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Remember that each noun is either masculine or feminine. Elena is looking at Alfredo. direct object pronouns can be placed either before the conjugated verb or attached to the end of the infinitive or gerund (see pages 96 and 113). . I’ll call you tomorrow. ✗ Mis padres ayudan a nosotros. la. Los visitamos. ✗ Mi amigo llama a mí. Te llamo mañana. los. My parents help us. José invites her. José invites Elena. and las when referring to people. ✗ Visitamos a ellos. Elena is looking at him. Visitamos a nuestros abuelos. In some parts of Spain. (las novelas) Direct object pronouns that refer to people follow the same pattern. (el periódico) ✗ Marta las ve. Blunder Do not use a prepositional construction instead of the direct object pronoun. We’re visiting our grandparents. ✗ Alberto lo come. ✗ Llamo a ti. Elena mira a Alfredo. Mis padres nos ayudan. le and les are used as direct object pronouns in place of lo. José invita a Elena. ~ In constructions with infinitives or gerunds. Mi amigo me llama. José la invita. Elena lo mira. ✗ José invita a ella. ✗ Elena mira a él. The “it” or “them” denoted by the direct object pronoun must reflect the gender of the noun it replaces. We’re visiting them. (la tortilla) ✗ Luisa la compra.

I have to help him. Las están buscando. ~ In negative commands (see pages 163–164). Wait for me here. She’s waiting for Pablo. Está esperando a Pablo. Vamos a visitarlos. ¡No ¡No ¡No ¡No me hables! lo llame usted! lo lean ustedes! lo hagamos! Don’t talk to me! Don’t call him! Don’t read it! Let’s not do it! AVOID THE Blunder ✗ ¡No hábleme! ✗ ¡No llámelo! . OBJECTS. She’s waiting for him. i y t Blunder Do not forget to use an accent mark when you attach the object pronoun to the gerund. y Lo está esperando.SUBJECTS. We’re going to visit our grandparents. They’re looking for them. Do not use an accent mark if the pronoun is placed before the conjugated verb. They’re looking for the girls. the direct object pronoun is attached to the end of the verb and an accent mark is added to the third-last syllable. Los vamos a visitar. t Están buscando a las Están buscándolas. AVOID THE niñas. Look at her. Look for him. Mírenla. No accent mark is added. i Está esperándolo. the direct object pronoun is placed between the no and the verb. Búsquelo. Espérame aquí. i y Lo tengo que ayudar. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 217 Tengo que ayudar a mi hermano. Tengo que ayudarlo. We’re going to visit them. i y t I have to help my brother. ✗ esperandolo ✗ esperándo ~ In affirmative commands (see pages 163–164). t Vamos a visitar a los abuelos.

(A mí) me dijo la verdad. . The indirect object pronoun. VERBS THAT REQUIRE INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS ] Some verbs indicate a transfer of something (the direct object) from one person (the subject) to another (the indirect object). Following are some examples. I’m giving the money to Juan. She told me the truth. My mother sends me the packages. however. Le doy el dinero a Juan.218 GRAMMAR Indirect Objects The use of indirect objects is determined by the kind of verb used. Nos enseña el baile (a nosotros). He sent my parents a card. Mi madre me manda los paquetes (a mí). is always required with these verbs. darle algo a alguien prestarle algo a alguien comprarle algo a alguien regalarle algo a alguien mandarle algo a alguien enviarle algo a alguien mostrarle algo a alguien demostrarle algo a alguien enseñarle algo a alguien decirle algo a alguien explicarle algo a alguien creerle algo a alguien give something to somebody lend something to somebody buy something for somebody give a gift to somebody send something to somebody send something to somebody show something to somebody show something to somebody teach something to somebody tell something to somebody explain something to somebody believe something of somebody (that he or she has said) Although the person who receives something may be indicated by a plus a noun or pronoun. She teaches the dance to us. this is optional. Four types of verbs require indirect object pronouns—even when the indirect object is stated in noun or pronoun form after a. A mis padres les mandó una tarjeta.

✗ Él le la explicó. ✗ María muestra le las. ✗ María las me muestra. Él les explicó la lección a ellos. it is placed between the indirect object pronoun and the conjugated verb. María is showing them to him. Blunder When the indirect object pronoun le or les precedes a direct object pronoun. AVOID THE María is showing the apples to Pedro. ✗ Mandó una tarjeta a mis padres. ✗ Doy el dinero a Juan. AVOID THE María is showing me the apples. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 219 AVOID THE Blunder Do not leave out the indirect object pronoun that denotes the receiver. . ✗ María las muestra a mí. He explained it to them. Él se la explicó. ✗ Dijo la verdad a mí. María me las muestra. the indirect object pronoun changes to se. Él nos explicó la lección. ✗ Mi madre manda los paquetes a mí. María is showing them to me. María me muestra las manzanas. He explained it to us. María le muestra las manzanas a Pedro. ✗ Él le explicó la. María se las muestra. ✗ Enseña el baile a nosotros. When the direct object is also expressed in pronoun form. He explained the lesson to them. Nos la explicó. OBJECTS. even when there is a prepositional phrase that tells who the receiver is.SUBJECTS. Blunder ✗ María le las muestra. ✗ María muestra me las. ✗ María me muestra las. He explained the lesson to us.

i y María is showing them to him. t Blunder Be sure to add an accent mark to the infinitive or gerund when two pronouns are attached. There is no direct object in these constructions. Indirect and direct object pronouns may be attached to infinitives and gerunds (see pages 209 and 216–217). María se las va a mostrar. María va a mostrármelas. María va a mostrárselas.” “him.” “you all.220 GRAMMAR Because se can refer to “you. . t María está mostrándoselas. a él. as it is in English. María se las está mostrando. a ustedes. t i y He is going to explain it to them. Él se la va a explicar. Él va a explicárnosla. María me las va a mostrar. i y María is going to show them to me.” “her. a ella. Remember that both the indirect object pronoun and the a mí/ti/ usted/él/ella/nosotros/vosotros/ustedes/ellos/ellas constructions refer to the person who is the receiver of the direct object. Él nos la va a explicar. Following are some examples. or a ellos for clarification. Él se la está explicando.” it is helpful to add a usted. AVOID THE i y He is explaining it to them.” and “them. Él va a explicársela. t Él está explicándosela. t i y María is going to show them to him. The use of both objects in the same sentence is not considered redundant in Spanish. ✗ mostrarmelas ✗ mostrandoselas ✗ explicarnosla ✗ explicandosela ] A number of verbs indicate a feeling imparted by the subject (a person or thing) to another person (the indirect object) (see page 106). t i y He is going to explain it to us.

charm somebody fascinate somebody.” “need. the house / it. however.” and “care about” are often translated with verbs from the above list. In Spanish. be annoying to somebody bother somebody be lacking to somebody be lacking to somebody The English verbs “like. be interesting to somebody be important to somebody be pleasing to somebody. the subject is a person or thing that “imparts” a feeling to another person (the indirect object). (The house appeals to me.) . AND THEIR PRONOUNS 221 parecerle a alguien seem to somebody caerle bien a alguien interesarle a alguien importarle a alguien gustarle a alguien fascinarle a alguien encantar le a alguien emocionarle a alguien caerle mal a alguien fastidiarle a alguien molestarle a alguien faltarle a alguien hacerle falta a alguien make a good impression on somebody interest somebody.” “love. In English. (The house appeals to me. be exciting to somebody make a bad impression on somebody annoy somebody.) Me gusta la casa. appeal to somebody.SUBJECTS. these verbs are expressed as feelings of the subject. (It appeals to me. (Alex appeals to you.) SPANISH PATTERN 3 indirect object Te Me verb gusta. OBJECTS. ENGLISH PATTERN subject You I verb like like direct object (noun or pronoun) Alex/him. be fascinating to somebody be pleasing to somebody. (Alex/He appeals to you.) gusta. SPANISH PATTERN 1 subject indirect object verb Alex te gusta.) SPANISH PATTERN 2 indirect object verb subject Te gusta Alex/él. (He appeals to you.) La casa me gusta. appeal to somebody. charm somebody excite somebody.

It is always the same person as the indirect object pronoun.) What do you like? (What appeals to you?) .) I like your boyfriend very much. AVOID THE Blunder Do not try to translate English verbs of this type into Spanish.) The girls love the cinema. think about what feelings are being conveyed by the Spanish verbs. A las chicas les encanta el cine.) I like your friends.) Nos falta el dinero. ✗ Me gusto el chocolate. Tu novio me cae muy bien. ✗ José le gusta las enchiladas.) I care about all my friends. Me importan todos mis amigos. (Movies enchant the girls. (Your boyfriend makes a very good impression on me.) The girls love the movies.) José likes enchiladas.222 A José le gusta el chocolate.) I care about you. (The cinema enchants the girls. The prepositional phrase a noun or pronoun that indicates the person affected by the subject is optional. (Chocolate appeals to José. (Resources are lacking to us. (Tú) me importas. ¿Qué te gusta (a ti)? I like the book. GRAMMAR A José le gustan las enchiladas. (You are important to me. (The book appeals to me. José likes chocolate. A las chicas les encantan las películas.) We need money. Tus amigos me caen bien. (All my friends are important to me. (Enchiladas appeal to José. ✗ Nos faltamos los recursos. (Your friends make a good impression on me. (Money is lacking to us. (A mí) me gusta el libro.) We need resources. Nos faltan los recursos. Make sure the subject and verb agree. Rather.

la.) Blunder Do not use lo.) She loves them.SUBJECTS. Me gusta. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 223 Este libro le gusta mucho (a Juan / a él). Me gusta el vestido. I’m asking you to lend me money. Les sugerimos que trabajen. He begs her to call him. ✗ Se los encantan. (It appeals to me. No les gusta la clase (a María y a Susana / a ellas). AVOID THE The dress appeals to me. ✗ Me lo gusta. Le encantan esos zapatos.) Luisa/She doesn’t like it.) María and Susana / They don’t like the class. (The class doesn’t appeal to María and Susana / to them. I like it. . demands. (The class appeals to us. Le encantan. Nos recomienda que estudiemos. (A Luisa /A ella) no le gusta. (This book appeals a lot to Juan / to him.) AVOID THE Blunder Do not forget the a before the noun or pronoun that indicates the person affected by the subject. Those shoes appeal to her. ] In constructions with verbs that express requests. (It doesn’t appeal to Luisa / to her. Juan/He likes this book a lot. Verbs of this type are always accompanied by indirect objects but do not have direct objects. ✗ Te la gusta. los. indirect object pronouns are used with que the subjunctive (see pages 167–168 and 188–189). Le ruega que lo llame.) We like the class. (They enchant her. OBJECTS. ✗ Luisa no le gusta el libro. The subjects “it” and “they” are expressed in the conjugation of the verb. ✗ Juan no le gusta este libro. Te pido que me prestes dinero. She recommends that we study. or las with these verbs. or suggestions. (A nosotros) nos gusta la clase. We suggest that they work.

Following are some typical verbs of this type. Las máquinas se nos descompusieron.” “forgets itself.) I lost my keys. (The books got left in the car by them. Se le quemaron los dedos. Se le quemó el dedo. Se me perdieron las llaves. acabársele a alguien caérsele a alguien descomponérsele a alguien olvidársele a alguien perdérsele a alguien quebrársele a alguien quedársele a alguien en algún lugar quemársele a alguien rompérsele a alguien Se le cayó la taza. Se le cayeron las tazas.) I lost my key. Se le olvidaron los libros. Se le olvidó el libro.) The computer broke down on us. (The cup fell from him. (The books got forgotten by him. Se les quedó el libro en el coche. (The cups fell from him.” “breaks itself”). La computadora se nos descompuso. (The fingers got burned on her. Se me perdió la llave.) . and in doing so it affects a person (the indirect object) (see page 108). run out of drop break forget lose break leave by mistake burn break He dropped the cup. (The finger got burned on her.) They left the book in the car. (The keys got lost from me. (The key got lost from me.224 GRAMMAR ] Certain verbs combine a reflexive se with an indirect object to indicate accidental occurrences.) They left the books in the car. Se les quedaron los libros en el coche. the subject is a thing that has an accidental occurrence (“loses itself. (The book got left in the car by them. In these constructions. He forgot the book.) He dropped the cups.) She burned her fingers. The machines broke down on us. (The book got forgotten by him.) She burned her finger.) He forgot the books.

We left the books in the car.” “you.) When the action is done on purpose. People walk faster in the city.” referring to everybody in general. ✗ Rompió su brazo. You can’t smoke in this building. Do not use possessive pronouns with these constructions. AND THEIR PRONOUNS 225 Se me rompió el brazo. The man tore up the contract. unless he or she does it on purpose. AVOID THE I burned the documents. Se me rompieron los brazos. Dejamos los libros en el coche. indicating a general custom. The Impersonal se Se a third-person singular verb is used to make a general observation that refers to everybody. El hombre rompió el contrato. (Bread is bought at the bakery. . This is often expressed in English with an impersonal “one. La mujer olvidó su triste pasado.) I broke my arms. losing. Se camina más rápido en la ciudad. OBJECTS. ✗ Olvidamos nuestros libros. The woman forgot her sad past.” “they.” Se siente en casa en ese hotel. forgetting.SUBJECTS. ✗ Quemé mi dedo. Se a third-person singular or plural verb a noun can be used to make a passive statement. One feels at home at that hotel. is often used for this purpose. Quemé los documentos. plural for a plural noun. (The arms got broken on me. In English. Blunder Do not attribute the action of breaking. Se estudia más en la universidad. The verb is singular for a singular noun. “you. ¿Dónde se puede comprar el pan? Se puede comprar el pan en la panadería. (The arm got broken on me.) Where can you buy bread? You can buy bread at the bakery.” or “people. You study more in college. dropping. the subject takes the responsibility for the action. No se puede fumar en este edificio. Where do you buy bread? (Where is bread bought?) You buy bread at the bakery. ¿Dónde se compra el pan? Se compra el pan en la panadería. I broke my arm. or similar accidental occurrences to the subject.

✗ Dónde compras el pan? The Pronoun lo The pronoun lo has several uses (see page 86). Where do you get shoes repaired? (Where are shoes repaired?) They repair shoes at the shoe store. lo estoy. lo es. —Ella es bonita. I am. The bad thing is that the class is at 8 o’clock. —Sí. (Shoes are repaired at the shoe store. Lo bueno del curso es que es muy útil.” “Are you tired?” “Yes.) AVOID THE Blunder Do not use the personal pronoun to translate the English “you” unless you are talking about the habits of a particular person. —¿Estás cansado? —Sí.” “Yes. she is. ✗ la buena cosa es ✗ la mala parte es Blunder . “She’s pretty. ] Lo can be used before the verbs ser and estar to refer to an adjective in a previous statement. Lo malo es que la clase es a las ocho. AVOID THE The good thing about the course is that it’s very useful. ✗ Tú estudias más en la universidad. ✗ Usted compra el pan en la panadería. ✗ Tú no fumas en este edificio.226 GRAMMAR ¿Dónde se reparan los zapatos? Se reparan los zapatos en la zapatería.” ] An adjective can be used as a subject by placing lo before it.

which surprised everybody. What he says isn’t true. Decidió comprar la casa. She takes care of six children. for which she had to pay a fortune. I bought it at the bookstore. ] Lo cual can follow an entire clause. an entire phrase. What you all want is impossible. What she bought is none of your business. ✗ Compró la casa. She bought a luxury car. AVOID THE He gave me some money. whether it is a person or a thing (see page 204). Lo que él dice no es verdad. Place it before el cual/la cual/los cuales/las cuales. Ella cuida a seis niños. I saw him in the park. adding a comment about it. lo cual nos sorprendió a todos. Lo que ella compró no te importa. el cual ] El cual/la cual/los cuales/las cuales is used after prepositions to re- fer to a previously mentioned noun. ] Lo que can refer to an object. Lo que ustedes quieren es imposible. Lo compré en la librería. What he’s doing is a secret. Blunder As in formal English. I bought the book. . AND THEIR PRONOUNS 227 ] Lo can refer to a masculine singular direct object. cuatro de los cuales son de su hermana.SUBJECTS. I saw your brother. Compré el libro. or an abstract idea. four of whom are her sister’s. do not put a preposition at the end of the sentence. OBJECTS. que tenía que pagar una fortuna por. Me dio una cantidad de dinero. con el cual pagué mis estudios. Ella compró un coche de lujo. with which I paid for my education. She decided to buy the house. Vi a tu hermano. Lo vi en el parque. Lo que está haciendo es un secreto. por la cual tuvo que pagar una fortuna.

aquí. El estudiante aprovechó | se aprovechó de la beca. 5. Las chicas quedaron | se quedaron en salir juntas esta noche. 4. EXAMPLE Compramos el periódico todos los días. 5. changing the underlined direct object to a pronoun. 5. Ricardo llevó la maleta con -sigo | si | él | ella. Sara hizo mucho por mí | tú | yo | te. siénta C Circle the word or group of words that best completes each sentence. Los niños 3. 3. 1. . Mi hermana está divirtiéndo 6. voy a lavar el pelo. A ella le gusta salir con lo | la | él | le. D Rewrite each of the following sentences. La niña quedó | se quedó toda la tarde sola en la casa. 4. 6. 8. 7. No voy a la fiesta porque siento | me siento muy mal. 2. Van a salir sin lo | la | les | mí. Ese chico acostamos a las once de la noche. 2. 3. Ella piensa mucho en tú | ti | lo | la. Juan no llamó a María esta tarde. Por favor. Voy al cine con la | lo | -tigo | ti. Sé que mi papá lo hizo por sigo | las | nos | nosotros. El regalo es para -tigo | usted | lo | la. 1. 1. B Fill in the blanks with the appropriate reflexive pronoun. 1. levantan temprano.228 GRAMMAR Exercises A Circle the appropriate pronoun in the following sentences. Lo compramos todos los días. . Despedimos | Nos despedimos a dos empleados. Generalmente 2. 4. queja de todo.

AND THEIR PRONOUNS 229 2. OBJECTS. mostró las fotos a sus amigas. 4. EXAMPLE Le enseñaré la cámara a mi hermano mañana. Me va a enviar una carta la próxima semana. Se la enseñaré a mi hermano mañana. A mí 2. Ángela les dará buenas noticias muy pronto. Arturo y José a nosotros. 2.SUBJECTS. 3. She loves them. Victoria is interested in movies. ¿Te dijo Jorge el secreto? G Express the following in Spanish. . Traffic annoys Roberto. changing the underlined direct object to a pronoun. demostraron las nuevas computadoras enseñaré la cámara a ti más tarde. 3. Susana dejó las uvas en el mercado. 2. Sandra 3. She fascinates him. Juan likes Inés. Queremos mucho a nuestros profesores. 3. E Fill in the blanks with the appropriate indirect object pronoun. regaló una pulsera preciosa. Me gusta el vestido rojo. F Rewrite each of the following sentences. It bothers him a lot. 1. I like it a lot. EXAMPLE I like the red dress. 1. Me gusta mucho. 1.

230

GRAMMAR

H Express the following in Spanish.
EXAMPLE

Pedro broke his arm.

A Pedro se le rompió el brazo.
1. Mario left the keys in the car.

2. We dropped the books.

3. They forgot their homework.

I

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. (hablar) español. (enseñar) varios idiomas. (vender) varias frutas. (servir) la cocina peruana.

1. En la clase se 2. En esa escuela se 3. En el mercado se 4. En ese restaurante se

J Fill in the blanks with the appropriate construction, using the English cues in parentheses. 1. 2. A pesar de (how difficult) 3. Este vestido, por gusta más. (which) 4. Compré seis manzanas, cuatro (of which) es que hemos terminado. (The good thing) que fue, me gustó el curso. pagué $10, es el que me están podridas.

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS
Time Markers: To Answer ¿cuándo?
GENERAL

de noche de día al amanecer al anochecer a las diez a eso de las diez a principios de a mediados de a fines de al principio al final temprano tarde
PRESENT

at night during the day at dawn at dusk at 10 o’clock around 10 o’clock at the beginning of in the middle of at the end of in the beginning / at the beginning in the end / at the end early late

ahora en este momento hoy esta mañana esta tarde esta noche actualmente estos días recientemente

now at the moment today this morning this afternoon tonight now these days recently

231

232
PAST

GRAMMAR

ayer anteayer anoche hace unos minutos/días/años hace unas horas/semanas la semana pasada el año pasado entonces, en aquel entonces en esos/aquellos días en ese/aquel tiempo a la una / a las dos esta mañana esta tarde al día siguiente
FUTURE

yesterday the day before yesterday last night a few minutes/days/years ago a few hours/weeks ago last week last year back then in those days at that time at 1 o’clock / at 2 o’clock this morning this afternoon the next day

mañana pasado mañana el lunes / el martes pronto más tarde lo antes posible / lo más pronto posible después de infinitive antes de infinitive esta tarde esta noche antes que subjunctive después que subjunctive cuando en cuanto i tan pronto y subjunctive t como

tomorrow the day after tomorrow on Monday / on Tuesday soon later as soon as possible after (doing something) before (doing something) this afternoon tonight before (something happens) after (something happens) when (something happens) as soon as (something happens)

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS

233

Order of Occurrence Markers
antes primero, en primer lugar segundo, en segundo lugar luego después finalmente beforehand first second then after that finally

Frequency Markers: To Answer ¿con qué frecuencia?
nunca casi nunca poco, pocas veces con poca frecuencia de vez en cuando alguna que otra vez a veces generalmente a menudo frecuentemente un día sí, otro no mucho con mucha frecuencia casi siempre siempre todos los días los lunes / los martes los fines de semana una vez a la semana dos veces al mes never, the whole time almost never seldom not very often every once in a while every so often sometimes usually often frequently every other day a lot very often almost always always, the whole time every day on Mondays / on Tuesdays on weekends once a week twice a month

Place Markers: To Answer ¿dónde?
ADVERBS

aquí/acá ahí allí/allá
PREPOSITIONS

here there over there

en sobre entre

in/on/at on between/among

234
ADVERBS

GRAMMAR
PREPOSITIONS

arriba abajo adentro afuera adelante detrás atrás enfrente al lado a la derecha a la izquierda todo derecho alrededor cerca lejos a lo lejos

up there, on top down there, below inside outside ahead, forward behind back, in the back, behind, ago in front on the side on the right on the left straight ahead all around nearby far away in the distance

encima de debajo de dentro de fuera de delante de detrás de atrás de enfrente de / frente a al lado de a la derecha de a la izquierda de alrededor de cerca de lejos de

on top of underneath (of) inside of outside of ahead of behind behind across from / facing next to to the right of to the left of around near, close to far from

Direction Markers: To Answer ¿adónde?
a para hacia a través de por alrededor de a la derecha a la izquierda adelante recto todo derecho to toward toward across through, by, along around to the right to the left straight ahead straight ahead straight ahead

Adverbs of Manner: To Answer ¿cómo?
bien mal (mucho) mejor (mucho) peor well badly (much) better (much) worse

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS
ADVERBS ENDING IN
FEMININE OR NEUTRAL FORM OF ADJECTIVE

235

-mente

-mente

lenta rápida dulce alegre feliz fácil difícil

lentamente rápidamente dulcemente alegremente felizmente fácilmente difícilmente

slowly rapidly sweetly joyously happily easily with difficulty

MASCULINE OR NEUTRAL FORM OF ADJECTIVE USED AS ADVERB

fuerte alto bajo claro barato caro derecho recto

strongly, tightly high, loud low clearly cheaply expensively straight straight

despacio lento rápido hondo justo seguro

slowly slowly rapidly, fast deeply exactly, just definitely

Adverbs of Degree: To Answer ¿cuánto?
nada poco un poco algo bastante bien muy tan más que menos que demasiado not at all hardly at all slightly a bit quite very very so more than less than a lot, an extreme amount

236

GRAMMAR

Review the forms in the charts on the preceding pages. Adverbs give information about the time, place, direction, number of occasions, frequency, and manner of the action of verbs. They do not change in form. Often a longer expression or prepositional phrase functions as an adverb. Adverbs can also modify the meaning of adjectives and other adverbs (see pages 89–90).

Time Markers
Review the time markers on pages 231–232. Time markers can be placed at the beginning of a sentence, after a verb, or at the end of a sentence.
] Actualmente is a false cognate, or falso amigo (see pages 303–305). It means “at present,” “at this time,” “right now.” “Actually” is translated as realmente in Spanish.
AVOID THE

Blunder

Do not use actualmente when you mean “actually.”

