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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering

AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Forces and Moments Acting on an A/C

Airfoil
The shape of an aerodynamic force generating surface (such as wing, propeller blade, A/C control surface,
sail, etc.) as seen in cross-section obtained by intersecting the wing with a perpendicular plane.

Upper surface (suction side)

𝛼
Lower surface (pressure side)
𝑉∞

Chord line: a straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil.
Mean camber line: a line drawn midway between the upper and lower surfaces.
Note: For a symmetric airfoil the chord and mean camber lines coincide.
Chord: length of the chord line, denoted by 𝑐.
Camber: the distance between the mean camber line and chord line, usually represented as a percentage
of the chord.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Thickness: the distance between the upper and lower surfaces, usually represented as a percentage of the
chord.
𝑽∞ : speed of the oncoming flow (if there is no wind, it is the same as the speed of the A/C, but in the
opposite direction).
Angle of attack: the angle between the chord line and the oncoming flow, represented by 𝛼. Positive if the
flow is below the chord.

NACA Airfoils
Airfoils developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) of USA. In 1958 NACA was
replaced by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).
The shape of the NACA airfoils is described using a series of digits. The parameters in the numerical code
can be entered into equations to precisely generate the cross-section of the airfoil.

Four-digit series
NACA xxxx
1. First digit describes the maximum camber as percentage of the chord.
2. Second digit describes the distance of maximum camber from the airfoil leading edge in tens of
percents of the chord.
3. The last two digits describe the maximum thickness of the airfoil as percent of the chord.
Example:
The NACA 2412 airfoil has a maximum camber of 0.02𝑐 located at 0.4𝑐 from the leading edge with a
maximum thickness of 0.12𝑐.
The NACA 0015 airfoil is symmetrical, the 00 indicating that it has no camber. The 15 indicates that the
airfoil has a maximum thickness of 0.15𝑐.

Aerodynamic Forces
Aerodynamic forces are created by the pressure distributions over the bodies. Every part of an A/C
exposed to air is under pressure and hence contributes to aerodynamic forces. This is why the landing
gears are extracted during flight, and nacelles and pylons are used to make various components
aerodynamically efficient.

Forces on an airfoil

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

The net effect of the distributed pressure can be exactly represented by a single concentrated force 𝑅. The
resultant force 𝑅 (its magnitude, direction, and the point where it applies on the chord, i.e., center of
pressure (c.p.)) depends on various factors, including 𝑉∞ , 𝛼, 𝑐, and camber and thickness distribution. The
component of 𝑅 in the direction of the flow is called drag (𝐷) and the component perpendicular to flow is
called lift (𝐿).
If we place an axis perpendicular to the airfoil that passes through the c.p. there will be no moment about
the axis. Therefore c.p. may also be defined as the point on the chord about which the moment is zero.
From the principles of statics 𝑅 can be shifted to any arbitrary point, together with the moment about that
point.

Similarly there is a single resultant force vector 𝑅 for the wing, and another the entire A/C. The c.p. for the
A/C is different than the c.p. of the airfoil.

Symmetric airfoils (no camber)

For 𝛼 = 0 the flow is symmetric and hence 𝐿 = 0.


Stramline: The path of a fluid particle in steady flow. Visible particles (smoke) are injected into flow to
make streamlines visible in wind tunnel tests.
For lift to be created nonzero 𝛼 is required.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

For 𝛼 > 0, 𝐿 > 0 and for 𝛼 < 0, 𝐿 < 0.


Flow turning at trailing edge is very important. Fluid particles change direction (accelerate downwards) as
they pass along the airfoil. The wing applies a force on air particles to accelerate them downwards. By the
action-reaction principle (Newton’s 3rd law of motion) flow particles apply the same force back on the wing
in the opposite direction. This creates lift and drag.
This is how control surfaces work. Flow turning (and hence lift force) is controlled by controlling the
deflection angle of the control surfaces at the trailing edge.
Note: For thin symmetric airfoils center of pressure lies close to 25% of the chord behind the leading edge.
This is called the quarter-chord point. As 𝛼 is increased, 𝑅 grows in magnitude, but center of pressures
does not move.

Cambered airfoils

With the help of camber, flow turning at trailing edge (and hence positive𝐿) is obtained even at 𝛼 = 0.
Unlike symmetric airfoils, c.p. for cambered airfoils move with 𝛼.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Aerodynamic Center
The point on the airfoil about which moments do not vary with 𝛼.
It has been found both experimentally and theoretically that on most low speed airfoils the a.c. is very close
to the c/4 point.
For symmetric airfoils both the c.p. and a.c. are fixed at c/4.
For cambered airfoils c.p. moves with 𝛼, but a.c. is fixed at c/4.

𝑅3 < 𝑅2 < 𝑅1

Aerodynamic Coefficients
𝑅 (𝐿 and 𝐷) Changes with Relation
Density (𝜌∞ , kg/m3 ) Linear
Wing size (planform area) (𝑆, m2 ) Linear
Air speed (𝑉∞ , m/s) Quadratic
Angle of attack (𝛼, rad) Nonlinear (linear for low 𝛼)
Airfoil shape (camber, thickness) Nonlinear
Wing shape (aspect ratio, taper, etc.) Nonlinear
Viscosity and compressibility effects Nonlinear
Based on the above, aerodynamic forces and moments are written as
1
𝐿 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐿
2
𝑞∞

1
𝐷 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐷
2
𝑞∞

1
𝑀 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝑐𝐶𝑀
2
𝑞∞

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

The effects of all the complex nonlinear dependencies are collected in nondimensional coefficients
𝐶𝐿 = 𝐶𝐿 𝛼, 𝑡𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟, 𝑀∞ , 𝑅𝑒 , 𝐶𝐷 , 𝐶𝑀 , ….
𝐿
𝐶𝐿 =
𝑞∞ 𝑆
𝐷
𝐶𝐷 =
𝑞∞ 𝑆
𝑀
𝐶𝑀 =
𝑞∞ 𝑆𝑐
The aerodynamic coefficients are usually determined experimentally and then used to predict forces and
moments.
Viscosity: describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction.
Accounted for using a dimensionless number called the Reynolds number (Re).
Reynolds number (Re): is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to
viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given
flow conditions.
𝜌∞ 𝑉∞ 𝑐
Re =
𝜇
𝜇: coefficient of dynamic viscosity, a property of fluid.

