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Rigid pavements as alternative specification for Expressway
SONI PRAGNESH B.
(Roll No. 11) Guide
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT L. D. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AHMEDABAD – 380 015
This is to certify that the seminar entitled “RIGID PAVEMENTS AS ALTERNATIVE submitted by SPECIFICATION FOR EXPRESSWAY” which is Soni Pragnesh B. Roll No.11 for partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the degree of Master of Engineering Sem:II (Civil) in Transportation engineering within four walls of L.D.College of Engineering to Gujarat University, Ahmedabad is a record of work supervision and guidance of Miss.R. N. Shukla.
(Guide) Date: Miss. R. N. Shukla. Lecturer,Civil Engg. Dept. L.D.College of engineering. Ahmedabad – 380 015
Prof. K.M.Shah Head of the Department Civil Engg. Dept. L.D.College of engineering. Ahmedabad – 380 015 2
I take this opportunity to thank Miss.R.N.Shukla. Faculty-Civil Engineering Department, L.D.College of Engineering, Ahmedabad for organizing the concept of seminar presentation and also for his valuable guidance and formation of methodology and compilation of this seminar report.
I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude towards the faculty members of Civil Engineering Department and my colleagues for giving the guidance and support.
Soni Pragnesh B.
M.E. CIVIL (TRANSPORTATION ENGG.) ROLL NO: 11
Report focuses on considerations of rigid pavements for their requirements of expressway such as traffic safety, travel comfort, durability e.t.c.It contains precautions and pre requisites for effective utilization of rigid pavement. Report shows comparison of characteristics of flexible and rigid pavement, construction methods of cement concrete pavement and economics of cement concrete and flexible pavement.
2 3.1 General 1.2 2.4 3 3.3 Pavement choice 2 Consideration of rigid pavement from the point of special requirement of expressway 2.3 2.5 4 Traffic safety Travel comfort Durability Maintenance need General Structural mechanism of cement concrete pavement Special environmental condition for concrete Rigidity of concrete pavement Consideration relevant to structural and functional aspect 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 17 5 9 9 10 Description 2 3 4 5 7 8 Page No.1 3.2 India’s road modernization need 1.3 3.4 3.Contents Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract Content List of figure List of table Chapter No. 1 Introduction 1.1 2. Precautions and pre requisites for effective utilization Comparison of characteristics of flexible and cement concrete pavements for expressway .
2 Construction of Pavement slab Construction of joints 6.2 Life-cycle coats 25 30 35 38 39 40 6 Economics of concrete and flexible pavement 7 8 Conclusion References 6 .5 Construction of cement concrete pavement 5.1 5.1 Comparison of initial cost 6.
List of figure Figure No. 26 33 33 34 34 7 . 1 2 3 4 5 Description Construction method of cement concrete road Expansion joint Warping joint Longitudinal joint Contraction joint Page No.
36 36 37 37 38 8 . 1 2 3 4 5 Description Pavement thickness Cost of materials Formulae for costs of expressway pavements Comparison of initial cost of flexible and rigid pavements for expressway Comparison of life-cycle cost of flexible and rigid pavements for expressway Page No.List of Table Table No.
1 Need of express way system. However the actual operating are never more than 40kmph due to rapid increase in vehicular traffic and carriage way being shared by both slow and fast traffic. Plans are being drown up for expressway. comfort and safety are vital in transport sector. road transport demand rises. 9 .Chapter 1 Introduction General 1. Modernization of India’s road. The present network of arterial road is un able to cope up with even present need for transport. The first national expressway between Ahmedabad and Vadodara has been taken up for construction in India. Invention of wheel was a giant step in the history of mankind. let alone the future demands. The national highway system is designed to cater for traffic with 100 km speed. The appropriate solution lies in construction of expressway with control of access and allowing only fast moving vehicles. is long overdue. Then onward the man applied all his resources to move these wheels faster and faster. Now a days speed.2 India’s road modernization need As India’s economy growing fast. 1. and particularly the construction of a system of super fast expressways.
great care is needed in selecting right type of pavement and specification for the various courses that make up the pavement. the pavement structure has to receive careful consideration in design and choice of materials forming the pavement. including routine repairs. especially if the facility is toll based. whether flexible or cement concrete. Hence. therefore. a matter that should not be lost sight of is the cost of maintaining the pavement. Maintenance operations in expressway routes can cause considerable in convenience and annoyance to users. In expressway schemes. An entrepreneur who invests money on a toll based expressway would prefer to minimize his involvement with maintenance operation to the barest level.3 Pavement choice Expressways are costly to build and maintain. The choice of pavement type. Because of a substantial volume of commercial vehicles likely to use facility. periodic renewals and overlays.1. 10 . Pavement costs constitute a significant proportion of total cost of highway facility. has to be very carefully exercised.
