NANOMATERIALS

All materials are composed of grains, which in turn comprise many atoms. These grains can be visible or invisible to the naked eye, depending on their size. Conventional materials have grains varying in size anywhere from hundreds of microns to centimeters. Nanomaterials, sometimes called nanopowders when not compressed, have grain sizes in the order of 1-100 nm in at least one coordinate and normally in three.
Size of nano 1 nm = 10-3 m = 10-6 mm = 10-9 m = 10-9 yard

Classification:Nanomaterials can be classified in several ways, based on (1) Their origin (2) Based on phase composition (3) Based on dimensions Based on their origin, nanomaterials are broadly classified as (a) Natural nanomaterials and (b) Artificial nanomaterials Natural nanomaterials are those which are obtained naturally. Examples:- Carbon-nanotubes and fibers Artificial nanomaterials are those which are synthesized in laboratories Examples:- Au/Ag np system and Gold nanoparticles, Polymeric nanocomposites. Table :- Classification of nanomaterials with regard to different parameters Dimension 3 dimensions<100 nm 2 dimensions< 100 nm 1 dimension< 100 nm Examples Particles, quantum dots, hollo spheres, etc. Tubes, fibers, wires, platelets, etc. Films, coatings, multilayer, etc.

InSe. Furthermore. often at elevated temperatures and sometimes at elevated pressures (hydro-or solvo-thermal methods). Nanostructures of metal oxides such as ZnO. and to obtain the desired special properties. ferrofluids. Some application ranges of nanolayers and coatings are summarised in table. amorphous particles and layers. TiO2 and SnO2 etc are examples for 2 dimension quantum wires. a nanoscale design of surfaces and layers is often necessary to optimise the interfaces between different material classes (e. etc. .g.g. etc. 1 dimension (< 100nm Multilayer):Nanolayers Nanolayers are one of the most important topics within the range of nanotechnology.Phase composition Single-Phase solids Multi-phase solids Multi-phase system Crystalline. Colloids. Tunable properties by nanoscale surface design and their application potentials. compound semiconductors on silicon wafers). ZnS. aerogels. magnetoelectronic or optical) can be achieved. etc. 2 dimension (< 100nm Quantum wires):Surface melting assisted oxidization can be used to directly grow metal oxide nanostructures without the presence of solution or vapour. PbS. CdSe. 3 dimension (< 100nm Quantum dots):Semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots are normally prepared chemically via solutionbased routes. Matrix composites. MgO. a vast range of functionalities and new physical effects (e. coated particles. Through nanoscale engineering of surfaces and layers. The most commonly studies quantum dots include metal sulfide or metal selenide compounds such as CdS. etc.

Optical properties (e. Ultra-thin dielectrics for field-effect transistors. etc. corrosion heat resistance for turbines and engines. Thermal and chemical properties (e.Mechanical properties (e. anti-reflection. hydrophilic). Wetting properties (e. tribology. hydrophobic. Corrosion protection for machinery and equipment. photo. heat resistance and insulation. magneto-resistive sensors and data memory. thermal resistance). and its inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells rather than normal cells. scratch-resistance). anti-adhesive. Electronical and magnetic properties (e. hardness. insulation equipment and building materials. Applications:- . etc. wood.).g. Lotus-effect.and electro-chromatic). Single-phase solids:CuS amorphous nanoparticles are example for single-phase solids. mechanical protection of soft materials (polymers. etc. wound dressings. Biological properties (biocompatibility. etc. magnetoresistance.g. dielectric). Biocompatible implants.and electro-chromic windows. Photo. Fig 6.7 Page no 119. Anti-graffiti.g.g. self-cleaning surface for textiles and ceramics. anti-reflective screens and solar cells. etc. textiles. Because many biological markers and linkers have been adapted to attach to gold surfaces. anti-fouling. a functional coating of gold allows nanoparticles of other materials to be used with the established markers and linkers. Magnetic nanoparticles are of particular interest for in vivo imaging and treatment operations. Multi-phase solids:A method for coating magnetic nanoparticles with a very thin layer of gold. Wear protection of machinery and equipment. etc. a bacterial medical tools and anti-infective).