✗ Actualmente, no es mi hermano.
] The English word “last” is expressed in different ways in Spanish.

anoche
]

last night

When it means “the period before this one,” pasado(-a) is typically used.
el año pasado el viernes pasado la semana pasada
AVOID THE

last year last Friday last week

✗ la noche pasada
]

Blunder

✗ el día pasado

When it means “the final period,” último(-a) is used.
el último día la última noche the last day the last night

✗ Fuimos al cine el próximo día.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 237 la última semana de julio las últimas semanas del verano los últimos días del año AVOID THE the last week of July the last weeks of summer the last days of the year ✗ el pasado día ✗ la pasada noche Blunder ] The English word “next” is expressed in two different ways in Spanish. Use siguiente to express this meaning. hace media hora hace diez días hace catorce años AVOID THE a half hour ago 10 days ago 14 years ago ✗ una media hora pasada ✗ diez días pasados Blunder . el día siguiente el mes siguiente el año siguiente AVOID THE the next (following) day the next (following) month the next (following) year Blunder Do not use próximo to express “the next day” if the action has been completed. ] Hace is used to express the English “ago” (see page 123). ] When it means “the period after this one. la próxima semana el próximo mes el próximo año next week next month next year ] When it means “the period after that one.” próximo(-a) is used.” siguiente is used.

No tengo mucho tiempo. To tell the time of an event or activity. dinero. Health. It can also be expressed with the verb phrase volver a infinitive. ] To tell the current time.238 GRAMMAR ] The English word “time” is expressed in several ways in Spanish. Espero que se diviertan. To express “to have a good time. El tiempo vuela. I hope you all have a good time. ] Tomorrow we’ll see each other again. Lo pasé muy bien en la Argentina. Mañana nos vemos otra vez. Time flies. I don’t have much time. No hay tiempo para hacerlo. I’ll call you again on Friday. love—and time to enjoy them. money. ] The English adverb “again” can be expressed with otra vez. the pattern a la una / a las dos is used (see page 261). ¿Lo pasaste bien? Nos divertimos mucho en la fiesta. ✗ ¿Tuviste un buen tiempo? . amor y tiempo para gastarlos. the pattern es la una / son las dos is used. There’s no time to do it. de Blunder nuevo. Te vuelvo a llamar el viernes. Did you have a good time? We had a good time at the party. Salud. AVOID THE ✗ El concierto son las ocho. or nuevamente. ] Buen tiempo means “good weather” in Spanish. AVOID THE I had a good time in Argentina. Tiempo is used to express time as a commodity. Blunder Don’t confuse time with the weather! ✗ Tuve un buen tiempo en la Argentina.” pasarlo bien or divertirse is used (see page 308).

the second verb is in the infinitive form after the preposition de. ✗ Vamos a comer después que han descansado. La profesora fue a casa después que hicieran el examen los estudiantes. AVOID THE I want to study before the children get home. AVOID THE I want to study before I go out. I’m going to call you before I talk to her. Quiero estudiar antes de salir.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 239 ] In English. Voy a llamarte antes de hablar con ella. We’ll eat after you all have rested a bit. In Spanish. I’m going to call you before my husband leaves. ] Blunder When the subject of the first verb is a different person from the subject of the second verb. ✗ Voy a llamarte antes que sale mi esposo. ✗ Quiero estudiar antes que hablo con ella. Vamos a jugar cartas después de comer. Vamos a comer después que hayan descansado un poco. there are two different patterns. a subjunctive form is used after antes que or después (see page 171). ] When the subject of the first verb is the same person who performs the action of the second verb. They went home after they took the exam. We’re going to play cards after we eat. ✗ Fue a casa después que hicieron el examen. Voy a llamarte antes que salga mi esposo. The teacher went home after the students took the exam. Blunder Do not use the indicative after antes que or después que. Fueron a casa después de hacer el examen. . Quiero estudiar antes que regresen a casa los niños. the markers “before” and “after” are followed by indicative constructions. ✗ Fueron a casa después que hago el examen. ✗ Quiero estudiar antes que regresan los niños.

✗ algunos tiempos Blunder ] The adverbs siempre and nunca can be used with both the imperfect and the preterite tenses. I want to see the movie again. with slightly different meanings. . ✗ Comimos en ese restaurante muchos tiempos. ] To modify a frequency expression. They help me sometimes.240 GRAMMAR Frequency Markers Review the frequency markers in the chart on page 233. ✗ Tengo más que veinte dólares. Ellos me ayudan a veces. My uncle took the test two times. ✗ Mi tía come más que tres veces al día. I go to the gym less than four times a week. Blunder Do not use más que before a number.” A veces estudiamos hasta muy tarde. Ella bailó con Juan muchas veces. ✗ Estuve allí un tiempo. Quiero ver la película otra vez. ] To tell the number of times an activity takes place. más de or menos de is used. dos veces. AVOID THE My aunt eats more than three times a day. expressions such as una vez. Voy al gimnasio menos de cuatro veces a la semana. AVOID THE Sometimes we study until very late. Blunder Mi tía come más de tres veces al día. and muchas veces are used. She danced with Juan many times. ] A veces is used to express “sometimes. Mi tío hizo el examen dos veces. Estuve en México una vez. AVOID THE I was in Mexico once.

My sister would always help my mother. We used to never agree on anything. Also note that all the days whose names end in -s have only one form and do not change in the plural. We always used to go to the movies together on Saturdays. sábado and domingo are the only days that add -s in the plural. Mi hermana siempre ayudaba a mi mamá. refers only to a description of habitual past action. Mi hermana siempre lo quiso. ¿Qué haces los fines de semana? No trabaja los sábados. Nunca pude olvidarte. ] To express action that occurs regularly on certain days. Su novio nunca se olvidaba de llamarla. Her boyfriend would never forget to call her. Siempre íbamos juntos al cine los sábados. Siempre supimos la verdad. like “always” in English. no preposition is used in Spanish. Nunca estábamos de acuerdo en nada. When used with the preterite. AVOID THE We have classes on Mondays. They stress the fact that the verb describes a past period of time. ✗ en los lunes ✗ en los fines de semana Blunder . I never managed to forget you. siempre and nunca refer to a whole period of time that is now over and that the speaker chooses not to describe any further (see page 130).ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 241 When used with the imperfect. What do you do on weekends? She doesn’t work on Saturdays. You didn’t (even once) have time for me. My sister loved him the whole time. We knew the truth all along. We go out on Friday nights. Salimos los viernes por la noche. and that the action occurred over and over in a general way (see pages 133–134). Nunca tuviste tiempo para mí. Tenemos clases los lunes. AVOID THE Blunder Do not assume that siempre. siempre and nunca emphasize the meaning of the imperfect tense.

allá is used instead of allí when used with a verb of movement. We’re going to eat at the restaurant. ✗ Comemos al restaurante. The children are at school. such as venir.” or “at a place. Mis cosas están arriba. The plates are on the table. Vamos a comer al restaurante. / We’re going to the restaurant to eat. Los niños están en la escuela. I’m here. Blunder Estoy aquí.” Vamos al aeropuerto. Ven acá. acá is used instead of aquí when used with a verb of movement.” Las cartas están en la caja. a is used instead of en to indicate “in” or “at. such as ir. We’re going to the airport. Juana está allí. AVOID THE ✗ Voy a comer en el restaurante. Ve allá. My things are up there. Juana is over there. Likewise. ] Certain adverbs of place are different from their prepositional counterparts. Comemos a menudo en este restaurante. ✗ Está al aeropuerto. ] In many countries. Go over there.” “on a place.242 GRAMMAR Place Markers Review the place markers in the chart on pages 233–234. We often eat at this restaurant. Blunder ] The preposition a can indicate movement toward a place. Come here. Los platos están en la mesa. When a verb that indicates movement toward a place (such as ir) is combined with another verb. ] The preposition en can indicate “in a place. Mis cosas están encima de las tuyas. My things are on top of yours. AVOID THE The letters are in the box. ✗ Ella está a casa. .

I put the photographs on the table. ✗ Él está enfrente de mí en la cola. There are a lot of people ahead of us. El dinero está dentro de la maleta. El coche está afuera. and entre. This line is really long. ✗ adentro de la maleta ✗ afuera de la casa ✗ adelante de nosotros Blunder ] Delante de and enfrente de both mean “in front of. Las maletas están debajo de los libros. The money is inside. Hay muchas personas delante de nosotros. The teacher is in front of the class. The money is inside the suitcase. The car is outside (of) the garage. El dinero está adentro.” La casa enfrente de mi casa es blanca. Tenemos que seguir adelante. Delante de expresses the concept “ahead of.” but they do not express the same concept.” as in a row or line. La maestra está enfrente de la clase. enfrente de). sobre. AVOID THE The house across (the street) from mine is white. Enfrente also translates into English as “across from. with three exceptions: en. The documents are on the table. and there are a lot of people in front of me. We have to go forward. The suitcases are underneath the books. El coche está fuera del garaje. He puesto las fotos sobre la mesa. The car is outside. . Los documentos están en la mesa. Blunder Do not use enfrente de to indicate someone or something whose back is in front of you.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 243 Las maletas están abajo.” Esta cola es muy larga y hay muchas personas delante de mí. AVOID THE The suitcases are down there. Enfrente de expresses the concept “facing. ] Prepositional phrases that indicate place include the word de (adentro de.

✗ El libro pequeño está entre de dos libros grandes. it is retained in the adverb. AVOID THE The little book is between two big ones. ✗ el niño recientemente nacido ✗ la mujer recientemente casada Blunder . If there is an accent mark in the adjective. ✗ lentamente y cuidadosamente ] When recientemente directly precedes a past participle (see page 87). Los recién casados están en Madrid. AVOID THE They took the newborn child home. it is shortened to recién. Ella leyó lenta y cuidadosamente cada palabra. Encontramos sus papeles entre los de otras personas. We found your papers among those of other people. The newlyweds are in Madrid. ✗ El libro está sobre de la mesa. She pronounced each word carefully. AVOID THE She read each word slowly and carefully. Blunder Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of manner are formed by adding -mente to the feminine or neutral form of an adjective. El chico corrió rápidamente. Blunder Llevaron al niño recién nacido a casa. The boy ran fast. Ella pronunció cuidadosamente cada palabra. -mente is omitted from all but the last one.244 GRAMMAR El libro pequeño está entre dos libros grandes. ] When two or more adverbs of manner modify the same verb.

He sings low. Reportó las noticias con calma. Siga derecho. Caminaron despacio. El profesor habló claro/claramente. expensively derecho despacio hondo recto straight slowly deeply straight Tiró la pelota muy alto. a ciegas con calma con cuidado con esmero blindly calmly carefully with care She made the decision blindly. Breathe deeply. Fasten it tightly. alto bajo barato caro high low cheaply dearly. They walked slowly. Respire hondo. tightly exactly slowly safely The teacher spoke clearly. It cost me dearly. ] Certain adverbs have two alternative forms: the masculine or neutral singular adjective form and the feminine or neutral singular adjective form -mente. The boy ran fast. He threw the ball very high.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 245 ] Several masculine adjectives are used as adverbs of manner. Canta bajo. He reported the news calmly. Continue straight ahead. claro/claramente fuerte/fuertemente justo/justamente lento/lentamente seguro/seguramente clearly strongly. . AVOID THE Blunder ✗ bajamente ✗ hondamente ✗ caramente Only certain adverbs have two alternative forms. Me costó muy caro. Sujétalo fuerte/fuertemente. Tomó la decisión a ciegas. El chico corrió rápido/rápidamente. ✗ altamente ✗ baratamente ] Prepositional phrases are often used to express manner.

—¿Estás cansado? —Sí. Está bastante lejos de aquí. Cocinó el plato con esmero. It’s pretty far from here. as well as adverbs of manner. Sus padres son cada vez más estrictos. Él corre rapidísimo.246 Ella pronunció cada palabra con cuidado. He runs extremely fast. ] The adverbs un poco. Es un poco tarde. muy. She drives very slowly. mucho. He runs extremely fast. mucho. bastante. GRAMMAR She pronounced each word carefully. very. while demasiado does not. ] Cada vez más intensity. and demasiado can mod- ify adjectives (see pages 89–91). AVOID THE “Are you tired?” “Yes. She drives really slowly. Ella maneja bien lentamente.” Blunder ✗ —Sí. ✗ Su casa está demasiado lejos. (meaning you are not going to go there) ] Unlike “very” in English. He prepared the dish with care. Ella maneja muy lentamente. Blunder Demasiado is better translated as “extremely” rather than “too. Adverbs of Degree Review the adverbs of degree in the chart on page 235. AVOID THE It’s a little late.” “Is she pretty?” “Yes. the adverb muy cannot stand alone in an- swer to a question.” “Too” indicates a negative consequence. Mucho is used instead. —¿Estás cansado? . His parents are getting stricter. muy. very. bien. La chica corre cada vez más rápido. an adverb of manner indicates steadily increasing The girl runs faster and faster. —¿Es bonita? —Sí. Él corre demasiado rápido.

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 247 ] To compare adverbs of manner. ✗ Me preocupa como rápido maneja. más/menos adverb de lo que is used between the two clauses. Roberto eats as much as his father (does). Roberto come tanto como su papá. She works harder than you think (she does). He sings as sweetly as his sister (does). Apenas podía verlos. ] To indicate “to what extent. It worries me how fast she drives. He hardly has enough to eat. Blunder Ella trabaja más duro de lo que piensas. It’s impressive how well she sings.” Apenas tiene suficiente para comer. AVOID THE ✗ Es impresionante como bien canta.” lo Es impresionante lo bien que canta.” tanto como is used. To indicate “as much as. The adverb apenas is used to indicate “hardly” or “just barely. . Ella cocina tan bien como su mamá. AVOID THE Susana talks as much as her mother (does). ] When an adverbial comparison is made that involves two different subjects and verbs. Él canta tan dulcemente como su hermana. tan adverb como is used. Me preocupa lo rápido que maneja. I could barely see them. Susana habla tanto como su mamá. She cooks as well as her mother (does). Su hijo maneja más rápido de lo que ella quiere. ✗ tan bien que su mamá ✗ tanto que su papá Blunder adverb is used. Her son drives faster than she wants (him to).

The following ex- pressions may also be used. Do not try to translate these expressions. ¿Qué vas a hacer? Questions are formed in several ways in Spanish. ] Yes-or-no questions are usually formed by reversing the order of the subject and the verb. or using rising intonation at the end. even if the question does not begin the sentence. Por supuesto. . the first word of the question is not capitalized.248 GRAMMAR Questions Questions are always preceded by an upside-down question mark and followed by a standard question mark. The question mark immediately precedes the question. ¿va Roberto a la reunión? Y tú. A propósito. ¿qué vas a hacer? By the way. Yes. qué vas a hacer? ✗ Y tú. va Roberto a la reunión? ✗ ¿Y tú. ✗ Hace Jaime estudiar? ✗ Hacen ustedes vivir aquí? ~ When the answer is “yes. In this case. Cómo no. Of course. (naturally).” it is expressed by sí. indeed. is Roberto going to the meeting? What about you? What are you going to do? AVOID THE ✗ ¿A propósito. Yes. Claro. using question marks at the beginning and at the end of the question. Blunder ¿Estudia Jaime? ¿Eres (tú) de Lima? ¿Viven ustedes aquí? ¿Trabajan tus hermanos? AVOID THE Does Jaime study? Are you from Lima? Do you all live here? Do your brothers work? Blunder There is no equivalent of “do you?” / “does he?” / “are they?” in Spanish.

hay ningún libro en la mesa. conozco a nadie. también may be used. No No No No No tengo nada. In the examples below. AVOID THE Blunder Double negatives are correct in Spanish. The following expressions may also be used.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 249 To add another positive element.” it is expressed by no. Not tomorrow. ✗ Tengo nada. No. Jaime studies. y yo también. ✗ —No mañana. y mi papá también. We’re not going anywhere. De ninguna manera. Yes. Hoy no. Sí. and so do I. and so is my dad. Yes. Sí. Not now. vamos a ninguna parte. no soy de Lima. I’m not from Lima. the second no is used before the verb to make the sentence negative. Blunder In a short negative answer. Todavía no. No. He never does it. No. soy de Lima. I don’t know anybody. put the no after the adverb. the first no answers a question. Jaime no estudia. lo hace nunca. I don’t have anything. No. —¿Vas a comprarlo? When a sentence contains a negative word in any position other than the first word in the sentence. Jaime estudia. Ahora no. ✗ —No ahora. . Jaime doesn’t study. ~ When the answer is “no. Mañana no. I’m from Lima. There’s no book on the table. AVOID THE No way. the verb is preceded by no. / There are no books on the table. ✗ No hay un libro en la mesa. ✗ —No hoy. Not today. Not yet.

¿Quién es? ¿De dónde es? ¿Hasta cuándo te quedas? Who is he? Where is he from? How long are you staying? ~ Two interrogative words. If you are sure the answer is singular. No. An accent mark is used over the stressed vowel of an interrogative word in a question. quiénes is used to ask “who. ¿Qué es esto? ¿Qué es eso? ¿Qué es un abrelatas? What’s this? What’s that? What’s an “abrelatas”? . and neither do I. Qué can ask for an identification or a definition. Jaime doesn’t study. no soy de Lima. or do not know if the answer is singular or plural.” Cuántos is used to express “how many.250 GRAMMAR To add an additional negative element. ni mi papá tampoco. I’m not from Lima. and neither is my dad.” ¿Quiénes son esos chicos? ¿Quiénes van a la fiesta? AVOID THE Who are those boys? Who is going to the party? Blunder Do not use quién if you expect the answer to be plural. tampoco may be used. No. No. ✗ ¿Quién va a la fiesta / a la reunión? Cuánto is used to express “how much. ni yo tampoco. Jaime no estudia. ] Many questions can be formed with interrogative words.” ¿Cuánto cuestan estos zapatos? ¿Cuántas personas vienen esta noche? How much do these shoes cost? How many people are coming tonight? ~ Both qué and cuál can mean “what” and “which.” but they are not interchangeable. can be either singular or plural. No.” ¿Quién es ese chico? ¿Con quién estás? Who is that boy? Who are you with? If you are pretty sure the answer is plural. quién and cuánto. quién is used to ask “who.

¿De qué hablas? ¿De dónde son ellos? ¿Para quién es el regalo? ¿Con quién vas? ¿De quién es este suéter? ¿A quién llamas? What are you talking about? Where are they from? Who is the present for? Who are you going with? Whose sweater is this? Who are you calling? A dónde is usually contracted to adónde. They never go at the end of a question.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 251 Qué followed by a noun asks “which one. prepositions precede a question word. ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es la fecha? ¿Cuál es su número de teléfono? What’s your name? What’s the date? What’s your telephone number? Cuál de a plural noun asks “which” of two or more alternatives. ¿Adónde van Uds.” ¿Qué vestido te gusta más? ¿Qué abrelatas vas a usar? Which dress do you like best? Which can opener are you going to use? AVOID THE ✗ ¿Cuál vestido te gusta más? Blunder ✗ ¿Cuál abrelatas vas a usar? Cuál followed by a form of the verb ser asks “what” (which one of all the possibilities).? ¿Adónde quieren ir? AVOID THE Where are you all going? Where do they want to go? ✗ ¿Qué hablas de? ✗ ¿Quién es el regalo para? ✗ ¿Dónde vas? Blunder . Which book do you prefer? Which idea interests you the most? ¿Cuál de los libros prefieres? ¿Cuál de las ideas te interesa más? AVOID THE ✗ ¿Qué es su nombre? Blunder ✗ ¿Qué es su número de teléfono? ~ In Spanish.

Vamos al restaurante donde comimos la semana pasada. Tell me what time you want to come. Pedro told me (that) he wanted to go with us. Necesitamos saber adónde fue. —¿Por qué no está trabajando tu hermano hoy? —Porque está enfermo. Dime a qué hora quieres venir. Let’s go to the restaurant where we ate last week.” porque is used. The following patterns are used. que. with an accent mark in qué. It is one word and does not have an accent mark. following certain clauses. AVOID THE “Why isn’t your brother working today?” “Because he’s sick. I don’t know how he does it. Estoy contenta cuando estás aquí. José asked me what you did with the money. He runs like the wind. the interrogative word has an accent mark.” It is two words. The exclamatory word has an accent mark. As in direct questions. and donde do not have accent marks. José me preguntó qué hiciste con el dinero. Exclamations Exclamations are preceded by an upside-down exclamation point and followed by a standard exclamation point. cuando.252 GRAMMAR ~ Por qué is used to ask “why. ] ¡Qué noun más/tan adjective! What an adorable child! What a boring class! ¡Qué niño más adorable! ¡Qué clase tan aburrida! . Pedro me dijo que quería acompañarnos. I’m happy when you’re here. Corre como el viento. An accent mark is used in the question word. como.” ✗ —¿Porque no trabaja? ✗ —Por que está enfermo. No sé cómo lo hace. We need to know where she went. Lack of knowledge can also be expressed with a question word within a sentence. When there is no direct or indirect question. To answer “because. Blunder ] Questions may be asked indirectly.

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 253 ] ¡Qué adjective noun! What a good idea! What bad luck! ¡Qué buena idea! ¡Qué mala suerte! AVOID THE ✗ ¡Qué un adorable niño! ✗ ¡Qué una clase aburrida! ] Blunder verb! How pretty you look! How well you speak Spanish! How fast he runs! ¡Qué adjective/adverb ¡Qué bonita estás! ¡Qué bien hablas español! ¡Qué rápido corre! AVOID THE ✗ ¡Cómo bonita estás! ✗ ¡Cómo bien hablas! ] Blunder ¡Cómo verb! How she talks! / The way she talks! How he runs! / The way he runs! ¡Cómo habla! ¡Cómo corre! ] ¡Cuánto (object) verb! I love you so much! You spend so much! ¡Cuánto te quiero! ¡Cuánto gastas! ] ¡(object) verb tanto! I love you so much! You spend so much! ¡Te quiero tanto! ¡Gastas tanto! .

Tuvimos muy 8. ? (Did you have a good time?) (time) es oro. (last) (last). as appropriate. Vamos a descansar después que 4. ¿ 10. La (last) vez que lo vi fue (two weeks ago). 1. (leer) (regresar) (volver) los otros. 1. El profesor fue a casa después de los exámenes. (again). (last night)? (Sometimes) camina al trabajo y vuelve . Por favor. pues tengo (The whole time) estuve de acuerdo contigo. En mi oficina siempre nos reunimos a las diez de la mañana. (vestirse). Ana siempre hace ejercicio antes de C Fill in the blanks with the appropriate Spanish expressions. ¿Te llamó Santiago 3. Ramón vio dos películas el sábado y vio otras dos el día (next). 2. Ella fue a Chile la semana 2. 5. Siempre nos divertimos durante las semanas del año. B Fill in the blanks with the infinitive or subjunctive form of the verb in parentheses. 1. 3. No voy a estar aquí una cita con el médico. 4. en el metro. 3. 6.254 GRAMMAR Exercises A Fill in the blanks with the Spanish equivalent of the English expression in parentheses. toca esa canción 12. Mi hijo vio esa película tres 9. 2. (on Mondays) (on Monday). El 11. (next) viernes. (times). Ella va a pintar la sala antes que su esposo. Nos vamos a ver el 7. (good weather).

Los de miel. lo bien que e. (at) la biblioteca. (recently) casados ya volvieron de su luna (calmly). Ella recibió la noticia 4. 1. 3. (softly and sweetly). 1. Su novio la llama 5. 4. Who are you going to the movies with? 4. 3. E Fill in the blanks with the appropriate Spanish adverbs. Siempre estudiamos (more than) dos veces cada día. Yo corro (slowly). tan bien como d. Los niños están jugando fuera | afuera. as much as 2. 2. 1. D Circle the expression that best completes each sentence. 1. as well as 4.ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS 255 4. F Match each English expression in the left column with a Spanish expression in the right column. Alejandra cantó 2. Where are you going? 2. more than you think 3. Hay tres personas delante de | enfrente de | adelante mí en la cola. What are you all talking about? 3. tantos como b. Entramos en el segundo piso y los cuartos de los niños están debajo de | debajo | abajo. as many as 5. tanto como c. When are you all coming back? . Hay más de diez personas dentro de | dentro | adentro la casa. how well a. más de lo que piensas G Express each of the following questions in Spanish.

¿Cómo habla? . You don’t know how much he talks. ¿Por qué habla tanto? f. 3. ¡Cómo habla! b. a. 4. Because he talks so much. ¡Qué habladora es! e. 1. She talks so much! 7. Porque habla tanto. I Match each English expression in the left column with a Spanish expression in the right column. 1. 4. g. ¡Habla tanto! d. 2. How talkative she is! 2. No sabes lo mucho que habla.256 GRAMMAR H Now write negative responses to the questions in Exercise G. Why does he talk so much? 5. How he talks! 6. How does he speak? 3. c.

along. Ya salieron del edificio. for by. indicator of personal direct object before (in the presence of) under with against from. ✗ Ya salieron de el edificio. on behind Review the prepositions in the chart above. ] When the prepositions a and de are used immediately before the masculine definite article el. at entre hacia hasta para por según sin sobre tras between/among toward until destined for. AVOID THE We’re going to the market. about. on. Eduardo va a El Salvador la próxima semana. Eduardo is going to El Salvador next week. for according to without over. the two words are contracted to al and del. ✗ Vamos a el mercado. Blunder 257 . excepto desde en to. unless the el is part of a proper name. Vamos al mercado. from in.OTHER PREPOSITIONS a ante bajo con contra de salvo. of except since. They often have no exact English equivalents. They already left the building. for. Form and Function of Prepositions Prepositions are invariable in form.