Typical Reynolds Numbers:


Full scale airliner above 10 000 000
Light aircraft above 1 000 000
Large model aircraft less than 400 000
Typical model aircraft less than 200 000
Indoors and slow flyers less than 30 000

Compressibility: is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid as a response to a pressure change.
Becomes a problem at high speeds. Accounted for using a dimensionless number called the Mach number
(M).
𝑉∞
M=
𝑎∞
𝑎∞ : speed of sound.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Lift coefficient

Stall: is a condition in aerodynamics where the angle of attack increases beyond a certain point such that
the lift begins to decrease.

The 𝐿 and 𝐷 decomposition of 𝑅 was demonstrated on a 2D airfoil. In 2D analysis we assume that we have
a wing with infinite span and the forces are the same at each spanwise section.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Small case letters are used for 2D analysis (𝐶𝑙 , 𝐶𝑑 , 𝐶𝑚 , …).


Things get complicated for 3D aircraft because the forces are not the same (𝛼 is not the same) everywhere
along the span.
For given aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil (𝐶𝑙 , 𝐶𝑑 , 𝐶𝑚 , …), the aerodynamic performance of a wing
depends on the aspect ratio and planform.

𝑏2
𝐴𝑅 =
𝑆

Drag coefficient
For finite wings the flow spillage from lower surface to top at wing tips lowers lift and increases drag. The
increase in drag is called the “induced drag” and is a function of lift. When there is no lift there is no flow
spillage and no additional drag.
𝐶𝐿2
𝐶𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷0 + (for subsonic flows)
parasitic drag
𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
induced drag
(form drag ,or
coefficient
zero −lift drag )
coefficient

𝑒: Oswald (span) efficiency number, a constant that represents the lifting efficiency of a three dimensional
wing compared with another wing having the same AR and an elliptical lift distribution.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

1
𝑒=
1+𝛿

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Drag polar
𝐶𝐿2
𝐶𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷0 +
𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅

Standard Atmosphere
Air temperature and pressure depends on altitude, location, time of day, season, solar activities, etc. It is
impossible to take into account all these factors when designing and analyzing flight vehicles. Standard
atmospheres are defined to form a common reference for mean values of temperature, density, pressure,
etc. as functions of altitude.

Altitude
𝑕𝐺 : Geometric altitude, geometric height above sea level
𝑕𝑎 : Absolute altitude, from the center of the Earth. Important for space flight since gravity changes with
𝑕𝑎 .
𝑕𝑎 = 𝑕𝐺 + 𝑟
𝑟: radius of the Earth
𝑟 2 𝑟 2
𝑔 = 𝑔0 = 𝑔0
𝑕𝑎 𝑕𝐺 + 𝑟
𝑔0 : gravitational acceleration at sea level

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

𝑝 + 𝑑𝑝
𝑊: weight of the fluid element
𝑊 = 𝜌 1 1 𝑑𝑕𝐺 𝑔 𝑕𝐺
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑚𝑎𝑠 𝑠
𝑑𝑕𝐺 Force balance on the fluid element:
𝑝 = 𝑝 + 𝑑𝑝 + 𝜌𝑔𝑑𝑕𝐺
𝑊
𝑑𝑝 = −𝜌𝑔 𝑕𝐺 𝑑𝑕𝐺 (1)
1
𝑕𝐺
1
𝑝 𝑕𝐺

In altitudes where most A/C fly (𝑕𝐺 < 20 km) change in 𝑔 is small. As an approximation we write (1) as
𝑑𝑝 = −𝜌𝑔0 𝑑𝑕 (2)

Equations (1) and (2) give close results. They can be made exactly the same by introducing a fictitious
altitude that is slightly different than 𝑕𝐺 , to make future calculations simpler.
𝑕: Geopotential altitude, a fictitious altitude physically compatible with the assumption that
𝑔 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 = 𝑔0 .
−𝜌𝑔 𝑕𝐺 𝑑𝑕𝐺 = −𝜌𝑔0 𝑑𝑕
𝑔
𝑑𝑕 = 𝑑𝑕
𝑔0 𝐺
𝑟2
= 2
𝑑𝑕𝐺
𝑟 + 𝑕𝐺
Integrating gives
𝑟
𝑕= 𝑕
𝑟 + 𝑕𝐺 𝐺

Atmosphere Layers
Experimental evidence shows that the temperature variation with altitude consists of series of straight
lines.
𝑑𝑇
𝑎=
𝑑𝑕

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

84.852
a7 = -2.0 oC/km

71
Geopotential Altitude (km)

a6 = -2.8 oC/km Mesosphere

51 a5 = 0 oC/km Stratopause
47

a4 = +2.8 oC/km
32

a3 = +1.0 oC/km Stratosphere


20
a2 = 0 oC/km Tropopause
11
a1 = -6.5 oC/km Troposphere
0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150
Temperature (C)

Ideal gas law:


𝑝 = 𝜌𝑅𝑇 (3)

𝑝: pressure
𝑇: absolute temperature
𝜌: density
J
𝑅: = 287 Kg K , specific gas constant

Based on the approximated temperature variation 𝑝 and 𝜌 can be found using equations (2) and (3).
Results are presented as standard atmosphere tables.

Pressure, Temperature, and Density Altitudes


Altitudes in the standard atmosphere table corresponding to measured pressure, temperature, and density
values.
Example: An aircraft flying at a certain altitude measures the temperature and pressure as
𝑝 = 4.72 × 104 𝑁/𝑚2
𝑇 = −17.45 °𝐶 = 255.7 𝐾
The density can be found from
𝑝 4.72 × 104
𝜌= = = 0.6432 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
𝑅𝑇 287 × 255.7
According to 1959 US standard atmosphere, these values correspond to:

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

𝑕𝑝 = 6,000 𝑚
𝑕 𝑇 = 5,000 𝑚
𝑕𝜌 = 6,240 𝑚

The actual altitude of the aircraft is yet a different number!