any tube with nanoscale dimensions.1D fullerene (a convex cage of atoms with only hexagonal and/or pentagonal faces) with a cylindrical shape. the size of the box can be from 30 to 1000 nm. e. Long-chain molecule capable of carrying a current. Nanowires:. solid smoke. however. Eq:. it feels like expanded polystyrene to the touch. covalently bonded together.Carbon aerogels are composed of particles with sizes in the nanometer range. Quantum dot (QD):. a boron-nitride-based tube. and relatively inexpensive chemical process Multi-phase system:Aerogel is a manufactured material with the lowest bulk density of any known porous solid.(1) Image enhancement in magnetic based diagnostics (such as MRI or other proprietary techniques). Microscopic wires from layers of different materials.. Nanotube (carbon):. Advantages:(1) Avoids direct contact between biological tissue and the core nanoparticle material (2) Permits a wide range of magnetic materials to be used in biological tissue (3) Simple. A new class of carbon materials consists of closed (SP2 hybridized) carbon chains. with pore diameter under 100 nm and surface areas ranging between 400-1000 m2/g. . More generally. They have high porosity over 50%. Sheets of graphite rolled up to make a tube. organized on the basis of 12 pentagons and any number of hexagons.g. rapid. solid air or blue smoke due to its translucent nature and the way light scatters in the material. Wires that are structured like ³regular wires´ but are at the nanoscale. The result is an extremely low-density solid with several remarkable properties. Graphitic layers seamlessly wrapped to cylinders. most notably its effectiveness as a thermal insulator. (2) Cancer imaging and treatment. It is nicknamed frozen smoke.Nanometer-scale ³boxex´ for selectively or releasing electrons.[1] It is derived from a gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas. but more advanced only 1-100 nm across.Nanoscale rods of some length made of semiconducting materials.

etc. CVD etc. Manufacturing Process Gas phase reaction Liquid phase reaction Mechanical procedures Flame synthesis. Final particle size is controlled by variation of parameters such as temperature. . an oil. Various approaches to vaporize the metal can be used and variation of the medium into which the vapor is released affects the nature and size of the particles. Inert gases are used to prevent oxidation when creating metal nanoparticles. It involves evaporation of solid metal followed by rapid condensation to form nanosized clusters that settle in the form of a powder.The new structure was created when physicists bombarded a carbon target with a laser capable of firing 10000 pulses a second. each just 1 nm in diameter. precipitation. or a polymer. Vapor condensation:This approach is used to make metallic or metal oxide ceramic nanoparticles. whereas a reactive oxygen atmosphere is used to produce metal oxide ceramic nanoparticles. for instance. Ball milling. This uses a thin film of a relatively viscous material. Sol-gel. it formed an interesting web of carbon tubes. The main advantage of this approach is low contamination levels. gas environment and evaporation rate. etc. The electronic and magnetic properties of metallic nanoparticles and nanoclusters have new characteristics that can be utilized in novel applications. A vacuum is maintained in the apparatus and the desired metal is evaporated or sputtered into the vacuum. on a rotating drum. As the carbon reached temperatures of around 10000oC.Nanoscale metal and semiconductor particles are of interest because they mark a material transition range between quantum and bulk properties.Nanofoam:. condensation. hydrothermal processing. Nanoclusters:. bulk properties are lost as the continuum of electronic states becomes discrete and as the fraction of surface atoms becomes large. plastic deformation. Another variation on the vapor condensation technique is the vacuum evaporation on running liquids (VERL) method. With decreasing particle size. Particles form in suspension in the liquid and can be grown to a variety of sizes.

This technique is widely used in the fabrication of epitaxial films toward various GaN-based optoelectronic devices. Typical precursors are metal alkoxides and metal chlorides. therefore generating metal-oxo or metal-hydroxo polymers in solution. The formation of a metal oxide involves connecting the metal centers with oxo (M-O-M) or hydroxo (M-OH-M) bridges. the technique is named hydride or halide CVD or VPE. typically ranging from 200 to 800oC. The ablated species condense on the substrate placed opposite to the target. and operation in high ambient gas pressures in the 10-5-10-1 Torr range. The plume expands away from the target with a strong forward directed velocity distribution of different particles. or organomettallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE). In the case of hydride or halide precursors. The main advantages of PLD are its ability to create high-energy source particles. its simple experimental setup. As a result. permitting high quality film growth at low substrate temperatures. which undergo various forms of hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions. the technique is called MOCVD. high power laser pulses are used to evaporate from a target surface such that the stoichiometry of the material is preserved in the interaction. chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) technology is particularly interesting not only because it gives rise to high-quality films but also because it is applicable to large-scale production. metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). When metal-organic precursors are used. Sol-Gels:The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique used primarily for the fabrication of materials starting from a chemical solution which acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network polymers. and similar trend might be expected for future applications of ZnO. . Pulsed Laser Deposition:In the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) method. a supersonic jet of particles (plume) is directed normal to the target surface. There are several modifications of this method depending on precursors used.Chemical vapour deposition:Among other growth methods.

