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An Introduction to Turbulence

Models

Lars Davidson, http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/˜lada

Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

G¨ oteborg, Sweden, February 24, 2011

CONTENTS 2

Contents

Nomenclature 3

1 Turbulence 5

1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2 Turbulent Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.4 Energy spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 Turbulence Models 12

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.2 Boussinesq Assumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3 Algebraic Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4.1 The Exact k Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4.2 The Equation for 1/2(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.5 The Modelled k Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.6 One Equation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3 Two-Equation Turbulence Models 22

3.1 The Modelled ε Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.2 Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.3 The k −ε Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.4 The k −ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.5 The k −τ Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4 Low-Re Number Turbulence Models 28

4.1 Low-Re k −ε Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re k −ε Models . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.3 Boundary Condition for ε and ˜ ε . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.4 The Two-Layer k −ε Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.5 The low-Re k −ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.5.1 The low-Re k −ω Model of Peng et al. . . . . . . . . . 36

4.5.2 The low-Re k −ω Model of Bredberg et al. . . . . . . . 36

5 Reynolds Stress Models 38

5.1 Reynolds Stress Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs. Eddy Viscosity Models . . . . . . 40

5.3 Curvature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.4 Acceleration and Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

2

Nomenclature 3

Nomenclature

Latin Symbols

c

1

, c

2

, c

s

constants in the Reynolds stress model

c

′

1

, c

′

2

constants in the Reynolds stress model

c

ε1

, c

ε2

constants in the modelled ε equation

c

ω1

, c

ω2

constants in the modelled ω equation

c

µ

constant in turbulence model

E energy (see Eq. 1.8); constant in wall functions (see Eq. 3.4)

f damping function in pressure strain tensor

k turbulent kinetic energy (≡

1

2

u

i

u

i

)

U instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in x-direction

U

i

instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in x

i

-direction

¯

U time-averaged velocity in x-direction

¯

U

i

time-averaged velocity in x

i

-direction

uv, uw shear stresses

u ﬂuctuating velocity in x-direction

u

2

normal stress in the x-direction

u

i

ﬂuctuating velocity in x

i

-direction

u

i

u

j

Reynolds stress tensor

V instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in y-direction

¯

V time-averaged velocity in y-direction

v ﬂuctuating (or laminar) velocity in y-direction

v

2

normal stress in the y-direction

vw shear stress

W instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in z-direction

¯

W time-averaged velocity in z-direction

w ﬂuctuating velocity in z-direction

w

2

normal stress in the z-direction

Greek Symbols

δ boundary layer thickness; half channel height

ε dissipation

κ wave number; von Karman constant (= 0.41)

µ dynamic viscosity

µ

t

dynamic turbulent viscosity

ν kinematic viscosity

ν

t

kinematic turbulent viscosity

Ω

i

instantaneous (or laminar) vorticity component in x

i

-direction

3

Nomenclature 4

¯

Ω

i

time-averaged vorticity component in x

i

-direction

ω speciﬁc dissipation (∝ ε/k)

ω

i

ﬂuctuating vorticity component in x

i

-direction

σ

Φ

turbulent Prandtl number for variable Φ

τ

lam

laminar shear stress

τ

tot

total shear stress

τ

turb

turbulent shear stress

Subscript

C centerline

w wall

4

5

1 Turbulence

1.1 Introduction

Almost all ﬂuid ﬂow which we encounter in daily life is turbulent. Typical

examples are ﬂow around (as well as in) cars, aeroplanes and buildings.

The boundary layers and the wakes around and after bluff bodies such as

cars, aeroplanes and buildings are turbulent. Also the ﬂowand combustion

in engines, both in piston engines and gas turbines and combustors, are

highly turbulent. Air movements in rooms are also turbulent, at least along

the walls where wall-jets are formed. Hence, when we compute ﬂuid ﬂow

it will most likely be turbulent.

In turbulent ﬂow we usually divide the variables in one time-averaged

part

¯

U, which is independent of time (when the mean ﬂow is steady), and

one ﬂuctuating part u so that U =

¯

U + u.

There is no deﬁnition on turbulent ﬂow, but it has a number of charac-

teristic features (see Tennekes & Lumley [43]) such as:

I. Irregularity. Turbulent ﬂow is irregular, random and chaotic. The

ﬂow consists of a spectrum of different scales (eddy sizes) where largest

eddies are of the order of the ﬂow geometry (i.e. boundary layer thickness,

jet width, etc). At the other end of the spectra we have the smallest ed-

dies which are by viscous forces (stresses) dissipated into internal energy.

Even though turbulence is chaotic it is deterministic and is described by

the Navier-Stokes equations.

II. Diﬀusivity. In turbulent ﬂow the diffusivity increases. This means

that the spreading rate of boundary layers, jets, etc. increases as the ﬂow

becomes turbulent. The turbulence increases the exchange of momentum

in e.g. boundary layers and reduces or delays thereby separation at bluff

bodies such as cylinders, airfoils and cars. The increased diffusivity also

increases the resistance (wall friction) in internal ﬂows such as in channels

and pipes.

III. Large Reynolds Numbers. Turbulent ﬂowoccurs at high Reynolds

number. For example, the transition to turbulent ﬂow in pipes occurs that

Re

D

≃ 2300, and in boundary layers at Re

x

≃ 100000.

IV. Three-Dimensional. Turbulent ﬂow is always three-dimensional.

However, when the equations are time averaged we can treat the ﬂow as

two-dimensional.

V. Dissipation. Turbulent ﬂow is dissipative, which means that ki-

netic energy in the small (dissipative) eddies are transformed into internal

energy. The small eddies receive the kinetic energy from slightly larger ed-

dies. The slightly larger eddies receive their energy fromeven larger eddies

and so on. The largest eddies extract their energy from the mean ﬂow. This

process of transferred energy from the largest turbulent scales (eddies) to

the smallest is called cascade process.

5

1.2 Turbulent Scales 6

VI. Continuum. Even though we have small turbulent scales in the

ﬂow they are much larger than the molecular scale and we can treat the

ﬂow as a continuum.

1.2 Turbulent Scales

As mentioned above there are a wide range of scales in turbulent ﬂow. The

larger scales are of the order of the ﬂow geometry, for example the bound-

ary layer thickness, with length scale ℓ and velocity scale U. These scales

extract kinetic energy from the mean ﬂow which has a time scale compara-

ble to the large scales, i.e.

∂

¯

U

∂y

= O(T

−1

) = O(U/ℓ)

The kinetic energy of the large scales is lost to slightly smaller scales with

which the large scales interact. Through the cascade process the kinetic en-

ergy is in this way transferred from the largest scale to smaller scales. At

the smallest scales the frictional forces (viscous stresses) become too large

and the kinetic energy is transformed (dissipated) into internal energy. The

dissipation is denoted by ε which is energy per unit time and unit mass

(ε = [m

2

/s

3

]). The dissipation is proportional to the kinematic viscosity ν

times the ﬂuctuating velocity gradient up to the power of two (see Sec-

tion 2.4.1). The friction forces exist of course at all scales, but they are

larger the smaller the eddies. Thus it is not quite true that eddies which

receive their kinetic energy from slightly larger scales give away all of that

the slightly smaller scales but a small fraction is dissipated. However it is

assumed that most of the energy (say 90 %) that goes into the large scales

is ﬁnally dissipated at the smallest (dissipative) scales.

The smallest scales where dissipation occurs are called the Kolmogo-

rov scales: the velocity scale υ, the length scale η and the time scale τ. We

assume that these scales are determined by viscosity ν and dissipation ε.

Since the kinetic energy is destroyed by viscous forces it is natural to as-

sume that viscosity plays a part in determining these scales; the larger vis-

cosity, the larger scales. The amount of energy that is to be dissipated is

ε. The more energy that is to be transformed from kinetic energy to inter-

nal energy, the larger the velocity gradients must be. Having assumed that

the dissipative scales are determined by viscosity and dissipation, we can

express υ, η and τ in ν and ε using dimensional analysis. We write

υ = ν

a

ε

b

[m/s] = [m

2

/s] [m

2

/s

3

]

(1.1)

where below each variable its dimensions are given. The dimensions of the

left-hand and the right-hand side must be the same. We get two equations,

6

1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction 7

one for meters [m]

1 = 2a + 2b, (1.2)

and one for seconds [s]

−1 = −a −3b, (1.3)

which gives a = b = 1/4. In the same way we obtain the expressions for η

and τ so that

υ = (νε)

1/4

, η =

ν

3

ε

1/4

, τ =

ν

ε

1/2

(1.4)

1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction

The interaction between vorticity and velocity gradients is an essential in-

gredient to create and maintain turbulence. Disturbances are ampliﬁed

– the actual process depending on type of ﬂow – and these disturbances,

which still are laminar and organized and well deﬁned in terms of phys-

ical orientation and frequency are turned into chaotic, three-dimensional,

random ﬂuctuations, i.e. turbulent ﬂow by interaction between the vor-

ticity vector and the velocity gradients. Two idealized phenomena in this

interaction process can be identiﬁed: vortex stretching and vortex tilting.

In order to gain some insight in vortex shedding we will study an ide-

alized, inviscid (viscosity equals to zero) case. The equation for instanta-

neous vorticity (Ω

i

=

¯

Ω

i

+ ω

i

) reads [43, 33, 46]

U

j

Ω

i,j

= Ω

j

U

i,j

+ νΩ

i,jj

Ω

i

= ǫ

ijk

U

k,j

(1.5)

where ǫ

ijk

is the Levi-Civita tensor (it is +1 if i, j k are in cyclic order, −1 if

i, j k are in anti-cyclic order, and 0 if any two of i, j k are equal), and where

(.)