Forces and Moments on an A/C in Longitudinal (Vertical, Pitching) Plane


No lateral motion (no rolling and yawing)!

𝐿
𝜃: pitch angle
𝛾: flight path angle
𝜃 𝑇
𝛼 𝛼: angle of attack
𝛾
𝑉∞
𝐷

Forces parallel to flight path:


𝑑𝑉
𝐹∥ = 𝑇 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝛼 − 𝐷 − 𝑊 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛾 = 𝑚𝑎 = 𝑚 𝑑𝑡

Forces perpendicular to flight path:


𝑉∞2
𝐹⊥ = 𝐿 + 𝑇 sin 𝛼 − 𝑊 cos 𝛾 = 𝑚 𝑟𝑐
: centrifugal acceleration

Special Cases
Horizontal flight without acceleration
𝑑𝑉
𝛾 = 0, =0
𝑑𝑡
Then
𝑇=𝐷
𝐿=𝑊

Aircraft Performance
What can an aircraft do?
- How fast can it fly?
- What is the maximum altitude it can fly at? (ceiling)
- How far can it go? (range)
- How long can it stay in the air? (endurance)
- How fast can it climb to the cruising altitude?
- How fast can it descend?
- How quickly can it stop on the ground?
- How quickly can it take off?

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

- What is the minimum radius of turn?


- How many g’s can an aircraft pull?

Thrust Required for Level Unaccelerated Flight


𝑇𝑅 : Thrust required to maintain the given flight condition (speed and altitude). Depends on the velocity,
altitude, shape, size, and weight of the A/C. Has nothing to do with the engines.
𝑇𝑅 = 𝐷 = 𝑞∞ 𝑆 𝐶𝐷
𝑊
= 𝐶
𝐶𝐿 𝐷
𝑊 𝑊
∴ 𝑇𝑅 = =
𝐶𝐿 /𝐶𝐷 𝐿/𝐷

Thrust required, 𝑇𝑅 , for a given airplane at a given altitude, varies with velocity, 𝑉∞ . This variation may be
plotted as follows:
1. Choose a value of 𝑉∞
2. For this 𝑉∞ calculate 𝐶𝐿 from
𝑊
𝐶𝐿 =
1
𝜌 𝑉2𝑆
2 ∞ ∞
3. Calculate 𝐶𝐷 from the drag polar
𝐶𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐾𝐶𝐿2
4. Calculate the ratio 𝐶𝐿 /𝐶𝐷
5. Then
𝑊
𝑇𝑅 =
𝐶𝐿 /𝐶𝐷
1
𝑇𝑅 ∝
𝐶𝐿 /𝐶𝐷
Thrust varies inversely with 𝐿/𝐷. Therefore minimum 𝑇𝑅 will be obtained at 𝑉∞ where 𝐿/𝐷 is maximum. A
typical 𝑇𝑅 curve looks like

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

𝑇𝑅 𝑁

typical

better

𝐿/𝐷 𝑉∞ 𝑚/𝑠
𝑚𝑎𝑥

The lift-to-drag ratio, 𝐿/𝐷, is a measure of aerodynamic efficiency. It is a function of 𝛼, it reaches a


maximum at some specific 𝛼.

𝐿/𝐷

𝛼
𝛼 𝐿/𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥

Different points on the 𝑇𝑅 curve correspond to different angles of attack.

𝑇𝑅

Decreasing 𝛼 𝑉∞

Increasing velocity

𝑇 = 𝐷 = 𝑞∞ 𝑆 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐾𝐶𝐿2
= 𝑞∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐷0 + 𝑞∞ 𝑆𝐾𝐶𝐿2
𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜 −𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑡 𝑇𝑅 𝑇𝑅 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑡

𝑇𝑅

Zero-lift 𝑇𝑅

𝑇𝑅 due to lift
𝑉∞
𝑉 𝐿/𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥

Note: At minimum thrust required

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

𝐶𝐷0 = 𝐶𝐷𝑖
zero lift drag = drag due to lift
1 2𝑊
𝐿 = 𝑊 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐿 ⇒ 𝐶𝐿 = (Lift eqn)
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆
1
𝑇𝑅 = 𝐷 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐾𝐶𝐿2
2
2
1 𝑊
= 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆 𝐶𝐷0 + 4𝐾
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆
2
1 2𝐾𝑆 𝑊
= 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐷0 +
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆
𝐾𝑆 𝑊 2
= 𝑞∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐷0 +
𝑞∞ 𝑆
We can solve for 𝑉∞ from the above equation as
2 2
𝑇𝑅 𝑇𝑅 𝑊
± − 4𝐶𝐷0 𝐾
𝑆 𝑆 𝑠
𝑉∞2 =
𝜌∞ 𝐶𝐷0

Not a new equation, obtained from (Lift) and (Drag) equations!


𝑇𝑅 𝑇𝑅 𝑊
=
𝑆 𝑊 𝑆
1 2
𝑇𝑅 𝑊 𝑊 𝑇𝑅 2
± − 4𝐶𝐷0 𝐾
𝑊 𝑆 𝑆 𝑊 (𝑉∞ eqn)
𝑉∞ =
𝜌∞ 𝐶𝐷0

For a given 𝑇𝑅 , speed of an A/C depends on:


1. Thrust-to-weight ratio, 𝑇𝑅 /𝑊
2. Wing loading, 𝑊/𝑆
3. The drag polar, 𝐶𝐷0 and 𝐾

These are the fundamental parameters that dictate A/C performance.

Circular argument in aircraft design:


Fly faster
Solution: Increase thrust without adding weight

Carry more Bigger engine


weight (heavier)
𝑇
: Thrust-to-weight ratio, a dimensionless indicator of engine performance.
𝑊
𝑊
𝑆
: In cruise airplanes fly at much higher velocities than takeoff and landing and the necessary lift can be
created with smaller wings. Extra wing area required for takeoff and landing is extra load for cruise.

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Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Thrust Available
𝑇𝐴 : thrust provided by the engine(s). Strictly associated with the engine. Can vary with 𝑉∞ , 𝜌∞ depending
on the type of the engine.

Maximum Velocity 3500


Intersection of the 𝑇𝑅 curve and the maximum 𝑇𝐴
TA (max)
curve defines the maximum velocity 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 of the 3000
aircraft at the given altitude. This is an important

TR (N)
aspect of the aircraft design process.
2500
TA (partial)
𝑇𝑅 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑇𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 can be found by inserting 𝑇𝐴 into (𝑉∞ eqn) 2000


𝑚𝑎𝑥

1500
40 60 80 100 V(max) 120
V (m/s)

Power Required
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 × 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
=
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
= 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 × 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑚
𝑃𝑅 = 𝑇𝑅 𝑉∞ , 𝑁. = 𝑊 = 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
𝑠
𝑊 𝑊
=
𝐶𝐿 1
𝜌 𝑆𝐶
𝐶𝐷 2 ∞ 𝐿
𝑊 2𝑊
=
𝐶𝐿3 2 𝜌∞ 𝑆
𝐶𝐷
Then
1
𝑃𝑅 ∝
𝐶𝐿3 2 /𝐶𝐷
5
Note: 746 𝑊 = 1 𝑕𝑝 (horse power) x 10
3.5
Note: The slope of the line from origin to any point on 3
the 𝑃𝑅 vs 𝑉∞ curve is 𝑇𝑅
2.5
𝑃𝑅 𝑇𝑅 𝑉∞
= = 𝑇𝑅 2
PR (W)

𝑉∞ 𝑉∞
1.5 (C3/2
L
/CD)max
(CL/CD)max
1

0.5

0
0 20 40 60 V 80
V(min 100 120
P ) (min T )
R R

17
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Power required:
1 𝑊
𝑃𝑅 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐾𝐶𝐿2 𝑉∞ , 𝐶𝐿 =
2 1
𝜌 𝑉2𝑆
2 ∞ ∞
1 2𝐾𝑊 2
𝑃𝑅 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞3 𝑆𝐶𝐷0 +
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞ 𝑆
Minimum 𝑃𝑅 :
𝑑𝑃𝑅 3 2
2𝐾𝑊 2
= 𝜌 𝑉 𝑆𝐶 − =0
𝑑𝑉∞ 2 ∞ ∞ 𝐷0 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆
2
𝑊
3𝐶𝐷0 = 𝐾
1 2
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞ 𝑆
= 𝐾𝐶𝐿2
The aerodynamic condition that holds at 𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛 : ∴ 𝐶𝐷𝑖 = 3𝐶𝐷0

Power Available
𝑃𝐴 : power provided by the engine(s). Strictly associated with the engine. Can vary with 𝑉∞ , 𝜌∞
depending on the type of the engine.

Propulsive Characteristics
A propulsion system is a machine that produces thrust to push an A/C forward. Thrust is usually generated
through application of Newton's third law of action and reaction. Air is accelerated by the engine, and the
reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the engine. The amount of thrust generated depends on
the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of the air.

Propulsion device

𝑉∞ , 𝑝∞ 𝑇 𝑉𝑗 , 𝑝𝑗

Equal and opposite force


exerted by the propulsive
device on the air
Force exerted by the air
on the propulsive device

Thrust produced is given by Newton’s 2nd law of motion (force applied is equal to the rate of change of
momentum) as

𝑑 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑢𝑚 𝑑 𝑚 𝑉𝑗 − 𝑉∞
𝑇= =
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
= 𝑚 𝑉𝑗 − 𝑉∞

𝑚: mass flow rate through the propulsion device

18
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

The exiting air accelerated from 𝑉∞ to 𝑉𝑗 has the following kinetic energy per unit mass:
1 2
𝑉 − 𝑉∞
2 𝑗
This kinetic energy is totally wasted. The total power produced by the engine is:
1 2
𝑃𝑇 = 𝑇𝑉∞ + 𝑚 𝑉𝑗 − 𝑉∞
useful to
2
push the A/C wasted
forward

Efficiency of the propulsion system is defined as:


useful power available
𝜂𝑃 =
total power generated
𝑇𝑉∞
=
1 2
𝑇𝑉∞ + 2 𝑚 𝑉𝑗 − 𝑉∞

Using 𝑇 = 𝑚 𝑉𝑗 − 𝑉∞ we get
2
𝜂𝑃 =
𝑉𝑗
1+𝑉

Propulsion alternatives:
- Reciprocating engine – propeller combination
- Turbojet
- Turbofan
- Turboprop
Propeller: Large diameter, moves large mass of air, but gives air small acceleration. High efficiency,
low thrust. Thrust is limited by propeller tip speed.
Jet Engine: Small diameter, moves small amount of air, but gives air high acceleration. Low
efficiency, high thrust.

Reciprocating Engine - Propeller Combination


The motion of one or more pistons is transformed into the rotary motion of a crankshaft, which transmits
the engine’s power to air through a propeller.
𝑃 is reasonably constant with 𝑉∞ .
Propeller: is a twisted wing attached vertically to the longitudinal axis of the airplane and produces lift and
drag (skin friction, pressure, induced, wave (compressible)). Drag is a loss that extracts from the useful
power.
𝑃𝐴 (available power, transmitted to air) < 𝑃 (shaft power produced by the engine)
𝑃𝐴 = 𝜂𝑃𝑟 𝑃
𝜂𝑃𝑟 : propeller efficiency ≈ 0.7 − 0.8.

Turbojet Engine
For a turbojet engine flying at subsonic speeds 𝑇 can be considered constant with 𝑉∞ .