or firing process. microspheres. Even small quantities of dopants.g. It can use used as a means of producing very thin films of metal oxides for various purposes. the sol evolves towards the formation of a gel-like diphasic system containing both a liquid phase and solid phase whose morphologies range from discrete particles to continuous polymer networks. is often necessary in order to favor further polycondensation and enhance mechanical properties and structural stability via final sintering. Removal of the remaining liquid (solvent) phase requires a drying process. which is typically accompanied by a significant amount of shrinkage and densification. Synthesis of Glass-Metal Nano-Composite 5. The rate at which the solvent can be removed is ultimately determined by the distribution of porosity in the gel. Example 1...Thus. One of the distinct advantages of using this methodology as opposed to the more traditional processing techniques is that densification is often achieved at a much lower temperature. can be introduced in the sol and end up uniformly dispersed in the final product. by dip coating or spin coating). By carefully controlling the number of electrons transferred. nanospheres). Afterwards. (ii) cast into a suitable container with the desired shape or (iii) used to synthesize powders (e. a thermal treatment. such as organic dues and rare earth elements.g. Glass Dispersed Liquid Crystals 4. The precursor sol can be either (i) deposited on a substrate to form a film (e. the weight of material transferred can be . The sol-gel approach is a cheap and low temperature technique that allows for the fine control of the product¶s chemical composition. densification and grain growth. Metal-Silica and Metal Oxide-Silica Nanocomposites. The ultimate microstructure of the final component will clearly be strongly influenced by changes imposed upon the structural template during this phase of processing. Dye-Doped Gel Glasses 3. Electrodeposition:Electrodeposition has been used for a long time to make electroplated materials. Gallium based Nano-Materials 2.

Rapidity b. can be used to synthesis nanocomposites. a. The fact that electrochemical deposition. Specific Advantages of electro-deposition for the synthesis of the nano scale materials:The synthesis of naonmaterial¶s requires an atmospheric deposition process and extreme control over the deposition. This states that the number of moles of product formed by an electric current is directly proportional to the number of moles of electron supplied.determined in accordance with Faraday¶s law of electrolysis. has generated a great deal of interest in recent years. Low cost . then the number of moles of electron is charged supplied/F. Since the quantity of electricity passed (measured in coulombs) is current (amps) x time (sec) and Faraday¶s constant F (96485 coulombs is currently the most accurate estimate) is the charge per mole of electrons (1 mole of electrons = 96485 coulombs). The obvious advantage of this century-old process of ED is as follows. also being at atomic deposition process. Vapor deposition techniques have been used almost exclusively to produce these materials.

Ni/Ni-P etc. j. Industrial applicability f. such as boron nitride nanotubes and a wide range of elemental and oxide powders. e. Ability to produce structural features with sizes ranging from nm to m. Ball milling breaks down the structure into nanocrystallites. which is better described as mechanical crushing. Ball milling can be used to make a variety of new carbon types. iron with grain sizes of 13-30 nm can be formed. including carbon nanotubes. such as iron nitrides. All of these applications rely on the increased surface to bulk ratio. No Postdeposition treatment. Higher deposition rates.c. Their used range from pigments to capacitors to coatings to inks. Produce coatings on widely differing substrates. which alters the chemical properties of the metal oxide. it is important to keep the crystallites from reacting. a by-product can sometimes . f. small balls are allowed to rotate around the inside of a drum and drop with gravity force on to a solid enclosed in the drum. High purity e. Much of the commercial know how is in the nature of the additive. It is useful for preparing other types of nanotubes. k. g. Cu/Ni. The significant advantage of this method is that it can be readily implemented commercially. To successfully prepare metal oxides. For example. i. e. Potential to overcome shape limitations or allows the production of free-standing parts with complex shapes. In this process. However. Ball milling is the preferred method for preparing metal oxides. can be made using ammonia gas. Other crystallites. Ball milling:These early nanomaterials were made by a simple method called ball milling. Ability to produce compositions unattainable by other techniques. The possibility of forming of simple low-cost multilayer¶s in many different systems.g. h. and to have an understanding of the kinetic energy transferred during crushing. Free from porosity d. Easy to control alloy composition.