” “you all. I did it because of him. usted. salvo. or si (“me.” “her. nos.” and “us”) are used. ] The subject pronouns yo and tú are used after the prepositions entre. Blunder ✗ para mi ✗ mí casa ✗ para tí Mí after a preposition has an accent mark to distinguish it from the possessive mi. The present is for us. Estoy pensando en ti.” “themselves”).” “them. ] The object pronouns mí and ti are used after other prepositions. and os after prepositions. las. . You can go with me. The matter is between you and me. ellas. Blunder Do not use the direct and indirect object pronouns le. Everybody except me is leaving. The accent mark in mí is dropped (see page 14). I’m thinking about you. ellos. everyone is crazy. ustedes.” “herself. I don’t want to talk to you. ] In Spanish the subject pronouns él. ella. AVOID THE I’m going with her. les. El regalo es para nosotros.” “you. Ti does not have an accent mark. No quiero hablar contigo. and excepto. You have to go without me. la. The letter is from them. todo el mundo está loco. La carta es de ellos. unlike English where the object pronouns (“him. Voy con ella. según.” “himself. Lo hice por él. los. ✗ La carta es de los. El asunto es entre tú y yo. ✗ Lo hice por lo. -go is added to form one word. Puedes ir conmigo. Todo el mundo salvo yo se va. The present is for you. According to you.258 GRAMMAR ] Pronouns that follow prepositions have several variations. ti. Tienes que ir sin mí. nosotros. and vosotros are used after prepositions.” “you. lo. Según tú. Lo hizo por mí. El regalo es para ti. ✗ por mi ] When the preposition con is followed by the pronoun mí. AVOID THE He did it because of me.

He did it because of me and you. Vimos la película después de comer. ella. AVOID THE Rubén brought his books with him. AVOID THE I’m going to call him before I leave. Los chicos se fueron. ellos. ✗ El regalo es para ti y Carlos. Van al mercado a comprar pan. ✗ Lo hizo por mí y ti. ✗ Voy a llamarlo antes de yo salgo. Estoy pensando en ti y en él. or ellas to express “himself.” ✗ con mí ✗ con él ✗ con ellos ] In Spanish. Blunder . Lo hizo por mí y por ti.” or “themselves. the preposition is usually repeated when there is more than one object.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 259 Rubén trajo sus libros consigo. ✗ Estoy pensando en ti y él. Come menos para perder peso. She lives far away from me and my brothers. She eats less in order to lose weight. Blunder Voy a llamarlo antes de salir. “herself. AVOID THE The present is for you and Carlos. Vive lejos de mí y de mis hermanos. ✗ Vimos la película después que comimos. El regalo es para ti y para Carlos. y se llevaron la pizza consigo. ] A verb that directly follows a preposition is in the infinitive form (see page 97). The boys left and took the pizza with them. They’re going to the market to buy bread. ✗ Vive lejos de mí y mis hermanos. Blunder ✗ con ti ✗ con ella ✗ con ellas ✗ con sí Do not use él. I’m thinking about you and him. We watched the movie after we ate.

Espérame aquí. ] Certain verb preposition combinations in English are translated into Spanish using a verb without a preposition. The following verbs are some common examples (see page 104). take care of comment on escuchar llorar mirar padecer listen to cry over look at suffer from Te agradezco tus consejos. In both direct and indirect questions the preposition goes before the interrogative word. ✗ Espera por mí aquí. Tienes que pedirle un cupón. ✗ Tienes que pedirle por un cupón. AVOID THE What is she complaining about? Who are you thinking about? How long have you been here? How long is he staying? I don’t know who he went with. ¿De qué se queja? ¿En quién piensas? ¿Desde cuándo están aquí? ¿Hasta cuándo se queda? No sé con quién fue. You have to ask him for a coupon. agradecer buscar esperar pagar pedir (i. ✗ ¿A qué miras? Blunder . Estoy buscando mis lentes.260 GRAMMAR ] In Spanish. We have to pay for the electricity. ✗ ¿Qué se queja de? ✗ ¿Quién piensas de? Blunder ✗ No sé quien fue con. i) votar atender (ie) comentar be grateful for look for wait for pay for ask for vote for (something) wait on. ¿Qué miras? AVOID THE I’m grateful for your advice. Wait for me here. a sentence never ends with a preposition. Tell us who this letter is from. Tenemos que pagar la luz. What are you looking at? ✗ Estoy buscando para mis lentes. I’m looking for my glasses. Díganos de quién es esta carta.

The girl ran to the house. The woman used to sit at the window and watch people.) They went to eat at a restaurant. ] With the verb sentar to indicate “facing. ] A is used after ir and other verbs that indicate movement to another place. (At) what time is the meeting? It’s at 10 o’clock. The family was seated at the table. ¿A qué hora es la reunión? Es a las diez.) Fueron a comer a un restaurante. Sánchez? . Voy a estudiar a la universidad. La chica corrió a la casa. I’m going to study at the university. Es a mediodía. Caminaron al mercado. a The preposition a has specific uses and is sometimes required in set phrases. He saw his friend at the store. Llamo a mi mamá todos los días.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 261 Usage of Common Prepositions Individual prepositions have a variety of uses. ] In only a few instances is a translated into English as “at” (see pages 272–273). (They went to a restaurant to eat. When do you visit your grandmother? Did you find Mr. La mujer se sentaba a la ventana y miraba a la gente.” La familia estaba sentada a la mesa. (I’m going to the university to study. ¿Cuándo visitan a su abuela? ¿Encontró al señor Sánchez? I call my mother every day. It’s at noon. I’m going to the university. We moved to the city. ] With the verb ir to indicate the activity intended. Vio a su amiga en la tienda. Voy a la universidad. ] To ask for and to indicate the time of an event. They walked to the market. Nos mudamos a la ciudad. ] The personal “a” is used before a direct object noun that refers to a person or a pet (see page 215).

Do not forget the a.” ] A is used with exchange-type verbs that indicate something taken from another person or something done to or for another person (see pages 105–106 and 218–219). They have one child. We don’t like the cold. no veo a ninguno. Raúl le compró un coche a ese tipo. “Do you know anyone who speaks Italian?” “No. —¿Conoces a alguien que hable italiano? —No. Blunder A mí me gustan las telenovelas.) And you. —¿Ves a algún chico de nuestro colegio? —No. ✗ Robaron mi cartera de mí.” “Do you see any boys from our school?” “No. The “personal a” is typically not used after the verb tener. Miguel le mandó la carta a Pedro. (It doesn’t please us. (They appeal to me.) The noise doesn’t bother Juan. ¿qué te interesa? I like soap operas. They stole my purse (from me). I don’t see any (not a single one). ✗ Ana regaló su hijo una corbata. I don’t know anybody here. Tengo tres primos en California. what are you interested in? (What is interesting to you?) . A nosotros no nos gusta el frío. I have three cousins in California.262 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder ✗ Vio su amiga. no conozco a nadie aquí. A mí me robaron la cartera. even though it is not translated. ✗ Llamo mi mamá. Y a ti. AVOID THE Raúl bought a car from that guy. Miguel sent the letter to Pedro. ] A is used before indirect object nouns and the pronouns that refer to them. ] A is used before an indefinite pronoun that refers to an unidentified person. Tienen un hijo. Ana gave her son a necktie. A Juan no le molesta el ruido. Ana le regaló una corbata a su hijo.

” ✗ Aprendí manejar. AVOID THE I learned to drive last year. He dared to tell me that. Se atrevió a decirme eso. My room overlooks the plaza. acercarse a acostumbrarse a asistir a asomarse a approach get used to attend lean out of condenar a dar a dirigirse a jugar a condemn to have a view of head toward play La chica asiste a todas sus clases. Blunder Do not forget the a. ] A is used after certain verbs and is followed by a noun. It started to rain. . Empezó a llover. She looks like her mother. ✗ Empezó llover.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 263 ] A is used after certain verbs and is followed by another verb in the infinitive form (see page 97). set out to make up one’s mind to (do) again Aprendí a manejar el año pasado. even though the English infinitive begins with “to. She called me again. Following are some common examples. Ella se parece a su mamá. Mi habitación da a la plaza. oler a parecerse a smell like look like saber a sonar a taste like sound like La casa olía a humo. Volvió a llamarme. The house smelled like smoke. VERBS RELATED TO THE SENSES The girl attends all her classes. aprender a atreverse a ayudar a comenzar a decidirse a detenerse a empezar a enseñar a learn to dare to help (do) begin to decide to stop to begin to teach (to) invitar a negarse a obligar a ofrecerse a oponerse a ponerse a resolverse a volver a invite to refuse to make (someone) do offer to be opposed to begin.

I call her once a week. We’re going to cook the potatoes Peruvian style. The cookies are on sale for three dollars a dozen. El coche corre a 70 millas por hora. . ✗ La casa olía como humo. Invirtió en la empresa a ciegas. La blusa fue bordada a mano. Se venden las galletas a tres dólares la docena. We celebrated Spanish style. Fue a la estación a pie. He invested in the firm blindly. Escribe el trabajo a máquina. ✗ Asiste las clases. AVOID THE The blouse was embroidered by hand. and do not leave the preposition out. She prepared the beans Mexican style. ] A is used to express distance. Su casa está a 50 kilómetros de la ciudad. Comemos tres veces al día. ] A is used before certain nouns to indicate the manner in which something is done.” Their house is 50 kilometers from the city. Type the paper. Van al cine una vez al mes. Vamos a cocinar las papas al estilo peruano. La llamo una vez a la semana. Preparó los frijoles a la mexicana. Lo visita varias veces al año. He went to the station on foot. ✗ bordar por mano ✗ escribir por máquina Blunder ✗ ir en pie ✗ lavar por mano ] A is used to express certain measurements.264 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not use a different preposition. ] A is used to express “style. The car is going 70 miles an hour. We eat three times a day. They go to the movies once a month. She visits him several times a year. Celebramos a la española. ] A is used to express that something happens a certain number of times in a given period of time.

OTHER PREPOSITIONS

265

] A is used to indicate musical accompaniment.

Bailamos al son cubano. Marcharon al compás de los tambores.

We danced to the Cuban beat. They marched to the beat of the drums.

] A can be used to give an order or exhortation.

¡A trabajar! ¡A comer!

Get to work! / Let’s get to work! Eat! / Let’s eat!

] A is used before qué to express “I’ll bet.”

¡A qué no sabes quién es ese chico!
] A is used in certain set phrases.

I’ll bet you don’t know who that boy is!

a a a a a a a a a a

at the expense of compared to with difficulty secretly approximately behind (someone’s) back a favor de in favor of a fin de cuentas after all a gusto according to taste a la larga in the long run a lo largo de along (a path)

base de caballo causa de consecuencia de costa de diferencia de duras penas escondidas eso de espaldas de

based on on horseback because of because of

a lo mejor a menudo a partir de

most likely often beginning from (a time) a pesar de in spite of a propósito on purpose, by the way a saber namely a salvo unharmed a solas all alone a tiempo on time a través de by means of a veces sometimes al contrario quite the opposite al principio at first al revés backwards

AVOID THE

Blunder
✗ porque de ✗ en la corrida larga

Do not attempt to find exact equivalents for English prepositions or to translate phrases word for word. The best way to learn to use prepositions is to learn whole phrases and to practice using them in context.

✗ en caballo ✗ detrás de su espalda ✗ en favor de

266

GRAMMAR

con
The preposition con has specific uses and is sometimes required after certain verbs.
] Con is often used like “with” in English.

Ven conmigo. Voy contigo. Nos reunimos con los nuevos empleados.

Come with me. I’m going with you. We met with the new employees.

] Con can indicate a way of doing something.

Caminó al trabajo con dificultad. Hay que tomar las cosas con calma. Nos ayudó con mucho gusto.

He walked to work with difficulty. One must accept things calmly. She helped us with pleasure.

] Following are some common verbs that are followed by con.

acabar con casarse con coincidir con contar con contentar con cumplir con dar con

finish off marry agree with count on be satisfied with fulfill run into

encontrarse con hablar con meterse con poder con soñar con

run into talk to challenge be able to deal with dream about

Julia se casa con Martín muy pronto. Coincido contigo en eso. Cuenta conmigo. Voy a hablar con el profesor mañana. No puedo con ese tipo. Estoy soñando contigo.
AVOID THE

Julia is marrying Martín soon. I agree with you on that. Count on me. I’m going to talk to the professor tomorrow. I can’t deal with that guy. I’m dreaming about you.

Blunder

Do not try to translate the English prepositions.

✗ Julia se casa a Martín. ✗ Cuenta en mí. ✗ Voy a hablar al profesor. ✗ Estoy soñando de ti.

OTHER PREPOSITIONS

267

sin
The preposition sin has several uses.
] Sin generally corresponds to English “without.”

Salió sin dinero. No puedo vivir sin ti. Se fue sin despedirse. Lo llamé sin darme cuenta.

She left without money. I can’t live without you. He left without saying good-bye. I called him without realizing it.

] Sin occurs after the verb llevar and is followed by a verb in infinitive

form to indicate how long it has been since something has occurred (see pages 116–117).
Llevamos veinte años sin vernos. Lleva seis meses sin hablar español.
AVOID THE

We haven’t seen each other for twenty years. He hasn’t spoken Spanish for six months.

✗ No nos hemos visto por veinte años. ✗ No ha hablado español por seis meses.
] Sin is followed by a verb in the infinitive form to indicate a condition

Blunder

that exists because an action has not occurred.
Hay problemas sin resolver. El dormitorio todavía está sin pintar. There are unsolved problems. The bedroom is still unpainted.

de
The preposition de has specific uses and is sometimes required in set phrases.
] De can indicate origin and is used in other expressions translated as

“from.”
—¿De dónde es Sara? —Es de Chicago. Lo sé de memoria. Voy a Nueva York de vez en cuando. De ahora en adelante vamos a tener más cuidado. “Where is Sara from?” “She’s from Chicago.” I know it from memory. I go to New York from time to time. From now on we’re going to be more careful.

268

GRAMMAR

] De... en... indicates a repetitive activity, translated as “from . . . to . . .”

in English.
El príncipe fue de casa en casa en busca de la princesa.
AVOID THE

The prince went from house to house looking for the princess.

✗ de casa a casa ✗ de pueblo a pueblo

Blunder

] De can indicate possession.

—¿De quién es este libro? —Es de Carlos.
AVOID THE

“Whose book is this?” “It’s Carlos’s.”

Blunder
s in Spanish.

Do not use an apostrophe

✗ Es Carlos’s.
] De can indicate the material something is made of.

—¿De qué material es tu blusa? —Es de seda. Las sillas son de madera. La bolsa es de plástico.
AVOID THE

“What material is your blouse made of ?” “It’s silk.” The chairs are made of wood. The bag is made of plastic.

✗ La blusa es seda. ✗ Las sillas son maderas.

Blunder

] In some expressions, de can be translated as “of.”

Esa mujer se aprovecha de ti. No te burles de mí. Nos cansamos de salir cada noche. Su libro consta de cuatro cuentos.

That woman takes advantage of you. Don’t make fun of me. We got tired of going out every night. His book consists of four stories.

OTHER PREPOSITIONS

269

] In some expressions, de can be translated as “about.”

Se alegra de las noticias. Nos enteramos de su visita. Me olvidé de llamarte. Se rieron de los fracasos.

He is happy about the news. We found out about her visit. I forgot about calling you. They laughed about the failures.

] De can be used after estar to indicate a current state.

de de de de de de de de de de

acuerdo buen humor caza mal humor merienda moda mudanza pie prisa visita

in agreement in a good mood (in the act of) hunting in a bad mood having a snack in style (in the process of) moving standing in a hurry visiting The men are out hunting. We’re having a snack. Short skirts are in style. They’re in the process of moving. The girls are standing up. Are you visiting?

Los hombres están de caza. Estamos de merienda. Las faldas cortas están de moda. Están de mudanza. Las chicas están de pie. ¿Están de visita?
AVOID THE

Blunder
✗ en un buen humor ✗ en moda

Do not use en with these expressions to translate “in.”

✗ en acuerdo

] De is used to express the appropriate time for an activity.

Es la hora de descansar. No es hora de comer.
AVOID THE

It’s time to rest. It’s not time to eat.

Blunder

Do not leave out the preposition, even though “to” is expressed in the English infinitive.

✗ Es la hora descansar. ✗ No es hora comer.

270

GRAMMAR

] De is used to express a type of activity or temporary job.

María trabaja de niñera. Mi hermana hace de cocinera.

María works as a babysitter. My sister is doing the cooking.

] De is used to define certain objects according to their use.

Chicle es otro nombre por goma de mascar. Las computadoras han reemplazado a las máquinas de escribir.
] De is used in comparisons.

“Chicle” is another word for chewing gum (gum used for chewing). Computers have replaced typewriters (machines used for writing).

Mateo es el mejor de la clase. Eres el chico más simpático del mundo.
AVOID THE

Mateo is the best in the class. You are the nicest guy in the world.

✗ el mejor en la clase ✗ el más simpático en el mundo
] De is used after ser to express desired or suggested activity.

Blunder

Es de desear que terminemos temprano. Ese grupo es de temer. Lo que dice es de creer.

It is to be desired that we finish early. That group is to be feared. What he says should be believed.

] De can be used to express “if” before a conditional statement.

De no haber visto a tu hermana, me habría olvidado de llamarte.

If I hadn’t seen your sister, I would have forgotten to call you.

] De is used after a conjugated form of acabar to indicate action that has just been completed (see pages 119–120).

Acabo de comer. Acaban de hacer el examen.

I have just eaten. / I just ate. They have just taken the test. / They just took the test.

AVOID THE

✗ acabo de comido ✗ acaban de hecho el examen

Blunder

OTHER PREPOSITIONS

271

] De is used after a conjugated form of haber to indicate an obligation.

He de hacerlo por mi familia. La carta ha de ser firmada.

I must do it for my family. The letter has to be signed.

] When de is used after certain verbs, it is followed by another verb in the infinitive form.

acordarse de cesar de dejar de ocuparse de

remember to stop (doing) stop (doing) deal with

parar de tener ganas de terminar de tratar de

stop (doing) want to finish (doing) try to

Quiere dejar de fumar. Ella no para de hablar. Tengo ganas de conocerlo. Trata de comprenderla.
AVOID THE

He wants to stop smoking. She doesn’t stop talking. I want to meet him. Try to understand her.

Blunder

Do not omit the preposition de, even though “to” is part of the English infinitive.

✗ Quiere dejar fumar. ✗ Trata comprenderla.
Do not use a gerund construction, as you would in English.

✗ Quiere dejar fumando.
] De is used after certain verbs and is followed by a noun or pronoun.

abusar de cambiar de carecer de constar de cuidar de depender de despedirse (i, i) de

abuse, rape change lack consist of be careful of depend on say good-bye to

disfrutar de enamorarse de gozar de ocuparse de preocuparse de quejarse de servir (i, i) de tratarse de

enjoy fall in love with enjoy deal with worry about complain about serve as be about

La familia depende del hijo mayor. Vamos a despedirnos de Carmen.

The family depends on the oldest son. We’re going to say good-bye to Carmen.

toca la canción de nuevo.” “on.272 GRAMMAR María se enamoró de Pedro.” and “at” to indicate place. Learn the entire expression as a unit. Es un amigo de verdad. ¿Qué hay de cena? Trabaja de día y estudia de noche. ✗ a noche ✗ en ninguna manera ✗ por cena en The preposition en has specific uses and is sometimes required in set phrases. My husband is at the airport. truly What’s for dinner? She works during the day and studies at night. He’s truly a good friend. The book is about a poor family. Mi esposo está en el aeropuerto. ¿Qué tienes en la mano? El gato está en el techo. We live on the third floor. Please play the song again. ] De is the first word in a number of set expressions. What do you have in your hand? The cat is on the roof. Por favor. no hay de qué ninguna manera nuevo pronto repente todo corazón verdad gladly/unwillingly for dinner / for lunch during the day / at night in the same way you’re welcome in no way again suddenly suddenly sincerely really. María fell in love with Pedro. ] En corresponds to the English “in. El libro se trata de una familia pobre. de de de de de de de de de de de buena gana / de mala gana cena / de almuerzo día / de noche la misma manera nada. Vivimos en el tercer piso. . AVOID THE Blunder Do not try to translate these expressions that use the Spanish de word for word.

Te veo a las cuatro de la tarde. Sale en la noche. ] En indicates occurrence within a certain period of time. En is not used with days of the week (see page 232). afternoon. He painted the house in three days. AVOID THE I’ll see you on Wednesday. Her birthday is in July. I’ll see you at 4 o’clock in the afternoon. ✗ en miércoles Blunder ✗ en los viernes En is not used with specific times of the morning. Descanso en la tarde. We meet at 10 o’clock in the morning. I rest in the afternoon. Hay siete días en una semana. The children are in class. Se reúnen en la mañana. I’m at home. Estoy en casa. AVOID THE ✗ a las 10 en la mañana Blunder ✗ a las cuatro en la tarde ] En indicates the length of time spent on an activity. Su cumpleaños es en julio. Fueron a España en 2002. We meet in the morning. We meet on Fridays. or night (see page 48). They went to Spain in 2002. I haven’t seen him all day. They meet in the morning. He goes out at night. Nos reunimos los viernes. Nos reunimos en la mañana. Completamos el curso en dos semanas. There are seven days in a week. Te veo en la tarde. Nos reunimos a las 10 de la mañana. evening. We go to the beach in summer. Los niños están en clase. No lo he visto en todo el día. Pintó la casa en tres días. We finished the course in two weeks. Vamos a la playa en el verano.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 273 The definite article is omitted after en in several expressions. I’ll see you in the afternoon. Te veo el miércoles. .

Ella llegó en pantalones. ✗ Voy por tren. ✗ Vamos por coche. AVOID THE I was the first to raise my hand. AVOID THE The children went from door to door selling magazines. Quiero ir en bicicleta. ¿Van Uds. Vino a la fiesta en disfraz. ✗ Los chicos fueron de puerta a puerta. ] En indicates certain methods of transportation. ✗ Fui el primero a levantar la mano. AVOID THE I went on the train. ] En is used in certain negative expressions. Fue la última en salir. Blunder Do not try to translate English prepositions for these functions. You all should take a taxi.274 GRAMMAR ] En indicates how someone is dressed. . ] When used after el primero and el último to indicate an activity performed by someone. Blunder Fui el primero en levantar la mano. Fui en tren... . indicates a repetitive activity. I’ve never seen so many people in all my life. Blunder ] De. translated as “from . They’re going to Australia by ship.. ✗ Fue la última a salir.. She arrived in pants. Van a Australia en barco. Are you going by car? You have to go by plane. Deberían ir en taxi. I want to go on a bicycle. He came to the party in a costume. en coche? Hay que ir en avión. en. . En mi vida he visto tanta gente. .” in English. She was the last to leave. . Los chicos fueron de casa en casa vendiendo revistas. en is followed by a verb in the infinitive form. to .

” with absolutamente. Do not add no to en mi vida. ✗ En mi vida no he visto Do not use en absoluto if you mean “yes.” ✗ Sí. AVOID THE “Are you going to let me go?” “No way!” Blunder . coincidir en confiar en consentir en convenir en convertir en dudar en empeñarse en entrar en be similar to trust consent to agree on become. I’m busy at the moment. El puente está en obras. turn into hesitate to be determined to enter fijarse en insistir en meterse en pensar en quedar en tardar (una hora) en take notice of emphasize meddle with think about agree to take (an hour) to . which means “absolutely not.” Do not confuse en absoluto. indeed. which means “yes. I’m against the idea. en en en en en en en en en en balde broma casa construcción in vain as a joke at home under construction contra de opposed to cuanto a as for cuanto as soon as efectivo in cash este momento at the moment flor in bloom en en en en llamas lugar de mi opinión obras en punto en seguida en suma en venta en vez de no en balde in flames instead of in my opinion under construction on the dot right away in short on sale instead of no wonder Seguro que lo dijo en broma. As for me. ] En is used in certain set expressions. ] En is used after certain verbs. estoy en contra de la idea. En cuanto a mí.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 275 —¿Me vas a dejar ir? —En absoluto. En este momento estoy ocupada. en absoluto. Surely he said it as a joke. The bridge is under construction.