19
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Output of a turbojet engine is measured in terms of thrust, while the output of a piston engine is measured
in terms of power.
Example: Consider the following A/C:
𝑏 = 10.91 𝑚
𝑆 = 16.17 𝑚2
𝑊 = 13139 𝑁
𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 230 𝑕𝑝 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
𝑊
= 230 𝑕𝑝 × 746
𝑕𝑝
= 171580 𝑊
𝐶𝐷0 = 0.025
𝑒 = 0.8
𝜂𝑃𝑟 = 0.8
a) Calculate the thrust and power required at sea level and 𝑉∞ = 61 𝑚/𝑠.
b) Calculate the maximum speed at sea level.
Solution: a)
𝑊 13139
𝐿=𝑊 ⇒ 𝐶𝐿 = = = 0.357
1 1 2 2
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞ 𝑆
2 × 1.225 × 61 × 16.17
𝐶𝐿2 0.3572
𝐶𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷0 + = 0.025 + = 0.0319
𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅 10.912
3.14 × 0.8 × 16.17

Then
𝐶𝐿 0.357
= = 11.19
𝐶𝐷 0.0319
𝑊 13139
𝑇𝑅 = = = 1174.5 𝑁
𝐶𝐿 11.19
𝐶𝐷
𝑃𝑅 = 𝑇𝑅 𝑉∞ = 1174.5 × 61 = 71647 𝑊 = 96 𝑕𝑝
b) Maximum speed occurs when 𝑃𝑅 = 𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜂𝑃 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.8 × 171580 = 137264 𝑊

20
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Altitude Effects on Power and Thrust


Lower air density at higher altitudes causes a reduction in power for both the reciprocating and jet engines.
In this course we will assume 𝑃𝐴 and 𝑇𝐴 to be proportional to air density.
𝜌𝑎𝑙𝑡
𝑇𝐴,𝑎𝑙𝑡 = 𝑇
𝜌0 𝐴,0
𝜌𝑎𝑙𝑡
𝑃𝐴,𝑎𝑙𝑡 = 𝑃
𝜌0 𝐴,0
where the subscript “0” indicates sea level.
Example: Consider the A/C in the last example.
𝑏 = 10.91 𝑚
𝑆 = 16.17 𝑚2
𝑊 = 13139 𝑁
𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 230 𝑕𝑝 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
𝑊
= 230 𝑕𝑝 × 746
𝑕𝑝
= 171580 𝑊
𝐶𝐷0 = 0.025
𝑒 = 0.8
𝜂𝑃𝑟 = 0.8
Suppose that 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1.5. Then
4
x 10
2𝑊 𝑚 13.7264
𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = 29.7 @ 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 (PA)max @ 0 m
𝜌0 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠

𝑊
PR (W)

𝐶 𝑊
𝑃𝑅 (𝑉∞ ) = 𝐿 𝑉∞ = 𝑉∞
𝐶𝐷 (PA)max @ 8095 m
𝑊 5.8267
1 2
2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞ 𝑆
2
𝑊
𝐶𝐷0 + 4𝐾
𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆 0
0 20 29.7 45.6 56.6 79.7
V (m/s)
𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜂𝑃 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.8 × 171580 = 137264 𝑊
𝑚
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 79.7 @ 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
𝑠
Consider the altitude where 𝜌1 = 0.52 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 (~𝑕𝐺 = 8095 𝑚).

2𝑊 𝑚
𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = 45.6 @ 8095 𝑚
𝜌1 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠

𝜌𝑎𝑙𝑡 0.52
𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜂𝑃 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.8 × × 171580 = 58267 𝑊
𝜌0 1.225
𝑚
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 56.6 @ 8095 𝑚
𝑠
𝑚
𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 46.6 > 𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 @ 8095 𝑚
𝑠

21
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

At sea level 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙


At 8095 𝑚 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 is determined by the available power and > 𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎 𝑙𝑙 !
Example: Consider a jet A/C with
𝑏 = 16.25 𝑚
𝑆 = 29.54 𝑚2
𝑊 = 88251 𝑁
𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 16250 𝑁 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
𝐶𝐷0 = 0.02
𝑒 = 0.81
Find the maximum speed of the A/C at 6000 𝑚.
𝜌
𝑇𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 @6000 𝑚 = 𝑇
𝜌0 𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 @0𝑚
= 0.5389 × 16250
= 8757 𝑁
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 can then be found from the (𝑉∞ eqn) as
1 2
2
𝑇𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑊 𝑇𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 1
± 𝑆 − 4𝐶𝐷0
𝑆 𝑊 𝑏2
𝜋𝑒
𝑆
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝜌𝐶𝐷0

𝑚
= 201
𝑠
= 0.64 𝑀
Note that we ignored wave drag due to air compressibility, which could actually be significant at this speed!
4 6
x 10 x 10
1.5 3.5

2.5

2
PR (W)
TR (N)

1
1.5

0.5

0.5 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250
V (m/s) V (m/s)

Takeoff Performance
Ground Roll

22
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Thrust, 𝑇
1
Drag, 𝐷 = 2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐷
1
Lift, 𝐿 = 2 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐿

Weight, 𝑊 = 𝑚𝑔
Resistance Force, 𝑅 = 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 , 𝜇𝑟 : Coefficient of rolling friction
Balance of forces parallel to ground:
𝑑𝑉∞
𝐹∥ = 𝑇 − 𝐷 − 𝑅 = 𝑚
𝑑𝑡
When rolling on ground
𝐶𝐿2
𝐶𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝜙
𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
where 𝜙 is a coefficient signifying the ground effects. When an A/C flies close to ground the effects due to
wing-tip vortices are smaller. Near ground the induced drag is not very strong.
16 𝑕 𝑏 2
𝜙= 2
1 + 16 𝑕 𝑏
where 𝑕 is the height of the wing above the ground and 𝑏 is the wingspan.
𝐷, 𝑅 (because of 𝐿), and possibly 𝑇 are all functions of 𝑉∞ . We can get an approximate solution by using
the average of the net force during ground roll:
𝑑𝑉∞
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑇 − 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒 =𝑚 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑑𝑡
Then
𝑑𝑉∞
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑚
𝑑𝑡

𝑚 𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑚 𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝑥
𝑥=0 𝑥 = 𝑥𝐿𝑂
𝑡=0 𝑡 = 𝑡𝐿𝑂
𝑉∞ = 0 𝑉∞ = 𝑉𝐿𝑂

Integrating
𝑉𝐿𝑂 𝑡 𝐿𝑂
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝑑𝑉∞ = 𝑑𝑡
𝑚
0 0

𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝑉𝐿𝑂 = 𝑡
𝑚 𝐿𝑂
𝑉𝐿𝑂 𝑚
𝑡𝐿𝑂 =
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝑡𝐿𝑂 : time to accelerate mass 𝑚 to velocity 𝑉𝐿𝑂 under a fixed force 𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 .

23
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Distance covered:
𝑑𝑥
𝑉=
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑥 = 𝑉𝑑𝑡
𝑥 𝐿𝑂 𝑡 𝐿𝑂
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝑑𝑥 = 𝑡𝑑𝑡
𝑚
0 0
2
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑡𝐿𝑂
𝑥𝐿𝑂 =
𝑚 2
2
𝑉𝐿𝑂 𝑚
=
2𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓

𝑥𝐿𝑂 : distance to accelerate mass 𝑚 to velocity 𝑉𝐿𝑂 under a fixed force 𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 .

Remember
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑇 − 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒
2
𝑉𝐿𝑂 𝑚
𝑥𝐿𝑂 =
2 𝑇 − 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒

Liftoff velocity 𝑉𝐿𝑂 depends on the aerodynamic design. It is typically taken as

2𝑊
𝑉𝐿𝑂 = 1.2𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙 = 1.2
𝜌∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥

Then
1.44𝑊 2
𝑥𝐿𝑂 =
𝑔𝜌∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑇 − 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒

If
𝑇 ≫ 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒

1.44𝑊 2
𝑥𝐿𝑂 ≅
𝑔𝜌∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑇

Usually we can calculate


𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑉∞ =0.7𝑉𝐿𝑂

where 𝑉𝐿𝑂 = 1.2𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 .


𝑥𝐿𝑂 equation illustrates that:
- Liftoff distance is very sensitive to the weight of the A/C, varying directly as 𝑊 2 .
- Liftoff distance depends on the air density 𝜌∞ . If we assume that thrust is directly proportional to
𝜌∞ , then
1
𝑥𝐿𝑂 ∝ 2
𝜌∞
This is why on hot summer days an A/C requires a longer ground roll.
- The liftoff distance can be decreased by increasing the wing area, increasing 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 , and increasing
thrust, all of which make sense.

24
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Example: Consider our sample piston A/C:


𝑏 = 10.91 𝑚
𝑆 = 16.17 𝑚2
𝑊 = 13139 𝑁
𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 7000 𝑁 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑
For a clean wing configuration 𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎 𝑥 = 1.5 and the drag polar is given by

𝐶𝐷 = 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐾𝐶𝐿2

with 𝐶𝐷0 = 0.025 and 𝐾 = 0.05. Assume that during ground roll maximum thrust is fixed at 𝑇𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
7000 𝑁. Find 𝑥𝐿𝑂 at sea level.

2𝑊 𝑚
𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = 29.7
𝜌0 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑇 − 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 0.7×1.2𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙
= 6152 𝑁
1.44𝑊 2
𝑥𝐿𝑂 =
𝑔𝜌∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓
= 138.6 𝑚
Consider the same A/C with flaps extended halfway. For this configuration the A/C has a new drag polar
with
𝐶𝐷0 = 0.03

𝐾 = 0.1
Then we have
𝑚
𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 25.8
𝑠
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 5334 𝑁
𝑥𝐿𝑂 = 119.9 𝑚
If the flaps are extended all the way, the drag polar coefficients change to:
𝐶𝐷0 = 0.035

𝐾 = 0.15
Then we have
𝑚
𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙 = 23.0
𝑠
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 4177 𝑁
𝑥𝐿𝑂 = 122.5 𝑚
The liftoff distance is greater! That’s why flaps are usually not fully extended for takeoff!

25
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Rate of Climb
How fast can an A/C climb?
Consider an A/C in steady unaccelerated climbing flight with 𝛼 ≪ 𝛾

𝐿
𝑉∞
𝑉∞ 𝑤 = 𝑉∞ sin 𝛾 𝛾
𝑇 𝑢 = 𝑉∞ cos 𝛾
𝛾

𝛾
𝑊

𝑤: Rate of climb (𝑅/𝐶), vertical component of the flight velocity


𝑢: Horizontal component of the flight velocity
Sum of forces parallel to flight path is equal to zero (unaccelerated flight!):
𝑇 = 𝐷 + 𝑊 sin 𝛾 (∗)
and perpendicular to flight path
𝐿 = 𝑊 cos 𝛾 𝐿<𝑊 !
Multiply (*) by 𝑉∞ and divide by 𝑊:
𝑇 − 𝐷 𝑉∞
= 𝑉∞ sin 𝛾 = 𝑤 = 𝑅/𝐶
𝑊
𝑇 − 𝐷 𝑉∞ = Excess Power
𝑇𝐴 − 𝑇𝑅 𝑉∞ = Excess Power
So,
Excess Power
𝑅/𝐶 =
𝑊
Propeller A/C Jet A/C
PR
PR

P = TV1
PA
Excess
P (W)
P (W)

power
= (T - D)V1
Excess
power

PR = TRV1 = DV1

V1 V (m/s) V (m/s)

Note: Normally the 𝑃𝑅 vs 𝑉∞ curves are generated for level flight conditions and
𝑃𝑅 @ level flight ≠ 𝑃𝑅 @ climbing flight

26
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

But for small 𝛾 we may assume that they are equal and use 𝑃𝑅 vs 𝑉∞ curve generated for level flight to find
the excess power.
𝐿 @ climbing flight < 𝐿 @ level flight for same 𝑉∞
𝐷 @ climbing flight < 𝐷 @ level flight for same 𝑉∞
maximum Excess Power
max 𝑅/𝐶 =
𝑊
Propeller A/C
PR
(PA)max = (TA)max V

Max
excess = ((TA)max - (TR)min)V Determination of 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑅/𝐶 for a
power
P (W)

given altitude graphically.

(PR)min = (TR)minV = DminV

Vmax R/C Vmax V (m/s)

max R/C
R/C (m/s)

Vmax R/C Vmax V (m/s)

An important difference in the low-speed R/C performance can be seen between a propeller driven and a
jet A/C. Due to the 𝑃𝐴 characteristics of a piston engine-propeller combination, large excess powers are
available at low values of 𝑉∞ just above the stall. In contrast the excess power available to jet A/C at low 𝑉∞
is small, with a correspondingly reduced R/C capability.

Time to Climb
The R/C was defined as
𝑑𝑕
𝑅 𝐶=𝑤=
𝑑𝑡

27
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Then
𝑑𝑕
𝑑𝑡 =
𝑅 𝐶
Time to climb from altitude 𝑕1 to 𝑕2 can be found by integrating as
𝑡𝑐 𝑕2
𝑑𝑕
𝑡𝑐 = 𝑑𝑡 =
𝑅 𝐶
0 𝑕1

Note that 𝑅 𝐶 changes with altitude at a fixed 𝑉∞ . Both 𝑃𝑅 and 𝑃𝐴 (and hence excess power) change with
altitude.
Propeller A/C

(R/C)-1 (s/m)
0.5
PR1

PR2 0.4
PA 1

Excess 0.3
power 1
P

PA2
0.2

Excess
power 2 0.1 Area = tc

V 0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
h (m)

To compute 𝑡𝑐 graphically we need to plot 𝑅 𝐶 −1 versus 𝑕 first. The 𝑡𝑐 for our sample piston A/C for
climbing from 2000 𝑚 to 6000 𝑚 at 𝑉∞ = 60 𝑚/𝑠 can be computed from the above figure on the right.
The area under the 𝑅 𝐶 −1 versus 𝑕 curve gives 𝑡𝑐 .

Absolute Ceiling and Service Ceiling


Max excess power available decreases with increasing altitude. There exists an altitude at which the max
excess power available, and hence R/C becomes zero. This altitude is defined as the absolute ceiling.
A more useful quantity is service ceiling, defined as
the altitude where the 𝑅 𝐶 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 100 𝑓𝑡/𝑚𝑖𝑛.
8000 Absolute ceiling (~8177 m)
Absolute and service ceilings can be determined as Service ceiling (~7527 m)
follows:
6000
1. Calculate values of 𝑅 𝐶 𝑚𝑎𝑥 for a number
h (m)

Not linear!
of different altitudes. 4000
2. Plot altitude versus 𝑅 𝐶 𝑚𝑎𝑥
3. Find the absolute and service ceilings by 2000
interpolation at 𝑅 𝐶 𝑚𝑎 𝑥 = 0 and
𝑅 𝐶 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 100 𝑓𝑡/𝑚𝑖𝑛 respectively. 0
0 500 1000 1500
For our sample piston A/C the ceilings are found on (R/C)max (ft/min)
the figure to the right.

28
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

Example: Consider the piston engine A/C of HW#2. Find the maximum R/C at the altitude where
𝜌𝑕 = 0.6 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 .
The maximum R/C is achieved at 𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛 and at 𝐶𝐷𝑖 = 3𝐶𝐷0 . So,

𝐶𝐿2
= 3𝐶𝐷0 ⇒ 𝐶𝐿 = 3𝐶𝐷0 𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
The speed at which 𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛 occurs can be found from
1 2𝑊
𝑊 = 𝐿 = 𝜌𝑕 𝑉 2𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖 𝑛 𝑆 3𝐶𝐷0 𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅 ⇒ 𝑉 2𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛
=
2 𝜌𝑕 𝑆 3𝐶𝐷0 𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛 can then be found from
𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑇𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑉 𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛

1
= 𝜌𝑕 𝑉 3𝑃𝑅 𝑆 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐶𝐷𝑖
2 𝑚𝑖𝑛
=3𝐶𝐷 0

𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 at the given altitude is given by


𝜌𝑕
𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,𝑕 = 𝜂 𝑃
𝜌0 𝑃𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,0
The excess power is given by
𝐸𝑃 = 𝑃𝐴 𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,𝑕 − 𝑃𝑅 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜌𝑕
= 𝜂𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,0 − 2𝜌𝑕 𝑉 3𝑃𝑅 𝑆𝐶𝐷0
𝜌0 𝑚𝑖𝑛

3 2
𝜂𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,0 2𝑆𝐶𝐷0 2𝑊
𝐸𝑃 𝑕 = 𝜌𝑕 − (𝐸𝑃 − 𝑕 eqn)
𝜌0 𝜌𝑕 𝑆 3𝐶𝐷0 𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
Putting in the numbers with 𝜌𝑕 = 0.6 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 we find
𝐸𝑃 = 53487 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
𝐸𝑃
𝑅/𝐶 𝑚𝑎𝑥 @𝑕 = = 1.05 𝑚/𝑠 = 206 𝑓𝑡/𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑊
Find the absolute and service ceilings.
At absolute ceiling 𝐸𝑃 𝑕 = 0, so we are looking for 𝑕𝑎𝑏𝑠 .𝑐. (or equivalently 𝜌𝑕 𝑎𝑏𝑠 .𝑐. ) for which 𝐸𝑃 𝑕𝑎𝑏𝑠 .𝑐. =
0. By equating the left hand side of the (𝐸𝑃 − 𝑕 eqn) to zero we get
2 3
2𝜌0 𝑆𝐶𝐷0 2𝑊
𝜌𝑕 𝑎𝑏𝑠 .𝑐. =
𝜂𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,0 𝑆 3𝐶𝐷0 𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅
= 0.5152 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
From the ISA table by interpolation we can find
𝑕𝑎𝑏𝑠 .𝑐. = 8177 𝑚
At service ceiling
𝐸𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑅/𝐶 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 100 𝑓𝑡/𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.508 𝑚/𝑠
𝑊

29
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

We need to solve 𝐸𝑃 𝑕𝑠𝑒𝑟 .𝑐. = 0.508𝑊


3 2
𝜂𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,0 3 2𝑊
𝑥 − 0.508𝑊𝑥 − 2𝑆𝐶𝐷0 =0
𝜌0 𝑆 3𝐶𝐷0 𝜋𝑒𝐴𝑅

where 𝑥 = 𝜌𝑕 𝑠𝑒𝑟 .𝑐. . This gives

𝜌𝑕 𝑠𝑒𝑟 .𝑐. = 0.5556 𝑚/𝑘𝑔3

that corresponds to
𝑕𝑠𝑒𝑟 .𝑐. = 7526 𝑚

Accelerated Rate of Climb


Airplanes usually perform accelerated climb. Exact expressions can be derived using equations of motion,
but instead we will use the energy method for convenience.
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴/𝐶 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 = 𝑃𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑃𝐸 + 𝐾𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐾𝐸
1
𝐸 = 𝑚𝑔𝑕 + 𝑚𝑉 2
2
Define specific energy as
1 2
𝑃𝐸 + 𝐾𝐸 𝑚𝑔𝑕 + 2 𝑚𝑉 𝑉2
𝐻𝑒 = = =𝑕+
𝑊 𝑚𝑔 2𝑔
𝐻𝑒 has the unit of height and is therefore also called the “energy height” of the A/C.
Constant energy height contours
2000 He = 2000 m

1500 He = 1500 m
h (m)

1000 He = 1000 m
𝛾 𝐿
𝑇
500 He = 500 m 𝛾

𝐷
0
0 50 100 150
𝑊
V (m/s)

How does an A/C change its energy state? Let’s look at the equations of motion:
𝑑𝑉 𝑊 𝑑𝑉
𝑇 − 𝐷 − 𝑊 sin 𝛾 = 𝑚 =
𝑑𝑡 𝑔 𝑑𝑡
𝑇𝑉 − 𝐷𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝑉
= 𝑉 sin 𝛾 +
𝑊 𝑔 𝑑𝑡
Recall that

30
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

𝑑𝑕
𝑉 sin 𝛾 = 𝑅/𝐶 =
𝑑𝑡
𝑇𝑉 − 𝐷𝑉 𝐸𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
= = 𝐸𝑃𝑠 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑊 𝑊
Then,

𝑑𝑕 𝑉 𝑑𝑉
𝐸𝑃𝑠 = +
𝑑𝑡 𝑔 𝑑𝑡

This equation states that an A/C can use the available excess power for rate of climb (𝑑𝑕/𝑑𝑡) or to
accelerate along its flight path (𝑑𝑉/𝑑𝑡), or for combination of both.
Return to the energy height equation
𝑉2
𝐻𝑒 = 𝑕 +
2𝑔
Differentiating with respect to time we have
𝑑𝐻𝑒 𝑑𝑕 𝑣 𝑑𝑉
= + = 𝐸𝑃𝑠
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑔 𝑑𝑡
The time rate of change of energy height is equal to the specific excess power. This implies that an A/C can
increase its energy state simply by application of excess power.

Gliding Flight
In a gliding flight, power is off (𝑇 = 0).

𝑇
𝐷
𝛾

𝑉∞ 𝛾
𝑊

Equation of motion parallel to flight path:


𝑊 sin 𝛾 − 𝐷 = 0
Equation of motion perpendicular to flight path:
𝐿 − 𝑊 cos 𝛾 = 0
Eliminating 𝑊 we can write the gliding angle as
1
tan 𝛾 =
𝐿/𝐷
For smallest glide angle
1
tan 𝛾 𝑚𝑖𝑛 =
𝐿/𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥

31
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

For unpowered flight 𝑇 = 0 and hence


=0
𝑇𝑉 − 𝐷𝑉
𝐸𝑃𝑠 = <0
𝑊
So
𝑑𝑕 𝑉 𝑑𝑉
𝐸𝑃𝑠 = + <0
𝑑𝑡 𝑔 𝑑𝑡
In unpowered flight an A/C loses altitude, or speed, or both! For a gliding flight in equilibrium we assume
𝑑𝑉/𝑑𝑡 = 0, other wise the flight cannot stay in equilibrium for long. So we have
𝑑𝑕 −𝐷𝑉
=
𝑑𝑡 𝑊
−𝐷𝑉
𝑉 sin 𝛾 =
𝐿
cos 𝛾
1
tan 𝛾 = −
𝐿 𝐷
If we take 𝛾 below horizontal to be positive
1
tan 𝛾 =
𝐿 𝐷
We get the same glide angle equation using the energy method.

𝑇 𝐷

𝑉∞ 𝛾
𝑊 𝑕

𝑕
𝑅=
tan 𝛾
So for maximum range
𝑕
𝑅𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑕 𝐿/𝐷 𝑚𝑎𝑥
tan 𝛾 𝑚𝑖𝑛

Recall that
𝐿 𝐶𝐿 𝐶𝐿
= =
𝐷 𝐶𝐷 𝐶𝐷0 + 𝐾𝐶𝐿2

32
Middle East Technical University Department of Aerospace Engineering
AE172 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Dr. Ali Türker Kutay

does not depend on altitude, but depends on 𝐶𝐿 , and hence 𝛼. So for a particular 𝐿 𝐷 the A/C needs to fly
at a particular 𝐶𝐿 , and this dictates the equilibrium glide velocity.
1
𝐿 = 𝑊 cos 𝛾 = 𝜌∞ 𝑉∞2 𝑆𝐶𝐿
2
2 cos 𝛾 𝑊
𝑉∞ =
𝜌∞ 𝐶𝐿 𝑆

Equilibrium glide velocity depends on altitude through 𝜌∞ and wing loading. If 𝐿 𝐷 is held constant
throughout the glide path, then 𝐶𝐿 is constant along the glide path. However, the equilibrium velocity will
change with altitude, decreasing with decreasing altitude.

Landing Performance
Consider an A/C during landing. Typically the thrust is reduced to zero at touchdown. Therefore the
equation for landing ground roll is obtained from the takeoff ground roll equation by setting 𝑇 = 0.
𝑑𝑉∞
−𝐷 − 𝑅 = −𝐷 − 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 = 𝑚
𝑑𝑡
Assume
D
𝐹𝑒𝑓𝑓 = −𝐷 − 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 R
= −𝐷 − 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 𝑉=0.7𝑉𝑇𝐷 - (D + R)

where 𝑉𝑇𝐷 is the touchdown velocity and can be taken


as 𝑉𝑇𝐷 = 1.3𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 . In most cases it is very reasonable
0
to approximate −𝐷 − 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 with a constant
force.
Real Feff
1.69𝑊 2
𝑥𝐿𝑎𝑛𝑑 = (Feff)ave
𝑔𝜌∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 0.7𝑉𝑇𝐷
0 0.7VTD VTD
Thrust reversing can also be used to reduce the V
distance required to stop the A/C.
1.69𝑊 2
𝑥𝐿𝑎𝑛𝑑 =
𝑔𝜌∞ 𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑇𝑅 + 𝐷 + 𝜇𝑟 𝑊 − 𝐿 0.7𝑉𝑇𝐷

where 𝑇𝑅 is the reversed thrust.

33