These templates are removed by heating to create a continuous network of pores that mimic the size and shape of the template. and operate at nanopore size. Different surfactants can be used. This approach has been used with pillared clays. The exact energy of delivery to each crystal needs to be determined and methods developed to ensure that each crystal receives the same energy. The quaternary ammonium salts form micelles in the interlayer regions and the pillaring agents form pillar materials beside them because of the affinity of surfactant molecules for the surface of the pillar precursors. Ball milling techniques could be improved by applying a greater knowledge of the energetic involved in the process. quaternary ammonium salts (surfactants) which form micelles are used as centers around which silica species condense. In the production of naocrystalline Zirconia (ZrO2) zirconium chloride is treated with magnesium oxide during milling to form zirconia and magnesium chloride: ZrCl4 + 2MgO ZrO2 + 2MgCl2 The by-product. Interestingly. it is found that larger surfactant molecules . There have been some interesting new developments in altering pore spaces.be useful. magnesium chloride. It is washed out at the end of the process. thereby forming nanosilicocarboalumina composites. and the pore size is controlled by the size of the surfactant micelles. These materials have been called composite clay nanostructures. In a novel approach. The advantage of this approach is that the pore volume is controlled by the volume fraction of the template constituents. have been synthesized by conventional chemistry. The micelles act as templates. called zeolites. but in the reverse of what would natively be expected. rather than relying on µcook and look¶ processes. have potential but consist of many individual stacked plates. Natural nanoparticles:Some of the most successful materials. The surfactants can be removed at temperatures between 150 and 250oC leaving a highly porous product. the porosity of the products depends on the quantity rather than the size of the surface of the surfactant molecules. One interesting applications is to fill these new pores with organic materials. It appears that the size of the molecule is important. which consist of layers of silicate tetrahedral and aluminium octahedral. acts to prevent the individual nanocrystallites of zirconia agglomerating. preventing the intercalated framework from collapsing during the dehydration process in which the framework hardens. Phyllosilicates.

suspensions. Particle sizing by laser diffraction:Laser diffraction has become one of the most commonly used particle sizing methods.5 to 1000 microns. Applications:Some of the important applications and technologies based on the nanomaterials are the following: . The mean diameter of the framework pores decreases with n because the stronger interaction results in micelles with a smaller diameter. emulsions and even aerosols. reliable and reproducible technique and can measure over a very wide size range. The strong interaction must influence the formation and configuration of the micelles. It works on the principle that when a beam of light (a laser) is scattered by a group of particles. Particle size analysis can be applied to solid materials. emulsions and even aerosols. Some particle sizing methods can be used for a wide range of samples.produce smaller pores. Particle size analysis is a very important test and is used for quality control in many different industries. particle size is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of manufacturing process and performance of the final product. Particle size analysis:Particle size analysis is used to characterize the size distribution of particles in a given sample. A surfactant with large n is expected to have a much stronger interaction with precursor surface compared to a surfactant with small n. the angle of light scattering is inversely proportional to a particle size (smaller the particle size. It is quite important to select the most suitable method for different samples as different methods can produce quite different results for the same material. but some can only be used for specific applications. the larger the angle of light scattering). including dry powders. especially for particles in the range of 0. Laser diffraction has become very popular it can be applied to many different sample types. suspensions. It is also a very fast. In just about industry where milling or grinding is used. There are many different methods employed to measure particle size.

sensors and other systems. when compared to their macrocomposite counterparts. Nanotechnology promises delivery mechanisms that can administer drugs at desired rates and at the exact location in the body. This requires the . nanocomposites promise new applications in many fields such as mechanically-reinforced lightweight components. non-linear optics.[ (5). In addition. Critical feature sizes may be from hundreds to a few nanometers. sensors and high-frequency signal-processing components. to dissipate heat faster. Development of nanoelectrochemical systems (NEMS):Nanoelectromechanical systems are characterized by small dimensions. battery cathodes and ionics. (2). (3). administration of drugs has progressed from the teaspoon to time-release capsules or implants. the residual magnetism of a magnet and the band gap of a semiconductor strongly depend on the size of the component crystals. giving more freedom to microelectronic manufacturing processes.(1). NEMS suitable for a variety of applications such as ultrafast actuators. Nanoparticles can be added to polymers and adhesives and make them electrically conductive. nanowires. where the dimension are relevant for the function of the devices. (4). Despite initial claims of greater than 50 wt% hydrogen storage. DNA chips and chips for chemical/biochemical assays:DNA chips is developed to transport electrical current as efficiently as a semiconductor. Therefore.Production of nanopowders of ceramics and other materials:Nanopowders offer a unique opportunity for semiconductor packaging. (6). Applications of nanotubes for hydrogen storage and other purposes:Hydrogen carriers based on nanostructured carbon (such as carbon buckyballs and nanotubes) have been proposed. and the melting point of metals can be significantly reduced if the particles are small enough. Alumina and silica powders can be used for electronic chips. it has generally come to be accepted that less than 1 wt% is practical. Gene targeting/drug targeting:In our modern busy lifestyle. Nanocomposites:Experimental work has generally shown that virtually all types and classes of nanocomposite materials lead to new and improved properties.