Esta es ropa para niños. Learn these expressions as units. I have to study for an exam. Estos asientos son reservados para un grupo. ✗ Entramos la casa. ✗ Consiente a ir. Tengo que estudiar para un examen. No dudes en llamarme. Jorge fue al mercado para comprar uvas.” think of its function as an indicator of purpose. Jorge went to the market to buy grapes. Ella preparó comida para todos. Insistió en la importancia de ahorrar dinero. ✗ Tarda una hora a llegar. Quedamos en comer juntos. Blunder Rather than translate para as “to” or “for. These seats are reserved for a group. ] Para can be followed by a noun to indicate a specific purpose. Vamos a casa para descansar. We entered the house at 8 o’clock. Blunder Do not try to translate English prepositions. ✗ Vamos a casa por descansar. AVOID THE They have the same ideas. para The preposition para has specific uses and is sometimes required in set phrases. ] Para can indicate purpose. She stressed the importance of saving money. Don’t hesitate to call me. I think about you all day. She fixed food for everybody. Entramos en la casa a las ocho. Pienso en ti todo el día. ] Para can be followed by a verb in the infinitive form to indicate purpose. ✗ Tengo que estudiar por un examen. This is children’s clothing.276 GRAMMAR Coinciden en sus ideas. We agreed to eat together. . AVOID THE Let’s go home to rest.

” or “for. ✗ Tenemos que escribir el ensayo por lunes. Termínalo para el 15 de septiembre. Salieron para la estación. Estos chocolates son para ti. Don’t put off until tomorrow what you can do today. AVOID THE Finish it by September 15. Blunder Rather than translate para as “to. ] Para can indicate destination. We have to write the essay for Monday. I’m coming to your house this afternoon. Voy para tu casa esta tarde. ✗ Voy por tu casa. ✗ Estos chocolates son por ti. The subject of the second clause must be different from the subject of the first clause.” think of its function as an indicator of future time. ] Para can indicate future time. Let’s go home so the children can rest.” or “until. Vamos a casa para que los niños descansen. .OTHER PREPOSITIONS 277 ] Para can be followed by que a verb in the subjunctive to indicate the purpose of the action of the first verb. Jorge fue al parque con los niños para que su esposa pudiera descansar. ✗ Salieron por la estación. Blunder Rather than translate para as “for.” “by. No dejes para mañana lo que puedes hacer hoy.” think of its function as an indicator of destination. Jorge went to the park with the children so that his wife could rest. Tenemos que escribir el ensayo para el lunes. These chocolates are for you. There are three more weeks until summer break. Faltan tres semanas para el receso de verano. AVOID THE They left for the station.” “toward.

For someone who has just arrived in this country. ability. Nació para ser cantante. she’s very mature. For such a young girl. or thing from others. Para ella. es muy alto. For a foreigner. you speak Spanish very well. Para un extranjero. In my opinion. Para ser una chica tan joven. para para para para para para serte sincero servirle colmo mi gran sorpresa siempre su desgracia to tell you the truth at your service to top it all off to my surprise forever unfortunately for him/her . estar para leer para sí nacer para no ser para tanto be about to (do) read silently be born to (do) not be such a big deal We’re about to leave. Este problema es muy difícil para mí. él es rey del mundo. For a four-year-old boy. he is very tall. Ella es muy joven para manejar un coche. ] Para is used to indicate someone’s opinion. No es para tanto. group. She is too young to drive a car. or opinion that distinguishes one person. She was born to be a singer. es muy madura. This problem is very difficult for me. he’s a thief and we should fire him. es un ladrón y debemos despedirlo. El niño tiene que aprender a leer para sí. It’s not such a big deal. She thinks he’s the best man on earth. hablas español muy bien. Estamos para salir. ese niño se ha adaptado muy bien. No te preocupes. ] Para is used to compare someone or something with others of its type. Para un chico de cuatro años.278 GRAMMAR ] Para is used to indicate a characteristic. Para mí. that child has adapted very well. Don’t worry. The boy has to learn to read silently. ] Para is used in certain set expressions. Para ser recién llegado a este país.

No one will marry you. para su desgracia. Te amaré para siempre. Mi hermano. Esteban no vino a clase hoy. tengo que estar en una reunión a las ocho de la mañana. Para su gran sorpresa. —Pues. The novel was written by his grandmother. para que te enteres. le ascendieron de puesto. my head aches. tengo dolor de cabeza y para colmo.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 279 Estoy resfriada. tuvo que trabajar diez años en ese lugar. Nadie se casará contigo. think of set expressions as complete units. I’ll love you forever. for your information. do not use them if you want to express a sincere feeling. La novela fue escrito por su abuela. To his great surprise. the prince proposed to me last night.” “Well. for a change! —Cenicienta.” Esteban didn’t come to class today. ✗ a mi sorpresa para que te enteres / para que lo sepas para variar for your information / just so you know for a change “Cinderella. they promoted him. and to top it all off. por The preposition por has specific uses and is sometimes required in set phrases. ¡para variar! AVOID THE Blunder These expressions are used sarcastically. had to work in that place for 10 years. Blunder ✗ por colmo ✗ por su desgracia Rather than translate word for word. I have to be at a meeting at 8 A.M. AVOID THE I have a cold. ] Por can indicate the agent or means of the action of the verb. . el príncipe me propuso matrimonio anoche. you’re a nobody. unfortunately for him. My brother. eres muy poca cosa.

I studied (for) five hours last night. We talked on the phone last night. They’re going to Guatemala for two years. Vamos a estar en Guatemala dos años. looking at the flowers. . Voy a estar cinco horas en la biblioteca. por is not necessary.280 GRAMMAR Anoche hablamos por teléfono. we rest in the afternoon. Voy a estudiar por cinco horas. I’m going to be at the library for five hours. I sent him the package via air mail. as an alternative to en. We’re going to be in Guatemala for two years. a las cuatro de la tarde. Le mandé el paquete por correo aéreo. Van a Guatemala por dos años. Tenemos clases por la mañana. —¿Dónde estabas? —Por ahí. use the pattern a las diez de la mañana. He’s walking around the garden. They walked through the park. Está por aquí. Blunder When an actual time is expressed. Caminaron por el parque. ] Por can indicate a route or vague location. I’m going to study for five hours. ✗ a las diez por la mañana ✗ a las cuatro por la tarde ] Por can indicate the duration of planned future action. Estuvimos dos años en Guatemala. We were in Guatemala for two years. and we study at night. por is not necessary. “Where were you?” “Not too far away. It’s near here. descansamos por la tarde y estudiamos por la noche. When indicating the duration of past action. Vamos a estar dos años en Guatemala. Anda por el jardín. Estudié cinco horas anoche.” ] Por can indicate time. We’re going to be in Guatemala for two years. viendo las flores. AVOID THE We have classes in the morning. When the duration of planned future action is indicated after the verb estar.

habla inglés con fluidez. I want to exchange this shirt for the other one. He moved to another country for her. He paid $20 for the book. habla español muy bien. Su esposo compró la casa para ella. —¿Por qué te vas? —Porque no me gusta el trabajo.” She got lost because of me. Por ser de Canadá. AVOID THE Blunder Do not confuse “work in my place” ( por mí ) with “work for me” ( para mí ). Por can indicate a substitution of one thing for another. and para ser. Su esposo compró la casa por ella. Ella va a asistir al congreso por su jefe. he spoke English fluently. he speaks Spanish very well. ] There is a distinction between por ser. ] Por indicates a more dramatic motive than para. He sold his car out of necessity. Por ser de Londres. which explains a reason for something being as it is. he speaks English fluently. . Para ser angloparlante. Vendió su coche por necesidad. Quiero cambiar esta camisa por la otra. She did it out of love. Lo hizo por amor. Since he was from Canada.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 281 Por can indicate an exchange of one thing for another. reason. Her husband bought the house for her (because of her needs). She’s going to attend the conference in place of her boss. Her husband bought the house for her (as a gift). Ana is substituting for me tomorrow. hablaba inglés con fluidez. which compares something or someone with others of its type (see page 278). ] Por can indicate the motive. Since he’s from London. “Why are you leaving?” “Because I don’t like the job. For a native speaker of English. Ella se perdió por mi culpa. Él se mudó a otro país por ella. or cause of an action. Pagó $20 por el libro. Ana trabaja por mí mañana.

282 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not confuse ¿por qué? “for what reason?” with ¿para qué? “for what purpose?” ] Por can indicate the benefactor of an action. Pagamos casi dos dólares por galón.” ] Por is used in certain set expressions. ] Por can be used after ir to mean “to go get. We paid almost two dollars per gallon. por por por por por por por por adelantado ahora cierto desgracia Dios ejemplo el presente encima de in advance for the time being by the way unfortunately For heaven’s sake! for example for the time being over the top of por escrito por favor por la fuerza por lo menos por medio de por parejas por si acaso por supuesto in writing please by force at least by means of in pairs just in case naturally . I still have three papers to finish. —¿Cuánto es tres por tres? —Tres por tres es nueve. ] Por can indicate action yet to be done. Let’s drink to the health of our great friend! I’m going to vote for the teacher. Voy a la biblioteca por un libro. I’m going to the library to get a book. He still has two cars to repair. “How much is three times three?” “Three times three is nine.” This politician talks just for the sake of talking. because she knows the problems with the schools. ] Por can mean “times” in multiplication. Tiene dos coches por reparar. Tengo tres trabajos por terminar. They went to town for bread. Este político habla por hablar. Ahorró el 10 por ciento de su sueldo. porque conoce los problemas de las escuelas. ] Por can indicate a lack of purpose.” Fueron al centro por pan. ¡Brindemos por la salud de nuestro gran amigo! Voy a votar por la maestra. She saved 10 percent of her salary. ] Por can mean “per.

] Desde is used to indicate time (see page 257). The doctor gave me some medicine for the pain. ✗ para desgracia contra Blunder ✗ para si acaso ✗ para supuesto The preposition contra has several different uses. They demonstrated against the war. El estudiante se expresó en contra de las ideas del profesor. Ramón is boxing against the champion tonight. Dejaré mi número de teléfono. El médico me dio un medicamento contra los dolores. The semester is from January 12 to May 5. AVOID THE For the time being. ] Contra is used to indicate a remedy. “How long have you been here?” (“Since when are you here?”) “I’ve been here for four weeks. Your chances of winning the lottery are one in a million. I’ll leave my telephone number just in case you need anything. Ramón boxea contra el campeón esta noche. ] The phrase en contra de is used to indicate “not in favor of” or “against” an idea. Por favor. Vamos a poner la mesa contra la pared. I’m staying home. Las posibilidades son una contra un millón que ganes la lotería. ] Contra is used to indicate odds.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 283 Por ahora. El semestre es desde el 12 de enero hasta el 5 de mayo.” . The student spoke against the professor’s ideas. We’re going to put the table against the wall. desde The preposition desde has several different uses. por si acaso necesitas algo. Se manifestaron en contra de la guerra. me quedo en casa. Please send me your ideas in writing. mándame tus ideas por escrito. ] Contra is used to indicate “against” a thing or a person. —¿Desde cuándo estás aquí? —Estoy aquí desde hace cuatro semanas.

” Ustedes van hacia el norte. Most importantly. ] Ante is used in a figurative sense to indicate reason or motive. Me llamó desde su hotel en San José. Because of the problems she had at home. ] Ante is used in the expression ante todo to indicate “above all. she had to stop working. tuvo que dejar de trabajar. Viajó desde Europa a California en un día. ] Ante indicates “in the presence of” with a certain solemnity not im- plied by delante de (see page 234).284 GRAMMAR AVOID THE Blunder Do not translate the English expressions word for word. Above all. ✗ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado aquí? ✗ He estado aquí por cuatro semanas. . She felt a lot of affection for her father. She traveled from Europe to California in one day. I want to get my nursing degree. He’s excited about the possibility of studying abroad. take care of your health. ante The preposition ante has several uses. You all are headed north.” “most importantly. Ante los problemas que tenía en casa. hacia The preposition hacia is used to indicate “toward. ] Desde is used to indicate a starting point leading to a destination. Está emocionado ante la posibilidad de estudiar en el extranjero. She had to present her version of the story before the judge. Tuvo que presentar su versión de los hechos ante el juez. quiero graduarme de enfermera. Ante todo cuida tu salud. Sintió mucho cariño hacia su padre.” Ante todo. He called me from his hotel in San José.

The people suffered great misfortune during (under the power of) his government.000 meters above sea level. We’re finally indoors (under the protection of the roof). now this.000 metros sobre el nivel del mar.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 285 sobre The preposition sobre has several uses. He shouldn’t have been driving under the influence of the medicine. Tengo un libro sobre las flores silvestres de esta región. The boss is always watching what his employees do. ] Bajo can indicate “under the power/influence/protection of. It’s freezing. ahora viene esto. ] Sobre can indicate the addition of more of the same.” La ciudad está a 5.” La gente sufrió muchas desgracias bajo su gobierno. ] Bajo can indicate “below” or “lower than. ] Sobre can indicate approximation. one tragedy happens on top of another. En ese pueblo. On top of the problems she already has. Está en cinco grados bajo cero. Puse las llaves sobre el libro. Por fin estamos bajo techo. ] Sobre is an alternative for en. El libro está sobre la mesa. It’s five degrees below zero. I put the keys on top of the book. ] Sobre can indicate “above” or “higher than. Sobre los problemas que ya tiene. The book is on the table.” Hace muchísimo frío. ocurre tragedia sobre tragedia. ] Sobre can indicate a topic. I have a book about the wildflowers in this area. ] Sobre can indicate close observation. bajo The preposition bajo has several uses. encima de. The city is 5. Tenemos que leer sobre cien páginas. No debió manejar cuando estaba bajo la influencia de los medicamentos. and por encima de to indi- cate place. We have to read about a hundred pages. El jefe está siempre sobre sus empleados. In that town. .

bajo bajo bajo bajo bajo cuerda juramento llave mano techo under the counter/table under oath under lock and key on the quiet under cover They made several under-thecounter payments. Se puede ver bajo la luz de la luna. ella toma más precauciones.286 GRAMMAR ] Bajo can indicate presence in certain natural settings. All the boys are after her. We walked in the rain. AVOID THE ✗ Caminamos en la lluvia. ] Bajo is used in certain expressions. tras The preposition tras has several uses.” Blunder Tras los acontecimientos de ayer. ] Tras can indicate “following. Following yesterday’s events. Day after day. ] Tras can indicate tedious repetition. . ✗ Se puede ver en la luz de la luna. ] Tras can indicate pursuit. They sat in the shade of a tree. Las joyas están bajo llave. Hicieron algunos pagos bajo cuerda. The jewelry is under lock and key. Día tras día. trabajaba doce horas y volvía a casa en la noche. she is being more careful. Se sentaron bajo la sombra de un árbol. You can see by the light of the moon. Caminamos bajo la lluvia. Todos los chicos andan tras ella. he worked 12 hours and came back home at night. Se besaron bajo las estrellas. They kissed under the stars.

me siento entre Juan y Miguel.” En la clase. Here I am among people from all over the world. tenemos un examen mañana. but I’m not so sure about that. Did Juan sit between you and your sister? ✗ Esto es entre ti y mí. entre gente de todas partes del mundo. según is followed by the subject pronouns yo and tú. Sixteen divided by two is eight. pero yo no estoy tan seguro de eso. rather than mí and ti. Aquí estoy.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 287 entre The preposition entre has several uses. ¿ Juan se sentó entre tu hermana y tú? AVOID THE This is between you and me. ] Entre is used in division to mean “divided by. ✗ Juan se sentó entre ti y ella. . ] Entre indicates both “between” and “among. Según tú. Según el periódico. we have an exam tomorrow. entre is followed by the subject pronouns yo and tú. it’s going to rain today. Unlike most prepositions. ✗ Estoy entre de gente de todas partes. rather than mí and ti.” Blunder Dieciséis entre dos son ocho. ] Unlike most prepositions. According to the paper.” Hicimos el trabajo según nos indicó. We did the job according to his instructions. según The preposition según generally corresponds to English “according to. hoy va a llover. AVOID THE In the class I sit between Juan and Miguel. Esto es entre tú y yo. ✗ Me siento entre de Juan y Miguel. Blunder Do not use the preposition de after entre. According to you.

Who is the letter from? 7. 2. How often do you visit your grandmother? . salvo mi hermano. Este regalo es para la | lo | ella | yo | tú. salvo and excepto are followed by the subject pronouns yo and tú. 3. fue al campo. What are we waiting for? 5. Who is he looking for? 3. Todos los chicos. 1. excepto yo. B Express the following English questions in Spanish. 5. All the boys except my brother were happy. ✗ según mí ✗ según ti ✗ salvo mí ✗ salvo ti Blunder Exercises A Circle the correct pronouns to complete the following sentences. Ella no conoce al | la | a la | el Sra. Voy al mercado con -tigo | -sigo | nosotros | ti. Who is she going with? 4. How long have you been here? 8. rather than mí and ti. except for me. What are you looking at? 6.288 GRAMMAR salvo and excepto The prepositions salvo and excepto indicate exception. Rodríguez. 1. 4. estaban contentos. What are you thinking about? 2. Unlike most prepositions. Este asunto es entre ti y mí | él y mí | tú y yo | ti y él. Mi papá lo hizo por mí y ti | mí y ella | ella y él | ella y por él. AVOID THE The whole family went to the country. Toda la familia.

habla inglés muy bien. Estos regalos son 5. mis primos. 2. Pasamos 4. Carmen se va a casar con | a | contra Pablo. su familia. Esa pregunta es muy fácil 7. Él está pensando de | a | con | en ella. 4. el parque en camino a la biblioteca. ser extranjera en los Estados Unidos. 9. Él está soñando de | a | con | en ella. 8. D Fill in the blanks with por or para. Esteban compró una casa 3. leche. 1. mí. Voy a cambiarlo 9. otro. 1. Ya he leído este libro. Estaba abrir la botella. 6. 10. 5. Ella se enamoró de | con | en | para él. Fuimos a la escuela en | por | a pie. Nos vemos de | para | por | después la mañana. La casa huele como | de | a pan. Julio fue al mercado 2. Pagó diez dólares la camiseta. Quedamos a | en | por | con encontrarnos aquí a las nueve.OTHER PREPOSITIONS 289 C Circle the appropriate prepositions to complete the following sentences. . Ella es la mejor de | entre | en | por la clase. 3. Nos vemos a las 10 en | de | por | para la mañana. 8. 7. 6.

. nor . when . only the last one mentioned includes the suffix -mente (see page 244).... Roberto and Ricardo are studying. y The conjunction y. ni. 290 Roberto reads slowly and carefully. The basic conjunctions are similar to. . . Ana estudia y trabaja. apenas.. . When two or more adverbs of manner are connected by y. their English counterparts. Ana es inteligente y trabajadora. OTHER CONJUNCTIONS aunque de modo que mientras que puesto que although. like the English “and.” is used to connect similar parts of speech. hardly . o.. Ana is smart and hardworking.. cuando.. . Ana studies and works. Roberto lee lenta y cuidadosamente. . Roberto y Ricardo estudian. ... . neither .. ni. . We’re going to study and work. Vamos a estudiar y trabajar.. . even if so while (in a comparison) since (because) Review the conjunctions in the chart above. or . either . . but not always equivalent to. .CONJUNCTIONS y/e o/u pues pero and or for but CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS o. ..

como.... like the English “or. and . HER FATHER —¿Y? “So?” THE YOUNG WOMAN —¡Me contrataron! “They hired me!” SITUATION AVOID THE Blunder Do not assume that y is always translated as “and. in Spanish. Voy con Ana e Isabel. . Blunder Do not assume that “and” is always translated as y. o The conjunction o. . . y changes to e. . Tanto la madre como el hijo estudian español. Estudio español e historia. A young woman returns home after an important job interview. I study Spanish and History.. ✗ España y Inglaterra Blunder ✗ islamismo y hinduismo Y expressed as a question is used to ask for a response to an understood or assumed request for information. AVOID THE Blunder I’m going with Ana and Isabel.” can be expressed with tanto. —¿Quieres helado de chocolate o de vainilla? “Do you want chocolate or vanilla ice cream?” . AVOID THE Both the mother and the son are studying Spanish.CONJUNCTIONS 291 AVOID THE ✗ lentamente y cuidadosamente When the word following y begins with the letter i.” is used to indicate an option of one thing rather than another.or the letters hi-.” The English correlative conjunctions “both .

Iré al concierto o al cine. are used to present an ultimatum or to offer a choice. . I mean. She isn’t with me. Puedes usar esa palabra u otra. AVOID THE ✗ ayer o hoy Blunder ✗ esta o otra ✗ Francia o Holanda When the conjunction o is used between numbers. Ella no está conmigo. ¡O te portas bien. You can use that word or another one. I’ll go to either the concert or the movies. “I don’t know whether I want ice cream or not. I don’t know if the appointment is tomorrow or today.or the letters ho-.292 GRAMMAR —No sé si quiero helado o no. We’ll be about 20 or 30 people.” The correlative conjunctions o. o changes to u. no fue tan dramático. .. or you leave! The meeting has to be this week. it is written with an accent mark. on either Tuesday or Wednesday. like the English “in other words” or “I mean. o sea. I don’t know what I’m going to do.. / There’ll be about 20 or 30 of us.. Either you behave yourself. When the word following o begins with the letter o. The expression o sea is used to signal a clarification. Usually only one o is used to translate “either . o te marchas! La reunión tiene que ser esta semana. No sé qué voy a hacer. o. . . Seremos unos 20 ó 30 personas. it wasn’t that dramatic. Está con su hermano o con su novio. Blunder Do not assume that o is always translated as “or. o el martes o el miércoles.” . No sé si la cita es mañana u hoy. AVOID THE It wasn’t what you think.. or .” No fue como tú imaginas. She’s with either her brother or her boyfriend.” in other contexts.

Voy a invitar a Paco. like the English “but. No viene ni Carlos ni Ricardo... pero no lo es.. pues no estuvo en clase ayer. Tino isn’t going to the party. Ni or ni siquiera can express “not even. ✗ No viene Carlos ni Ricardo. Tino no va a la fiesta.. pero yo sí. AVOID THE Ernesto doesn’t understand the lesson because he wasn’t in class yesterday. pues es mi mejor amigo. The correlative conjunctions ni. . La lección parece difícil. but I am. No ha visto ni (siquiera) a su mejor amigo. Ernesto no comprende la lección. are used to express the lack of an alternative. pues The conjunction pues indicates a reason for the previous statement. since he’s my best friend.. Blunder The word pues has other meanings and can also be used as an adverb. AVOID THE Neither Carlos nor Ricardo is coming...CONJUNCTIONS 293 ni. ni. ni.. I’m going to invite Paco. Esos chicos ni trabajan ni estudian. Do not assume that it always has the same translation into English. Those boys don’t work or study. pero The conjunction pero. and ni.” indicates a contrast with the previous statement. The conjunction ni has several uses. The lesson looks hard. ni siquiera. Blunder Do not leave out the first ni.” Ni (siquiera) su esposa lo sabe. Not even his wife knows. He hasn’t seen even his best friend. but it isn’t.

we’re going to the theater.. ✗ No alquilaron la casa.. The expressions no. Blunder Do not omit the que when there is a conjugated verb in the correction. ✗ No vamos al cine. No vamos al cine.294 GRAMMAR no. apenas The conjunction apenas refers to action that occurs immediately before new action (see page 247). sino teatro. Sino is used to correct any sentence element. I’m not going with Juan. sino que la compraron.. are used to correct a previous statement. sino. sino cantar. sino la compraron. They didn’t rent the house.. sino (que). and no. sino que.. When apenas introduces a past action.. sino al teatro. sino vamos al teatro. with the exception of a conjugated verb. AVOID THE We’re not going to the movies. ✗ No voy con Juan. AVOID THE Blunder Be sure to repeat any preposition that occurs between sino and the correcting item. they bought it... Julio isn’t singing.. sino Enrique. we’re going to the theater. No vamos al cine.. They don’t want to dance.. No voy con Juan. it is followed by a verb in the indicative. Enrique is. Sino que is used to correct a previous statement when the conjugated verb is repeated or changed. No quieren bailar. sino Mario. I’m going with Mario. they want to sing. We’re not going to the movies. ✗ No vamos al cine. sino que vamos al teatro. sino con Mario. No canta Julio. .. Ellos no alquilaron la casa.

When apenas introduces an action that has not yet taken place. it is followed by a verb in the subjunctive. As soon as I find out. Aunque mi hermano no durmió bien anoche.” When aunque introduces information that is new to the hearer. —No dormí ni una hora anoche. es muy tacaño. está listo para el examen. As soon as she saw him. it is followed by a verb in the indicative mood. When aunque precedes a fact that is already known to the hearer. cuando. corrió a ayudarlo. he would call me. ] The conjunction aunque expresses the meaning “although” or “in spite of the fact that. It is an alternative to en cuanto. Even though my brother didn’t sleep well last night. The correlatives apenas. Other Common Conjunctions There are many other connective words and expressions. —¡Su novio es muy rico! —Aunque su novio tenga mucho dinero. Apenas empecé a leer cuando sonó el teléfono. Even though they argued yesterday. He told me that as soon as he found out. I’ll call you. me llamaría..” “I didn’t get even an hour’s sleep last night. Apenas lo sepa. which indicates a less than adequate amount or degree. she ran to help him.. “Her boyfriend is rich!” “Even though her boyfriend has a lot of money..” . are used to express action that follows immediately. Aunque se discutieron ayer.CONJUNCTIONS 295 Apenas lo vio. he’s ready for the test. Following are some of the most common. he’s very stingy. it is followed by a verb in the subjunctive mood. te llamaré. hoy están de acuerdo. they are in agreement today. Blunder Do not confuse the conjunction apenas with the adverb apenas.. AVOID THE I had just begun to read when the phone rang. Me dijo que apenas lo supiera.

Estaba muy alterado. so they took him home to calm him down. ¿Prefieres ir al campo 6. quedarte en la ciudad? mañana es el examen final. a su mejor amigo. su hermana tampoco. No quiere mostrarle la foto a nadie. el verano en Europa. I have to go back to my country.296 GRAMMAR —Aunque no durmieras anoche. Exercise A Fill in the blanks with the appropriate conjunction. ¡ te callas te echo de la clase! otro día. No viene Andrés. while you stay home watching TV. Estudio latín 2. Tengo que volver a mi país. you seem to be ready for the test. su hermano. 3. Tengo que estudiar 7. 8. ] Mientras que is used in a comparison. I work all day every day. “Even if you didn’t sleep last night. No sabe si la fiesta es hoy 10. Yo trabajo todo el día. Ricardo también. Adriana inglés.” ] De modo que indicates a consequence. Alfredo es inteligente 4. pareces estar listo para el examen. Patricia no es simpática 5. todos los días. de modo que lo llevaron a su casa para que se tranquilizara. since I’ve run out of money. He was very upset. Paula pasaron 9. . mientras que tú te quedas en casa viendo la televisión. 1. puesto que se me ha acabado el dinero. ] Puesto que introduces a reason.

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refers to TV programming. Quiero ver la televisión a las ocho. Yesterday we bought a new TV. which are an enormous help in developing a working vocabulary. or -xión in Spanish. Following are some examples. English and Spanish share many cognates. -sión. I want to watch TV at eight. ] A few masculine nouns end in -ión and do not have cognates in English. el avión el camión the airplane the truck el guión el sarampión 299 the script the measles . and el televisor is the TV set. Following are a few examples of cognates. La televisión. These nouns are always feminine (see page 31). información solución satisfacción televisión conexión Just because a Spanish word is a cognate does not mean that it is always used exactly like it is in English.WORDS Cognates Cognates are words that have a similar spelling and similar meaning in two languages. Nouns actor alcohol ángel animal área arquitecto banana cable capital cereal chocolate club color control criminal debate director error favor gas general hotel humor idea menú mineral mosquito motor ópera piano profesor radio ] Many nouns that end in “-ion” in English end in -ción. Ayer compramos un televisor nuevo. for example.

✗ responsibilidad ] The names of most academic subjects in English have cognates in Spanish. “physics” is plural. ✗ qualidad Add e.300 VOCABULARY ] Many nouns that end in “-ity” in English end in -dad in Spanish. and sc-. but Spanish ciencias is plural. adolescente delincuente estudiante inmigrante paciente presidente restaurante sirviente . in English. but Spanish física is singular. “science” is singular. cualidad especialidad felicidad AVOID THE honestidad posibilidad responsabilidad seguridad sociedad Blunder Be careful spelling cognates that contain “qu” in English. AVOID THE Blunder Equivalent usage often differs.before English words beginning with sp-. ] Many noun cognates that end in “-nt” in English end in -nte in Spanish. In English. st-. Also. anatomía biología filosofía psicología* sociología *Also spelled sicología. ✗ specialidad Be careful not to use a double s in posibilidad. These nouns are always feminine (see page 31). Many nouns of this type that end in “-y” or “-ology” in English end in -ía or -ología in Spanish. ✗ possibilidad Note the spelling difference in responsabilidad. ✗ Estudia ciencia y físicas.

argumento documento fragmento AVOID THE pavimento suplemento Blunder Some of these cognates can be very tricky. among other creative professions. They are always feminine. and “disappointment” is desilusión. not just a painter. comportamiento entretenimiento sentimiento AVOID THE comportment (behavior) entertainment sentiment Blunder This group of cognates can also be tricky. . while adiestramiento means “training” as in learning skills. Conocimiento is “knowledge. or actor.” Check these words in a dictionary before trusting them as cognates. ] Other noun cognates that end in “-ment” in English end in -miento in Spanish. Also.” Check these words in a dictionary before trusting them as cognates. Argumento means “argument” in the sense of “presentation of a case. abundancia arrogancia correspondencia emergencia existencia presencia referencia repugnancia ] Many English words that end in “-ist” have counterparts in Spanish that end in -ista for both males and females.WORDS 301 ] Certain nouns that end in “-ment” in English have cognates ending in -mento in Spanish. ] Many English words that end in “-ance” or “-ence” have cognates that end in -ancia or -encia in Spanish. medicamento is “medication.” “Government” is gobierno. músico. Entrenamiento means “training” as in sports.” and pimiento is “pepper.” but not “a heated discussion. artista* feminista lingüista materialista optimista pesimista racista socialista *Artista refers to any creative person. An artista can be a pintor.

artístico decente difícil eficiente envidioso generoso honesto inocente liberal necesario obvio popular quieto reciente reservado sincero AVOID THE Blunder Do not use celoso if you want to say that you are “envious. artísticamente eficientemente especialmente generosamente honestamente inocentemente naturalmente obviamente perfectamente posiblemente probablemente rápidamente recientemente responsablemente sinceramente . demostrar (ue) fascinar finalizar ilustrar imitar iniciar insistir inventar liberar manipular necesitar obtener practicar servir (i. A person who is celoso wants to have control over another person’s feelings. i) solucionar visitar Adjectives Following is a sample of the many Spanish adjectives that have English cognates. Following are a few examples.302 VOCABULARY Verbs Following is a sample of the many Spanish verbs that have English cognates.” Envidioso means “envious” or “jealous” of someone because he or she has what you want. Celoso means “jealous” of someone because of another interest he or she has in someone or something else. Adverbs Many adverbs that end in “-ly” in English have cognates that end in -mente in Spanish (see pages 244–246). ✗ Estoy celosa de ella porque ganó el premio.

they are not necessarily used in exactly the same way. Falsos amigos False cognates. playing card high school necklace competition temperament commitment contest handiwork lecture anger custom disappointment crime bad luck address argument argument bedroom apology arena camp carpet card college collar competence complexion compromise concourse confection conference courage costume deception delight disgrace direction discussion disgust dormitory disculpa estadio campamento alfombra tarjeta universidad cuello (de camisa) capacidad tez término medio explanada pastel congreso. often called falsos amigos. For example.” Following are the most common ones. repugnancia residencia de estudiantes . are words that look so similar in two languages that we expect them to have the same meaning in both—but they don’t! Because there are so many true cognates in English and Spanish. A better closing in Spanish would be Afectuosamente or Cordialmente. it is no wonder that these words have been labeled “false friends.WORDS 303 AVOID THE Blunder Even though cognates may convey similar meanings. as is its English counterpart. sinceramente means “sincerely. reunión valor disfraz engaño alegría vergüenza rumbo conversación asco.” but it is not used as the closing of a friendly letter. countryside folder letter. Nouns SPANISH NOUN ENGLISH MEANING ENGLISH NOUN SPANISH MEANING apología arena campo carpeta carta colegio collar competencia complexión compromiso concurso confección conferencia coraje costumbre decepción delito desgracia dirección discusión disgusto dormitorio eulogy sand field.

conversar explicar mentir (ie.304 VOCABULARY SPANISH NOUN ENGLISH MEANING ENGLISH NOUN SPANISH MEANING educación manners. molestia recollection sentence success tramp vase recuerdo frase. sentence suceso trampa vaso event trick. i) no hacer caso abusar fingir . harm lectura reading selection librería bookstore manifestación protest. trap glass education exit fabric fault idiom injury lecture library manifestation parents pain instrucción formal salida tela culpa modismo herida. oración. veredicto éxito vagabundo. kinfolk pena embarrassment. daño discurso biblioteca señal. try to. síntoma padres dolor. foul idioma language injuria injustice. absence. error. i) apuntar argüir asistir atender (ie) avisar demandar discutir explanar fabricar ignorar molestar pretender molest warn write down present a case attend pay attention to inform sue argue level make. mujerzuela florero Verbs SPANISH VERB ENGLISH MEANING ENGLISH VERB SPANISH MEANING abusar advertir (ie. demonstration parientes relatives. education éxito success fábrica factory falta lack. court abuse advertise appoint argue assist attend advise demand discuss explain fabricate ignore molest pretend maltratar anunciar nombrar discutir ayudar asistir aconsejar exigir hablar. craft be unaware of bother aspire to. punishment. sadness recolección compilation sentencia verdict.

corriente especial. oportuno actual visible presumido avergonzado emocionante detallado gentil grande común. effect recordar (ue) remember resistir tolerate restar subtract revisar review solicitar apply (submit an application) soportar tolerate realize record resist rest revise solicit support darse cuenta de grabar. inscribir tener fuerzas descansar enmendar pedir.WORDS 305 SPANISH VERB ENGLISH MEANING ENGLISH VERB SPANISH MEANING realizar achieve. juicioso compasivo Adverbs One adverb is a common falso amigo. SPANISH ADVERB ENGLISH MEANING ENGLISH ADVERB SPANISH MEANING actualmente currently actually realmente . cierto verdadero cuerdo. apoyar Adjectives SPANISH ADJECTIVE ENGLISH MEANING ENGLISH ADJECTIVE SPANISH MEANING actual bizarro bravo casual constipado conveniente corriente distinto egoísta embarazada exitoso fastidioso gracioso largo ordinario particular real sano sensible simpático current gallant angry unexpected having a bad cold advantageous ordinary different selfish pregnant successful annoying funny long vulgar private royal healthy sensitive nice actual bizarre brave casual constipated convenient current distinct egotistical embarrassed exciting fastidious gracious large ordinary particular real sane sensible sympathetic verdadero extraño valiente informal estreñido cómodo. sensato sensato. buscar mantener.

Brasil es el país más grande de Sudamérica. Murieron por la patria. Lo vi en la esquina buscando un taxi.306 VOCABULARY English Words with More Than One Spanish Meaning Many words in English have two or more noninterchangeable translations in Spanish. country el país la patria el campo independent nation native land farmland. She showed that she had great strength of character. They died for their country. El hermano de Jaime es un cómico de verdad. Ese tipo apareció en la fiesta sin invitación. El personaje de la pieza que me gustó más es la hermana mayor. Ella demostró que tenía muy buen carácter. Jaime’s brother is a real character. I saw him on the corner looking for a taxi. La niña necesita papel para escribir su carta. That character showed up uninvited at the party. paper el el el el papel informe trabajo documento material used for writing and drawing informative document. Following are some common examples. They live in Madrid. Nouns character el personaje el carácter el tipo un cómico part in a movie or play a person’s moral makeup unusual type of person comedian The character that I liked best in the play is the older sister. Ella puso la lámpara en un rincón de la sala. Ellos viven en Madrid pero tienen otra casa en el campo. report academic theme or term paper official document The child needs paper to write her letter on. corner el rincón la esquina corner indoors (one you can stand in) corner outdoors (one you can stand on) She put the lamp in a corner of the living room. land outside the city Brazil is the biggest country in South America. . but they have another house in the country.

WORDS 307 El comité mandó su informe al gobierno. and children a specific community human beings The kindness of the people is what I liked best about the country. Use las gentes only if you are referring to various tribes or other populations. people la gente el pueblo las personas men. Su hermano llegó al país sin documentos. women. la fiesta el partido el cómplice el grupo friendly get-together political group co-conspirator a group of people to be seated together We had a party when the course was over. La amabilidad de la gente es lo que me gustó más del país. I have a party of three for table 4. ¿De qué partido es tu candidato preferido? Creo que ella fue cómplice en el crimen. Eduardo escribió un trabajo de cincuenta páginas sobre ese tema. This group has worked hard for human rights. Este candidato es el mejor representante del pueblo. There were more than a hundred people at the party. What party is your favorite candidate a member of? I think she was a party to the crime. party The committee sent its paper to the government. Eduardo wrote a 50-page paper on that subject. Al final del curso hicimos una fiesta. . AVOID THE Blunder La gente is a singular noun that refers to all the people. Había más de cien personas en la fiesta. This candidate is the best representative of the people. Tengo un grupo de tres para la mesa número 4. ✗ las gentes el derecho a just claim (see also pages 311 and 320) right Este grupo ha luchado por los derechos humanos. Her brother arrived in the country without papers.

. Can I ask you a question? ] Ser is used to indicate origin. AVOID THE Blunder El tiempo also refers to the weather. Hemos perdido mucho tiempo discutiendo.308 time VOCABULARY la vez el tiempo la hora divertirse (ie. ¿Qué hora es? —¿Se divirtieron? —Sí. Tener buen tiempo means “have good weather. Parece que no va a venir. ownership. and the future a point in time indicated by the clock have a good time have a good time He called her three times. civil status. profession. ¿Puedo hacerte una pregunta? be (see pages 87–89) She asked us to take her home. What time is it? “Did you have a good time?” “Yes. Le preguntamos dónde vivía. nationality. the present.” ✗ La llamó tres tiempos. We wasted a lot of time arguing. ask pedirle a uno preguntarle a uno hacerle una pregunta a uno (see also pages 167 and 201–202) Ella nos pidió que la lleváramos a su casa.” Él la llamó tres veces. lo pasamos muy bien. It appears that he’s not coming. make a request of someone make a query to someone pose a question to someone Su nombre apareció tres veces en el artículo. and descriptive characteristics of people and things. We asked her where she lived. Verbs appear aparecer parecer show up seem to be His name appeared in the article three times. ✗ ¿Qué tiempo es? ✗ Tuvimos un buen tiempo. religion. we had a very good time. composition. i) pasarlo bien an individual occasion the past.

There were three books on the table. Hubo dos accidentes ayer. The meeting is tomorrow. Ramón is from Mexico. de Ramón. Es de algodón. Es médico. There was nothing to read. date. soltero. Sara is sick. The bedroom is dirty. In all tenses. . and location of events. gordo. Su tío está muerto. La reunión es mañana. He’s a Catholic. Hubo un accidente ayer. Es mía. Es en la oficina del jefe. Today is Wednesday.WORDS 309 Ramón es de México. Many uses of ser are not necessarily permanent: es joven. He’s single. This jacket is from Guatemala. El dormitorio está sucio. There are ten people in the kitchen. Es roja. There was an accident yesterday. Es simpático. AVOID THE Blunder Forget the misleading rule that ser indicates permanence. even when it is followed by a plural noun. His uncle is dead. Ser is used to tell the current time and date. It’s in the boss’s office. it is used only in the third-person singular. It’s red. ] Estar is used to tell the current condition of a person or thing. There were two accidents yesterday. Es a las diez. 12 de enero. It’s mine. The machine is broken. Hay una persona en la cocina. Es católico. Sara está enferma. pobre. Hay diez personas en la cocina. pequeño. AVOID THE ✗ Habían tres libros. Blunder ✗ Hubieron dos accidentes. It’s at 10 o’clock. January 12. Es soltero. Había tres libros en la mesa. He’s a doctor. ] Haber is used to state the existence of something. La máquina está rota. There is one person in the kitchen. It’s cotton. No había nada que leer. He’s nice. as well as the time. Hoy es miércoles. Esta chaqueta es de Guatemala.

✗ Su tío es muerto. Blunder Forget the misleading rule that estar indicates temporary meaning. ✗ El muchacho tiene diez. and the word “old” is not translated. it answers the question ¿cómo es? El muchacho tiene diez años. This house is a hundred years old.310 VOCABULARY Estar is used to tell the location of people and things. AVOID THE The boy is ten. La puerta está cerrada. It answers the question ¿cómo está? Blunder . Todos estamos aquí para la reunión. Tener is used with certain nouns to indicate a current condition. We’re all here for the meeting. ✗ Esta casa es cien años viejo. My friends are studying at the library. Estar is used with a gerund to indicate ongoing activity (see page 115). Las ventanas están abiertas. Esta casa tiene cien años. ✗ El muchacho es diez. Argentina is in the southern part of South America. Since age is a characteristic. The office is on the third floor. Ana María no está en clase hoy porque está enferma. Estar is used with a past participle to indicate a current condition (see page 87). La Argentina está en el sur de Sudamérica. La oficina está en el tercer piso. The word años is usually stated. AVOID THE The windows are open. ✗ La Argentina es en Sudamérica. Mis amigos están estudiando en la biblioteca. Many uses of estar are not temporary. Ana María isn’t in class today because she’s sick. The door is closed. ] Tener is used to tell age.

El mensaje es correcto. That man is very well mannered. His mother is right. Espero que todas las respuestas en el examen estén correctas. behave appropriately be a correct response on a test His mother says he has to do his homework before watching TV. be right Blunder ✗ Tiene muy sueño. Su madre tiene razón.” Mucho(-a) is used after tener. ✗ Estoy frío. . so he studies a lot. ✗ Estoy sed. tener razón ser correcto estar correcto make sense be the truth. AVOID THE ✗ Tengo muy hambre. Ese señor es muy correcto. I hope all the answers on the test are right. The lawyer became angry when he heard the verdict. estudia mucho. Piensa hacerse abogado. The message is true. por lo tanto.WORDS 311 tener tener tener tener tener tener (mucho) calor (mucho) frío (mucha) hambre (mucho) miedo (mucha) sed (mucho) sueño be (very) hot be (very) cold be (very) hungry be (very) afraid be (very) thirsty be (very) sleepy AVOID THE ✗ Estoy hambre. Blunder ] Muy used after ser and estar means “very. El abogado se puso bravo cuando oyó el veredicto. become hacerse ponerse convertirse llegar a ser change over the course of time experience a sudden change in condition transform completely. Su madre dice que debe hacer las tareas antes de ver la televisión. turn into achieve a change He wants to become a lawyer.

I’m going crazy with so much work. . Where do you want to eat dinner? Vamos a comer a las ocho.” “lunch. and la cena are meals that can be prepared. The elevator went up to the seventh floor. pero hoy no puedo manejar porque no tengo coche. el almuerzo. El ascensor subió al séptimo piso. Tenemos que ir al mercado por leche. ¿Dónde quieres cenar? AVOID THE Blunder El desayuno. or enjoyed. served. Tengo que irme.” ✗ Voy a comer desayuno. We want to go down to the basement. Queremos bajar al sótano. But in Spanish. I’m late.312 VOCABULARY La niña se convirtió en una belleza. What time do you all eat breakfast? They don’t eat lunch until two. Me estoy volviendo loca con tanto trabajo. ¿A qué hora desayunan ustedes? No almuerzan hasta las dos. go away go up go down go crazy We have to go to the store for milk. you “breakfast. but I can’t drive today because I don’t have a car. Se me hace tarde.” and “dine. She devoted her life to singing and became famous. eat comer desayunar almorzar cenar eat eat breakfast eat lunch eat dinner We’re going to eat at eight. be able to (because the possibility exists) know how to I can drive. can The little girl became a great beauty. poder saber infinitive infinitive Sé manejar. Ella se dedicó a cantar y llegó a ser famosa. go ir irse subir bajar volverse loco(-a) move from one place to another leave. ✗ Vamos a comer la cena. I have to go. ✗ Va comer almuerzo.

ven a mi oficina a las once. Please come to my office at 11 o’clock.” when “there” means where the person you are talking to is or expects to be at the time of your arrival. pero conozco a muchos bolivianos. ✗ Venimos a tu fiesta el sábado. Voy a tu casa mañana. have to deber infinitive tener que infinitive Debemos pagar los impuestos cada año. Tengo que ir al dentista ahora mismo. have hacer una fiesta tener una fiesta organize a party be invited to a party Let’s have a party! We have a party to go to on Friday. My tooth really hurts. ✗ Tengo que ir. No conozco Bolivia. be obligated to need to We have to pay our taxes every year. AVOID THE Blunder In English. but I know a lot of Bolivians. I have to go to the dentist right away. ✗ Tenemos que irnos al mercado. have visited a place be aware of information I’ve never been to Bolivia.WORDS 313 AVOID THE Blunder Do not confuse ir and irse. ✗ El ascensor fue arriba al séptimo piso. know conocer saber be acquainted with a person. . ✗ Vengo a tu casa mañana. this is not possible. In Spanish. go and come ir venir go to another place (there) come to where the speaker is (here) I’m coming to your house tomorrow. ¡Vamos a hacer una fiesta! Tenemos una fiesta el viernes. Me duele mucho el diente. it is possible to “come there. Por favor.

” Use querer to express “liking” family members or those in platonic relationships. ✗ Su novio me caigo bien. be attracted to a person. Le gustan todas sus clases. ✗ Le gusta mucho su abuelo. AVOID THE Blunder Gustar usually implies “attracted to. leave “Do you know where Bolivia is?” “Of course. A Alejandro le gusta mucho Cristina. ✗ Me gusto el chocolate. A mí me gusta mucho el chocolate. Su novio me cae muy bien. sé que está al este del Perú. I know that it’s east of Peru. He left his briefcase at home.M. like apreciar/estimar caerle bien a uno gustarle a uno hold in high esteem have a good impression of be pleased by the company of a person. ✗ Le gusta sus clases. She likes all her classes. Humberto sale de su casa a las ocho de la mañana. AVOID THE Blunder Keep in mind that in these constructions the person with the feeling is the indirect object.314 VOCABULARY —¿Sabes tú dónde está Bolivia? —Claro. Aprecia mucho a sus colegas. leave something behind Humberto leaves home at 8 A. Dejó su maletín en su casa. ✗ Me gusta mi hermana. I like her boyfriend. Alejandro really likes Cristina. and the person or thing that causes the feeling is the subject. be delighted by a thing She likes her colleagues. love love unconditionally be really delighted by a person or thing . love querer amar encantarle a uno care for someone.” salir dejar go out of a place not bring something with you. I like chocolate a lot.

Please make note of that address. but “want” when referring to things. Don’t make so much noise! Today I don’t even want to make my bed. Voy a hacerme un vestido nuevo.WORDS 315 Ella quiere mucho a sus padres. I want to marry you. meet conocer encontrarse get acquainted with. I love your new dress. Quiero casarme contigo. a mi familia.” or “delight” when referring to people. I love you. Te amo. faltar a perder pasar por alto feel nostalgic for not attend an event be late for (a bus or train) overlook Me gusta estar aquí.” “enchant. Tú me encantas. ¡No hagas tanto ruido! Hoy ni quiero tender la cama. pero echo i u u I like being here but I miss de menos a mi familia. y Me gusta estar aquí. ¿Dónde lo compraste? AVOID THE She loves her parents a lot. por favor. Me encanta tu nuevo vestido. be introduced to for the first time run into someone you already know I met Josefina in Spanish class. Where did you buy it? Blunder Querer means “love” or “care for” when referring to people. pero extraño u my family. ✗ Amo el chocolate. His son makes a lot of money. You enchant me. t . Anota esa dirección. Ayer nos encontramos en la cafetería. Encantar means “love” when referring to things. We met in the cafeteria yesterday. make hacer hacer un ruido hacer/tender (ie) la cama anotar algo cometer un error ganar dinero construct make a noise make the bed make a note of something make a mistake make money I’m going to make a new dress. but “entice. Conocí a Josefina en la clase de español. We all make mistakes. Su hijo gana bastante dinero. Todos cometemos errores. extrañar perder. miss echar de menos.

Do you play an instrument? Julian is playing the part of the father in the play. Mariana regresa a su casa mañana. t ¡Apúrate o perderemos el tren! Jorge pasó por alto los detalles del plan. We have to pay attention to the director. You have to return the books to the library today. Debes devolver los libros a la biblioteca hoy. ¿Tocas un instrumento? Julián hace/juega el papel del padre en la pieza. pagarle prestarle atención a. ride montar a caballo montar en bicicleta ir en coche/bus/tren/avión A Sonia le encanta montar a caballo. play jugar tocar hacer/jugar un papel Van a jugar (al) fútbol después de clase. go on horseback go on a bicycle go by car/bus/train/airplane Sonia loves to ride horses. hacerle caso a En esta compañía nos pagan al final del mes. spend gastar pasar tiempo use money use time Alfredo spends all the money he makes on presents for his girlfriend.316 Javier perdió tres clases. return volver. Debemos prestarle atención al director. . give money to (for things or work) pay attention to At this company they pay us at the end of the month. Muchas personas montan en bicicleta los fines de semana. Alfredo gasta todo el dinero que gana en regalos para su novia. regresar devolver come/go back give/take something back Mariana is returning home tomorrow. Javier faltó a tres clases. pay Hurry up or we’ll miss the train! Jorge completely missed the details of the plan. A lot of people ride bicycles on weekends. gamble make music with an instrument act a part in a play They’re going to play soccer after class. No quiero ir en tren. VOCABULARY i y Javier missed three classes. participate in a game. I don’t want to ride the train.

In English.WORDS 317 Nos gustaría pasar un tiempo en Nicaragua. drink remove from. you can “bring” something “there. unless you are already at your friend’s house and mean. Norma se queda en casa para cuidar a sus niños. take We would like to spend some time in Nicaragua. El policía le quitó la licencia de conducir. take and bring llevar traer take (there) bring (here) I’m coming to your house and I’ll bring you the papers. tomar sacar quitarle a uno quitarse cuidar dar una vuelta grasp with the fingers. Los padres sacaron a los niños de la escuela. Manuel siempre saca muchas fotos. “I brought you the documents. AVOID THE Blunder Do not use traer. Let’s take a ride around the city. The kids have to take off their caps when they enter the classroom. Voy a tu casa y te llevo los documentos. Norma stays home to take care of her children. make (a photocopy) take away from take off (clothing) take care of take a stroll/ride Ángeles took the dictionary from the shelf and looked up the word. Ángeles tomó el diccionario del estante y buscó la palabra. this is not possible. Los chicos deben quitarse la gorra al entrar en el salón de clase. Carlos vino a mi casa y me trajo dos libros.” when “there” means where the person you are speaking to is or expects to be at the time of your arrival. take (a photograph).” ✗ Te traigo los documentos mañana. . In Spanish. Manuel always takes a lot of pictures. The policeman took his driver’s license away from him. The parents took their children out of the school. Carlos came to my house and brought me two books. Vamos a dar una vuelta por la ciudad.

but now I’m used to it. ✗ Miramos el fútbol. Tienes que hacer un esfuerzo. a movie. but not anymore. but it didn’t work. AVOID THE Blunder In English one “watches” shows and games. In Spanish. Las chicas vinieron a casa a ver la televisión. She even used to try to gain weight. pero no estaba en su casa cuando lo llamé. Ana era muy flaca. Incluso intentaba ganar peso. ✗ Miro la televisión. She used to be married. Al principio me molestó el ruido de los aviones. Susana trató de abrir la puerta con esta llave. watch Ana used to be really skinny. ver. a game) look at The girls came home to watch TV. make an effort to do something act to do something make an effort I tried to talk to him.318 try VOCABULARY intentar hacer tratar de hacer hacer un esfuerzo Intenté hablar con él. At first the airplane noise bothered me. watch (television. The preterite tense of a verb is used to express “used to be” or “used to do” something. rather than mirar. used to acostumbrarse estar acostumbrado El niño tiene que acostumbrarse a seguir las instrucciones de la maestra. pero ahora estoy acostumbrada. Susana tried to open the door with this key. is used to express this. Ella estuvo casada una vez. pero no funcionó. ver mirar see. . Me gusta mirar a la gente andar por la calle. but he wasn’t at home when I called him. The imperfect tense of a verb is used to express “used to be” or “used to do” something regularly in the past. You have to try! get used to be accustomed to The child has to get used to following the teacher’s instructions. I like to watch people walking down the street. a show.

Bien is an adverb. and bien after estar or an action verb. Canta muy mal. and mal after estar or an action verb.WORDS work 319 trabajar funcionar do physical or mental labor function We work from Monday to Friday. and its form does not change. AVOID THE Blunder Use bueno(-a) after ser. Trabajamos de lunes a viernes. We’d like to have a little more space. ¿Cómo es ella? Es buena. some The apartment is very little. ✗ Está mala. The dishwasher doesn’t work. She sings very badly. ¿Cómo está ella? Está bien. little pequeño(-a) poco(-a) un poco small in size a small amount. good/well bueno(-a)/bien What’s she like? She’s a good girl. . ¿Cómo está ella? Está mal. and its form does not change. She speaks Spanish very well. ✗ Habla bueno. ¿Cómo es ella? Es mala. Adjectives and Adverbs bad/badly malo(-a)/mal What’s she like? She’s a bad girl. Mal is an adverb. El apartamento es muy pequeño. ✗ Ella es bien. very little a small amount. AVOID THE Blunder Use malo(-a) after ser. Nos gustaría tener un poco más de espacio. / She’s in good shape. Habla español muy bien. How is she? She’s in bad shape. We have very little space. ✗ Canto malo. How is she? She’s well. ✗ Ella está bueno. Tenemos poco espacio. El lavaplatos no funciona. ✗ Es mal.

Los bomberos sacaron al anciano de la casa y lo llevaron al hospital. Turn right at the second light. The firemen got the old man out of the house and took him to the hospital. ganar win. Cecilia escribe con la mano derecha. buscar look for. take. I’ll go get it. Patricia no se lleva bien con María. llevar llevarse con wear. gain I hope we win the game. Gané dos kilos durante mis vacaciones. No sé dónde está el libro. Dobla a la derecha en el segundo semáforo. Voy a buscarlo. I gained two kilos during my vacation. We beat them by two points. carry. Patricia doesn’t get along well with María. I’m going to look for it. Voy a buscarlo. ¡Ojalá que ganemos el partido! Les ganamos por dos puntos. Su marido gana suficiente dinero para los dos. We’re going to pick you up at your house at eight. Horacio has been working here for twenty years. Her husband earns enough money for both of them. earn. Horacio lleva veinte años trabajando aquí. Tu hermano siempre lleva ropa muy elegante. Vamos a buscarte a tu casa a las ocho. El libro está arriba en el escritorio.320 right VOCABULARY derecho(-a) a la derecha opposite of left to the opposite of left Cecilia writes with her right hand. María and Ana get along well. The book is upstairs on the desk. beat. pick up (a person to go somewhere) I don’t know where the book is. Spanish Words with More Than One English Meaning Following are some Spanish words that have noninterchangeable translations in English. . María y Ana se llevan bien. have spent time get along with Your brother always wears fine clothes. go get (a person or thing).

Juan wants a new house. Juan quiere una casa nueva. chocolate 2. pull Miguel doesn’t drink coffee. compromiso 4. care about” when it refers to people. want Juan loves his daughter. Juan quiere mucho a su hija. 1. Don’t pull my hair! (Don’t tease me!) Querer means “love. fábrica 8. sentiment 8. biology 5. Toma las pastillas después de comer. Toma el vaso y ponlo en la mesa. possibility 4. fragment 7. suceso . Take the pills after eating. feminist B Write the English meaning of each of the following Spanish nouns. Take the glass and put it on the table. take. costumbre 5. and “want” when it refers to things. arrogance 9. decepción 6. AVOID THE Blunder drink. 1. presence 10. lectura 9. solution 3. patient 6. tomar Miguel no toma café. grasp. discusión 7. ¡No me tomes el pelo! Exercises A Write the Spanish cognate of each of the following English nouns.WORDS querer 321 love. arena 2. parientes 10. carpeta 3.

8. pay attention to 4. actual 2. 4. Creo que la profesora es | tiene | está razón. cómodo 4. detallado 6. casual i. annoying f. Tengo que irse | ir | irme. write down 3. pregnant d. 7. attend D Match the Spanish adjectives in the left column with the appropriate English adjectives in the right column. be unaware of 6. Él no conoce | sabe | es Nueva York. unexpected c. conveniente 5. 5. verdadero a. fastidioso 8. advantageous e. 2. 1. 1. 6. Ella me pidió | preguntó | hizo una pregunta dónde estaba el banco. real 10. remember 8. 1. sensible h. apply (for school/job) 10. casual 3. embarazada 7. Give the infinitive form of the Spanish verb. informal 9. sensato 11. bother 7. sensible 12.322 VOCABULARY C Write the Spanish that corresponds to each of the following English verbs. argue 5. actual E Circle the expression that best completes each sentence. Vengo | Voy | Me voy a tu casa mañana. current l. 9. . Su hermano es | está | estaba una persona muy simpática. inform 9. convenient j. 3. fastidious k. sensitive b. Su apartamento es | está | fue en el tercer piso. royal g. warn 2. Su abuelo es bien | bueno | enfermo. Llamé a mi amiga dos tiempos | dos veces | dos horas.

] to indicate a period of time during which an event or activity has not occurred: hace (see page 116) Hace años que no voy al teatro. ] “because”: como Como teníamos tanta hambre. . . we went to a restaurant.. so ] to intensify the meaning of an adjective: tan El profesor es tan exigente que me pone nervioso. Ever since I’ve had this car. English to Spanish since ] “after a time in the past when”: desde (see pages 117 and 283) Desde que tengo este coche. It’s been years since I’ve been to the theater. MADRE —¿Y. Since we were so hungry. así que no voy a poder acompañarte al cine.CONSTRUCTIONS Spanish and English use very different constructions for certain concepts. Following are some examples. . he gastado mucho dinero. ] to ask about recent news that’s on the mind of both parties: ¿Y? (see page 291) The baby has just been born and the new father calls his parents..? “So . so I won’t be able to go to the movies with you. 323 I have to work on Saturday. ?” HIJO —¡Es una niña! “It’s a girl!” SITUATION ] to introduce a consequence: así que Tengo que trabajar el sábado. The teacher is so strict that he makes me nervous. I’ve spent a lot of money. fuimos a un restaurante.

Te estaciono el coche enseguida. Me quedaré en casa y veré la televisión.” ✗ —Así así. t ] to predict the future: verb in the future tense Su hijo será famoso. Tú viajarás por el mundo. will ] —¿Cómo estás? to ask a favor: question using a verb in the present tense ¿Me ayudas con los paquetes? ¿Me estacionas el coche? Will you help me with the packages? Will you park the car for me? ] to accept a request: verb in the present tense Te ayudo con mucho gusto. AVOID THE “Hi. Paco. How are things?” “Oh.” Rather than translate words individually. AVOID THE “What are you going to do?” “I don’t know. just so-so. i y I’ll call you this afternoon at five. ¿cómo van las cosas? —Pues. I’ll gladly help you. ] to make a promise: verb in the present or future tense La llamo esta tarde a las cinco. ✗ ¿Me ayudarás con los paquetes? ✗ ¿Me llamarás esta tarde? .324 ] VOCABULARY to indicate “not good. La llamaré esta tarde a las cinco. I’ll probably stay home and watch TV. think of the function of the Spanish equivalent for the entire expression.” Blunder Do not use the future tense in Spanish to translate all meanings of “will. Your son will be famous. I’ll park the car for you right away.” Blunder Do not use así así to mean “so-so. ] to indicate probability: verb in the future tense —¿Qué vas a hacer? —No sé. not bad”: más o menos / regular —Hola Paco. más o menos. You will travel throughout the world.

¿Dónde estará mi hermano? ¿Dónde estaría mi hermano? I wonder where my brother is. ] past tense of “will”. ] to wish that something were true or had not happened: lamentar infinitive Lamento no poder decírtelo. ] conditional action: verb in conditional (see pages 151–156) Mi colega iría si pudiera. She would always tell me her secrets when we were little. The conditional is used to express wonder about past time. I wish we had more time. wonder “I wonder” is best expressed in Spanish by using a question in the future tense or in the conditional (see pages 145 and 156). . ] to express a wish that something were true: ojalá (que) imperfect subjunctive (see page 195) Ojalá estuvieras aquí conmigo. / He refused to go to the concert. We would rather stay home. Les deseamos toda la felicidad del mundo.CONSTRUCTIONS 325 wish ] to express a sentiment: indirect object pronoun Te deseo un feliz cumpleaños. Ojalá tuviéramos más tiempo. Each meaning uses a different expression in Spanish. i) Preferimos quedarnos en casa. desear I wish you a happy birthday. verb in I wish you were here with me. ] past habitual action: verb in imperfect tense (see pages 132–138) Ella me decía sus secretos cuando éramos pequeñas. i y No quiso ir al concierto. The future is used to express wonder about present time. t He wouldn’t go to the concert. I wish I had gone to see her. We wish you all the happiness in the world. would “Would” has several meanings in English. to express refusal to act: “wouldn’t.” “refused to”: negarse a / no querer Se negó a ir al concierto. My colleague would come if she could. Lamento no haber ido a verla. I wish I could tell you. ] “would rather”: preferir (ie. I wonder where my brother was.

to make a polite request: poder in conditional ¿Podría usted hacerme un favor? ¿Podrían ustedes ayudarnos? Would you do me a favor? Would you all help us? ] “would like”: gustarle a uno in conditional. Will you eat lunch with me? What time do you all eat dinner? Vamos todos al aeropuerto para darles la bienvenida. Quisiera comer afuera esta noche. Spanish to English darle de alta darle de baja release a patient admit a patient They released Marta from the hospital yesterday. darle la bienvenida a alguien welcome someone We’re all going to the airport to welcome them. ¿Quieres almorzar conmigo? ¿A qué hora cenan ustedes? . think of the function of the Spanish equivalent for the entire expression. imperfect subjunctive of querer. eat breakfast. eat lunch.326 VOCABULARY Ella estaría hablando contigo ahora si fuera posible. A Marta le dieron de alta del hospital ayer. desayunar. also. We would have left by now if we hadn’t wasted so much time. i y I would like to eat out tonight. A su papá le dieron de baja ayer. cenar No desayuno hasta las once. They admitted her father yesterday. Ya nos habríamos ido si no hubiéramos perdido tanto tiempo. almorzar (ue). eat dinner I don’t eat breakfast until 11 o’clock. “quisiera” infinitive ¿Adónde te gustaría ir? Where would you like to go? Me gustaría comer afuera esta noche. t ] “would you mind if”: importarle a uno in conditional ¿Te importaría si saliera temprano de la clase? AVOID THE Would you mind if I left class early? Blunder Rather than translate “would” literally. ] She would be talking to you right now if it were possible.

el almuerzo.” and “dine. but they blamed it on her. cocinar. . ✗ No como el desayuno. Tuvimos que despedirnos anoche.” The nouns for meals. estrenar use for the first time She’s going to wear her new dress for the first time tonight. you “breakfast. ✗ ¿Quieres comer almuerzo? ✗ ¿A qué hora comen la cena? despedirse de say good-bye to We had to say good-bye to each other last night. pay attention to My husband hasn’t even noticed that I had my hair cut. Me temo que me estoy enamorando de él. blame someone He’s the one who did it. and la cena are used with the verbs preparar. Pay attention to how the others do it. enamorarse de fall in love with I’m afraid I’m falling in love with him. el desayuno. echarle la culpa a alguien Fue él quien lo hizo. Mi esposo ni se ha fijado en que me he cortado el pelo. pero a ella le echaron la culpa. and servir. ¡Fíjate en cómo lo hacen los otros! soler usually (do) What time do you usually eat dinner? We usually eat dinner at eight.” “lunch. Ha llovido tanto que mis sandalias se han echado a perder. fijarse en notice.CONSTRUCTIONS 327 AVOID THE Blunder In Spanish. echarse a perder be ruined It has rained so much that my sandals are ruined. Esta noche va a estrenar su vestido nuevo. ¿A qué hora suelen cenar? Solemos cenar a las ocho.

Ella no va a estudiar ni yo tampoco. Blunder . She’s going to the movies. —¿Quieres ir a alguna parte? —No. She’s not going to study. —¿Conoces a algún carpintero bueno? —No. as opposed to English. a negative clause must have no or another negative word before the verb. I don’t want to go anywhere. Ella no quiere ni cenar ni ir al cine. ] Negative sentences are often expressed using a double negative.” “Do you know a good carpenter?” “No. Negative Constructions In Spanish.” “Is anyone in the house?” “No. He doesn’t want to eat dinner or go to the movies.” He’ll come back one day. I don’t know a single carpenter here. He wants to eat dinner and go to the movies. no quiero ir a ninguna parte. ✗ Tengo nada en la mano. and I’m not either. no conozco a ningún carpintero aquí. no está nadie. He’ll never come back. No volverá nunca. and so am I. I don’t have anything in my hand. Algún día volverá. no tengo nada en la mano. with no preceding the verb and another negative word following the verb. AVOID THE “Do you have something in your hand?” “No.” —¿De qué se trata la película? —Se trata de la vida en un pueblo pequeño. Ella va al cine y yo también. no one is there.” “Do you want to go anywhere?” “No. ✗ Volverá nunca. —¿Tienes algo en la mano? —No.328 tratarse de VOCABULARY be about “What’s the movie about?” “It’s about life in a small town. —¿Está alguien en la casa? —No. Él quiere cenar e ir al cine.

She doesn’t even want to go to the movies. She’ll never come back. AVOID THE ✗ No nadie está en casa. Ella no quiere hacer nada. Nadie está en la casa. Nothing is more important than health. ✗ No nunca volverá. Nunca volverá. No quiero ir al cine. Blunder . Nada es más importante que la salud. No carpenter wants to do this project. She doesn’t want to do anything. I don’t want to go to the movies. Ningún carpintero quiere hacer este proyecto. and the no is omitted. No one is in the house. I don’t want to stay here either. ni quiere ir al cine.CONSTRUCTIONS 329 ] A negative word other than no sometimes precedes the verb. Tampoco quiero quedarme aquí.

Jorge va a estudiar. 1. Siempre viene a visitar los domingos. Are you going to wear your new shoes (for the first time)? 3. y yo también.330 VOCABULARY Exercises A Express the following in Spanish. making them negative. . 3. 9. 4. Alguien está en la oficina. When are they going to release your grandmother from the hospital? 2. I want to be at the station to welcome you. They blamed me. 1. She went to Mexico and fell in love. 5. They said goodbye this morning at the airport. 4. 2. Tengo que comprar algo. 6. The girl didn’t pay any attention to him at the party. The dinner was ruined. What is your paper about? 10. What time do you all eat breakfast? B Rewrite the following sentences. 8. 7.

pero yo estudiar ingles. yo estudio biología y química. Inc. pero lo es cómodo y bonito. 331 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a Washington Hall. and Spanish. Jenna is a good student. Then check your answers on pages 347–349.” con dos compañeras de cuarto. Mary and Jenna. Los dos están muy simpático y nos llevamos bien.” with two roommates. No tengo que atender a clases en Viernes. Click here for terms of use. pero ella no estudia tan mucho que Mary. referring to the English version when necessary. La clase de inglés está en Martes y Jueves son las nueve a Harrison Hall. I’m a freshman in college. B Desde quiero ser un médico. y espanol. I live in a dorm. la de historia son la mediadía en las mismas días y a el mismo edificio y la de español es de Lunes a Jueves desde las dos en la tarde a las tres. I take Biology and Chemistry. Spanish is hard for me. que yo me gusto mucho. Mary is pretty serious and she studies a lot. Our room isn’t big. but I like it and I think it is important for my career. History. Vivo en un dormitorio. Mary es bastante serio y ella estudia mucho. me lo gusto y yo creo que está importante por mí carrera. but she doesn’t study as much as Mary. Mary y Jenna. que se llama “Jefferson Hall. Yo también tengo español es dificíl por mi. . I also have to study English. a Tyler Hall. called “Jefferson Hall. historía. in Washington Hall. Mis clases son en Lunes y en Miércoles son las diez en la mañana hasta once y medio. Nuestra dormitorio es no largo. Since I want to be a doctor. The classes are on Mondays and Wednesdays at 10 o’clock in the morning until 11:30. A Soy en mi primero ano de colegio. Jenna es buena estudianta. Correct all the blunders. each word printed in red contains at least one blunder.CATCH THE BLUNDERS In the following paragraphs. but it’s comfortable and pretty. and fill in all the blanks. which I like a lot. Both of them are very nice and we get along well.

Están tratando recordar todos los datos sobre de la Civil Guerra de los Estados Unidos. Un chico amigo esta explicando a su que pasó al final de el guerra. but I plan to wear my new black skirt with a pink blouse. Todos los personos beben café y ellos esperan la llegada de unas pizzas. and my Spanish class is from Monday to Thursday from 2 P. and they’re waiting for pizza to arrive. Estoy segura de que vamos a tener un tiempo muy bueno. pero yo pienso llevar mi nueva falda negra con una blusa rosada. We enter a college dorm room and see the following scene: There are eight students sitting on the floor getting ready for a test. until three. Yo voy a usar unos zapatos negros de tacón alto y unos pendientes platas. I don’t know what they’re going to wear.S. D En Viernes tengo una fiesta a la casa de un amigo. Una estudiante está dormiendo y su amiga está tratando a despertar a ella. my History class is at noon on the same days and in the same building. Dos otros chicos está leiendo sus libro de textos.M. I’m going to go with two other girls. Un chica tene una pizarra pequeña en el cual escribando las importantes fechas. My friends are coming to get me at seven. A boy is explaining to his friend what happened at the end of the war.332 CATCH THE BLUNDERS My English class is on Tuesdays and Thursdays at 9 A. They’re trying to remember all the facts about the U. A boy is talking to his girlfriend on his cell phone. and her friend is trying to wake her up. so I’m going to have to change my clothes fast because my last class doesn’t end until 5:30. C Entramos en un dormitorio de la universidad y vemos esté escena: Hay ochos estudiantes sentado en el suelo preparandose por un exámen. Civil War. Yo voy ir con dos otras chicas. in Harrison Hall.M. Nobody is watching TV. in Tyler Hall. Mis amigas vienen a buscarme son las siete. I don’t have to attend classes on Fridays. One student is sleeping. On Friday I’m going to a party at a friend’s house. They are all drinking coffee. I’m going to wear my black high heels and some silver earrings. Yo no sé qué van llevar ellas. así que voy a tener que cambiar mis ropas rápido porque mi pasada clase no termina hasta las 5:30. Un muchacho está hablando en el celular a su novia. Nadie está mirando televisión. . Two other boys are reading their textbooks. I’m sure we’re going to have a good time. One girl has a small blackboard on which she is writing the important dates.

who was upset. Todos los domingos fuimos a el pueblo para comer almuerzo a la casa de mis abuelos. Los paramédicos examinaban lo a el hospital. F Uno domingo cuando estuvimos en mis abuelos’ casa. Mi abuela. Luego se servía un pastel o una torta de postre. Por fin llegaba mi hermano y llevaron la ambulancia. Every Sunday we went to the country to eat lunch at my grandparents’ house. So there were always a lot of people who would eat and have fun at that house on Sundays. donde determinaron que rompió su clavícula. Él no lloraba. He didn’t cry. even though he was badly hurt. la mejor cocinera en el mundo. My aunts and uncles and their kids always went too. One Sunday when we were at my grandparents’ house. Le ponían algunas vendas. two or three salads. and sometimes we invited a friend as well. I tried . There were always my grandmother’s homemade biscuits. my mother tried to soothe my brother. dos o tres ensaladas. mi mamá trataba a calmar hermano. but what I liked best was sitting at the table with the old people and listening to their stories. era muchas gentes que comerían y tendrían un buen tiempo en esa casa en domingos. pero lo que yo me gustaba más era sentando en la mesa con los viejos y escuchando a sus cuentos. con por lo menos dos tipos de carne. and fruit. Later a pie or cake was served for dessert. Everybody liked to eat at my grandmother’s house. viví en la ciudad con mis padres y mis hermanos. When I was young I lived in the city with my parents and my brothers and sisters. donde estaba jugando con nuestros primo. Todos estábamos muy preocupado. always with at least two kinds of meat. y frutas. preparó una grande comida. My grandmother. several platters of vegetables. le daron un calmante y luego llevábamos lo a casa. También fueron mis tíos con sus hijos. que fue agitado.CATCH THE BLUNDERS 333 E Cuando estaba joven. aunque estaba muy herido. I liked to play with my cousins. used to prepare a huge meal. y a veces invitábamos alguno amigo. varios platos de verduras. Somebody called an ambulance. We were all really worried. Yo me gustaba a jugar con mis primos. While we were waiting for help. my brother fell out of a tree. Todo el mundo gustaban a comer en casa de mi abuela. where he was playing with our cousin. En fin. Yo trataba a calmar mi hermanita. Alguien llamaba la ambulancia. mi Mientras esperábamos para ayuda. que sí lloraba por lo ocurrido. mi hermano se caió fuera de un árbol. Nunca faltaba el pan especial hecho por mano por mi abuela. the best cook in the whole world.

and to another that he make a flan. The teacher gives them recipes for all these dishes. He recommended to one boy that he make a Spanish tortilla. Los estudiantes salgaron entusiasmados. He tells three girls to prepare chicken and rice. where they determined that he had broken his collarbone. El profesor da recetas por todos estes platos. el estilo colombiano. The students left excitedly. G Un español clase es planeando tener una fiesta celebrar el final de semestre. He suggested to two others that they follow a recipe for Peruvian-style potatoes. and then we took him home. The paramedics examined my brother and took him to the hospital. The teacher wants the students to bring authentic Hispanic dishes. dice a tres chicas a preparar arroz con pollo en sugiere a dos otras a seguir una receta por unas recomienda a hacer una papas en el estilo peruano. H Una clase de español era planeando tener una fiesta para celebrar el final del semestre. pensando de su fiesta y cocinar. who cried because of what happened. thinking about their party and the delicious food they’re going to cook. thinking about their party and the delicious food they were going to cook. Colombian style. A Spanish class was planning to have a party to celebrate the end of the semester. El profesor quiere que los estudiantes traen platos auténticos de la cocina hispana. He told three girls to prepare Colombian-style chicken with rice. y a un otro chico a preparar uno flan. A Spanish class is planning to have a party to celebrate the end of the semester. The teacher wanted the students to bring authentic Hispanic dishes. The students leave excitedly. y a uno otro chico a preparar un flan. la comida rica que fueron . El profesor quiso auténticos de la cocina hispana. Finally the ambulance arrived. con pollo al estilo colombiano. para unas papas al estilo peruano. El profesor dó recetas para todos estos platos.334 CATCH THE BLUNDERS to soothe my little sister. piensando de su fiesta y la comida rica que van cocinar. He suggests to two others that they follow a recipe for Peruvian-style potatoes. He recommends to one boy that he make a Spanish tortilla. los estudiantes a traer platos dijó a tres chicas a preparar arroz sugieró a otras dos a seguir una receta un chico recomendió a hacer una tortilla española. A uno chico española tortilla. and to another that he make a flan. The teacher gave them recipes for all these dishes. gave him a tranquilizer. They put some bandages on him. Los estudiantes salgan entusiasmados.

The children will have already finished their education and will be living in different parts of the world. Algunas fueron seguros de que quisieron conseguir casados y tener hijos algún día. K Si yo ganaba “el gordo” de la lotería. Some were sure that they wanted to get married and have children one day. Yo creo que buscaría una casa elegante. “tomaré un viaje alrededor el mundo y no vuelveré hasta que no supieron que van me canso de la aventura. But she says they won’t have three children. sino otras no. Se habrá casado se habrá jubilado después que ha trabajado su novia corriente y tendrán tres hijos.” Otras dijierón hacer. Pero ella dice que no tendrán tres hijos. Su novia dice que ella también se habrá jubilada y que sí. se habrá casado a mi hermano. but others weren’t. que me ayudaría en elegir proyectos filantrópicos y que aseguraría que no perdería el dinero tan rápido que lo habría ganado. and that. J Para el año 2050. que manejaría el dinero. “I’m going to study medicine and one day I’ll be a doctor.” Another said.CATCH THE BLUNDERS 335 graduan?” pidió la señora I “¿Qué van a hacer ustedes cuando que visitaba la universidad con sus hija. antes que yo hice otra cosa. we’ll all be old and we will have done a lot of things. yes. pero dos. y que los dos vivirán cerca sus padres cuando son grandes. By the year 2050. and that both of them will live near their parents when they are grown. Los niños ya habrán terminados sus carreras y ellos vivirán en varias partes del mundo. but two. He will have married his present girlfriend and they will have three children. yo contrataría a alguien quien serviría como mi gerente personal.” Otra dijó. “What are you all going to do when you graduate?” asked the woman who was visiting the university with her daughter. One girl answered. “voy a estudiar medicina y algún día seré médico. Mi hermano dice cuarenta años. Mi hermano piensa se reunirán todos por lo menos cuatro veces un año. o si alguien me dio diez millon dólares. His girlfriend says that she will have retired too. todos nosotros seremos viejo y habremos hacido muchas cosas. que lo invertiría bien. My brother says that he will have retired after working forty years.” Others said they didn’t know what they were going to do. Luego dejaría trabajando y pensaría de la mejor manera de disfrutar de la vida. My brother thinks they will all get together at least four times a year. Una chica contestó. sino . she will have married my brother. “I’ll take a trip around the world and I won’t come back until I get tired of the adventure.

I would read a lot. hay cosas que habría cambiado si había tenido la oportunidad. I think I would look for an elegant house. My uncle is old now. For these ten years. my uncle has been lonely. Claro. También es muy agradecido de haber gozado de bien salud todos estos años. but before taking each trip. pero en general está contento. he only has to mention it and it’s done. to invest it well. yo también tendría muchas fiestas en la nueva casa y invitaría todos mis amigos. his two daughters visit him every day. and if he needs anything. but not a big one. pero antes que yo tomaba cada viaje. cuando mi tía morió de cáncer. The saddest time of his life was ten years ago. . Durante estos diez años. He’s also very grateful to have been in good health all these years. He would have liked to have had his wife by his side. Of course I would also have a lot of parties at the new house. to help me to choose charitable projects. sus dos hijas visitan a él todos los días. there are things he would have changed if he had had the chance. I would hire someone to be my personal manager. pues no conoce siente dichoso y muy orgulloso ninguno otro anciano que tiene hijos tan atentos. y que también yo compraría una casa nueva para mis padres. Yo leería mucho para aprender más del mundo. before I did anything else. If I won the lottery jackpot. Yo compraría un coche de lujo. sólo tiene que decirlo y se cumple el deseo en seguida. Then I would stop working and would think about the best way to enjoy life. and he says he has lived well. Yo tomaría viajes a los países que me parecieron interesantes. I would study the language and the culture of the place. I would buy a luxury car. y si necesita cualquiera cosa. to take care of the money. to learn more about the world. but in general he’s happy. Still. when my aunt died of cancer. Claro. He feels lucky and proud of his family—he doesn’t know anybody else his age who has such attentive children. El más triste tiempo de su vida fue diez años pasados. Sin embargo. L Mi tío ya es viejo y él dice él ha vivido bien. Of course. Él habría gustado mucho disfrutar de sus esposa’s compania. and I would invite all my friends. I would take trips to the countries that seemed interesting. mi tío ha sentido muy sólo.336 CATCH THE BLUNDERS que no muy grande. de su familia. and to make sure that I didn’t lose the money as fast as I had gotten it. yo estudiaría el idioma y la cultura del lugar. and I would also buy a new house for my parents. or if someone gave me ten million dollars.

3 5. 2 3. ju B 1. je/ge. 8. mi hermano va. Sres. la hermana el profesor la médico el especialista la paciente 6. cue. ga. 7. 4 Capitalization (page 19) A 1. 5. Honduras y Nicaragua. cua. Maria. Mi hermano no vino a clase porque no hizo la tarea. ¿Me llamas más tarde? 4. que. dijo Paco. ca. jo. Ud. Sra. Sí. gue. ci. ji/gi. Nouns (page 37) A 1. güi. go. . Fueron a Guatemala. 9. te llamo a las ocho. 6. zo. co. gui. “Te voy a extrañar”.ANSWER KEY Spelling (page 16) A 1. 4. B 1. 2. ¿Quiénes van al cine esta tarde? ¿Vas tú? ¿Va tu hermano? 3. cuo 5. ¿vas a estudiar conmigo hoy? 2. cui. Click here for terms of use. Ahora está en casa. No. zu 4. argentino Punctuation (page 21) A 1. 2. católico 3. qui. el amigo la miembro el jefe la mujer 337 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 8. 5 2. 3 4. pero sólo si hace la tarea primero. 5. za. gua. Inc. guo 6. gu 3. güe. D. ja. ce. septiembre 4. miércoles 9. 3. C 1. 4. Sí. cu 2. 2. El Salvador. 3. inglés 6. no puedo.

10. treinta y tres. la tercera casa C 1. 6. 4. Pérez / los Pérez Numbers (page 52) A 1. 6. 8. sesenta y uno 8. 5. la cuarta calle 5. 7. 6. el primer libro. 6. 3. 5. 12. 9. el segundo piso. 7. 9. 3. 11. la segunda vez 3. 12. 5. la quinta persona 7. B 1. 3. veintiún chicos veintiuna chicas cien libros doscientos tres niños dos millones de dólares el dos de octubre de mil novecientos setenta y siete 4. 9. 10. dos diez catorce veintidós treinta y nueve 6. 2. 16. 4. 14. la la el el la la lápices órdenes lunes domingos los Sres. C 1. las diez y media de la mañana 9. aquel día aquellas personas algún chico unos libros otras dos ninguna X un X las la X . 4. el cuarto año. medio kilo 10. 9. 8. 2. 4. 7. 11. 2. 3. 8. 4. 8. 3. 17. la primera novela 2. dos kilos y medio Noun Determiners (pages 78–79) A 1. cuatro noventa. 4. 3. el tercer edificio. 2. 7. 2. el águila estos libros la lección las aguas el los en el en el al el X X otra 5. ciento cuarenta y seis cuatrocientos setenta y tres quinientos once mil novecientos ochenta y cuatro dos mil siete B 1. 15. el quinto día.338 B 1. dos cero dos. 6. el la el el la el casas libros esquíes ladrones ciudades ANSWER KEY 7. 10. 2. 5. 13. 10. 5. 8.

las jóvenes encantadoras B 1. 8. Nos encanta ir de compras. es está es es 4. viejo amigo 4. 8. Quieren dejar de fumar. 5.ANSWER KEY 339 C 1. 6. Es difícil estudiar aquí. demasiado / bien / sumamente / extremadamente / requete 4. 7. 9. 7. Estos libros son fáciles de entender. es está está es el chico más alto de la clase más enérgica que Esteban ísima la chica más seria de la escuela F 1. (El) saber montar en bicicleta es importante en esta ciudad. 10. 5. 7. 9. lo bueno E 1. 8. 3. el verde 2. ísimo The Infinitive (page 101) A 1. los grandes 3. 7. 4. . familia pobre 5. 8. 3. Ella me hizo trabajar. 2. gran hombre 3. lo interesante 5. los zapatos azules y bonitos 4. las blusas roja y blanca 4. la chica interesante 2. 2. g b f h d Ese hombre libro cualquiera cualquier libro propio negocio 6. D 1. 8. nuevo coche 2. antigua ciudad D 1. 2. 6. la casa pequeña y hermosa 2. Acaba de llegar. Volvió a escribir el ejercicio. 3. 5. el hombre optimista 3. la blusa y falda nuevas C 1. Tenemos que estudiar más. a c i e negocio propio única mujer mujer única cierto problema Descriptive Adjectives (pages 94–95) A 1. 4. el muchacho alto 3. los interesantes 5. 6. un poco 3. 2. Vi salir al jefe. 5. 7. muy 2. los niños felices 5. 3. 6. 4. 4.

Nos vamos a las seis y la película empieza a las siete. 2. e aconsejo. He terminado con mis exámenes. d queja. g 12. 4. ¿Vas a salir con tus amigos mañana por la noche? 10. f sugiere. 4. 10. Ana ha recibido un mensaje. 2. 3. Llevamos diez años viviendo en esta ciudad. ¿Cuántas veces han visto ustedes esa película? . 21. 8. Mis padres han comido. 4. d olvida. ¿Qué has hecho? B 1. / Hace diez años que vivimos en esta ciudad. 3. b caminan. Si me llamas. 2. 17. Ya hemos escrito las cartas. ¿Te llevamos a tu casa? 6. Esta es la primera vez que como mole. b envía. b gusta. g fascina. ¿Me ayudas? The Preterite Perfect Tense (page 126) A 1. e lastiman. c cuenta. 4. a llama. hacen leyendo tenemos estudias hablo 6. 8. 2. 3. 6. 16. 5. 3. 3. 19. Abrió la ventana hace unos minutos. 4. 7. f acaba. 9. 15. 10. 5. e da. 20. / Vivimos en esta ciudad desde hace diez años. No ha enviado su solicitud todavía. 14. 13. g encantan. 18. (Ella) acaba de leer esa novela. 11. 5. 7. Casi/Por poco tienen un accidente. 2. 7. f quiero. 8. a The Present Tense (page 121) A 1. 5. está ir voy a estudiar se cae canta en público B 1. 9. c vamos. te ayudo. visita. d pierden. sales. 9. Construyen/Están construyendo una casa nueva.340 ANSWER KEY Types of Verbs (page 109) A 1. a levanto. c dice. Acaban de llegar.

Era pequeña y un poco seria. 10. Estuvo muy cansado. 5. 8. 6. No hicimos nada el jueves. estaba quería podía. A Beatriz no le gustó la película. 6. La actividad que me gustaba más era leer. 10. pudo oíste leyó dio vi buscó escribí visitó leí fui sintió supe 7. 8. había leído el periódico 2. 4. 2. B 1. Jorge bailó bien. 2. 15.ANSWER KEY 341 The Preterite Tense (page 131) A 1. apagó llamaste. 11. The Imperfect Tense (pages 138–139) A 1. 7. 17. 13. 21. Fuimos al cine el sábado. 6. 19. 20. 2. Los niños durmieron toda la noche. cocinaba. 24. Tenía un perro y me gustaba jugar con él. 18. 9. 3. ya había comido 3. 5. Mis amigos iban a la playa en el verano y a veces yo los acompañaba. 4. Me dio mucho gusto conocerlo. Escribía mis tareas en la tarde después de las clases. jugué almorzó fuimos tuve corrió hicieron estuvo estudié volvió dormí hizo comí Yo siempre pagué las cuentas. no había estudiado . 8. 4. 3. ¿Adónde fuiste? Nuestro equipo jugó bien. 5. 3. 9. 16. Mi familia y yo comíamos en la casa de mi abuela los domingos por la tarde. 22. tenía que. 2. fui The Pluperfect Tense (page 142) A 1. 14. 23. 5. B 1. 3. Iba al cine con mis amigas todos los miércoles. 12. 4. veía entré. 7. 6. jugaban (estaban jugando) estábamos. Mis hermanas y yo ayudábamos en la casa.

3.. Tendrías frío. Ahorrarán dinero para poder viajar. tendré 2.. estén 3. 5. encontrarás B 1. Espero que vengas a la fiesta. Estaría enferma. 10. . 8. 10. te habría llamado. (Answer will vary. The Present Subjunctive (pages 175–176) A 1. B 1.) The Simple Conditional (page 154) A 1.. 3. 5. Si hubiera estado allí tu hermano. no habríamos trabajado aquí. Si yo fuera tú (usted). regrese 2. habrán 2. compraría una casa. tenga habla guste escribamos llames 6. 3. Ella te aconseja que trabajes más. habremos 4. estudie 3. tenga The Future Perfect Tense (page 150) A 1. 4. ¡Es maravilloso que estés aquí! Él duda que yo lo pueda hacer. Te llamo en cuanto / tan pronto como / cuando sepa las noticias. llegue vienen acepten ir vayan No hay nadie que cocine como mi mamá. no saldría. habré. 9. 2. comes 5. 9. 4. Si hubiéramos sabido la verdad. 7. Si tuviera más dinero. 6.342 ANSWER KEY The Future Tense (page 148) A 1. Te recojo a menos que tenga que trabajar. vendrá 4. 2. habrá 3. 4. 2. 3. vivirá 4. ¿Qué harías tú? / ¿Qué haría usted? The Conditional Perfect (page 157) A 1. no habrías hecho eso. 5. 4. ¿Qué habríamos hecho? Si hubiera tenido tiempo. 8. 2. Buscamos un gerente que hable español. Ella sale sin que él lo sepa. 7.

quería ir al cine fueron al cine ayer. 3. haya pagado The Imperfect Subjunctive (page 196) A 1. No se sienten. 7. 4. leyeras C 1. por favor. 4. haya estudiado 2. -tigo -sigo usted mí 5. Si él me hubiera llamado todas las noches. quiere ir al cine. tuviera 2. 4. Si lo quisiera. 2. haber podido 5. haya terminado 3. Si quisieras tocar el piano. se 3. 6. 4. me casaría con él. no contestaría el teléfono. Ven conmigo. estudiara 2. 4. se 5. -te . The Preterite Perfect Subjunctive (page 183) A 1. me habría casado con él. 3. le ayudara con la computadora va a estar en su casa esta tarde. No se levanten. No vayamos al cine. Si mi papá estuviera aquí. acompañaran B 1. Si lo hubiera querido. 3. Reported Speech (page 203) A 1. 2. 2. Levántense. me ayudaría. Objects. nos 2. mí ti nosotros él B 1. me habría ayudado. no habría contestado el teléfono. Me 4. Si él me llamara todas las noches. hayas podido 4. Si hubieras querido tocar el piano. -se 6. 4.ANSWER KEY 343 C 1. practicarías todos los días. Si mi papá hubiera estado aquí. por favor. 8. 3. iba a estar en su casa esta tarde Subjects. Siéntese. 3. habían ido al cine ayer le ayude con la computadora. habrías practicado todos los días. and Their Pronouns (pages 228–230) A 1. ver 3. 2. ¡Vamos al cine! 3. llamara The Pluperfect Subjunctive (page 199) A 1. D 1. 2. solicitara 4. 2. No vengas conmigo. 3.

3. dentro de 4. 4. pasada anoche última. los lunes 2. leer 2. Le molesta mucho. 2. E 1. recién 3. 11. con calma 4. Le encantan. 3. A Victoria le interesan las películas. abajo 3. Los queremos mucho. 2. sirve 3. ¿Te lo dijo Jorge? G 1. más de 5. regrese C 1. Te F 1. buen tiempo veces ¿Te divertiste? / ¿Lo pasaste bien? tiempo otra vez / una vez más A veces B 1. lo difícil Adverbs and Prepositions with Adverbial Functions (pages 254–256) A 1. afuera E 1. Me la va a enviar la próxima semana. A Roberto le fastidia el tráfico. quedaron 3. / Le fascina. habla 2. me 2. 2. 6. Susana las dejó en el mercado. 3. el cual 4. venden 4. 3. Se nos cayeron los libros. 5. Juan no la llamó esta tarde. Ángela se las dará muy pronto. Se les olvidó la tarea. A Mario se le quedaron las llaves en el coche. les 3. 12. vuelvan 4. Ella le fascina (a él). 2. 8. Siempre D 1. 3. vestirse 4. 10. enseñan 3. H 1. 2. de las cuales J 1. nos 4. I 1. se aprovechó 2. se quedó ANSWER KEY 4. 9. Lo bueno 2. suave y dulcemente 2. despacio / lento / lentamente . Despedimos D 1. el lunes 3. en 3.344 C 1. me siento 5. A Juan le gusta Inés. delante de 2. hace dos semanas últimas siguiente próximo 7.

tú y yo 2. 7. 4. D 1. 4. 4. 6. / No volvemos nunca. 8. 8. b 2. 2. 2. 5. 3. 7. ella y por él ¿En qué piensas? / ¿En qué estás pensando? ¿A quién busca? / ¿A quién está buscando? ¿Con quién va? ¿Qué esperamos? / ¿Qué estamos esperando? ¿Qué miras? / ¿Qué estás mirando? ¿De quién es la carta? ¿Desde cuándo estás aquí? / ¿Hace cuánto tiempo que estás aquí? ¿Con qué frecuencia visitas a tu abuela? a a con con en por para por para Para 6.ANSWER KEY 345 F 1. ella 5. No voy al cine con nadie. 5. -tigo 3. d ¿Adónde vas? / ¿Adónde va usted? ¿De qué hablan ustedes? / ¿De qué habláis? ¿Con quién vas al cine? / ¿Con quién va usted al cine? ¿Cuándo regresan/vuelven ustedes? / ¿Cuándo regresáis/volváis? No voy a ninguna parte. 7. No regresamos nunca. 2. I 1. c G 1. 3. 4. 4. 6. H 1. e 3. 8. 9. 4. No hablamos de nada. 10. 4. b Other Prepositions (pages 288–289) A 1. 2. 3. a la B 1. 4. de de de por en para para por por . d g f e 5. a 6. 2. 9. 2. 3. 5. C 1. 3. 3. a 5. c 7.

o u ni / ni siquiera Words (pages 321–322) A 1. 6. 2. 8. C 1. 5. E 1. 3. 12. 8. D 1. 8. 6. 9. fragmento sentimiento arrogancia presencia feminista argument factory reading relatives event molestar recordar avisar solicitar asistir e h f g a l irme Voy conoce bueno . 10. 3. 2. 8. 4. 2. 9. pues Tanto. 5. 4. 2. 2. e sino y ni o 6. B 1. 7. 10. 3. 11. 4. 4. 10. como O. 4. 5. 9. 7. 7. 9. 3. 5. 8. 6. 9. 3.346 ANSWER KEY Conjunctions (page 296) A 1. 7. 8. 4. 5. chocolate solución posibilidad biología paciente sand folder commitment custom disappointment advertir notar atender discutir ignorar k b i d j c dos veces preguntó es está tiene 6. 2. 9. 7. 5. 6. 7. 10. 10. 3.

Están tratando de recordar todos los datos sobre la Guerra Civil de los Estados Unidos. 6. Nuestro dormitorio no es grande. B Como quiero ser médico. ¿Vas a estrenar tus nuevos zapatos? 3. Se despidieron esta mañana en el aeropuerto. Vivo en una residencia. 9. 7. La cena se echó a perder. 5. la de historia es a mediodía los mismos días y en el mismo edificio y la de español es de lunes a jueves desde las dos de la tarde hasta las tres. Nadie está viendo la televisión. en Washington Hall. Un chico le está explicando a su amigo lo que pasó al final de la guerra. Todos beben café y esperan la llegada de unas pizzas. 4. 4. Mary es bastante seria y estudia mucho. pero me gusta y creo que es importante para mi carrera. ¿De qué se trata tu trabajo? 10. Ella fue a México y se enamoró. La clase de inglés es los martes y los jueves a las nueve en Harrison Hall. pero no estudia tanto como Mary. estudio biología y química. historia y español. Un muchacho está hablando por celular con su novia. que se llama “Jefferson Hall”.ANSWER KEY 347 Constructions (page 330) A 1. 8. Nunca viene a visitar los domingos. Me echaron la culpa (a mí). La chica no se fijó en él durante la fiesta. ¿Cuándo van a darle de alta a tu abuela? / ¿Cuándo le van a dar de alta a tu abuela? 2. ni yo tampoco. en Tyler Hall. Jenna es buena estudiante. Mary y Jenna. También tengo que estudiar inglés. 2. . El español es difícil para mí. Una chica tiene una pizarra pequeña en la cual está escribiendo las fechas importantes. Otros dos chicos están leyendo sus libros de texto. Mis clases son los lunes y los miércoles desde las diez de la mañana hasta las once y media. Jorge no va a estudiar. que me gustan mucho. C Entramos en un dormitorio de la universidad y vemos esta escena: Hay ocho estudiantes sentados en el suelo preparándose para un examen. Las dos son muy simpáticas y nos llevamos bien. con dos compañeras de cuarto. Catch the Blunders (pages 331–336) A Estoy en mi primer año de la universidad. pero es cómodo y bonito. 3. No tengo que comprar nada. No tengo que asistir a clases los viernes. Una estudiante está durmiendo y su amiga está tratando de despertarla. ¿A qué hora desayunan ustedes? / ¿A qué hora desayunáis? B 1. Nadie está en la oficina. Quiero estar en la estación para darte la bienvenida.

mi mamá trataba de calmar a mi hermano. así que voy a tener que cambiarme de ropa rápido porque mi última clase no termina hasta las 5:30. Les sugiere a otras dos que sigan una receta para unas papas al estilo peruano. Voy a ir con otras dos chicas. Él no lloraba. Estoy segura de que vamos a divertirnos mucho.348 ANSWER KEY D El viernes tengo una fiesta en la casa de un amigo. El profesor les dio recetas para todos estos platos. También iban mis tíos con sus hijos. pero lo que me gustaba más era sentarme en la mesa con los viejos y escuchar sus cuentos. vivía en la ciudad con mis padres y con mis hermanos. la mejor cocinera del mundo. Nunca faltaba el pan especial hecho a mano por mi abuela. Mientras esperábamos ayuda. E Cuando era joven. No sé qué van a llevar ellas. pensando en su fiesta y en la comida rica que van a cocinar. Todos los domingos íbamos al pueblo para almorzar a la casa de mis abuelos. Yo trataba de calmar a mi hermanita. que estaba agitado. aunque estaba muy herido. En fin. Les sugirió a otras dos que siguieran una receta para unas papas al estilo peruano. A un chico le recomienda que haga una tortilla española. F Un domingo cuando estábamos en la casa de mis abuelos. y a otro que preparara un flan. Luego se servía un pastel o una torta de postre. dos o tres ensaladas y frutas. preparaba una gran comida. y a veces invitábamos a algún amigo. pero yo pienso llevar mi nueva falda negra con una blusa rosada. Por fin llegó la ambulancia. Los paramédicos examinaron a mi hermano y lo llevaron al hospital. Los estudiantes salen entusiasmados. le dieron un calmante y luego lo llevamos a casa. y a otro que prepare un flan. con por lo menos dos tipos de carne. Los estudiantes salieron entusiasmados. El profesor quiere que los estudiantes traigan platos auténticos de la cocina hispana. Alguien llamó a la ambulancia. El profesor les da recetas para todos estos platos. pensando en su fiesta y en la comida rica que iban a cocinar. H Una clase de español estaba planeando hacer una fiesta para celebrar el final del semestre. que sí lloraba por lo ocurrido. había mucha gente que comía y se divertía en esa casa los domingos. Mi abuela. varios platos de verduras. Voy a usar unos zapatos negros de tacón alto y unos pendientes de plata. A mí me gustaba jugar con mis primos. Mis amigas vienen a buscarme a las siete. Les dice a tres chicas que preparen arroz con pollo al estilo colombiano. Les dijo a tres chicas que prepararan arroz con pollo al estilo colombiano. El profesor quería que los estudiantes trajeran platos auténticos de la cocina hispana. Todos estábamos muy preocupados. mi hermano se cayó de un árbol. G Una clase de español está planeando hacer una fiesta para celebrar el final del semestre. Le pusieron algunas vendas. donde determinaron que se le había roto la clavícula. A un chico le recomendó que hiciera una tortilla española. . donde estaba jugando con nuestro primo. A todo el mundo le gustaba comer en casa de mi abuela.

Una chica contestó. Durante estos diez años. sino dos. Mi hermano piensa que se reunirán todos por lo menos cuatro veces al año. pero en general está contento. Algunas estaban seguras de que querían casarse y tener hijos algún día. Haría viajes a los países que me parecieran interesantes. sólo tiene que decirlo y se cumple el deseo en seguida. J Para el año 2050. Los hijos ya habrán terminado sus carreras y vivirán en varias partes del mundo. Luego dejaría de trabajar y pensaría en la mejor manera de disfrutar de la vida. L Mi tío ya es viejo y dice que ha vivido bien.ANSWER KEY 349 I “¿Qué van a hacer ustedes cuando se gradúen?” preguntó la señora que visitaba la universidad con su hija. Leería mucho para aprender más del mundo. sus dos hijas lo visitan todos los días. Le habría gustado mucho disfrutar de la compañía de su esposa. contrataría a alguien que sirviera como mi gerente personal. pero antes de hacer cada viaje. y que los dos vivirán cerca de sus padres cuando sean grandes. Se habrá casado con su novia actual y tendrán tres hijos. . Su novia dice que ella también se habrá jubilado y que sí. que manejara el dinero. se habrá casado con mi hermano. La época más triste de su vida fue hace diez años. antes de hacer otra cosa. pero otras no. hay cosas que habría cambiado si hubiera tenido la oportunidad. Otra dijo. estudiaría el idioma y la cultura del lugar. También está muy agradecido de haber gozado de buena salud todos estos años. que lo invirtiera bien. Se siente dichoso y muy orgulloso de su familia. mi tío se ha sentido muy solo. Sin embargo. y si necesita cualquier cosa. todos nosotros seremos viejos y habremos hecho muchas cosas. Compraría un coche de lujo. pues no conoce a ningún otro anciano que tenga hijos tan atentos. pero no muy grande. “haré un viaje alrededor del mundo y no volveré hasta que me canse de la aventura”. y que también compraría una casa nueva para mis padres. Pero ella dice que no tendrán tres hijos. cuando mi tía murió de cáncer. o si alguien me diera diez millones de dólares. también haría muchas fiestas en la nueva casa e invitaría a todos mis amigos. K Si yo ganara “el gordo” de la lotería. Mi hermano dice que se habrá jubilado después de haber trabajado cuarenta años. que me ayudara en elegir proyectos filantrópicos y que asegurara que no perdiera el dinero tan rápido como lo hubiera ganado. Claro. Creo que buscaría una casa elegante. Otras dijeron que no sabían qué iban a hacer. Claro. “voy a estudiar medicina y algún día seré médico”.

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233 antes de 239. 215. por 282 colmo. acá 233 arriba 234.. 296–97 ayer 123. 270 acaso 159 acaso. 71. 319 caballo. de 272 alrededor (de) 234 ambos(-as) 54. 231 acuerdo. a 265 caza. 243 adónde 251 afuera 234 ahí 233 ahora 114. 249 ahora. en 146. 171. en 275 caso de que. con 235 casa. 239 apenas 247. 235. de 269 cena. Click here for terms of use. 181. de 269 adelantado. 159. a 265 cada 54. lo 232 antes que 145. cuando 291 aquel/aquella(-os/-as) 53. 236 ante 257. 231. 232. a 265 construcción. 252. de 272 cerca (de) 234 ciegas. consigo 208. 232 antes 232. a las 231–32 abajo 234. 190 351 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 284 anteayer 123.INDEX OF SPANISH WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS a 48. en 275 contento de que. 192 causa de. 261–65 a la. 285–86 balde. allá 230 almuerzo. por 282 al 56. para 278 cómo 248. 243 acá 242 acabar de 98. 171. 257. 100. 68 aquí. 97. 232. a 245 cierto 54. 328 allí. Inc. 234. 165. 232 bajo 257. 257 algo 235 alguien 328 algún/alguna(-os/-as) 54. 104 –8. 319 broma. . 252. a 265 bastante 146. 259 antes posible. este 114 anoche 123. 253 como 66. 242. por 282 adelante 234. 246. 84. estar 159. contigo. 77 cierto. 323 como si 195 con 257. 159. en 275 base de. 247. 75 calma. 295–96 apenas. 266 conmigo. 258 consecuencia de.. 235 bien 234. 242 así que 323 atrás (de) 234 aunque 291. 64. 192. en 275 buen/bueno(-a/-os/-as) 64. por si 282 actualmente 114. 243 adentro 234. 75 año.

al 231 finalmente 233 fines de. 86. 288 favor de. a 265 esos días. 60. 243 demás. 233. 232. para su 278 desgracia. 112. unos(-as) 54. 182. 323 desgracia. 258. 136. 106. con 245 cuidado de.352 INDEX OF SPANISH WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS contra 257. en 275 frecuentemente 233 frente a 234 fuera de 234 fuerza. a 265 estar 87–90. a 231 flor. por 282 después de 232. a 265 escrito. 243 derecha (de). algún 144. 67–68 esmero. de buena/mala 272 generalmente 233 gran/grande 64. 48.. 243 entonces 232 entonces. 182. 239 detrás (de) 234 día. 267–72 de. 221–23. todo 234 desde 116–17. al 265 corazón. el 227 cual. en 275 contrario. en 114. 93. 206. todos los 233 Dios. 284 contra de. 51. 160. en 232 espaldas de. 171. 234. por 282 él/ella(-os/-as) 204. 191. 259 después que 145. por 282 ese/esa/eso(-os/-as) 53. al 232 días.. 242 encima de. 231. 314. con 245 eso de. 159. 257 delante 243 delante de 234. a 148. 232. 170. por 282 duras penas. a 265 favor. a 265 cuál 250–51 cual. lo 227 cualquier/cualquiera 54. por la 282 gana. 71 cuando 145. 275 excepto 257. 51. los 54. 205. a 265 . 48. 257. 233. 192. 67–70 este momento. 231. 320 derecho(-a) 320 derecho. 272–76 en cuanto 145. 98. 246 dentro de 144. 232 en 48. de todo 272 costa de. 257. 231 días. a la 234. 191. por 282 enfrente 234 enfrente de 234. estos 114. 76 demasiado 235. 287 escondidas. a 265 fin de que. de 231. 257. 243 del 56. 159. 128. 326 gusto. 257. 207. al 59 cuyo(-a/-os/-as) 53 de 46. 132. 244. por 282 fin de cuentas. 135. 71 cuidado. 173 final. 97. en 275 ejemplo. 275 en cuanto a 275 encima de 234. 283–84. 53. 258 el/la/los/las 25–36. a 265 e 291 efectivo. 159. 309–10 este/esta/esto(-os/-as) 53. 328 día. 258. 85 gustar 96. 242. 55–63. 272 día siguiente. 232 cuánto 253 cuánto(-a/-os/-as) 250 cuantos(-as). en aquel 232 entre 233. 171. 98. en 268 debajo de 234.

207. en 275 lo 86.. 128. esta 114. 265 merienda. 328–29 nunca. 77 medio de. 249 mañana. en 275 mal 234. 221–23. de ninguna 249. 181. 272 noche. 177. 192 menudo. 233 mudanza. 226–27 lo/la/los/las 104. 246. 162. 163 ir a 97 izquierda (de). 152. 122. 214 –17. 325 opinión. 128. 297 motivo de. 234 mejor. 197. 328–29 nada. 132. 149. a la 234 lado (de). 60 nuevo. 128. 231. 232 manera. casi 233 o 291. 70 mismo(-a/-os/-as) 54. a lo 265 le/les 104. de 231. 232 nombre de. de 269 mes. con 233 mucho 246. de 269 modo que. por 282 mejor 92. en 63 nos 104. 68 mientras 145. 292–93 objeto de. 258 nuestro(-a/-os/-as) 53. 221. 297 mío(a/-os/-as) 53. a lo 234 lejos de 234 llamas. por lo 282 menos que 91–92. de buen/mal 269 ir 102. 233 lo que 227 luego 233 lugar. 155. 155. a la 265 largo de. 319 malo(-a) 319 mañana 232. 232. 64. a 146. de 272 nunca 144. 224 –25 lejos 234 lejos. con 63 mucha/poca frecuencia. 208. 257. 149. 50–51. a lo 265 menor 92 menos. 294. de la misma 272 manera. 177. 309 hace 116. 112. 106. 163. 160. 170 mientras que 291. 209. sino 295 noche. 224 –25 nosotros(-as) 204. 231. 323 hacer 99. 159. 197 hacia 234. 328–29 ninguna parte 328 no en balde 275 no hay de qué 272 no ser para tanto 278 no. 208 mi. 311 mucho(-a/-os/-as) 54. con 63 obras. 171. en primer 233 lugar de. 233. 181. de 272 nadie 328–29 ni 291. 152. este 114 mí 204. 272 más de 46 más que 91–92. mis 53. 231. al 234 larga. 311 nada 235. 123. 159. 206. en mi 275 . 143. 221–23. 224 –25 medio(-a) 48. esta 114. 235 más tarde 232 mayor 92 me 204. 143. en 275 ojalá que 158.. 240– 41.INDEX OF SPANISH WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 353 haber 98. 235 menos que. de 291. 284 hasta 257 hasta que 145. de 269 muy 235. 77 moda. 171. 328–29 ni siquiera 294 ni un solo 76 ningún/ninguno(-a) 43. 140. 237. a 233. 195. 162. 249 hubiera 197–99 humor. 249. 112. 192 hoy 114. 210. 166. 158. 159. 73. 54. 140.

al 265 saber. 191. 66. 201–3. 148. 234 pero 291. a 265 se 103. 236 pasado mañana 232 pedir 105. 234. 294 pesar de. como 93 . 257. 112. 288 salvo. 170 recientemente 231 recto 234 repente. 257. a 265 próximo(-a/-os/-as) 144. este 114 ser 87–90. unos 54. 237 pues 291. 136. 319 pocos. 162. 161. 71–72 para 97. 158. 221. 54. estar 190 semana. de 269 pronto 144. 258. 70 tal 54. 132. 188. a 231 prisa. 267 sin que 146. para 278 servirle. 173. 128. 159. a 265 pasado(-a) 123. 194. 247. 173. 159. para mi gran 278 su/sus 53.. 224 –25 otro(-a/-os/-as) 43– 44. 308–9 serte sincero. 173. 328–29 tan 235. 257. un 146. 279–83 por qué 160. en 275 según 257. al 231. 233. 297 qué 250–51 que 98. esta 114. 282 suyo(-a/-os/-as) 53. lo más 232 propio(-a/-os/-as) 54. 232. 159. 210. para 278 siempre 233. 285 solamente 76 solas. 232 pronto. 235. 319 poco. 265 principios de. 308 peor 92. 252 porque 252 poseer 136 preguntar 201–2. 204. 173. 259. 308 presente. 253 que. 287 seguro(-a) que. a 265 sólo 76 sorpresa. 77 semestre. 276–79 para. 181. 97. 76–77 tal de que. 171. 192 siguiente 237 sin 65. 231. 167. 69 suma. alguna 328 partir de. 328 tampoco 250. de 269 pocas veces 233 poco(-a/-os/-as) 54. por el 282 primer/primero(-a/-os/-as) 49–50. 243. 294 puesto que 291. 194 para que te enteres 279 para sí 278 parecer 112. 259. 64. casi 233 siempre que 171 siempre y cuando 146. 136. 234. con 146. 77 propósito. 221–23 parejas. en 275 supuesto. 224 –26 seguida. 192 también 249. 71 por 48.354 INDEX OF SPANISH WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS os 104.. 323 tan. 194 sino que 295 sobre 233. 240– 41 siempre. 194. 181. 232 semejante(s) 54. 209. de 272 revés. 258. 257. 116–17. estar 278 para que 148. a 265 pie. por 282 parte. 233 principio. de 272 pronto posible. 160. 72. de lo 247 quién 250 quizá/quizás 159. a 265 salvo 257. por 248. 171.

265 tú 204. 328 ya 141 yo 20. a 233. 77 usted 258 ustedes 204. 258 . 191. 239. 112. 249 todo 54. otro no 233 único(-a/-os/-as) 54. alguna que otra 233 vez. 232 te 204. 231. 182. 310–11 tener que 98 ti 204. 152. en 275 vez en cuando. 224 –25 temprano 231 tener 64 –65. 53. tal 159 vez a. 265 venta. 128. 247 tarde 231 tarde. 308 vez. a 234. 207. para 279 varios(-as) 54. 70 último 236 un/una(-os/-as) 42. de 272 vez 239. 73. esta 114. 221–23. 207. 69 y 291–92. 286 través de. a 265 tiempo. 159. 74 tras 257. 69 tuyo(-a/-os/-as) 53.INDEX OF SPANISH WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 355 tan pronto como 145. 208 tiempo 239. de 269 vosotros(-as) 204. en aquel 232 todavía 141. 258 variar. en 275 verdad. 143. 163. 232 tanto 54. 136. una 233 vez de. 76. 258 tu/tus 53. 171. 204. 323. 308 tiempo. de 233 visita. 63–66 un día sí. 77 veces. 258 vuestro(-a/-os/-as) 53.

93 usage 86–93 with ser and estar 87–89 Adverbs 231–53. 210. Click here for terms of use. noun definite 49. 296 Consonants 4. 216–17. 240– 41 of manner 234 –35. 209–10. 163. Inc. 66 Articles See also Determiners. 91–93 Compass. . 319–20 cognates 302–3 of degree 235. See also Conditional perfect Conditional perfect 151. noun Determiners. 295 negative 293. 242– 44 of time 231–32. 220. 44. Pronouns. names of 62 Dates 47. 257 Countries. 46– 49 Cities. 10–12 Contractions 56. See also Fractions Article titles 18. 291. 294 for stating consequences 296 for stating options 291–93 for stating reasons 293. 198–99 Conjunctions 290–96 for comparing 296 for connecting 290–91 for contrasting 293–94. 250 Addresses. points of the 63 Conditional 151–54. 53. 101. 236–39. 7–9. 206 indefinite 42. 292. 66–68. 244 – 46 of order of occurrence 233 of place 233–34. 57. street 47 Adjectives 29–30.SUBJECT INDEX Abbreviations 17 Accent marks 12–15. 53. See also Time expressions Amount 72–74. See also Determiners. 63–66 Book titles 18. 55–63. 319–20 cognates 302 in comparisons 91–93 descriptive 80–93 false cognates 305 forms 80–83 gender 80–83 intensification 89–91 as nouns 86 number 80–83 past participles as 87 position before and after nouns 83–85 superlative 62. 174. 34. direct. 273 Definite articles See Articles. 246– 47 of direction 234 false cognate 305 of frequency 233. 217 Comparisons 46. noun 53–77 Direct objects See Objects. 76. 155–57. 303–5 Commands 99–100. 293. definite Demonstratives 53. 295–96 correlative 290. direct object 356 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 50 Days (of the week) 17. 107. names of 62 Cognates 299–303 false 236. 66 Capitalization 17–18 Cardinal numbers 38–39.

103–6. See also Amount Future perfect tense 149–50 Future tense 143– 48 Gender 80–82. number Numbers 38–51 billions 46 cardinal 38–39. 208–14 . individual tenses Indirect objects See Objects. 220 with “exchange” verbs 105–6. with infinitives and gerunds. 18. 49. 47. 215. See also Titles. Pronouns. 50 fractions 40. gender Gerunds See Objects. 50–51 hundreds 44 – 45 millions 46 ones 41– 44 ordinal 39– 40. 50–51. 135–36 Irregular verbs 112. 162. 294. 261–62 after prepositions 204. 59. 174. in set phrases and after certain verbs False cognates See Cognates Feminine See Gender Fractions 40. 207–8 reflexive 204. names of 62 Names of persons 17. 177. See also Nouns. 165. See also Prepositions. 101. names of 17. infinitives Intransitive verbs 102. 205 number 32–36. gerunds Imperative 99–100. 210. 143.SUBJECT INDEX 357 “Exchange” verbs 105–6 Exclamations 252–53 Expressions. 218–20 indirect 105–8. 33. 163. 205 place names 62 proper 17. See also Determiners. 62 Number See Nouns. 293. 214 –17. indefinite Indicative mood 110. 83 Negative constructions 249–50. 328–29 Nouns 25–36. 152. 204. 217 Imperfect subjunctive 184 –96 Imperfect tense 132–38 Impersonal pronouns See Pronouns. See also Verbs. 216–17. impersonal se verbs Indefinite articles See Articles. impersonal Impersonal se verbs See Verbs. 33. 128. 41. 132. 47 Mountains. of persons of places 18. 220 with personal a 104. indirect object Infinitives See Objects. 204. 218–25 with infinitives and gerunds 209. 197 Languages. set 323–28. 61. 62 Nationalities 17. 61. with infinitives and gerunds. 49–50 position 43 punctuation 41 in street addresses 47 telephone 47 tens 44 thousands 45– 46 trillions 46 writing 1 and 7 41 Objects 207–227 with commands 174 direct 99. noun abstract 61 cognates 299–301 false cognates 303– 4 gender 25–32 nouns that name people and animals 25–28 other nouns 28–32 noncount 107. 60 Masculine See Gender Months (of the year) 17. 63. tenses. indirect. 46– 49 dates 47. Verbs. Verbs. 47. 49.

44. 140. 128. 41. 243. 245– 46. 207–8. 271. 278. 204. 208–14 subject 204. 33. 127. 269. 284. 155. of persons nouns for 25–28 Personal a 99. 209–10. 207–8 personal a 99. 257–88 followed by yo and tú 287–88 objects after 204. 188–89. 177. 218–25 with infinitives and gerunds 209. 216–17. 220. 104. 201 Quantity See Amount. 200–203 Rivers. See also Titles. 204. 41. 149. 258–59 with question words 251–52. 49. 83 Reported speech 141. number Possessives 53. 214 –17 impersonal 225–26 indirect object 105–8. 162 consonants 10–12 Stem-changing verbs 112–13. 220 neutral 226–27 after prepositions 204. 61. 261–62 Place markers 233–34. 104 –6. unplanned 108. 5–7 Punctuation 20–21 colon 20 comma 21. with reflexive pronouns. 216–17. Verbs. 282. 258–59 reflexive 204. 205–7 . 286 Present subjunctive 161–74 Present tense 111–20 Preterite perfect subjunctive 177–83 Preterite perfect tense 122–26 Preterite tense 127–30 Price 60 Professions 63–64 Pronouns 204 –27 with commands 174 direct object 99. 161. 165. 197 Past tenses 123 People names of 17. 63. suggestions 107. reflexive Reflexive verbs See Verbs. 205–7 Pronunciation 3–9 consonants 4. 224 –25 Ordinal numbers 39– 40. 108. 252 period 21. 261–62 pronouns after 204. 251–52. 300 accent marks 12–15. 167–68. 122. se verbs Religions/religious affiliations 17. 165. Fractions Questions 248–52. See also Determiners. 223 with unplanned occurrences 108. 41. 7–9 vowels 3.358 SUBJECT INDEX Objects (continued) with requests. 272. 279. 104. names of 62 Singular See Nouns. 260 Reflexive objects See Objects. demands. 207–8. 220–23 Occurrences. 283. 215. 242– 44 Place names 62 Pluperfect subjunctive 197–99 Pluperfect tense 140– 42 Plural See Nouns. 104. 49–50 Past participles 87. 201 dash 20 in dialog 20–21 exclamation point 20. 250 automatic consonant changes 11–12. 91. 201 question mark 20. number Spelling 10–15. 185 Street addresses 47 Subjects 100. 224 –25 with verbs of feeling 106–7. 275. 215. noun Prepositions 97. 260 in set phrases and after certain verbs 265. 248 quotation marks 20–21. 266. 68–70.

150. 190–91 prediction 144. 56–57. 173–74. 189 purpose of action 148. 156–57 constant past action 130 control over action 107. 194 –95. 162 cognates 302 dictionary form 96 “exchange” verbs 105–6 false cognates 304 –5 functions. 217 completion of future action 182–183 conditional action 119. See also Verbs. 180–81. 158. 195 conjecture 145. 135–37 offer 118 ongoing state or feeling in the past 136 order 99–100. 168. 180. 189–90. 150 pre-past action 141 probability of action 144. 189. Verbs. 325 “if only” 195. 299–301. 178–79. 159. 127. 80. 205 Transitive verbs 103–8. 240– 41 future 144. 210. 277 hope about the past 179–80 impossibility 169–70. 174. telling 48– 49. 153. 180–82. 130. 160. 169. 180–81. 277 . 187 doubt 159. tenses. 190–91 prohibition of action 99. 223 desire for action 158. 236–39 with demonstratives 67. to express. 194 command 99–100. 167–68. 180–81. 68 of frequency 125. 169–70. 123–24. 158. 188–89 demand 99. 135–36. 220–23 frequency of action 125–26. 168. 153–54. 130 past details 138 possibility of occurrence 169–70. 210. description of 133–34 past action 119–20. 31. 93 Telephone numbers 47 Time. 91. 142. 58 Time expressions 231–32. 172–73. 141 “ask” 201–3 “could” 137 “have/had to” 137 “I wonder” 145. 27. 101. 156. individual tenses expressions that signal use of 158–60 Suffixes 26. 233. 158. 217 past. 169–70. 173. 156. 163. 141 “say” 200–201 “should have” 199 “will” 145. 159. 167–68. 190–91 expected action 145– 46 fact 114 feeling 106–7. 188–89 avoidance of interference 159.SUBJECT INDEX 359 Subjunctive mood 158–60. 198 “not yet” 124 –25. 232 present 231 Titles of books and articles 18. 190–91 intended action 145– 46 narration 120. 107. 192–93. 302 Superlatives 62. 324 “would” 325–26 action in progress 115–18 advice 107. 232 general 231 past 68. 174. 190–91 improbability 169–70. 123. 308–19 automatic spelling changes in 11. 163. 211 Verbs 96–203. 142 future action 118–19. to express “already” 124 –25. 187–88 desired characteristic 165. 101. 146– 47. 166–67. 180–81. functions. 66 of persons 17. 81–82.

211 types of verbs 102–8 Vocabulary 299–329. 115. 177. 143. to express. 140. 161. 177. See also Cognates English words with more than one Spanish meaning 306–20 miscellaneous constructions 323–29 Spanish words with more than one English meaning 320–21 Vowels 3. 170–71. 195. 155–57. functions. 196. See also Verbs. names of bodies of 62 Word order 68. 128. 132. 135–36 with object pronouns 209. individual tenses tenses conditional perfect 151. 198 future perfect tense 149–50 future tense 143– 48 imperfect subjunctive 184 –96 imperfect tense 132–38 imperfect vs. 167–68. 239 intransitive verbs 102. 325 gerunds 113. functions. 216–17. 220 after prepositions 97–99. preterite 137–38 past tenses 123 pluperfect subjunctive 197–99 pluperfect tense 140– 42 present subjunctive 161–74 present tense 111–20 preterite perfect subjunctive 177–83 preterite perfect tense 122–26 preterite tense 127–30 simple conditional 151–54 transitive verbs 103–8. 260 with reflexive pronouns 208–14 reciprocal action 210 se verbs 103. 128. 188–89.360 SUBJECT INDEX Verbs. 149. to express (continued) recent action 123–24 regularly occurring action 133–34. 185 subjunctive mood 158–60. 197 with prepositions 97–99 with included prepositions 104. 135–36. 241 reported speech 141. 155. 5–7 Water. 135–36 irregular verbs 112. 132. Verbs. 83–85 and throughout under “Spanish pattern” . 162. 216–17. 224 –25 usual action 114 what (apparently) doesn’t/didn’t exist 164. 220 impersonal se verbs 225–26 indicative mood 110 infinitives 96–101 as command 101 as direct object 99 with object pronouns 209. 191–92 unplanned occurrence 108. tenses. 122. 77. 72. 178. 259 as subject 100 vs. 134. 200–203 request 118. 197 past participles 87. 223 simultaneous past action 134 simultaneously begun and terminated action 130 speculation about the past 153 speculation about the present 145 suggestion 223 terminated action 129 termination of future actions 150 time of action 124. 152. 208–14 stem-changing verbs 112–13. que conjugated verb form 183. 186 what appears to be true 195 wish 160. 80.

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