,j

denotes derivation with respect to x

j

. We see that this equation is not

an ordinary convection-diffusion equation but is has an additional term on

the right-hand side which represents ampliﬁcation and rotation/tilting of

the vorticity lines. If we write it term-by-term it reads

Ω

1

U

1,1

+ Ω

2

U

1,2

+ Ω

3

U

1,3

(1.6)

Ω

1

U

2,1

+ Ω

2

U

2,2

+ Ω

3

U

2,3

Ω

1

U

3,1

+ Ω

2

U

3,2

+ Ω

3

U

3,3

The diagonal terms in this matrix represent vortex stretching. Imagine a Vortex

stretching slender, cylindrical ﬂuid element which vorticity Ω. We introduce a cylin-

drical coordinate system with the x

1

-axis as the cylinder axis and x

2

as the

7

1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction 8

Ω

1

Ω

1

Figure 1.1: Vortex stretching.

radial coordinate (see Fig. 1.1) so that Ω = (Ω

1

, 0, 0). A positive U

1,1

will

stretch the cylinder. From the continuity equation

U

1,1

+

1

r

(rU

2

)

,2

= 0

we ﬁnd that the radial derivative of the radial velocity U

2

must be negative,

i.e. the radius of the cylinder will decrease. We have neglected the viscosity

since viscous diffusion at high Reynolds number is much smaller than the

turbulent one and since viscous dissipation occurs at small scales (see p. 6).

Thus there are no viscous stresses acting on the cylindrical ﬂuid element

surface which means that the rotation momentum

r

2

Ω (1.7)

remains constant as the radius of the ﬂuid element decreases (note that also

the circulation Γ ∝ Ωr

2

is constant). Equation 1.7 shows that the vortic-

ity increases as the radius decreases. We see that a stretching/compressing

will decrease/increase the radius of a slender ﬂuid element and increase/decrease

its vorticity component aligned with the element. This process will affect

the vorticity components in the other two coordinate directions.

The off-diagonal terms in Eq. 1.6 represent vortex tilting. Again, take a Vortex

tilting slender ﬂuid element with its axis aligned with the x

2

axis, Fig. 1.2. The ve-

locity gradient U

1,2

will tilt the ﬂuid element so that it rotates in clock-wise

direction. The second term Ω

2

U

1,2

in line one in Eq. 1.6 gives a contribution

to Ω

1

.

Vortex stretching and vortex tilting thus qualitatively explains how in-

teraction between vorticity and velocity gradient create vorticity in all three

coordinate directions from a disturbance which initially was well deﬁned

in one coordinate direction. Once this process has started it continues, be-

cause vorticity generated by vortex stretching and vortex tilting interacts

with the velocity ﬁeld and creates further vorticity and so on. The vortic-

ity and velocity ﬁeld becomes chaotic and random: turbulence has been

created. The turbulence is also maintained by these processes.

From the discussion above we can now understand why turbulence al-

ways must be three-dimensional (Item IV on p. 5). If the instantaneous

ﬂow is two-dimensional we ﬁnd that all interaction terms between vortic-

ity and velocity gradients in Eq. 1.6 vanish. For example if U

3

≡ 0 and all

derivatives with respect to x

3

are zero. If U

3

≡ 0 the third line in Eq. 1.6

vanishes, and if U

i,3

≡ 0 the third column in Eq. 1.6 disappears. Finally, the

8

1.4 Energy spectrum 9

Ω

2

Ω

2

U

1

(x

2

)

Figure 1.2: Vortex tilting.

remaining terms in Eq. 1.6 will also be zero since

Ω

1

= U

3,2

−U

2,3

≡ 0

Ω

2

= U

1,3

−U

3,1

≡ 0.

The interaction between vorticity and velocity gradients will, on av-

erage, create smaller and smaller scales. Whereas the large scales which

interact with the mean ﬂow have an orientation imposed by the mean ﬂow

the small scales will not remember the structure and orientation of the large

scales. Thus the small scales will be isotropic, i.e independent of direction.

1.4 Energy spectrum

The turbulent scales are distributed over a range of scales which extends

from the largest scales which interact with the mean ﬂow to the smallest

scales where dissipation occurs. In wave number space the energy of ed-

dies from κ to κ + dκ can be expressed as

E(κ)dκ (1.8)

where Eq. 1.8 expresses the contribution from the scales with wave number

between κ and κ + dκ to the turbulent kinetic energy k. The dimension

of wave number is one over length; thus we can think of wave number

as proportional to the inverse of an eddy’s radius, i.e κ ∝ 1/r. The total

turbulent kinetic energy is obtained by integrating over the whole wave

number space i.e.

k =

∞

0

E(κ)dκ (1.9)

9

1.4 Energy spectrum 10

I

I

I

III

κ

E(κ)

Figure 1.3: Spectrum for k. I: Range for the large, energy containing eddies.

II: the inertial subrange. III: Range for small, isotropic scales.

The kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energy of the three ﬂuctuat-

ing velocity components, i.e.

k =

1

2

u

2

+ v

2

+ w

2

=

1

2

u

i

u

i

(1.10)

The spectrumof E is shown in Fig. 1.3. We ﬁnd region I, II and III which

correspond to:

I. In the region we have the large eddies which carry most of the energy.

These eddies interact with the mean ﬂow and extract energy from the

mean ﬂow. Their energy is past on to slightly smaller scales. The

eddies’ velocity and length scales are U and ℓ, respectively.

III. Dissipation range. The eddies are small and isotropic and it is here

that the dissipation occurs. The scales of the eddies are described by

the Kolmogorov scales (see Eq. 1.4)

II. Inertial subrange. The existence of this region requires that the Reynolds

number is high (fully turbulent ﬂow). The eddies in this region repre-

sent the mid-region. This region is a “transport” region in the cascade

process. Energy per time unit (ε) is coming from the large eddies at

the lower part of this range and is given off to the dissipation range

at the higher part. The eddies in this region are independent of both

the large, energy containing eddies and the eddies in the dissipation

range. One can argue that the eddies in this region should be char-

acterized by the ﬂow of energy (ε) and the size of the eddies 1/κ.

Dimensional reasoning gives

E(κ) = const. ε

2

3

κ

−

5

3

(1.11)

This is a very important law (Kolmogorov spectrum law or the −5/3

law) which states that, if the ﬂow is fully turbulent (high Reynolds

10

1.4 Energy spectrum 11

number), the energy spectra should exhibit a −5/3-decay. This of-

ten used in experiment and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct

Numerical Simulations (DNS) to verify that the ﬂow is fully turbu-

lent.

As explained on p. 6 (cascade process) the energy dissipated at the small

scales can be estimated using the large scales U and ℓ. The energy at the

large scales lose their energy during a time proportional to ℓ/U, which gives

ε = O

U

2

ℓ/U

= O

U

3

ℓ

(1.12)

11

12

2 Turbulence Models

2.1 Introduction

When the ﬂow is turbulent it is preferable to decompose the instantaneous

variables (for example velocity components and pressure) into a mean value

and a ﬂuctuating value, i.e.

U

i

=

¯

U

i

+ u

i

P =

¯

P + p.

(2.1)

One reason why we decompose the variables is that when we measure ﬂow

quantities we are usually interested in the mean values rather that the time

histories. Another reason is that when we want to solve the Navier-Stokes

equation numerically it would require a very ﬁne grid to resolve all tur-

bulent scales and it would also require a ﬁne resolution in time (turbulent

ﬂow is always unsteady).

The continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation read

∂ρ

∂t

+ (ρU

i

)

,i

= 0 (2.2)

∂ρU

i

∂t

+ (ρU

i

U

j

)

,j

= −P

,i

+

¸

µ

U

i,j

+ U

j,i

−

2

3

δ

ij

U

k,k

,j

(2.3)

where (.)

,j

denotes derivation with respect to x

j

. Since we are dealing with

incompressible ﬂow(i.e lowMach number) the dilatation termon the right-

hand side of Eq. 2.3 is neglected so that

∂ρU

i

∂t

+ (ρU

i

U

j

)

,j

= −P

,i

+ [µ(U

i,j

+ U

j,i

)]

,j

. (2.4)

Note that we here use the term“incompressible” in the sense that density is

independent of pressure (∂P/∂ρ = 0) , but it does not mean that density is

constant; it can be dependent on for example temperature or concentration.

Inserting Eq. 2.1 into the continuity equation (2.2) and the Navier-Stokes

equation (2.4) we obtain the time averaged continuity equation and Navier-

Stokes equation

∂ρ

∂t

+ (ρ

¯

U

i

)

,i

= 0 (2.5)

∂ρ

¯

U

i

∂t

+

ρ

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

,j

= −

¯

P

,i

+

µ(

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

) −ρu

i

u

j

,j

. (2.6)

A new term u

i

u

j

appears on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.6 which is

called the Reynolds stress tensor. The tensor is symmetric (for example u

1

u

2

=

u

2

u

1

). It represents correlations between ﬂuctuating velocities. It is an ad-

ditional stress term due to turbulence (ﬂuctuating velocities) and it is un-

known. We need a model for u

i

u

j

to close the equation system in Eq. 2.6.