For example. but may also contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings that would prevent a sheet from being planar. ellipsoid. includes new lasers. The structure of C60 is a truncated (T=3) icosahedran. direct. with a carbon atom at the vertices of . which resembles a soccer ball of the type made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. resonant tunneling devices. Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs. Through the successful creation of molecular level machines we will be able to program these machines to do the molecular manipulation for us. they also help avoid side effects caused by large doses taken orally or by injection. All these developments not only translate to time-saving and better treatments. Nanoelectronics and nanodevices:The last one. The development into nanocarbon manipulation & control is vital for the production & creation of nanomachines & nanobots. or even implants. researchers have demonstrated how they can use nanotubes made from biocompatible metal oxides to hold therapeutic drugs and deliver these agents in a highly controlled manner. the beginning of the molecular age. This family of materials includes Nanotubes. molecules composed entirely of carbon. which is probably the most challenging area. buckytubes. fullerenes & more. which is composed of stacked sheets of linked hexagonal rings. Nanocarbon: Nanocarbons are Carbon-based materials that can be bonded at the molecular level in differing ways to achieve unique properties. and nanocomputers (based on nanotubes and other materials). membranes.free electronics for the future molecular computers. (7). Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite. nanosensors.fabrication or precise nanostructures for drug-eluting coatings. Fullerenes:Fullerene is a family of carbon allotropes. spintronics and the linking of the biological motors with inorganic nanodevices. and cylindrical ones are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. in the form of a hollow sphere. Fullerenes are unique carbon structures that have great potential for uses in future nanotechnological applications. or tube.

that carbon nanotubes can also be made by passing a carbon-containing gas. They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers known. primarily because of the high production costs of the best quality nanotubes. if not earlier.7 nm. It has been known since the 1950s. These particles catalyze the breakdown of the gaseous molecules into carbon. The 6:6 ring bonds (between two hexagons) can be considered ³double bonds´ and are shorter than the 6:5 bonds (between a hexagon and a pentagon). Its average bond length is 1. however. involves passing a current of about 50 amps between two graphite electrodes in an atmosphere of helium. It is the deposit on the cathode which contains the carbon nanotubes. Single-walled nanotubes are produced when Co and Ni or some other metal is added to the anode. The C60 molecule has two bond lengths. For these reasons they have attracted huge academic and industrial interest. The nucleus to nucleus diameter of a C60 molecule is about 0. . as in graphite. Carbon nanotube science and technology:Carbon nanotubes are molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon with outstanding properties. which produces the best quality nanotubes. and have remarkable electronic properties and many other unique characteristics. Commercial applications have been rather slow to develop. with each atom joined to three neighbors. Co or Ni. Synthesis:The arc-evaporation method. Structure:The bonding in carbon nanotubes is SP2.each polygon and a bond along each polygon edge. some of it condensing on the walls of the reaction vessel and some of it on cathode.4 angstroms. over a catalyst. such as a hydrocarbon. This causes the graphite to vaporise. with thousands of papers on nanotubes being published every year. and a tube then begins to grow with a metal particle at the tip. The catalyst consists of nano-sized particles of metal usually Fe. The vander walls diameter of a C60 molecule is about 1 nanometer (nm). The tubes can therefore be considered as rolled-up grapheme sheets (grapheme is an individual graphite layer).