though it calls for attention to number of factors. drainability against hydroplaning. 2.2 Travel comfort Travel comfort is governed by level of surface evenness of the pavement which governs its riding quality. they retain their profile by virtue of their inherent rigidity.Chapter 2 Consideration of rigid pavement from the point of special requirement of expressway 2. Restoration of lost texture /retexturing however calls for special technology and can be quite costly. 11 .1 Traffic safety Pavement associated traffic safety factors include skid resistance. Subject to adoption of appropriate precautions during construction to ensure wear resistance. not difficult to ensure. as surface texturing forms integral part of the normal construction practice for such pavements. The concrete pavement can provide a very even surface with manual finishing operations. hydroplaning not being the governing consideration. They also have superior night visibility by virtue of their lighter colour. Cement concrete pavement has distinct initial advantage over bitumen pavement in this regard. Having high shear resistance. and night visibility. it a possible to design the concrete mix for adequate skid resistance even after the loss of textured surface finish. are not prone to shoving or potholing associated with flexible pavements. Ensuring good initial surface profile and proper construction and maintenance joints need particular attention in this regard. within stipulated tolerance of 3 mm under a 3 m straight edge. Durable surface texture with long life . subject to availability of appropriate quality material. and provide a fairly constant riding quality over long periods. In area of low rainfall intensity.
3 Durability Poorly designed and constructed concrete pavements are known to have very long service life. Adequate design and good construction practice with needed quality control can together provide durable concrete pavements with long service life and needed levels of traffic safety and travel comfort. Use of superior synthetic joint seal could substantially cut down the frequency and extent of needed periodic resealing. The cement concrete road constructed in the country in the past. The thinner once among these ultimately succumbed as much under bitumen repair technology which is not appropriate to them.4 Maintenance need The routine maintenance needs of concrete pavements are limited to ensuring a good joint seal. as under heavy traffic. For any local defects or inadequacies developing over long use. have an excellent service track. 12 . having given good service under condition much sever than those for which they are originally intended. concrete pavements also have the potential advantage of practically no disturbance or dislocation to traffic for attending to related operations. though extremely limited in length. appropriate and expeditious technologies are available. With some maintenance and repair needs. 2. which can be utilized effectively in preference to bituminous repairs.2.
resulting in lower strength and fatigue resistance. (b) Special environmental conditions of paving concrete. small. Under increasing or repetitive loading. only minimally essential water for ensuring full compaction of concrete should be used. Full of saturation concrete during the 28 days curing period is also imperative. 13 . resulting in fracture and failure.2 Structural mechanism of concrete and concrete pavements Cement concrete develops very fine. subsequent immersion dose not result in penetration of water therein.Chapter 3 Precautions and pre requisites for effective utilization of rigid pavement for expressways 3. as capillary pores in concrete with low water cement ratio are not continuous. (a) The structural mechanism of concrete and concrete pavements. discontinuous micro-cracks in initial stages due to hydrothermal changes. and if once dried.1 General The special requirements for effective utilization of rigid pavement are emanate from following factors. (c) The rigidity of concrete pavements. To minimize them inherent micro-cracking. 3. the micro-cracks tend to extend and join.
due to different espouser conditions of its two faces. While such stability is a great asset in case of pavements constructed to correct profile. Such condition lead to higher susceptibility to shrinkage. very important. it can become a serious liability in the correction of a substandard surface.3 Special environmental conditions of paving concrete. 14 . the methods available for the purpose not being simple. with the lower face being in contact with the ground. calling for adoption of minimum feasible water and cement compatible with the required strength and its realization.3. as also for due attention to curing to obviate early shrinkage cracking. expeditious or economical. era exposed to atmosphere on one face. weather through appropriate mechanization or strict supervision and control of manual surface finishing operations. therefore. Concrete pavements have a large surface to volume ratio. 3. considerable reduce the concrete strength available for supporting the traffic load and catering to their fatigue effects. calling for high strength concrete. Emphasis on quality assurance initially is.4 Rigidity of concrete pavement The rigidity inherent in concrete as a structural material enables concrete pavements to maintain an excellent functional stability over long period in terms of their surface profile. The temperature differential and the resultant warping resistant stresses to which concrete pavements are subject.