12

2.1 Introduction 13

y

τ

τ

lam

τ

turb

τ

tot

y

+

≃ 10

Figure 2.1: Shear stress near a wall.

This is called the closure problem: the number of unknowns (ten: three veloc- closure

problem ity components, pressure, six stresses) is larger than the number of equa-

tions (four: the continuity equation and three components of the Navier-

Stokes equations).

For steady, two-dimensional boundary-layer type of ﬂow (i.e. bound-

ary layers along a ﬂat plate, channel ﬂow, pipe ﬂow, jet and wake ﬂow, etc.)

where

¯

V ≪

¯

U,

∂

∂x

≪

∂

∂y

(2.7)

Eq. 2.6 reads

∂ρ

¯

U

¯

U

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V

¯

U

∂y

= −

∂

¯

P

∂x

+

∂

∂y

¸

µ

∂

¯

U

∂y

−ρuv

. .. .

τtot

. (2.8)

x = x

1

denotes streamwise coordinate, and y = x

2

coordinate normal to

the ﬂow. Often the pressure gradient ∂

¯

P/∂x is zero.

To the viscous shear stress µ∂

¯

U/∂y on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.8 shear

stress appears an additional turbulent one, a turbulent shear stress. The total shear

stress is thus

τ

tot

= µ

∂

¯

U

∂y

−ρuv

In the wall region (the viscous sublayer, the buffert layer and the logarith-

mic layer) the total shear stress is approximately constant and equal to the

wall shear stress τ

w

, see Fig. 2.1. Note that the total shear stress is constant

only close to the wall; further away from the wall it decreases (in fully de-

veloped channel ﬂow it decreases linearly by the distance form the wall).

At the wall the turbulent shear stress vanishes as u = v = 0, and the viscous

shear stress attains its wall-stress value τ

w

= ρu

2

∗

. As we go away from the

wall the viscous stress decreases and turbulent one increases and at y

+

≃ 10

they are approximately equal. In the logarithmic layer the viscous stress is

negligible compared to the turbulent stress.

In boundary-layer type of ﬂow the turbulent shear stress and the ve-

locity gradient ∂

¯

U/∂y have nearly always opposite sign (for a wall jet this

13

2.1 Introduction 14

x

y

v < 0 v > 0

y

1

y

2

U(y)

Figure 2.2: Sign of the turbulent shear stress −ρuv in a boundary layer.

is not the case close to the wall). To get a physical picture of this let us

study the ﬂow in a boundary layer, see Fig. 2.2. A ﬂuid particle is moving

downwards (particle drawn with solid line) from y

2

to y

1

with (the turbu-

lent ﬂuctuating) velocity v. At its new location the U velocity is in average

smaller than at its old, i.e.

¯

U(y

1

) <

¯

U(y

2

). This means that when the par-

ticle at y

2

(which has streamwise velocity U(y

2

)) comes down to y

1

(where

the streamwise velocity is U(y

1

)) is has an excess of streamwise velocity

compared to its new environment at y

1

. Thus the streamwise ﬂuctuation is

positive, i.e. u > 0 and the correlation between u and v is negative (uv < 0).

If we look at the other particle (dashed line in Fig. 2.2) we reach the

same conclusion. The particle is moving upwards (v > 0), and it is bringing

a deﬁcit in U so that u < 0. Thus, again, uv < 0. If we study this ﬂow for

a long time and average over time we get uv < 0. If we change the sign

of the velocity gradient so that ∂

¯

U/∂y < 0 we will ﬁnd that the sign of uv

also changes.

Above we have used physical reasoning to show the the signs of uv

and ∂

¯

U/∂y are opposite. This can also be found by looking at the produc-

tion term in the transport equation of the Reynolds stresses (see Section 5).

In cases where the shear stress and the velocity gradient have the same

sign (for example, in a wall jet) this means that there are other terms in the

transport equation which are more important than the production term.

There are different levels of approximations involved when closing the

equation system in Eq. 2.6.

I. Algebraic models. An algebraic equation is used to compute a tur-

bulent viscosity, often called eddy viscosity. The Reynolds stress ten-

sor is then computedusing an assumption which relates the Reynolds

stress tensor to the velocity gradients and the turbulent viscosity. This

assumption is called the Boussinesq assumption. Models which are

based on a turbulent (eddy) viscosity are called eddy viscosity mod-

14

2.2 Boussinesq Assumption 15

els.

II. One-equation models. In these models a transport equation is solved

for a turbulent quantity (usually the turbulent kinetic energy) and

a second turbulent quantity (usually a turbulent length scale) is ob-

tained from an algebraic expression. The turbulent viscosity is calcu-

lated from Boussinesq assumption.

III. Two-equation models. These models fall into the class of eddy vis-

cosity models. Two transport equations are derived which describe

transport of two scalars, for example the turbulent kinetic energy k

and its dissipation ε. The Reynolds stress tensor is then computed

using an assumption which relates the Reynolds stress tensor to the

velocity gradients and an eddy viscosity. The latter is obtained from

the two transported scalars.

IV. Reynolds stress models. Here a transport equation is derived for

the Reynolds tensor u

i

u

j

. One transport equation has to be added for

determining the length scale of the turbulence. Usually an equation

for the dissipation ε is used.

Above the different types of turbulence models have been listed in in-

creasing order of complexity, ability to model the turbulence, and cost in

terms of computational work (CPU time).

2.2 Boussinesq Assumption

In eddy viscosity turbulence models the Reynolds stresses are linked to

the velocity gradients via the turbulent viscosity: this relation is called the

Boussinesq assumption, where the Reynolds stress tensor in the time aver-

aged Navier-Stokes equation is replaced by the turbulent viscosity multi-

plied by the velocity gradients. To show this we introduce this assumption

for the diffusion term at the right-hand side of Eq. 2.6 and make an identi-

ﬁcation

µ(

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

) −ρu

i

u

j

,j

=

(µ + µ

t

)(

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

)

,j

which gives

ρu

i

u

j

= −µ

t

(

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

). (2.9)

If we in Eq. 2.9 do a contraction (i.e. setting indices i = j) the right-hand

side gives

u

i

u

i

≡ 2k

where k is the turbulent kinetic energy (see Eq. 1.10). On the other hand

the continuity equation (Eq. 2.5) gives that the right-hand side of Eq. 2.9

15

2.3 Algebraic Models 16

is equal to zero. In order to make Eq. 2.9 valid upon contraction we add

2/3ρδ

ij

k to the left-hand side of Eq. 2.9 so that

ρu

i

u

j

= −µ

t

(

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

) +

2

3

δ

ij

ρk. (2.10)

Note that contraction of δ

ij

gives

δ

ii

= δ

11

+ δ

22

+ δ

33

= 1 + 1 + 1 = 3

2.3 Algebraic Models

In eddy viscosity models we want an expression for the turbulent viscosity

µ

t

= ρν

t

. The dimension of ν

t

is [m

2

/s] (same as ν). A turbulent velocity Eddy

viscosity

model

scale multiplied with a turbulent length scale gives the correct dimension,

i.e.

ν

t

∝ Uℓ (2.11)

Above we have used U and ℓ which are characteristic for the large turbulent

scales. This is reasonable, because it is these scales which are responsible

for most of the transport by turbulent diffusion.

In an algebraic turbulence model the velocity gradient is used as a ve-

locity scale and some physical length is used as the length scale. In bound-

ary layer-type of ﬂow (see Eq. 2.7) we obtain

ν

t

= ℓ

2

mix

∂U

∂y

(2.12)

where y is the coordinate normal to the wall, and where ℓ

mix

is the mixing

length, and the model is called the mixing length model. It is an old model

and is hardly used any more. One problem with the model is that ℓ

mix

is

unknown and must be determined.

More modern algebraic models are the Baldwin-Lomax model [2] and

the Cebeci-Smith [6] model which are frequently used in aerodynamics

when computing the ﬂow around airfoils, aeroplanes, etc. For a presen-

tation and discussion of algebraic turbulence models the interested reader

is referred to Wilcox [48].

2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy

2.4.1 The Exact k Equation

The equation for turbulent kinetic energy k =

1

2

u

i

u

i

is derived from the

Navier-Stokes equation which reads assuming steady, incompressible, con-

stant viscosity (cf. Eq. 2.4)

(ρU

i

U

j

)

,j

= −P

,i

+ µU

i,jj

. (2.13)

16

2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy 17

The time averaged Navier-Stokes equation reads (cf. Eq. 2.6)

(ρ

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

)

,j

= −

¯

P

,i

+ µ

¯

U

i,jj

−ρ(u

i

u

j

)

,j

(2.14)

Subtract Eq. 2.14 from Eq. 2.13, multiply by u

i

and time average and we

obtain

ρU

i

U

j

−ρ

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

,j

u

i

=

−

P −

¯

P

,i

u

i

+ µ

U

i

−

¯

U

i

,jj

u

i

+ ρ(u

i

u

j

)

,j

u

i

(2.15)

The left-hand side can be rewritten as

ρ

(

¯

U

i

+ u

i

)(

¯

U

j

+ u

j

) −

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

,j

u

i

= ρ

¯

U

i

u

j

+ u

i

¯

U

j

+ u

i

u

j

,j

u

i

. (2.16)

Using the continuity equation (ρu

j

)

,j

= 0, the ﬁrst term is rewritten as

ρ

¯

U

i

u

j

,j

u

i

= ρu

i

u

j

¯

U

i,j

. (2.17)

We obtain the second term (using (ρ

¯

U

j

)

,j

= 0) from

ρ

¯

U

j

k

,j

=

¯

U

j

ρ

¸

1

2

u

i

u

i

,j

=

1

2

ρ

¯

U

j

{u

i

u

i,j

+ u

i

u

i,j

} = u

i

ρ

¯

U

j

u

i

,j

(2.18)

The third term in Eq. 2.16 can be written as (using the same technique as in

Eq. 2.18)

1

2

(ρu

j

u

i

u

i

)

,j

. (2.19)

The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.15 has the form

−p

,i

u

i

= −(pu

i

)

,i

(2.20)

The second term on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.15 reads

µu

i,jj

u

i

= µ

(u

i,j

u

i

)

,j

−u

i,j

u

i,j

¸

(2.21)

For the ﬁrst term we use the same trick as in Eq. 2.18 so that

µ(u

i,j

u

i

)

,j

= µ

1

2

(u

i

u

i

)

,jj

= µk

,jj

(2.22)

The last term on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.15 is zero. Now we can

assemble the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy. Equa-

tions 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 2.21,2.22 give

(ρ

¯

U

j

k)

,j

. .. .

I

= −ρu

i

u

j

¯

U

i,j

. .. .

II

−

¸

u

j

p +

1

2

ρu

j

u

i

u

i

−µk

,j

,j

. .. .

III

−µu

i,j

u

i,j

. .. .

IV

(2.23)

The terms in Eq. 2.23 have the following meaning.

17

2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy 18

0 5 10 15 20

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

x

+

2

Figure 2.3: Channel ﬂow at Re

τ

= 2000. Comparison of mean and ﬂuc-

tuating dissipation terms. Both terms are normalized by u

4

τ

/ν. DNS

data [21, 20]. Solid line: ν(∂

¯

V

1

/∂x

2

)

2

; dashed line: ε.

I. Convection.

II. Production. The large turbulent scales extract energy fromthe mean

ﬂow. This term (including the minus sign) is almost always positive.

III. The two ﬁrst terms represent turbulent diﬀusion by pressure-velocity

ﬂuctuations, and velocity ﬂuctuations, respectively. The last term is

viscous diffusion.

IV. Dissipation. This term is responsible for transformation of kinetic

energy at small scales to internal energy. The term (including the

minus sign) is always negative.

In boundary-layer ﬂow the exact k equation read

∂ρ

¯

Uk

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V k

∂y

= −ρuv

∂

¯

U

∂y

−

∂

∂y

¸

pv +

1

2

ρvu

i

u

i

−µ

∂k

∂y

−µu

i,j

u

i,j

(2.24)

Note that the dissipation includes all derivatives. This is because the dis-

sipation term is at its largest for small, isotropic scales where the usual

boundary-layer approximation that ∂u

i

/∂x ≪∂u

i

/∂y is not valid.

2.4.2 The Equation for 1/2(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

)

The equation for 1/2(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

) is derived in the same way as that for 1/2u

′

i

u

′

i

.

Assume steady, incompressible ﬂow with constant viscosity and multiply

the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (Eq. 2.14) so that

¯

U

i

(ρ

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

)

,j

= −

¯

U

i

¯

P

,i

+ µ

¯

U

i

¯

U

i,jj

−

¯

U

i

ρ(u

i

u

j

)

,j

. (2.25)

The term on the left-hand side can be rewritten as

(ρ

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

)

,j

−ρ

¯

U

i

¯

U

j

¯

U

i,j

= ρ

¯

U

j

(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

)

,j

−

1

2

ρ

¯

U

j

(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

)

,j

=

1

2

ρ

¯

U

j

(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

)

,j

= (ρ

¯

U

j

¯

KK)

,j

(2.26)

18

2.5 The Modelled k Equation 19

The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.25 can be written as

−U

i

P

,i

= −(U

i

P)

,i

. (2.27)

The viscous term in Eq. 2.25 is rewritten in the same way as the viscous

term in Section 2.4.1, see Eqs. 2.21 and 2.22, i.e.

µ

¯

U

i

¯

U

i,jj

= µ

¯

K

,jj

−µ

¯

U

i,j

¯

U

i,j

. (2.28)

Now we can assemble the transport equation for

¯

K by inserting Eqs. 2.26,

2.27 and 2.28 into Eq. 2.25

(ρ

¯

U

j

¯

K)

,j

= µ

¯

K

,jj

−(

¯

U

i

¯

P)

,i

−µ

¯

U

i,j

¯

U

i,j

−

¯

U

i

ρ(u

i

u

j

)

,j

, (2.29)

where

¯

K = 1/2(

¯

U

i

¯

U

i

). The last term is rewritten as

−

¯

U

i

ρ(u

i

u

j

)

,j

= −(

¯

U

i

ρu

i

u

j

)

,j

+ ρ(u

i

u

j

)

¯

U

i,j

. (2.30)

Inserted in Eq. 2.29 gives

(ρ

¯

U

j

¯

K)

,j

= µ

¯

K

,jj

−(

¯

U

i

¯

P)

,i

−µ

¯

U

i,j

¯

U

i,j

−(

¯

U

i

ρu

i

u

j

)

,j

+ ρu

i

u

j

¯

U

i,j

.

(2.31)

On the left-hand side we have the usual convective term. On the right-hand

side we ﬁnd: transport by viscous diffusion, transport by pressure-velocity

interaction, viscous dissipation, transport by velocity-stress interaction and

loss of energy to the ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁeld, i.e. to k. Note that the last

term in Eq. 2.31 is the same as the last term in Eq. 2.23 but with opposite

sign: here we clearly can see that the main source term in the k equation

(the production term) appears as a sink term in the

¯

K equation.

In the

¯

K equation the dissipation term and the negative production

term (representing loss of kinetic energy to the k ﬁeld) read

−µ

¯

U

i,j

¯

U

i,j

+ ρu

i

u

j

¯

U

i,j

, (2.32)

and in the k equation the production and the dissipation terms read

−ρu

i

u

j

¯

U

i,j

−µu

i,j

u

i,j

. (2.33)

The gradient of the time-averaged velocity ﬁeld,

¯

U

i

, is much smoother

than that of the ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁeld, u

′

i

. Hence the dissipation by the

ﬂuctuations, ε, is much larger than the dissipation by the mean ﬂow (left

side of Eq. 2.32). This is clearly seen in Fig. 2.3. The mean dissipation,

ν(∂

¯

U

1

/∂x

2

)

2

, is largest at the wall where it takes the value ν = 1/2000

(normalized by u

4

τ

/ν).

19

2.5 The Modelled k Equation 20

2.5 The Modelled k Equation

In Eq. 2.23 a number of terms are unknown, namely the production term,

the turbulent diffusion term and the dissipation term.

In the production term it is the stress tensor which is unknown. Since production

term we have an expression for this which is used in the Navier-Stokes equation

we use the same expression in the production term. Equation 2.10 inserted

in the production term (term II) in Eq. 2.23 gives

P

k

= −ρu

i

u

j

¯

U

i,j

= µ

t

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

¯

U

i,j

−

2

3

ρk

¯

U

i,i

(2.34)

Note that the last term in Eq. 2.34 is zero for incompressible ﬂow due to

continuity.

The triple correlations in termIII in Eq. 2.23 is modeled using a gradient turbulent

diﬀusion

term

lawwhere we assume that k is diffused down the gradient, i.e fromregion of

high k to regions of small k (cf. Fourier’s law for heat ﬂux: heat is diffused

from hot to cold regions). We get

1

2

ρu

j

u

i

u

i

= −

µ

t

σ

k

k

,j

. (2.35)

where σ

k

is the turbulent Prandtl number for k. There is no model for the

pressure diffusion term in Eq. 2.23. It is small (see Figs. 4.1 and 4.3) and

thus it is simply neglected.

The dissipation termin Eq. 2.23 is basically estimated as in Eq. 1.12. The dissipation

term velocity scale is now

U =

√

k (2.36)

so that

ε ≡ νu

i,j

u

i,j

=

k

3

2

ℓ

(2.37)

The modelled k equation can now be assembled and we get

(ρ

¯

U

j

k)

,j

=

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

k

k

,j

,j

+ P

k

−ρ

k

3

2

ℓ

(2.38)

We have one constant in the turbulent diffusion term and it will be de-

termined later. The dissipation term contains another unknown quantity,

the turbulent length scale. An additional transport will be derived from

which we can compute ℓ. In the k −ε model, where ε is obtained from its

own transport, the dissipation term ρk

3

2

/ℓ in Eq. 2.38 is simply ρε.

For boundary-layer ﬂow Eq. 2.38 has the form

∂ρ

¯

Uk

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V k

∂y

=

∂

∂y

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

k

∂k

∂y

+ µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

2

−ρ

k

3

2

ℓ

. (2.39)

20

2.6 One Equation Models 21

2.6 One Equation Models

In one equation models a transport equation is often solved for the turbu-

lent kinetic energy. The unknown turbulent length scale must be given,

and often an algebraic expression is used [4, 50]. This length scale is, for

example, taken as proportional to the thickness of the boundary layer, the

width of a jet or a wake. The main disadvantage of this type of model is

that it is not applicable to general ﬂows since it is not possible to ﬁnd a

general expression for an algebraic length scale.

However, some proposals have been made where the turbulent length

scale is computed in a more general way [14, 32]. In [32] a transport equa-

tion for turbulent viscosity is used.

21

22

3 Two-Equation Turbulence Models

3.1 The Modelled ε Equation

An exact equation for the dissipation can be derivedfromthe Navier-Stokes

equation (see, for instance, Wilcox [48]). However, the number of unknown

terms is very large and they involve double correlations of ﬂuctuating ve-

locities, and gradients of ﬂuctuating velocities and pressure. It is better to

derive an ε equation based on physical reasoning. In the exact equation for

ε the production term includes, as in the k equation, turbulent quantities

and and velocity gradients. If we choose to include u

i

u

j

and

¯

U

i,j

in the

production term and only turbulent quantities in the dissipation term, we

take, glancing at the k equation (Eq. 2.38)

P

ε

= −c

ε1

ε

k

¯

U

i,j

+

¯

U

j,i

¯

U

i,j

(3.1)

diss.term = −c

ε2

ρ

ε

2

k

.

Note that for the production term we have P

ε

= c

ε1

(ε/k)P

k

. Now we can

write the transport equation for the dissipation as

(ρ

¯

U

j

ε)

,j

=

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

ε

ε

,j

,j

+

ε

k

(c

ε1

P

k

−c

ε2

ρε) (3.2)

For boundary-layer ﬂow Eq. 3.2 reads

∂ρ

¯

Uε

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V ε

∂y

=

∂

∂y

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

ε

∂ε

∂y

+ c

ε1

ε

k

µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

2

−ρc

ε2

ε

2

k

(3.3)

3.2 Wall Functions

The natural way to treat wall boundaries is to make the grid sufﬁciently ﬁne

so that the sharp gradients prevailing there are resolved. Often, when com-

puting complex three-dimensional ﬂow, that requires too much computer

resources. An alternative is to assume that the ﬂow near the wall behaves

like a fully developed turbulent boundary layer and prescribe boundary

conditions employing wall functions. The assumption that the ﬂow near

the wall has the characteristics of a that in a boundary layer if often not

true at all. However, given a maximum number of nodes that we can af-

ford to use in a computation, it is often preferable to use wall functions

which allows us to use ﬁne grid in other regions where the gradients of the

ﬂow variables are large.

In a fully turbulent boundary layer the production term and the dissi-

pation term in the log-law region (30 < y

+

< 100) are much larger than the

22

3.2 Wall Functions 23

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

−20

−10

0

10

20

L

o

s

s

G

a

i

n

y

+

Production

Dissipation

Diﬀusion

Convection

Figure 3.1: Boundary along a ﬂat plate. Energy balance in k equation [45].

Re

δ

≃ 4400, u

∗

/U

0

≃ 0.043.

other terms, see Fig. 3.1. The log-law we use can be written as

U

u

∗

=

1

κ

ln

Eu

∗

y

ν

(3.4)

E = 9.0 (3.5)

Comparing this with the standard form of the log-law

U

u

∗

= Aln

u

∗

y

ν

+ B (3.6)

we see that

A =

1

κ

(3.7)

B =

1

κ

ln E.

In the log-layer we can write the modelled k equation (see Eq. 2.39) as

0 = µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

2

−ρε. (3.8)

where we have replaced the dissipation term ρk

3

2

/ℓ by ρε. In the log-law

region the shear stress −ρuv is equal to the wall shear stress τ

w

, see Fig. 2.1.

The Boussinesq assumption for the shear stress reads (see Eq. 2.10)

τ

w

= −ρuv = µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

(3.9)

Using the deﬁnition of the wall shear stress τ

w

= ρu

2

∗

, and inserting Eqs. 3.9,

3.15 into Eq. 3.8 we get

c

µ

=

u

2

∗

k

2

(3.10)

23

3.2 Wall Functions 24

From experiments we have that in the log-law region of a boundary layer

u

2

∗

/k ≃ 0.3 so that c

µ

= 0.09. c

µ

con-

stant When we are using wall functions k and ε are not solved at the nodes

adjacent to the walls. Instead they are ﬁxed according to the theory pre-

sented above. The turbulent kinetic energy is set from Eq. 3.10, i.e. b.c. for k

k

P

= c

−1/2

µ

u

2

∗

(3.11)

where the friction velocity u

∗

is obtained, iteratively, fromthe log-law(Eq. 3.4).

Index P denotes the ﬁrst interior node (adjacent to the wall).

The dissipation ε is obtained from observing that production and dis-

sipation are in balance (see Eq. 3.8). The dissipation can thus be written

as b.c. for ε

ε

P

= P

k

=

u

3

∗

κy

(3.12)

where the velocity gradient in the production term −uv∂U/∂y has been

computed from the log-law in Eq. 3.4, i.e.

∂U

∂y

=

u

∗

κy

. (3.13)

For the velocity component parallel to the wall the wall shear stress is b.c. for

velocity used as a ﬂux boundary condition (cf. prescribing heat ﬂux in the temper-

ature equation).

When the wall is not parallel to any velocity component, it is more con-

venient to prescribe the turbulent viscosity. The wall shear stress τ

w

is ob-

tained by calculating the viscosity at the node adjacent to the wall from the

log-law. The viscosity used in momentum equations is prescribed at the

nodes adjacent to the wall (index P) as follows. The shear stress at the wall

can be expressed as

τ

w

= µ

t,P

∂

¯

U

∂η

≈ µ

t,P

¯

U

,P

η

where

¯

U

,P

denotes the velocity parallel to the wall and η is the normal

distance to the wall. Using the deﬁnition of the friction velocity u

∗

τ

w

= ρu

2

∗

we obtain

µ

t,P

U

,P

η

= ρu

2

∗

→µ

t,P

=

u

∗

U

,P

ρu

∗

η

Substituting u

∗

/

¯

U

,P

with the log-law (Eq. 3.4) we ﬁnally can write

µ

t,P

=

ρu

∗

ηκ

ln(Eη

+

)

where η

+

= u

∗

η/ν.

24

3.3 The k −ε Model 25

3.3 The k −ε Model

In the k −ε model the modelled transport equations for k and ε (Eqs. 2.38,

3.2) are solved. The turbulent length scale is obtainedfrom(see Eq. 1.12,2.37)

ℓ =

k

3/2

ε

. (3.14)

The turbulent viscosity is computed from (see Eqs. 2.11, 2.36, 1.12)

ν

t

= c

µ

k

1/2

ℓ = c

µ

k

2

ε

. (3.15)

We have ﬁve unknown constants c

µ

, c

ε1

, c

ε2

, σ

k

and σ

ε

, which we hope

should be universal i.e same for all types of ﬂows. Simple ﬂows are chosen

where the equation can be simpliﬁed and where experimental data are used

to determine the constants. The c

µ

constant was determined above (Sub-

section 3.2). The k equation in the logarithmic part of a turbulent boundary

layer was studied where the convection and the diffusion term could be

neglected.

In a similar way we can ﬁnd a value for the c

ε1

constant . We look at the c

ε1

con-

stant ε equation for the logarithmic part of a turbulent boundary layer, where the

convection termis negligible, and utilizing that production and dissipation

are in balance P

k

= ρε, we can write Eq. 3.3 as

0 =

∂

∂y

¸

µ

t

σ

ε

∂ε

∂y

. .. .

Dε

+(c

ε1

−c

ε2

) ρ

ε

2

k

(3.16)

The dissipation and production termcan be estimatedas (see Sub-section 3.2)

ε =

k

3/2

ℓ

(3.17)

P

k

= ρ

u

3

∗

κy

,

which together with P

k

= ρε gives

ℓ = κc

−3/4

µ

y. (3.18)

In the logarithmic layer we have that ∂k/∂y = 0, but fromEqs. 3.17, 3.18 we

ﬁnd that ∂ε/∂y = 0. Instead the diffusion term in Eq. 3.16 can be rewritten

using Eqs. 3.17, 3.18, 3.15 as

D

ε

=

∂

∂y

¸

µ

t

σ

ε

∂

∂y

k

3/2

κc

−3/4

µ

y

¸

=

k

2

κ

2

σ

ε

ℓ

2

c

1/2

µ

(3.19)

25

3.4 The k −ω Model 26

Inserting Eq. 3.19 and Eq. 3.17 into Eq. 3.16 gives

c

ε1

= c

ε2

−

κ

2

c

1/2

µ

σ

ε

(3.20)

The ﬂow behind a turbulence generating grid is a simple ﬂow which

allows us to determine the c

ε2

constant. Far behind the grid the velocity c

ε2

con-

stant gradients are very small which means that P

k

= 0. Furthermore V = 0 and

the diffusion terms are negligible so that the modelled k and ε equations

(Eqs. 2.38, 3.2) read

ρ

¯

U

dk

dx

= −ρε (3.21)

ρ

¯

U

dε

dx

= −c

ε2

ρ

ε

2

k

(3.22)

Assuming that the decay of k is exponential k ∝ x

−m

, Eq. 3.21 gives k ∝

−mx

−m−1

. Insert this in Eq. 3.21, derivate to ﬁnd dε/dx and insert it into

Eq. 3.22 yields

c

ε2

=

m + 1

m

(3.23)

Experimental data give m = 1.25 ±0.06 [45], and c

ε2

= 1.92 is chosen.

We have found three relations (Eqs. 3.10, 3.20, 3.23) to determine three

of the ﬁve unknown constants. The last two constants, σ

k

and σ

ε

, are opti-

mized by applying the model to various fundamental ﬂows such as ﬂow in

channel, pipes, jets, wakes, etc. The ﬁve constants are given the following

values: c

µ

= 0.09, c

ε1

= 1.44, c

ε2

= 1.92, σ

k

= 1.0, σ

ε

= 1.31.

3.4 The k −ω Model

The k − ω model is gaining in popularity. The model was proposed by

Wilcox [47, 48, 38]. In this model the standard k equation is solved, but as a

length determining equation ω is used. This quantity is often called speciﬁc

dissipation from its deﬁnition ω ∝ ε/k. The modelled k and ω equation read

(ρ

¯

U

j

k)

,j

=

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

ω

k

k

,j

,j

+ P

k

−β

∗

ωk (3.24)

(ρ

¯

U

j

ω)

,j

=

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

ω

ω

,j

,j

+

ω

k

(c

ω1

P

k

−c

ω2

ρkω) (3.25)

µ

t

= ρ

k

ω

, ε = β

∗

ωk.

26

3.5 The k −τ Model 27

The constants are determined as in Sub-section 3.3: β

∗

= 0.09, c

ω1

= 5/9,

c

ω2

= 3/40, σ

ω

k

= 2 and σ

ω

= 2.

When wall functions are usedk and ω are prescribed as (cf. Sub-section 3.2):

k

wall

= (β

∗

)

−1/2

u

2

∗

, ω

wall

= (β

∗

)

−1/2

u

∗

κy

. (3.26)

In regions of low turbulence when both k and ε go to zero, large numer-

ical problems for the k −ε model appear in the ε equation as k becomes

zero. The destruction term in the ε equation includes ε

2

/k, and this causes

problems as k → 0 even if ε also goes to zero; they must both go to zero

at a correct rate to avoid problems, and this is often not the case. On the

contrary, no such problems appear in the ω equation. If k → 0 in the ω

equation in Eq. 3.24, the turbulent diffusion term simply goes to zero. Note

that the production term in the ω equation does not include k since

ω

k

c

ω1

P

k

=

ω

k

c

ω1

µ

t

∂

¯

U

i

∂x

j

+

∂

¯

U

j

∂x

i

∂

¯

U

i

∂x

j

= c

ω1

β

∗

∂

¯

U

i

∂x

j

+

∂

¯

U

j

∂x

i

∂

¯

U

i

∂x

j

.

In Ref. [37] the k − ω model was used to predict transitional, recirculating

ﬂow.

3.5 The k −τ Model

One of the most recent proposals is the k − τ model of Speziale et al. [41]

where the transport equation for the turbulent time scale τ is derived. The

exact equation for τ = k/ε is derived from the exact k and ε equations. The

modelled k and τ equations read

(ρ

¯

U

j

k)

,j

=

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

τ

k

k

,j

,j

+ P

k

−ρ

k

τ

(3.27)

(ρ

¯

U

j

τ)

,j

=

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

τ2

τ

,j

,j

+

τ

k

¸

(1 −c

ε1

)P

k

+ (c

ε2

−1)

k

τ

(3.28)

+

2

k

µ +

µ

t

σ

τ1

k

,j

τ

,j

−

2

τ

µ +

µ

t

σ

τ2

τ

,j

τ

,j

µ

t

= c

µ

ρkτ, ε = k/τ

The constants are: c

µ

, c

ε1

and c

ε2

are taken from the k −ε model, and σ

τ

k

=

σ

τ1

= σ

τ2

= 1.36.

27

28

4 Low-Re Number Turbulence Models

In the previous section we discussed wall functions which are used in order

to reduce the number of cells. However, we must be aware that this is

an approximation which, if the ﬂow near the boundary is important, can

be rather crude. In many internal ﬂows – where all boundaries are either

walls, symmetry planes, inlet or outlets – the boundary layer may not be

that important, as the ﬂow ﬁeld is often pressure-determined. For external

ﬂows (for example ﬂow around cars, ships, aeroplanes etc.), however, the

ﬂow conditions in the boundaries are almost invariably important. When

we are predicting heat transfer it is in general no good idea to use wall

functions, because the heat transfer at the walls are very important for the

temperature ﬁeld in the whole domain.

When we chose not to use wall functions we thus insert sufﬁciently

many grid lines near solid boundaries so that the boundary layer can be

adequately resolved. However, when the wall is approached the viscous

effects become more important and for y

+

< 5 the ﬂow is viscous dom-

inating, i.e. the viscous diffusion is much larger that the turbulent one

(see Fig. 4.1). Thus, the turbulence models presented so far may not be

correct since fully turbulent conditions have been assumed; this type of

models are often referred to as high-Re number models. In this section

we will discuss modiﬁcations of high-Re number models so that they can

be used all the way down to the wall. These modiﬁed models are termed

low Reynolds number models. Please note that “high Reynolds number”

and “low Reynolds number” do not refer to the global Reynolds number

(for example Re

L

, Re

x

, Re

x

etc.) but here we are talking about the local

turbulent Reynolds number Re

ℓ

= Uℓ/ν formed by a turbulent ﬂuctuation

and turbulent length scale. This Reynolds number varies throughout the

computational domain and is proportional to the ratio of the turbulent and

physical viscosity ν

t

/ν, i.e. Re

ℓ

∝ ν

t

/ν. This ratio is of the order of 100 or

larger in fully turbulent ﬂow and it goes to zero when a wall is approached.

We start by studying how various quantities behave close to the wall

when y → 0. Taylor expansion of the ﬂuctuating velocities u

i

(also valid

for the mean velocities

¯

U

i

) gives

u = a

0

+ a

1

y + a

2

y

2

. . .

v = b

0

+ b

1

y + b

2

y

2

. . .

w = c

0

+ c

1

y + c

2

y

2

. . .

(4.1)

where a

0

. . . c

2

are functions of space and time. At the wall we have no-

slip, i.e. u = v = w = 0 which gives a

0

= b

0

= c

0

. Furthermore, at the wall

∂u/∂x = ∂w/∂z = 0, and the continuity equation gives ∂v/∂y = 0 so that

28

4.1 Low-Re k −ε Models 29

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

−0.2

−0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

L

o

s

s

G

a

i

n

y

+

P

k

ε

D

ν

D

T

+ D

p

Figure 4.1: Flow between two parallel plates. Direct numerical simula-

tions [23]. Re = U

C

δ/ν = 7890. u

∗

/U

C

= 0.050. Energy balance in

k equation. Production P

k

, dissipation ε, turbulent diﬀusion (by velocity

triple correlations and pressure) D

T

+ D

p

, and viscous diﬀusion D

ν

. All

terms have been scaled with u

4

∗

/ν.

b

1

= 0. Equation 4.1 can now be written

u = a

1

y + a

2

y

2

. . .

v = b

2

y

2

. . .

w = c

1

y + c

2

y

2

. . .

(4.2)

From Eq. 4.2 we immediately get

u

2

= a

2

1

y

2

. . . = O(y

2

)

v

2

= b

2

2

y

4

. . . = O(y

4

)

w

2

= c

2

1

y

2

. . . = O(y

2

)

uv = a

1

b

2

y

3

. . . = O(y

3

)

k = (a

2

1

+ c

2

1

)y

2

. . . = O(y

2

)

∂

¯

U/∂y = a

1

. . . = O(y

0

)

(4.3)

In Fig. 4.2 DNS-data for the fully developed ﬂow in a channel is pre-

sented.

4.1 Low-Re k −ε Models

There exist a number of Low-Re number k −ε models [34, 7, 10, 1, 29].

When deriving low-Re models it is common to study the behavior of the

terms when y → 0 in the exact equations and require that the correspond-

ing terms in the modelled equations behave in the same way. Let us study

29

4.1 Low-Re k −ε Models 30

0 20 40 60 80 100

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

y

+

u

′

/u

∗

v

′

/u

∗

w

′

/u

∗

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

y/δ

u

′

/

¯

U

C

v

′

/

¯

U

C

w

′

/

¯

U

C

Figure 4.2: Flow between two parallel plates. Direct numerical simula-

tions [23]. Re = U

C

δ/ν = 7890. u

∗

/U

C

= 0.050. Fluctuating velocity

components u

′

i

=

u

2

i

.

the exact k equation near the wall (see Eq. 2.24).

∂ρ

¯

Uk

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V k

∂y

= −ρuv

∂

¯

U

∂y

. .. .

O(y

3

)

−

∂pv

∂y

−

∂

∂y

1

2

ρvu

i

u

i

. .. .

O(y

3

)

+ µ

∂

2

k

∂y

2

−µu

i,j

u

i,j

. .. .

O(y

0

)

(4.4)

The pressure diffusion ∂pv/∂y term is usually neglected, partly because it

is not measurable, and partly because close to the wall it is not important,

see Fig. 4.3 (see also [30]). The modelled equation reads

∂ρ

¯

Uk

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V k

∂y

= µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

2

. .. .

O(y

4

)

+

∂

∂y

µ

t

σ

k

∂k

∂y

. .. .

O(y

4

)

+ µ

∂

2

k

∂y

2

− ρε

....