These properties. coupled with the lightness of carbon nanotubes. Especially notable is the fact that nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting depending on their structure. Properties:The strength of the SP2 carbon-carbon bonds gives carbon nanotubes amazing mechanical properties. while others behave more like silicon. The perfection of carbon nanotubes produced in this way has generally been poorer than those made by arc-evaporation. There are several areas of technology where carbon nanotubes are already being used. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes will undoubtedly lead to many more applications. The third important method for making carbon nanotubes involves using a powerful laser to vaporize a metal-graphite target. Thus. but great improvements in the technique have been made in recent years. the rate of change of stress with applied strain. an Earthto-space cable first proposed by Arthur C. It has even suggested that nanotubes could be used in the ³space elevator´. and we do not yet have the degree of control necessary to achieve this. Clarke. The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes are also extraordinary. give them great potential in applications such as aerospace. The young¶s modulus of the best nanotubes can be as high as 1000 GPa which is approximately 5 x higher than steel.It was shown in 1996 that single-walled nanotubes can also be produces catalytically. The big advantage of catalytic synthesis over arc-evaporation is that it can be scaled up for volume production. Types of carbon nanotubes:(i) Single-walled:- . The stiffness of a material is measured in terms of its Young¶s modulus. This can be used to produce single-walled tubes with high yield. in order to construct a useful device we would need to arrange many thousands of nanotubes in a defined pattern. However. some nanotubes have conductivities higher than that of copper. scanning probe microscopes and sensing devices. These include flat-panel displays. and some progress is being made in this area. There is great interest in the possibility of constructing nanoscale electronic devices from nanotubes.

TechNano¶s chemically modified nano carbon tubes are far easier for integration and better bonding with the binder (e. CNTs based highly conductive transparent films are under development and could compete in the near future with metal oxide-based technologies for producing flexible displays. better mechanical properties and chemical resistance. Some of its applications are: 1. In the case of SWNT. In the case of DWNT. with a tube length that can be many millions of times longer. 2.Most single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer. (ii) Multi-Walled:Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphite. new nanofiber & nanostructures. The most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire. and SWNTs can be excellent conductors. This is especially important when functionalization is required (this means grafting of chemical functions at the surface of the nanotubes) to add new properties to the CNT. only the outer wall is modified. leaving "holes" in the structure on the nanotube and thus modifying both its mechanical and electrical properties. This level of enhancement is immensely meaningful for this type of composite. Single-walled nanotubes are an important variety of carbon nanotube because they exhibit electric properties that are not shared by the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) variants. Typical improvement measure on the fiber-reinforced composite is between 10 to 50% in strength and impact.A network of very thin conductive structures such as nanocarbon tubes given also new possibilities in thin film technology such as antistatic transparent and conductive coatings with permanent conductivity.g. Structural Composite Applications:The exceptional strength of nano carbon tubes benefits several sporting goods applications based on carbon fiber composites. epoxy or polyurethane). generally limited by the resin properties. There are two models which can be used to describe the structures of multi-walled nanotubes. . Applications:Carbon nanotubes are largely used in the research & development of nanomachines. Coating applications:. covalent functionalization will break some C=C double bonds.

Owens (4). Currently.3. At the same time. By addition of 5-10% of multi-wall nano carbon tubes will give you similar level of stiffness and strength in high performance elastomers along with improved elasticity. The loading for achieving electrical percolation with multi-wall nano carbon tubes can be 5-10 times lower than with conductive carbon black grades. Micchelle Simmons. reinforced rubber contains high loading of fillers (more than 50% wt. The geometric aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes is typically superior to 100 compared to short carbon fiber (<30) and carbonblack (>1) in the final product (e. Frank J. injection moulded part). Nanotechnology applications telecommunications networking By Daniel minolid (6).´ By Jurgen Schulte (3). REFERENCE:(1).´ By Charles P. ³Nanotechnology Basic science and emerging technologies. ³Nanotechnology global strategies.K. CNTs developed by Nano have overcome this problem. industry trends and applications.) for increasing stiffness and strength. Bandyopadhyay (5). Jr. offering a new balance of mechanical properties that cannot be matched with conventional fillers. Conductive Plastics:. Similar comparisons are made in thermoset resins like epoxies but at much lower loading.´ By Mick Wilson. Kamali Kannangara. ³Nano materials´ By A. Science at the Nanoscale. This explains the lower content needed for a given resistivity. By Chin Wee Shong.The use of nano carbon tubes for antistatic and conductive applications in polymer is already a commercial reality and is growing in sectors such as electronics and the automotive industry. 4. Reinforced Elastomers:. Burkhard Raguse (2). Geoff Smith. they lack elasticity for some applications. Sow Chorng Haur and Andrew TS Wee. ³Introduction to nanotechnology. Poole.g. .Carbon blacks are widely used for reinforcing rubbers in tyres and other industrial rubbers.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful