Public Health: History of Medicine
Introduction What is Medicine? History of Medicine Background: Medicines in the Past Herbalism, Magic & Instinct Medicine Astrological Medicine Ancient Chinese Medicine Ancient Egyptian Medicine Ancient Greek Medicine Ancient Indian Medicine Ancient Islamic Medicine Ancient Romanian Medicine European Renaissance Medicine Modern Medicine Father of Dentistry The Great Medical Inventions: Penicillin, MRI Scanner & Light Microscope Discussion Conclusion 14-16 17-18 9-10 10-11 11 11 12 12-13 3 3-4 5 6 7-8 Page 1 2
Public Health: History of Medicine
HISTORY OF MEDICINE
Medicine has been around for centuries especially after the emergence of the Great Revolution Era. Medicine is defined as the art, scientific study and method of preventing and treating illnesses regardless of its severity; mild or chronic disease*. The history of medicine is a crucial topic to be learned as it gives us an insight of the roots of the great medicines ever existed until today. The subject ‘Anatomy’ in particular has led to the development of other medical branches such as microbiology, histology, pharmacology, physiology and pathology. The emergence of medicines and the acknowledgement of its importance are mainly due to the diseases encountered by our ancestors. Through great interest and curiosity, thorough experimentation and research was done which had lead to the medicine at present. In this report, detailed background of medicine and the period, the countries as well as the inventors or founders of great findings are discussed. As a whole, medicine field have helped and contributed a lot in maintaining a healthy human well-being.
What Is Medicine?
Medicine more often had been referred to as the medication taken to calm or maintain a person’s health. The word medicine originated from the Latin word ‘medicina’ which means the ‘art of heeling’4. The proper definition of medicine is the art and science to maintain and restore human health by studying, diagnosing and treating patients’ diseases regardless of its severity; mild or chronic4. At present it is referred as areas of clinical medicine, research and surgery which include the challenges of diseases and injury. Medicine consists of many branches of specialization such as cardiology (study of the heart), rhinology (study of the nose and its diseases), neurology (study of the nervous system and its diseases) as well as others such as sports medicine, research and public health4.
the development and advancements of medicine in each era will be discussed further (in Background section) as what was presented during the presentation. Indian.e. Indian Ayurvedic medicine and Herbal medicine.Public Health: History of Medicine
The History of Medicine
Different parts of the world had developed different health care system ever since history is being recorded. Greek. The basis leading to the rising of clinical medicine and thinking was the ‘Black Death’ incident in the 1400s which had taken many lives. Roman Catholic Church) had lead to the great shift towards modern medicine. analysis and evidence of a hypothesis. the downfall of the power of the church (i. diagnosis. many still do practice the traditional and ancient medicine such as the Chinese medicine. Islamic. Another reason was due to the improvement and queries on the theories of the great initiators such as Hippocrates and Ibnu Sina. is a derivative of those that was developed around the 1450s by the Western world during the early Renaissance. Increase in health awareness and human knowledge also lead to the progression in medicine world. Modern medicine integrates the practice of old medicine as well as scientifically proven medicine via means of experimentation. Medicine today. However. Egyptian.
. Furthermore. The new and scienceevidence based medicine had gradually taken over the practices of traditional medicines such as Herbalism and the Greek’s ‘four humours’. Only in the 19th and 20th Century that medicine as being practiced now had developed enormously. Romanian and Western medicine all had developed differently and at their own pace. In this report. The Ancient Chinese.
It is even up until today is being practiced by some people.appeal to God(s) or communicate with spirits of ancestors. One such example is the drug Atropine. study or even evidence. Egypt. For example. Magic & Instinct Medicine
The use of plants and animal body parts was one of the earliest medicine ever existed in most cultures of the world. (ii) Spiritualism. Instinct medicine however is a type of practice by using human instinct which is not based on any scientific learning. (iii) Shamanism. Astrologers had assigned zodiac signs to take control of some parts of the
. Magic is defined as the secret power that some people believe can make strange or impossible things happen if you say special words or do special things10. Herbalism led to the development of one branch of medicine known as Pharmacology.the vesting of an individual with supernatural powers and (iv) Divination. There are many kinds of magic such as: (i) Animism. At present. This type of practice usually come hand-in-hand with the use of ‘magic’. This type of practice may or may not have its benefits and could lead to a more severe condition. India and even in the Europe during the early modern periods and in the late medieval.obtaining truth by using magic5.
Astrological medicine emerged from many ancient origins such as China.Public Health: History of Medicine
Background:Medicines in the Past
Herbalism. many drugs are still being produced and derived from plants.the belief of non-living objects having spirits. a person who accidentally burnt their fingers might instantaneously put their fingers in cool running water and some even put toothpaste on the burnt area. derived from the plant Atropa belladonna is used as a competitive antagonist at the muscarinic receptor13. At that moment. astrology played an important role as it dictated most of the system of knowledge and much of the things that took place during those times were referred to Astrology.
planets to control the organs and systems along with planets to rule the diseases and drugs7. To make such predictions. Furthermore. as well as employing the different medical methods such as Acupuncture. which is transmitted by contact or contagion. plants). Ayurveda and Chinese remedies. They quoted that ‘It is carried by 'disease seeds' [semina morbum].Public Health: History of Medicine
body. cures can also be found.the same combination of Mars and Saturn which had earlier brought the Black Death’ (taken from Medical Astrology and Astrological Medicine by Peter Morell)7. From this. The Black Death outbreak was also predicted by astrologers.
The Astrological Chart
.e. from astrological point of view. but is due ultimately to malign or poisonous astrological influences . the astrologers would need to obtain a chart for the patients’ birth as well as for his illness and the time it arises. The entire organisation is based on observation and interpretation as stated by a Rulership. Diseases were normally treated by means of using drugs made of natural origin (i. astrologers are able to make a diagnosis of the root of the disease and the energies involved.
if a person was to have too much of Yang (daylight. energy) but lack of sleep. passive. Empiric medicine is a method of trial and error in the attempt to treat a disease. Chang Chung-Ching composed a thesis entitled ‘Treatise on Typhoid Fever’.Public Health: History of Medicine
Ancient Chinese Medicine
The Chinese people had practiced medicine quite differently compared to the other empires as there was limited contact with the outside world. Their beliefs. day. Chinese medicine had grown differently without having any major influence from the European teaching and ideas. For example. there needs to be a balance between the two to maintain a good health. during Han dynasty. The concept of Yin Yang is that there is a balance of good and bad things in this life. inward and restful meanwhile Yang is hot. Thus. cultures and empirical observations and investigations on diseases (by Taoist physicians) were the major contributors to the development of medicine and the Chinese often relate energy as an important aspect their medicine5. Each dynasty ruled by different emperor had contributed a great deal towards the growth of medicine. Acupuncture (placing needle at the right places: pressure points) and moxibustion became popular during the Jin dynasty5. night. Yin and Yang are two opposing things as Yin is described a cold. however once he has calm down and in serene state. The Yin and Yang is one example of the ancient Chinese medicine theory. and then Yin takes over9. in the end they will become exhausted and end up being ill. outward and energetic 8. However. Another example is when a person is angry and full of rage or Yang.
The Ying & Yang
. For instance. Instinct and empiric medicine are often applied to their practice of medicine.
rectum. One of the first known surgeries had been performed by the Egyptians dated back in 2750 B.
At that time.C.‘God of Medicine’. skin. Imhotep had diagnosed and treated over 200 diseases which include diseases of the abdomen. Although he treated many diseases.) has been given many titles and to name a few. modern medicine has developed largely from the Ancient Egyptians. however he practiced medicine based much on religion and beliefs. implement exercise. acupuncture. ‘Prince of Peace’5. A famous physician.C. eyes. Moreover. The two famous papyruses were the Edwin Smith Papyrus which contained information on the procedure to treat dislocated bones meanwhile the Ebers Papyrus has information on the methods to remove cists and tumours14. healthier diet and lifestyle to maintain the body’s balance. Hippocrates which came 2000 years after him became famous as the ‘Father of Medicine’. Much of the advancements in their medical field are largely contributed to their religious beliefs. nails and tongue5. Until now the evidence of the medical practice had shown that the Egyptians were capable of identifying and
. Some also considered him as the actual ‘Father of Medicine’ however. hair.Public Health: History of Medicine
The practice of Chinese medicine is to firstly establish the cause and root of the illness or imbalance and try to use herbal remedies. high knowledge on the human anatomy and public health.
Ancient Egyptian Medicine
The Egyptian medicine arises around 3000 B. medical practice and techniques were written on the papyrus. Imhotep (2980 B.C. bladder.
Hippocrates came up with the ‘Four Humours’ theory (originated from Aristotle’s work) which was used to establish medical reasoning at that period. His theories eliminated the concept that diseases might be caused or cured by the use of Magic or spirits but instead believed that diseases should run naturally however with doctors paying close attention and giving treatments to relieve pain. At that time. The Greeks were very successful in expanding the knowledge on medicine and science during the ancient time. better known as the ‘Father of Medicine’ had done much study on the origin and cause of diseases and written books based on scientific truth. mumps. Aristotle was the first man to use the word ‘anatome’ which meant cutting up taking parts of the body. The Greeks believed that the body is made up of four basic components called the Four Humours which consists of liquids with in the body which include blood.Public Health: History of Medicine
developing cures for variety of illnesses as it had been recorded that about 800 procedures had been noted14. In his books. malaria pneumonia and tetanus to name a few4. a Greek Philosopher.
Ancient Greek Medicine
The Ancient Greek medicine was based on religious beliefs as the Egyptians did. Ancient Greek in comparison with Modern Greek is very dissimilar to each other as the Ancient Greek put healthy lifestyle as one of the main aspects in their lives. Hippocrates (460-377 B. he described in detail on illnesses such as arthritis.C. anaesthetic was not available thus surgery was not popular as often it was not successful11.
whom had led to the existent of two professions: Curative Health Care and Preventive Health Care6. these four components must be balanced11. Asclepius believes in treating illnesses and performing surgery (Surgical procedure) only after the disease has occurred. black bile with autumn. phlegm with winter and blood with spring.Public Health: History of Medicine
yellow bile and black bile. Asclepius and Higeia. As a result of the enormous contribution by Hippocrates. the Hippocratic Oath was named after him5. Moreover. However. Alexander’s’ successor. He had introduced new approaches towards anatomy as well as finding cures and methods to heal those injured in battle.
. The city became famous especially amongst physicians and scientists as there was a massive library called Alexandria which was filled with manuscripts and books concerning medicine as well as the works of many great philosophers including Plato and Aristotle.
Another person who had major role in the emergence of medicine during the 4th Century was Alexander the Great (356-323 B. Higeia works by solving illnesses before it occurs which is by means of prevention and practicing a healthy lifestyle6. was the man behind the establishment and the success of the library11. the rules of conduct for doctors. The four humours are connected to the four seasons in a year: yellow bile with summer. He also had built and established a city that was unique at that time named City of Alexandria11. To have or remain in a healthy state. Thus.C) 11. this theory was used by doctors as a diagnostic apparatus for them to look for symptoms of disease. at that time there was a couple. Ptolemy.
Public Health: History of Medicine
Ancient Indian Medicine
During the periods of ‘Harappan’ (3300 B. There are eight branches of classic Ayurveda medicine which includes:(i) Kayacikitsa (study on internal medicine).
. (ii) Salyacikitsa (anatomical surgery).e. the doctors were made compulsory to pass medical examinations to be able to practice legally. predictions and cures for many diseases5.). the people had
. (vii) Rasayana (science of rejuvenation). and (viii) Vajikarana (aphrodisiacs. diagnosis. injuries and illnesses related to ageing and mental illness. It also had described medical instruments that were used which are similar to what is being used at present. especially the Sustrae. One of the oldest practices of Indian medicine was the ‘Ayurveda’.C. (iv) Kaumarabhitya (pediatrics). (iii) Salakyacikitsa (eye. The Caraka touched more on the health and illness as not something that is predetermined and that life can be prolonged by healthy human lifestyle meanwhile the Sustruta describes that medicines are used to cure diseases. the use of leeches). (v) Bhutavidya (spiritual medicine). there was vast knowledge on medicine and dentistry. Ancient Islamic Medicine Medicine was an important feature of the ancient Islamic world. In the text. Ayurveda also incorporates the use of natural substances as part of their healing methods and treatments (i. nose. Ayurveda – which means the science of life existed over 200 years ago and it described that the approach to the body is idealistic and holistic. This was made evident as early as 931 AD. and throat diseases). protects the healthy and that life can be prolonged by human effort. Two of its famous texts ever written originated from the schools of Caraka and Suśruta which described experimentation. mainly for men) 5. (vi) Agada tantra (study of toxicology). medical subjects mentioned included diseases of the eyes. During the earlier days. ear.
Rhazes (Al-Razi) was the first to observe and made detail recordings of small pox and measles as well as their differences. that they realised that was not the case. their application of medicine and scientific based medicine were lacking.
The Canon of Medicine
Ancient Romanian Medicine
The Romans back then were rather religious (priestly) and believed strongly in urban legends. only by profound search and thorough reading of the findings of philosophers such as Hippocrates and Imhotep. He also wrote some books such as ‘The Comprehensive Book of Medicine (Large Comprehensive) and Kitab fi Al-Jadari Wa-alHasbah’.Public Health: History of Medicine
thought that diseases were caused by evil spirits. Even though much of their medical knowledge had been taken and learned from the Greeks (Hippocrates). which was the god of 11
. Theories such as the ‘Four Humours’ was often adopted and referred to by the Islamic scientists. One well-known Islamic scientist. Ibnu Sina or Avicenna was famous in the Western world due to his book entitled ‘The Canon of Medicine’ which is still being used as reference book as well as ‘The Book of Healing’. El-Zahrawi was one of the greatest surgeons of all time during the ancient time. The Romans believed that their Gods were capable of curing and healing a person and in particular was Aesculapius. submission and sacrificing to their God(s) for better health and success in the future12. the Romans maintained a good health regardless of believing in the mythological methods. However. Science based medicine was combined with religious and mythical beliefs and traditions which consists of praying. However.
a new imaging technique which makes it possible to see the inside of the human body so that they can be examined and photographs could be made4.Public Health: History of Medicine
Modern clinical medicine developed more largely around the 19th Century especially in the UK and USA meanwhile in the 20th Century scientific method. drugs. the medicine practiced was empirical medicine (trial and error) but only later that medical school was built for a better understanding of medicine. Earlier on. The Romans ensure that the people practices good hygiene and sanitation12. During this time. techniques and new ideas had been established. a well known physician had expanded the medical knowledge further with reference to the findings of Hippocrates. Galen. He did several experimentations.
European Renaissance Medicine
European medicine existed due to experimental. People such as Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey are those that had contributed some of their works during this time by trying to prove wrong of the myths via using scientific evidence. During this era. treatments and investigations on certain diseases was established such as opium and other medical discovery. water was ensured to be cleaned and free of any contaminations of bacteria and such. During this moment. The book included detailed drawings of the human anatomy. empirical investigation and examination of bodies. improvement in surgery and pharmacology begin to emerge. For example.
. For example. in 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen created X-ray. Andreas Vesalius had come up with medical theory as well as written a comprehensive book of the human body entitled ‘The Fabric of Human Body’11. dissections to study the human anatomy in much more detail. there was a vast advancement in chemistry.
Ernst Duchesne in 1896. He developed the ways of using dental prosthesis. However. Sir Alexander Fleming (18811955) who had a great interest in it. Penicillin comes from the penicillin mold released by bacteria and fungi16. a French physician in the 17th Century.
The Great Medical Inventions: Penicillin. He observed that the penicillin had healing potentials as colonies of bacterium Stahphylococcus aureus were destroyed by the Penicillium
. Only later on that people started to invent apparatus and tools in relation to dental world which is renowned up until this day.Public Health: History of Medicine
Father of Dentistry
The title of Father of Modern Dentistry was awarded to Pierre Fauchard. MRI Scanner & Light Microscope
One of the greatest and valuable findings of all time up until today is the discovery of the Penicillin antibiotic. it was only then that another person. It was originally discovered by a French student. introduced dental fillings as a treatment for dental caries and also had stated that sugar and its derivatives (such as tartaric acid) was responsible for dental decay17.
Penicillin has been a great use during the World War II in saving many lives as it helped treat infections. It enables the detection of known normal and malignant tissue as well as giving an indication of the degree of malignancy of the cancerous tissue. Andrew J.Public Health: History of Medicine
Another invention was the Light Microscope. It was created by Raymond Damadian17.
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)
The MRI (Multi Resonance Imaging) Scanner is also another great invention at present time. Thus leading to the discovery of anti bacterial agent and the principle that medicine could kill certain types of bacteria which can cause diseases. Moyer was granted the patent to mass produce penicillin17. In 1948. Howard Florey and Ernst Chain isolated the active ingredients from the mold and developed a powdery form. In the 1940s. two scientists. It is used to sample a tissue by means of nuclear magnetic resonance. The apparatus has been very handy towards many medical fields especially those dealing with researches such as
chemotherapy.Public Health: History of Medicine
Microbiology and Histology. Herbalism has greatly diverged with massive improvements into what is now called Pharmacology which now deals with drugs and its effect on the body (Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetics). The drugs are mainly derived from plants such as aspirin. empiric and scientific medicine. Many drugs developed are now being used to reduce pain. the advancements in medicine have lead to many valuable consequences for example. treatable and curable.
Medicine in the past and present has different methods of treating and dealing with diseases. The light microscope enlarges images.e. The development of variety medicine by pharmaceutical companies led to an increase in the supply of medicine thus making drugs much cheaper and affordable for the consumers. treat cancer and longterm problems such as high cholesterol levels and diabetes as well as degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. Also.
. research and observations along with methods to cure and treat the diseases. There are five basic type of medicine being practiced in the olden days such as instinct. atropine. In addition. For instance. medicine has developed substantially and has improved massively due to the past findings and old practice of medicine being implemented to the present usage. digoxin and warfarin. methods to reduce symptoms and signs of diseases such as cancer had been established and have helped prolong human life (i. many other illness and diseases were discovered along the way by means of experimentation. Instinct medicine is normally practiced by the Chinese and Indians while the priestly medicine is often practiced by the Romans and Egyptians. surgery and drugs). At present. Currently. magic. However. Currently. there are still people that still do believe in ‘magic’ or ‘instinct’ medicine nowadays. priestly (religious). many diseases are now preventable. medicine usually uses scientific based methods in order to treat diseases for instance plants or parts of animals that is evident in its benefits of treating illnesses such as aspirin. allowing us to see small objects or objects unseen by the human naked eye by means of a lens or combinations of lenses16.
doctors. In the future. having good hygiene and healthy lifestyle. using fibre optics in surgeries) making work much easier for doctors. All these have large impact on the society today as people became more aware of the importance of medicine. A number of people took part in the Question & Answer session. The discovery of anaesthetic made surgery-multiple surgery such as transplants possible and surgical methods also have improved and have had advancements (i. iii. Who invented the dental chair? (Nadia) How does the light microscope and MRI work? (Liyana) Can you please explain more about “Astrology”? (Wei Xi) Is there another name for El-Zahrawi in the western world and where do we get a body for experimental purposes from? (Adiba) What is Atropine? (Updeshen) Dental chair was invented by Waldo Hanchett in 1948. This topic was formally presented in front of the class. a period of time was given for the class to interact and be involved in asking questions to the presenting group. Following the presentation. ii. researchers. Questions: i. Below are the questions as well as the name of the person(s) whom had raised their queries. iv. nurses. ii. it is hoped that cures for untreatable and life-threatening diseases such as HIV/AIDS and the Bird flu virus will be discovered as well as the methods of detecting diseases such as cancer at an earlier stage (when it cell has not metastasised). The light microscope works by magnifying small objects or objects unseen by the naked eye via means of a lens or combinations of lenses.Public Health: History of Medicine
Branches of medicine were also established thus increasing the number of scientists. much talked about methods such as cloning and genetic engineering which is the manipulation of stem cells is hoped to be successful on a larger scale which could aid in curing degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. therapists we have today and this all contributes in increasing the human’s standard of living as well as providing people a source of income. i. v. Also. The MRI scanner is a machine where a tissue sample is placed in a nuclear induction device Answers:
e. iv. Also. Atropine is a type of drug derived from the plant Atropa belladonna.
From this topic. This allows us to measure the values of normal and malignant tissue as well as gives indication of the degree of malignancy of the cancerous tissue (if any). the planets to rule the organs and systems meanwhile the planets to rule over diseases and drugs. The ancient people have contributed a lot in terms of science as they had provided us with the luxury of knowledge on anatomy. medicine and types of diseases in terms of findings and writings. Astrology is the study of the positions and movements of the stars and planets and the way that some people believe they affect people and events. v. receptor controlling gastric). In ancient medicine.
. iii.Public Health: History of Medicine
where selected nuclei gets energized to higher energy states via nuclear magnetic resonance. astrology was applied in terms of assigning the zodiac signs to rule some parts of the human body. which is to find cures and reasoning behind each diseases. we know that ancient medicine been the anchor or the starting point of the medicine we know today. Although there are similarities and differences to the approach being used. The deceased body used for experimental and study purposes is obtained from sources such as body of those involved in accidents and even those that had volunteered and given consent for their body to be used for study purposes when they die. Another name for El-Zahrawi can not be found from the internet. It is a drug used as a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic receptor (i. however all of these have the same motive. there is in some cases where people do sell their bodies (like in India) to obtain money for their family as they are too poor.
Medicine now as we know was established many centuries ago not only due to the outbreak of diseases or illnesses such as the Black Death but also because of the realisation of the importance of maintaining a healthy physique and mentality. The ‘intellectuals’ such as Hippocrates and Avicenna whom had high curiosity and the desire for more knowledge did some empirical examination and observations on the symptoms of the diseases. modern medicine comes in at the top ranking as the main treatment method nowadays.
. all these had lead to the establishment and advancements of many aspects of science and medicine which all contributes to what the modern medicine is today. X-ray machines have assisted medical officers in treating and aiding the recovery of their patients. Egyptian. These countries have different ways of making and applying medicine for treatment purposes. The modern day equipments like the stethoscope. However. Thus. GreekRomanian. Indian and the European medicine. MRI scanner. Ancient medicines are predominantly based on natural resources such as plants that were used as the main ingredient for the ancient curative medicine. Following the ancient medicine. Modern medicine has shown a lot of improvement as days goes by and have saved many lives. There are many types of medicine including the ancient medicine which are still being practiced this generation and is still improving .Public Health: History of Medicine
Medicine is a very important field as most of our lives are dependent on medicine. some of the practices are of no scientific evidence and are illogical such as the Magic and Instinct medicine. how to overcome and treat the disease that was suffered by their people and in fact.Ancient medicine are composed of many different system that comes from different periods and origins such as the Islamic. killing quite a number of people. Chinese.
. Also. Without the early discoveries and findings we would not have reached the advance level of modern medicine that we have today. Thus it is important for us to have certain realisation and understanding of the importance of the history of medicine and its valuable contribution to the world.Public Health: History of Medicine
Research and treatment based on modern medicine have come a long way in finding the elixirs for the diseases that were untreatable by ancient medicine. diabetes and high blood pressure. Overall. Although there are some obvious differences. Among the illnesses that can be relieved or cured are malaria. cures and treatments are scarce as well as there will also be lack in anatomy knowledge. each epoch has different approaches in treating and dealing with diseases. however all these have significant contribution towards the modern medicine that we know today. many diseases would still be unknown and undiscovered.
com/YinYang.org.php.Yin and Yang in Traditional Chinese Medicine.htm http://inventors.about.roman-medicine.550m.es/historiamedicina/personas/bpics/imhotep.htm Oxford Student’s Dictionary of English (2007).com/od/pstartinventions/a/Penicillin.htm
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.schoolshistory. Oxford FAJAR http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine http://en.jpg (Imhotep picture) http://www.htm http://www.com/history/microsites/H/history/a-b/ancientsurgery1.com/library/inventors/bldental.alexander1.org/wiki/History_of_medicine Materi-Bab 1: Pendahuluan http://en.jpg (Fauchard http://en.channel4.uk/ancientegypt.com/usuarios/universodontologico/home_files/fauchard.html http://www.wikipedia.iqb.com/images/hippocrates.htm http://inventors.about.durbinhypnosis.Public Health: History of Medicine
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http://www.htm Colour Atlas of Pharmacology (Handbook) http://www.jpg (Hippocrates picture) http://www.wikipedia.htm http://www.org/wiki/Astrology http://www.chinesefortunecalendar.