5. the materials – particularly the aggregate would be so selected as to ensure adequate skid resistance even after the initial texture wears off. does not adequately their structural response and is not the appropriate criteria for their design. It should not have the requisites flexural strength.5. but should also provide needed wear resistance and skid resistance.2 Concrete mix design Concrete mix design for expressway should based on both the structural and functional requirements of such pavements.5. The concept of equivalent standard axel loads (ESALs). 3. particularly aggregates. transit mixtures. with the more wear and skid resistant mix design adopted for upper layer.1 Pavement design While concrete pavement makes more efficient use of constructional material. highly mechanized construction technology would need to be adopted.5 Considerations relevant to structural and functional aspect of rigid pavements 3. they are much more sensitive to overloading in terms of damage to the pavement structural strength. Where such materials are not readily available. two layer bonded construction may be considered. and paving and finishing trains can obviate much of the variability 15 . 3.3Quality control of construction For expeditious construction of substantial lengths of express way. as compared to bituminous pavement. which is based on functional criteria. While kid resistance of new pavement would mainly depend upon the texturing of the surface. Central mixing and batching plant.3.
16 .associated with manual or semi-mechanized construction. and software and the export systems for analysis and interpretation of the data and arriving at the needed adjustments /corrective action should form an integral part of such quality control system. For surfacing or over laying of sound concrete pavements to improve their riding quality or enhance their structural strength. and the strength and workability of concrete would need to be ensured. cement concrete need very little routine maintenance.5. Any joint spalls or contraction cracks are best maintained using resin repair technology. expeditiously introducing any modification to the mix design by the test check. Computerization of the quality control data. 3. How ever constant check on the supplies of fresh material. bonded concrete technology is available.4 Maintenance and rehabilitation As indicated earlier. provided it is feasible to close the lane under such renovation to traffic for the requisite construction period including curing. while confined practically renewal of the joint seal.
5) It should provide a reasonably hard wearing surface. the pavement should have many desirable characteristics. These are: 1) The pavement should have a long life.Chapter 4 Comparison of characteristics of flexible and cement concrete pavements for expressway (a) Desirable Properties of a good Pavement A highway pavement is designed to support wheel loads imposed on it from traffic moving over it. 6) Its riding quality should be good. It should be smooth enough to provide comfort to the road users at the high speeds at which modern vehicles are driven. Additional stresses are also imposed by changes in the environment. 2) During its design life. 11) The pavement should conserve the nature’s resources. without suffering excessive deformations and rutting. 7) The energy consumption should be low. 12) Maintenance cost of pavement should be low. 9) The surface should be impervious so that water does not get into lower layer of the pavement and the subgrade and cause deterioration. 8) The surface of the pavement should have a skidding resistance texture. 3) The pavement should be structurally sound to withstand the stresses imposed on it. 17 . so that the abrading action of wheels (pneumatic and irontyred) does not damage surface. For satisfactorily performing these functions. 4) It should be sufficiently thick to distribute the loads and stresses to a safe value on the subgrade soil. 10) The pavement should have good reflectivity properties. it should perform satisfactorily. the use of binder should not involve drain of foreign exchange.
the two pavement types will be assessed against each of the above desired characteristics. They are really.13) The initial cost the pavement should not be excessively high. 18 . For a super fast facility. if ever. 15) The pavement should permit easy repairs to utilize that may be laid underneath it. (c) Performance during design life As a loads pass over a flexible pavement. (b) Life of pavement It is well known that an adequately designed and constructed cement concrete pavement has a life of 30-40 years. In the succeeding paragraphs. an assured long life is a greater advantage. as it saves the discomfort to traffic during periodic renewals and rehabilitation. its behavior is perfectly elastic. making the design precise. it deflects. after the design life. the pavement suffering a permanent deflection each time a load goes over it. flexible pavements need to be rehabilitated and strengthen substantially. 14) The analyses of stresses and strain in a pavement should be simple and wellunderstood. and the recovery is not full. When the pavement is new. 17) Technology of construction must be available in the country. Thus. Even the thin concrete slabs constructed by manual means years ago in India have given 30-40 years of satisfactory life. The life-cycle-cost of the pavement should be low. Against this. flexible pavements have a much shorter life. and the recovery of the deflection is perfectly elastic. lose their elastic properties over bay period of time and tend to disintegrate. This is proved from experiences abroad. This is because the various layer of the pavement suffer densification under traffic. returning back to its original position after the passage of the load. 16) The pavement should not be affected by occasional spillage of petroleum products. designed for a life greater than 20 years.
(e) Adequacy for load Distribution: Though each of the two types of pavements act in a different way their thickness are so adjusted that the loads get distributed to a safe value on the sub grade soil. Concrete is a much superior material than bituminous surface in this regard. No superiority can be claimed for a particular pavement type on this score. The rate of deterioration is governed by the volume and nature of traffic and the initial quality of construction it self. in the case of a concert e pavement. The cumulative effect of this phenomenon results in rutting and cracking in the wheel-paths. particularly on curves.The cumulative effect of this time a load goes over it. deterioration is hardly perceptible and one can expect a consistently uniform performance through out its life. It can well be said that the –deterioration of the flexible pavement starts right away with its being thrown open to traffic. (f) Hard wearing surface Wearing surfaces of pavements are subjected to hard abrading action of wheels. A smooth surface ensures rider comfort. are able to withstand the stresses imposed on them. (d) Structural soundness Well designed pavements. particularly. (g)Riding quality A good riding quality is a prime requirement of roads surfaces from various considerations. at high speeds. But. and junctions. whether flexible or rigid. The flexible pavement has only to have a much higher thickness than the concrete pavement to accomplish this task. 19 . causing deterioration in the performance of the pavement. Severe abrasion takes place.
But. one can expect the same surface smoothness to continue over its life. In quantitative terms. Consequently.A. When a deflection bowl is caused. constructed to modern specifications provide a smooth riding quality when constructed. a road surface that leads to energy saving must get precedence. the roughness increases on a bitumen surface and rutting cased by densification of the layer forming the pavement. with in a short period of 2 – 5 year. fuel consumption being one of the components of these costs. it has been shown that a concrete pavement pays for it self through full saving alone in a short period of seven years. Secondly. When India is reeling under fuel crisis. the wheel has to climb over the depression. absorbing energy losses in the process. a bituminous surface deteriorates in riding quality as traffic moves over it. On a concrete road. Firstly. It has been found from a recent study in U.Vehicle operating costs are low on smooth roads. 20 . roughness values can reach vales as high as 5000 mm / km. both pavements types when initially constructed can have a roughness value of around 2000 mm / km as measured with a bump integrator. the consistently smooth surface of a concrete road gives a fuel economy of up to 5%. this single factor should lead to a decision that all future Expressway pavements should be in concrete. Concrete surface results in less fuel consumption than bitumen surface in two ways. In contrast. that a saving in fuel up to 20% is possible by adopting concrete roads in place of flexible pavements. Concrete roads and bituminous surfaces. The effect is that riding comfort suffers and vehicle operating cost increase on a flexible pavement (h) Energy conservation Under the prevailing world wide concern for energy conservation.S. concrete surfaces are rigid and do not deflect to bowl shapes as a flexible does under a heavy load. whereas a concrete pavement maintains its initial quality throughout its life. Using these study results. necessitating the provision of a light bitumen treatment to restore original riding quality.
Concrete pavements. 21 . enjoy imperviousness to water – a property highly valuable in regions of heavily rainfall and flood-prone locations. Tripura. On the other hand. moorum and sand. In concrete pavements. cracks and potholes allow water to penetrate into the lower layers and the subgrade. Mizoram etc. (j) Reflectivity properties Being light colored. ingress of water through them can also be prevented. The voids in the mixture. Restoring the texture can then be achieved by grooving or acid etching. yet there are regions where stone materials are very scarce (e. concrete offers good reflectivity property so that night driving becomes safer.(i) skid-resistance In a bituminous surface. Gangetic plains. A carefully constructed concrete pavement can retain its texture for many years. water can not penetrate through a cement concrete pavement. The same cannot be said in respect of bituminous surfaces. loss of skid-resistance can be overcome by providing a surface treatment of suitable properties. (j)Imperviousness to water Because of its dense mass. bituminous surfaces are dark colored and do not reflect the vehicle light or street light adequately. reckless use of these materials should be avoided.) even where stone aggregates are available in abundance. If joints are well sealed. (l) Conservation of nature’s resources Road construction consumes nature’s resources in large quantities. the original texture can get smoothened by traffic causing slipperiness.g. therefore. Though India has good reserves of stone. gravel.
Indian crude lack in bitumen content. 20.000 per km of two lane road. a strengthening layer might also be needed. necessitating constant maintenance effort. Deterioration sets in the moment the road is opened to traffic. a pavement type which consumes the least quantity of stone materials should get preference. The world wide Indian crude is becoming more and more difficult as the reserves get depleted. The routine maintenance like patch repairs and surface renewal can cost up to Rs. the implications of reduced maintenance in terms of cost and reduced delay to traffic with a concrete road option are not inconsiderable. cement is produced from limestone of which the country has good deposits. Besides. Whereas cement is a fully indigenous product. As the riding quality becomes unbearable for the traffic and as the vehicle operating costs mount. (m) Availability of binder Bitumen and cement are the principal blinders for highway construction. causing. rutting. much of which. 2000 per km. bitumen is derived from petroleum. when there is a choice. cracking. raveling and potholing. Perhaps at the end of 10 years. (n) Maintenance cost It has been mentioned earlier that flexible pavements suffer deformations under traffic. On the other hand. imported by India. and there can not be a better beginning than the expressway system. it is timely for an intervention with a surface renewal course. This is a good opportunity for introducing cement concrete roads in the country. The cement industry in India has now modernized itself and there is a surplus of cement production even at less than 80 per cent capacity utilization. As against this. 22 . virtually no maintenance is needed for a cement concrete pavement. The little attention at joints costs as little as around Rs.Thus.
In expressway. water pipes and sewers are laid underneath the road pavement. and certainly not on expressways. Any repairs to or remodeling of these involves cutting open the road pavement. (q) Repairs of utilities Many utility services like telephone cables. a little bit of planning can easily get over this problem. Thus. The characterization of various materials in a flexible pavement difficult. either by laying ducts to accommodate the utilities or by clustering the utilities at one place across the road where a flexible width can be laid. 23 . This is easily done in a flexible pavement. the design of flexible pavement is still largely based on empirical methods. electricity cables. concrete is a material whose properties are well understood. But this is an advantage which can be availed of only on lower category road. but is difficult in concrete roads. (r) Spillage of petroleum products Concrete is unaffected by spillage of petroleum products.(o) Initial cost Flexible pavements can be constructed in stage. (p) Design precision Though recent advances in pavement design have rendered the analysis of stresses and strains in pavements very precise. the dripping of oil from vehicles can cause disintegration of bituminous surfaces easily. but bituminous surfaces are. On the other hand. On expressways the full requirement of pavement needs to be provided at the start it self. making it easy to analyse the stresses and strains accurately.
a high level of technology is a must.(s) Construction technology To make good pavements for expressways. more modern concrete paving equipment can also be introduced in the country. It is a good coincidence that concrete paving equipment too is being manufactured in India to meet the needs of concrete road construction. Equipment needed for bituminous construction is by and large being manufactured in India. Production of high strength concrete is a well-known process in India and there should be no difficulty to take up concreting jobs for road construction. 24 .
To provide proper fluidity to grout. cement.5.5 to 1:2. The loose thickness of concrete is 20% more than the compacted or finished thickness. The grout made of course sand. Cement grouted layer In cement grouted layer open graded aggregate mix with minimum size of aggregate as 18 to 25 mm is laid on the prepared subgrade and the aggregate are dry rolled. The grout is applied on the surface and is allowed to seep through the aggregate matrix. wetting agent is added to the mix. Rolled concrete layer: In rolled concrete layer.1Construction of Pavement slab Various specifications for construction of cement concrete pavement are listed below. The rolling operation is completed before the final setting of cement. 2.Chapter 5 Construction of cement concrete pavement 5. cement and water is prepared and laid on prepared subgrade and sub base course. sand. 1 1 2 Cement grouted layer Rolled concrete layer Cement concrete slab 1. Lean mix of aggregate. The loose thickness is compacted to provide 80% of rolled thickness. Tandem roller is recommended. The proportion of cement to sand is taken as 1:1. 25 . The rolling is done similar to WBM construction. Curing is done as per conventional method. water is prepared. lean mix concrete is used.
y. As shown in fig. z etc. (2) During rain. Alternate bay method II. The construction of joints is easier.3.z ‘etc. This increase the construction cost and reduces the smooth riding quality of surface. fig. Continuous bay method Alternate bay construction method of construction means constructing bay or one slab in alternation succession leaving the next or intermediate bay to follow up after a gap of one week or so. Cement concrete slab: There are two modes of construction of cement concrete slab I. But it has many drawbacks as follows: (1) Large number of transverse joint is to be provided. This technique provides additional working convenience for laying of slabs. leaving the gaps of bay x ’. in alternate bay construction the slabs constructed are in sequence of x. 26 . y ‘ . the surface water collected on the subgrade between the finished bays.1 Construction method of cement concrete road.
The forms are jointed neatly and are set with exactness to the required grade and alignment. In such a case. the maximum deviation of top surface of any section from a straight line is not exceeding by 3 mm.(3) The construction is spread over full width of road and traffic has to be completely diverted. Wooden frames are dressed on side. 2. it should be saturated with water for 6 to 20 hours in advance of placing concrete.e x’. The sub grade or sub base is kept in moist condition at the time when the cement concrete is placed. that no soft spots are present in the sub grade or sub base.. In continuous bay method all the slab or bay are laid in sequence . The section has a length of at lest 3 m except on curves less then 45. that the uniformly compacted sub grade or sub base extends at least 30cm on either side of the width to be concreted. Sufficient rigidity is obtained to support the form in such a position during the entire 27 .i.S channel sections and their depth is equal to the thickness of pavements. Preparation of sub grade and sub-base The sub grade or sub base for laying of concrete slab should comply with the following requirements. these have minimum base width of 10 cm pf slab thickness of 20 cm and a minimum base width of 15 cm for slab over 20 cm thick. where shorter section is used. Water proof paper may also be placed whenever the cement concrete is laid directly over the soil sub grade. the moistening of the sub grade prior to placing of the concrete is not required. that the sub grade is properly drained. The sub grade is prepared and checked at least two days in advance of concreting. Placing of forms The steel or wooden forms are used for the purpose. The steel forms are of M. that the minimum modulus of sub grade reaction obtained with a plate bearing test is 5. When set to grade.0 m radius.z’. If necessary.54 kg/cm2. CONSTRUCTION STEPS FOR CEMENT CONCRETE PAVMENT SLAB 1.y.
The mixing of each batch is commenced within one and half minute after all the materials are placed in mixture. is struck off uniformly and screeded to the crown and cross section of the pavement to conform the grade. Care is taken to see that no segregation of materials results while the concrete is being transported from mixture to its placement. All batching of material is done on the basis of one or more whole bag of cement. Transportation and placing of concrete The cement concrete is mixed in quantities required for immediate use and is deposited in soil sub grade or sub base to required depth and width of the pavement section within the frame work in continuous operation. 5. The mixing of cement concrete is done in batch mixer which will ensure a uniform distribution of materials through out the mass.hand consolidation and finishing may be adopted: (a) Concrete. the fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are proportioned by weight in a weigh-batching plant and placed in to the hopper along with the necessary quantity of cement. The water for mixing is introduced in to the drum within the first 15 second of mixing. Compaction and finishing The surface of pavement is compacted either by means of a power driven finishing machine or by a vibrating hand screed. 28 . A certain amount of re distribution is done with shovels. Cement is measured by the bag. so the mix is uniform in color and is homogenous. The batch of cement. 3. 4. The spread is done uniformly.t. as soon as placed. the weight of one bag is taken as 50 kg or the unit weight of cement is taken as 1440 kg/m3.c. For areas where the width of slab is very small as at the corner of road junctions e. Needle vibrator is employed in lieu of Roding splicing of the concrete. fine aggregate and coarse aggregate is lead together in to the mixture. Batching of material and mixing After determining proportions of ingredients for the field mix.operation of compacting and finishing that they do not deviate more then 3mm from a straight edge 3 m in length.
Before concrete develop initial set. the surface of the pavement is entirely covered with burlap. Belting. Brooming is done perpendicular to the centre line of pavement. Liquid is applied under pressure with a spray 29 . the slab surface is tested for its grade and level with the straight edge. The longitudinal float is held in a position parallel to carriageway center line and passed gradually from one side of pavement to the other. Final curing. curing of cement concrete The entire pavement of the newly laid cement concrete is cured in accordance with the following method: Initial curing. cotton or jute mats. The short strokes are applied transversely to the carriage way. use of an impervious membrane which does not impart a slippery surface to the pavement is used. the pavement is given a broom finish with fiber broom brush. brooming and edging Just before the concrete become hard. Floating and straight edging The concrete is further compacted by means of the longitudinal float. Impervious membrane method. After belting. the edge of the slab are carefully finished with an edging tool. 6. After the longitudinal floating is done and excess water gets disappeared. Prior or being placed. the final curing is done with the any one of the following method: Curing with wet soil exposed edges of the slab are banked with a soil free from stone is placed.(b) The tamper is placed on the side form and is drawn ahead in combination with a series of lifts and drops to compact the concrete. they are thoroughly saturated with water and are placed with the wet side down to remain in intimate contact with the surface. The broom is pulled gently over the surface of the pavement transversely from edge to edge. The soil is thoroughly kept saturated with water for 14 days. the surface is belted wit a two ply canvas belt.
When the concrete attains the required strength or after 28 days of curing the concrete road is open to traffic. Warping joints 4. Expansion joints 2. it is bound to crack can only be built if it is divided into mall slab by interposing joints. If a long slab is built. They are: 1. The joint must permit movement of the stabs without restraint. 2. it is appropriate to outline the general requirement of all types of joints. It hardens with 30 minutes after the surface finishing. Types of joints: Joints concrete slab are of four types 1. These joints will then ensure that the stresses developed due to expansion. shrinkage during setting and changes in moistures content. Longitudinal joints Requirements of joints: Before the detailed description of each type of joint is given.2 Construction of joints Design of joints Need for joints Concrete pavements are subjected to volumetric changes produced by temperature variation. Construction joints 5.nozzle to cover the entire surface with a uniform film. contraction and warping of the slab are with in reasonable limits. The joints should not unduly weaken the slab structurally and the load should be transferred from slab to anther effectively. Contraction joints 3. (Source: 5) 5. 30 .
Warping joints Warping joints. Contraction joints When the temperature of concrete falls below the laying temperature the slab contracts. also known as hinge joints. Expansion joints also relive stresses caused by contraction and warping. They permit hinge action but no appreciable separation of adjacent slabs. are intended to provide space in the pavement for expansion of the slabs. 4. 1. grit and other external matter. It is normally a transverse joint. If joints are provided at suitable intervals transversely. The riding quality of the pavement should not be impaired. are joints which are intended to relieve warping stresses. 3. The joints must be sealed to exclude water. the contraction induces tensile stresses and the slab cracks. A major difference between the warping joints and the expansion or contraction joints is that in the former appreciable changes in the joints width are prevented. Contraction joist also relieve warping stresses to some extent. Expansion joints: Expansion joints. If a long length of slab is laid.3. the appearance of cracks at places other than the joints can be eliminated. 5. The construction of the joints must interfere as little at possible with lying of the concrete. Expansion joints are omitted altogether in modern practice 2. 31 . as the name itself signifies. Warping joints can be longitudinal or transverse. Expansion takes place when the temperature of the slab rises above the value when it was laid.
(2) thickness of slab and (3) amount of reinforcement provided. These joints allow for warping and uneven settlement of the sub grade. it is necessary to provide a longitudinal joint and construct the pavement in strips. Spacing of joints: The spacing of joints is governed by a number of factors such as (1) temperature variation. A groove in the joints with a sealing compound will arrest the entry of foreign matter and desirable. The very purpose of the longitudinal joints being warping stresses and uneven settlements.4. The reinforcement should be continued across the joint. The remaining joints are made contraction joints. The usual practice in respect of reinforced cement concrete slabs is to space joints at 7. Construction joint A construction joint becomes necessary when work has to be stopped at a point where there would be otherwise no other joint. it is very necessary to provided for some form of load transferring device. It is advisable to plan a day’s work such that the work stops at a contraction or expansion joints. Longitudinal joints When the pavement width is more than. 32 . say 5 m. 5. Such joints should be regular in shape. by placing a cross-form in position.5-25 m and to make every third or fourth joint an expansion joints.
2 Expansion joint Fig . 3 Tongue and groove Warping joint 33 .Fig .
4 Butt type longitudinal joint with tie bar Fig .Fig . 5 Dummy contraction joint 34 .
The rates of other material are as per current market values. It is seen that: (1) when stone material are costly.1 Comparison of initial cost Various studies have been made in India comparing the initial cost of flexible and rigid pavements. A fresh review is needed because the cost of material and the other input undergone changes. 35 . The computations of cost have yielded very useful formulae which can readily give the cost of the two pavement types for expressways. Table 3 gives a summary of the costs. the cost of materials considered as given in table 1. rigid pavements are costlier than flexible pavements. For the purpose of comparison. An economy of Rs 2 – 15lakhs per km is possible. These are given in table 2. depending upon the soil conditions. Table 1 gives summery of pavement thickness. rigid pavements are invariably cheaper except for CBR of 7 in case 3. case 3 and case 4. cement and bitumen affect the cost of pavement. Since stone material costs very widely across the country four cases have been considered.Chapter 6 Economics of concrete and flexible pavement 6. with approximate usage charges with suitable increase to account for current costs. particularly cost of stone aggregates. (2) When the soil condition are poor (CBR 2). Material costs. Modern equipment has been assumed. rigid pavement emerges as the cheaper alternative through out the country(except case 1) (3) When the aggregate are cheap (case 1) and the soil condition are good (CBR 5 and 7).
4 lanes ) 36 .Table 1: Pavement thickness Flexible pavement thickness in (mm) Sub-base Macadam base Wet mix 250 250 250 Dense Bituminous Macadam 120 120 120 Aspheltic Concrete 40 40 40 Total CBR:2 CBR:5 CBR:7 690 410 330 1100 820 740 Rigid Pavement (For all CBR values) Thickness (mm) Sub base of Lean concrete Pavement in M-40 concrete 100 300 Table: 2 Cost of materials Material Gravel (cost per cum) Sand (cost per cum) Stone aggregates 40 mm Stone aggregate 20 mm Stone aggregate 10 mm Stone dust 10 mm down Cement (Rs per bag) Bitumen (Rs per tonne ) Steel (Rs per tonne) Lime ( Rs per tonne) (source:3.4) Case1 Rs 100 Rs 100 Rs 150 Rs 175 Rs 200 Rs 100 Rs 85 Rs 3000 Rs 12000 Rs 500 Case2 Rs 125 Rs 125 Rs 175 Rs 200 Rs 225 Rs 125 Case3 Rs 150 Rs 150 Rs 200 Rs 225 Rs 250 Rs 150 Case4 Rs 175 Rs 175 Rs 225 Rs 250 Rs 275 Rs 175 Table: 3 Formulae for costs of expressway pavements (Rs per km.
2 5.2 L + 16.7 5. 4 lanes) Pavement type Aggregate Cost: Case1 CBR: 2 Case2 Case3 Case4 Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid 5.2 4.2 5.774C + 1809ST + 5. At the end of 20 years.4 B + 67.2 5.8 5.2 S4 + 3095 S5 + 265.2 5.219 Table: 4 Comparison of initial cost of flexible and rigid pavements for expressway (Rs per km.8 S3 + 3819.4 S1 + 2686. a substantial overlay is needed this may be of order of 120mm DBM and 40 mm AC .6 S2 + 2095.8 S3 + 3819.2 S4 + 6472 S5 + 265. They also need some renewal course (at least 25 mm thick aspheltic concrete) at every 10 th years.4 G + 379.6 S2 + 2095.53. Flexible pavement needs periodic maintenance of much higher order than concrete pavements.2 L + 15.2 CBR: 7 4.540 Cost = 5740 G + 379.2 L + 15. considering these additional costs. which is the design life of flexible pavement.1 5.8 S3 + 3819.2 6.4 5.2 S4 + 5740 S5 + 265.4 5.Flexible Pavement CBR:2 CBR:5 CBR:7 Rigid pavement All CBR values Cost = 6472 G + 379.2 5.4 S1 + 2686.3 5.4 S1 + 2686.2 6.9 5.4 5.1 5.2 Life-cycle costs: Lifecycle costs of pavements are a better yardstick to judge the suitability of pavements the initial cost alone.4 B + 67. and discounting them to their 37 .7 5.460 Cost = 3095.2 6.2 6.08.2 CBR: 5 4.2 184.108.40.206 B + 67.580 Cost = 2660 S1 + 1932 S2 + 460 S3 + 896 S4 + 1890 S5 + 39.9 5.6 S2 + 2095.
1 5.4) 5.2 7. long service life and very little maintenance needs.2 5.9 5. The conclusion from life cycle cost analysis is that concrete rods will able to bring about considerable saving over the design period for all cost of aggregates and all soil conditions Added to the above savings are the savings in fuel.2 6. Table: 5 Comparison of life-cycle cost of flexible and rigid pavements for expressway (Rs per km.2 CBR: 5 5.2 6.2 7.9 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.6 5.present value at a discount rate of 12 percent. Adequately design and properly constructed concrete pavement have good functional stability. which are also of a very high order. The maintenance costs are assumed as Rs 40.2 6. The special requirement viz.2 5.1 5.2 5. environmental mechanism of paving 38 .2 6.4 5.0 5. structural mechanism of concrete.2 6. the life cycle costs for period of 40 years and at present value for the two pavements are given in table.000 per Km for bituminous pavements and Rs 4000 per Km for concrete pavements.2 Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 Chapter 7 Conclusion Cement concrete have number of advantages over flexible pavement for adoption on expressways.8 5.2 CBR: 7 5. 4 lanes) Pavement type Aggregate Cost: CBR: 2 Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid (source:3.
Publications. 1989. (2) “Road user cost study in India. “Principles and practice of a highway engineering” Khanna Tech. New Delhi. New Delhi 1982. When whole life-cycle costs are considered. they give fuel economy.” central road research institute.concrete and rigidity of paving concrete needs to be adequately meet to realize the full service potential of concrete pavement for expressways. As an added benefit. Delhi.” cement manufacturers’ association. As regards cost. References (1) Kadiyali L. concrete pavements enjoy many advantages and can be a good specification for India’s Expressway programme. their cost advantages is very attractive. 39 . final report. 1988. R. (3) “Modernisation of India’s road through cement concrete pavement. Hence. they compare very favorably with bituminous pavements even in initial cost.
E. “Economics of concrete roads..Khanna and C.M. Indian concrete journal”.and Kadiyali. Bombay.Justo Nem chand Publication 2000. 1989. L.G. 40 . S. (5) “Highway engineering” by S.K.R.(4) Chakravarty.
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