O(y

0

)

(4.5)

When arriving at that the production term is O(y

4

) we have used

ν

t

= c

µ

ρ

k

2

ε

=

O(y

4

)

O(y

0

)

= O(y

4

) (4.6)

Comparing Eqs. 4.4 and 4.5 we ﬁnd that the dissipation term in the mod-

elled equation behaves in the same way as in the exact equation when

30

4.1 Low-Re k −ε Models 31

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

−0.1

−0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

L

o

s

s

G

a

i

n

y

+

D

ν

D

T

D

p

Figure 4.3: Flow between two parallel plates. Direct numerical simula-

tions [23]. Re = U

C

δ/ν = 7890. u

∗

/U

C

= 0.050. Energy balance in k

equation. Turbulent diﬀusion by velocity triple correlations D

T

, Turbulent

diﬀusion by pressure D

p

, and viscous diﬀusion D

ν

. All terms have been

scaled with u

4

∗

/ν.

y → 0. However, both the modelled production and the diffusion term

are of O(y

4

) whereas the exact terms are of O(y

3

). This inconsistency of

the modelled terms can be removed by replacing the c

µ

constant by c

µ

f

µ

where f

µ

is a damping function f

µ

so that f

µ

= O(y

−1

) when y → 0 and

f

µ

→ 1 when y

+

≥ 50. Please note that the term “damping term” in this

case is not correct since f

µ

actually is augmenting µ

t

when y → 0 rather

than damping. However, it is common to call all low-Re number functions

for “damping functions”.

Instead of introducing a damping function f

µ

, we can choose to solve

for a modiﬁed dissipation which is denoted ˜ ε, see Ref. [27] and Section 4.2.

It is possible to proceed in the same way when deriving damping func-

tions for the ε equation [41]. An alternative way is to study the modelled ε

equation near the wall and keep only the terms which do not tend to zero.

From Eq. 3.3 we get

∂ρ

¯

Uε

∂x

. .. .

O(y

1

)

+

∂ρ

¯

V ε

∂y

. .. .

O(y

1

)

= c

ε1

ε

k

P

k

. .. .

O(y

1

)

+

∂

∂y

µ

t

σ

ε

∂ε

∂y

. .. .

O(y

1

)

+ µ

∂

2

ε

∂y

2

. .. .

O(y

0

)

− c

ε2

ρ

ε

2

k

. .. .

O(y

−2

)

(4.7)

where it has been assumed that the production term P

k

has been suitable

modiﬁed so that P

k

= O(y

3

). We ﬁnd that the only term which do not

vanish at the wall are the viscous diffusion term and the dissipation term

31

4.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re k −ε Models 32

so that close to the wall the dissipation equation reads

0 = µ

∂

2

ε

∂y

2

−c

ε2

ρ

ε

2

k

. (4.8)

The equation needs to be modiﬁed since the diffusion term cannot balance

the destruction term when y →0.

4.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re k −ε Models

There are at least a dozen different low Re k −ε models presented in the

literature. Most of them can be cast in the form [34] (in boundary-layer

form, for convenience)

∂ρ

¯

Uk

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V k

∂y

=

∂

∂y

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

k

∂k

∂y

+ µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

2

−ρε (4.9)

∂ρ

¯

U˜ ε

∂x

+

∂ρ

¯

V ˜ ε

∂y

=

∂

∂y

¸

µ +

µ

t

σ

ε

∂˜ ε

∂y

+ c

1ε

f

1

˜ ε

k

µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

2

−c

ε2

f

2

ρ

˜ ε

2

k

+ E

(4.10)

µ

t

= c

µ

f

µ

ρ

k

2

˜ ε

(4.11)

ε = ˜ ε + D (4.12)

Different models use different damping functions (f

µ

, f

1

and f

2

) and

different extra terms (D and E). Many models solve for ˜ ε rather than for

ε where D is equal to the wall value of ε which gives an easy boundary

condition ˜ ε = 0 (see Sub-section 4.3). Other models which solve for ε use

no extra source in the k equation, i.e. D = 0.

Below we give some details for one of the most popular low-Re k −ε

models, the Launder-Sharma model [27] which is based on the model of Launder-

Sharma Jones & Launder [22]. The model is given by Eqs. 4.9, 4.10, 4.11 and 4.12

32

4.3 Boundary Condition for ε and ˜ ε 33

where

f

µ

= exp

−3.4

(1 + R

T

/50)

2

f

1

= 1

f

2

= 1 −0.3 exp

−R

2

T

D = 2µ

∂

√

k

∂y

2

E = 2µ

µ

t

ρ

∂

2

¯

U

∂y

2

2

R

T

=

k

2

ν˜ ε

(4.13)

The term E was added to match the experimental peak in k around y+ ≃

20 [22]. The f

2

termis introduced to mimic the ﬁnal stage of decay of turbu-

lence behind a turbulence generating grid when the exponent in k ∝ x

−m

changes from m = 1.25 to m = 2.5.

4.3 Boundary Condition for ε and ˜ ε

In many low-Re k −ε models ˜ ε is the dependent variable rather than ε.

The main reason is that the boundary condition for ε is rather complicated.

The largest term in the k equation (see Eq. 4.4) close to the wall, are the

dissipation term and the viscous diffusion term which both are of O(y

0

) so

that

0 = µ

∂

2

k

∂y

2

−ρε. (4.14)

From this equation we get immediately a boundary condition for ε as

ε

wall

= ν

∂

2

k

∂y

2

. (4.15)

FromEq. 4.14 we can derive alternative boundary conditions. The exact

form of the dissipation term close to the wall reads (see Eq. 2.24)

ε = ν

∂u

∂y

2

+

∂w

∂y

2

¸

(4.16)

where ∂/∂y ≫ ∂/∂x ≃ ∂/∂z and u ≃ w ≫ v have been assumed. Using

Taylor expansion in Eq. 4.1 gives

ε = ν

a

2

1

+ c

2

1

+ . . . (4.17)

33

4.4 The Two-Layer k −ε Model 34

In the same way we get an expression for the turbulent kinetic energy

k =

1

2

a

2

1

+ c

2

1

y

2

. . . (4.18)

so that

∂

√

k

∂y

2

=

1

2

a

2

1

+ c

2

1

. . . (4.19)

Comparing Eqs. 4.17 and 4.19 we ﬁnd

ε

wall

= 2ν

∂

√

k

∂y

2

. (4.20)

In the Sharma-Launder model this is exactly the expression for D in Eqs. 4.12

and 4.13, which means that the boundary condition for ˜ ε is zero, i.e. ˜ ε = 0.

In the model of Chien [8], the following boundary condition is used

ε

wall

= 2ν

k

y

2

(4.21)

This is obtained by assuming a

1

= c

1

in Eqs. 4.17 and 4.18 so that

ε = 2νa

2

1

k = a

2

1

y

2

(4.22)

which gives Eq. 4.21.

4.4 The Two-Layer k −ε Model

Near the walls the one-equation model by Wolfshtein [50], modiﬁed by

Chen and Patel [7], is used. In this model the standard k equation is solved;

the diffusion term in the k-equation is modelled using the eddy viscosity

assumption. The turbulent length scales are prescribed as [15, 11]

ℓ

µ

= c

ℓ

n[1 −exp (−R

n

/A

µ

)] , ℓ

ε

= c

ℓ

n[1 −exp (−R

n

/A

ε

)]

(n is the normal distance from the wall) so that the dissipation term in the

k-equation and the turbulent viscosity are obtained as:

ε =

k

3/2

ℓ

ε

, µ

t

= c

µ

ρ

√

kℓ

µ

(4.23)

The Reynolds number R

n

and the constants are deﬁned as

R

n

=

√

kn

ν

, c

µ

= 0.09, c

ℓ

= κc

−3/4

µ

, A

µ

= 70, A

ε

= 2c

ℓ

34

4.5 The low-Re k −ω Model 35

The one-equation model is used near the walls (for R

n

≤ 250), and the

standard high-Re k −ε in the remaining part of the ﬂow. The matching line

could either be chosen along a pre-selected grid line, or it could be deﬁned

as the cell where the damping function

1 −exp (−R

n

/A

µ

)

takes, e.g., the value 0.95. The matching of the one-equation model and the

k −ε model does not pose any problems but gives a smooth distribution of

µ

t

and ε across the matching line.

4.5 The low-Re k −ω Model

Amodel which is being usedmore and more is the k−ω model of Wilcox [47].

The standard k−ω model can actually be used all the way to the wall with-

out any modiﬁcations [47, 31, 36]. One problem is the boundary condition

for ω at walls since (see Eq. 3.25)

ω =

ε

β

∗

k

= O(y

−2

) (4.24)

tends to inﬁnity. In Sub-section 4.3 we derived boundary conditions for

ε by studying the k equation close to the wall. In the same way we can

here use the ω equation (Eq. 3.25) close to the wall to derive a boundary

condition for ω. The largest terms in Eq. 3.25 are the viscous diffusion term

and the destruction term, i.e.

0 = µ

∂

2

ω

∂y

2

−c

ω2

ρω

2

. (4.25)

The solution to this equation is

ω =

6ν

c

ω2

y

2

(4.26)

The ω equation is normally not solved close to the wall but for y

+

< 2.5, ω is

computed from Eq. 4.26, and thus no boundary condition actually needed.

This works well in ﬁnite volume methods but when ﬁnite element methods

are used ω is needed at the wall. A slightly different approach must then

be used [16].

Wilcox has also proposed a k − ω model [49] which is modiﬁed for vis-

cous effects, i.e. a true low-Re model with damping function. He demon-

strates that this model can predict transition and claims that it can be used

for taking the effect of surface roughness into account which later has been

conﬁrmed [35]. A modiﬁcation of this model has been proposed in [38].

35

4.5 The low-Re k −ω Model 36

4.5.1 The low-Re k −ω Model of Peng et al.

The k −ω model of Peng et al. reads [38]

∂k

∂t

+

∂

∂x

j

(

¯

U

j

k) =

∂

∂x

j

¸

ν +

ν

t

σ

k

∂k

∂x

j

+ P

k

−c

k

f

k

ωk

∂ω

∂t

+

∂

∂x

j

(

¯

U

j

ω) =

∂

∂x

j

¸

ν +

ν

t

σ

ω

∂ω

∂x

j

+

ω

k

(c

ω1

f

ω

P

k

−c

ω2

kω) + c

ω

ν

t

k

∂k

∂x

j

∂ω

∂x

j

ν

t

= f

µ

k

ω

f

k

= 1 −0.722 exp

¸

−

R

t

10

4

¸

f

µ

= 0.025 +

1 −exp

¸

−

R

t

10

3/4

¸¸

0.975 +

0.001

R

t

exp

¸

−

R

t

200

2

¸¸

f

ω

= 1 + 4.3 exp

¸

−

R

t

1.5

1/2

¸

, f

ω

= 1 + 4.3 exp

¸

−

R

t

1.5

1/2

¸

c

k

= 0.09, c

ω1

= 0.42, c

ω2

= 0.075

c

ω

= 0.75, σ

k

= 0.8, σ

ω

= 1.35

(4.27)

4.5.2 The low-Re k −ω Model of Bredberg et al.

Anewk−ω model was recently proposedby Bredberg et al. [5] which reads

∂k

∂t

+

∂

∂x

j

(

¯

U

j

k) = P

k

−C

k

kω +

∂

∂x

j

¸

ν +

ν

t

σ

k

∂k

∂x

j

∂ω

∂t

+

∂

∂x

j

(

¯

U

j

ω) = C

ω1

ω

k

P

k

−C

ω2

ω

2

+

C

ω

ν

k

+

ν

t

k

∂k

∂x

j

∂ω

∂x

j

+

∂

∂x

j

¸

ν +

ν

t

σ

ω

∂ω

∂x

j

(4.28)

The turbulent viscosity is given by

ν

t

= C

µ

f

µ

k

ω

f

µ

= 0.09 +

0.91 +

1

R

3

t

¸

1 −exp

−

R

t

25

2.75

¸¸

(4.29)

36

4.5 The low-Re k −ω Model 37

with the turbulent Reynolds number deﬁnedas R

t

= k/(ων). The constants

in the model are given as

C

k

= 0.09, C

µ

= 1, C

ω

= 1.1, C

ω1

= 0.49,

C

ω2

= 0.072, σ

k

= 1, σ

ω

= 1.8

(4.30)

37

38

5 Reynolds Stress Models

In Reynolds Stress Models the Boussinesq assumption (Eq. 2.10) is not used

but a partial differential equation (transport equation) for the stress tensor

is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation. This is done in the same way

as for the k equation (Eq. 2.23).

Take the Navier-Stokes equation for the instantaneous velocity U

i

(Eq. 2.4).

Subtract the momentumequation for the time averaged velocity

¯

U

i

((Eq. 2.6)

and multiply by u

j

. Derive the same equation with indices i and j inter-

changed. Add the two equations and time average. The resulting equation

reads

(

¯

U

k

u

i

u

j

)

,k

. .. .

C

ij

= −u

i

u

k

¯

U

j,k

−u

j

u

k

¯

U

i,k

. .. .

P

ij

+

p

ρ

(u

i,j

+ u

j,i

)

. .. .

Φ

ij

−

¸

u

i

u

j

u

k

+

pu

j

ρ

δ

ik

+

pu

i

ρ

δ

jk

−ν(u

i

u

j

)

,k

,k

. .. .

D

ij

−2νu

i,k

u

j,k

. .. .

ε

ij

(5.1)

where

P

ij

is the production of u

i

u

j

[note that P

ii

=

1

2

P

k

(P

ii

= P

11

+ P

22

+

P

33

)];

Φ

ij

is the pressure-strain term, which promotes isotropy of the turbu-

lence;

ε

ij

is the dissipation (i.e. transformation of mechanical energy into

heat in the small-scale turbulence) of u

i

u

j

;

C

ij

and D

ij

are the convection and diffusion, respectively, of u

i

u

j

.

Note that if we take the trace of Eq. 5.1 and divide by two we get the

equation for the turbulent kinetic energy (Eq. 2.23). When taking the trace

the pressure-strain term vanishes since

Φ

ii

= 2

p

ρ

u

i,i

= 0 (5.2)

due to continuity. Thus the pressure-strain term in the Reynolds stress

equation does not add or destruct any turbulent kinetic energy it merely

redistributes the energy between the normal components (u

2

, v

2

and w

2

).

Furthermore, it can be shown using physical reasoning [19] that Φ

ij

acts to

reduce the large normal stress component(s) and distributes this energy to

the other normal component(s).

38

5.1 Reynolds Stress Models 39

5.1 Reynolds Stress Models

We ﬁnd that there are terms which are unknown in Eq. 5.1, such as the

triple correlations u

i

u

j

u

k

, the pressure diffusion (pu

j

δ

ik

+ +pu

i

δ

jk

)/ρ and

the pressure strain Φ

ij

, and the dissipation tensor ε

ij

. From Navier-Stokes

equation we could derive transport equations for this unknown quantities

but this would add further unknowns to the equation system (the closure

problem, see p. 12). Instead we supply models for the unknown terms.

The pressure strain term, which is an important term since its contribu- Φ

ij

tion is signiﬁcant, is modelled as [26, 17]

Φ

ij

= Φ

ij,1

+ Φ

ij,2

+ Φ

′

ij,1

+ Φ

′

ij,2

Φ

ij,1

= −c

1

ε

k

u

i

u

j

−

2

3

δ

ij

k

Φ

ij,2

= −c

2

P

ij

−

2

3

δ

ij

P

k

Φ

′

nn,1

= −2c

′

1

ε

k

u

2

n

f

Φ

′

ss,1

= c

′

1

ε

k

u

2

n

f

f =

k

3

2

2.55x

n

ε

(5.3)

The object of the wall correction terms Φ

′

nn,1

and Φ

′

ss,1

is to take the effect of

the wall into account. Here we have introduced a s −n coordinate system,

with s along the wall and n normal to the wall. Near a wall (the term

“near” may well extend to y

+

= 200) the normal stress normal to the wall is

damped (for a wall located at, for example, x = 0 this mean that the normal

stress v

2

is damped), and the other two are augmented (see Fig. 4.2).

In the literature there are many proposals for better (and more compli-

cated) pressure strain models [42, 25].

The triple correlation in the diffusion term is often modelled as [9] triple

correla-

tion D

ij

=

c

s

ρu

k

u

m

k

ε

(u

i

u

j

)

,k

,m

(5.4)

The pressure diffusion termis for two reasons commonly neglected. First, it

is not possible to measure this termand before DNS-data (Direct Numerical

Simulations) were available it was thus not possible to model this term.

Second, from DNS-data is has indeed been found to be small (see Fig. 4.3).

The dissipation tensor ε

ij

is assumed to be isotropic, i.e.

ε

ij

=

2

3

δ

ij

ε. (5.5)

From the deﬁnition of ε

ij

(see 5.1) we ﬁnd that the assumption in Eq. 5.5 is

equivalent to assuming that for small scales (where dissipation occurs) the

39

5.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs. Eddy Viscosity Models 40

two derivative u

i,k

and u

j,k

are not correlated for i = j. This is the same as

assuming that for small scales u

i

and u

j

are not correlated for i = j which is

a good approximation since the turbulence at these small scale is isotropic,

see Section 1.4.

We have given models for all unknown term in Eq. 5.1 and the modelled

Reynolds equation reads [26, 17]

(

¯

U

k

u

i

u

j

)

,k

= −u

i

u

k

¯

U

j,k

−u

j

u

k

¯

U

i,k

+

µ(u

i

u

j

)

,k

+ c

s

ρu

k

u

m

k

ε

(u

i

u

j

)

,m

,k

+ Φ

ij

−

2

3

δ

ij

ρε

(5.6)

where Φ

ij

should be taken from Eq. 5.3. For a review on RSMs (Reynolds

Stress Models), see [18, 24, 28, 40].

5.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs. Eddy Viscosity Models

Whenever non-isotropic effects are important we should consider using RSMs.

Note that in a turbulent boundary layer the turbulence is always non-isotropic,

but isotropic eddy viscosity models handle this type of ﬂow excellent as far

as mean ﬂow quantities are concerned. Of course a k −ε model give very

poor representation of the normal stresses. Examples where non-isotropic

effects often are important are ﬂows with strong curvature, swirling ﬂows,

ﬂows with strong acceleration/retardation. Below we present list some ad-

vantages and disadvantages with RSMs and eddy viscosity models.

Advantages with eddy viscosity models:

i) simple due to the use of an isotropic eddy (turbulent) viscosity;

ii) stable via stability-promoting second-order gradients in the mean-

ﬂow equations;

iii) work reasonably well for a large number of engineering ﬂows.

Disadvantages with eddy viscosity models:

i) isotropic, and thus not good in predicting normal stresses (u

2

, v

2

, w

2

);

ii) as a consequence of i) it is unable to account for curvature effects;

iii) as a consequence of i) it is unable to account for irrotational strains.

Advantages with RSMs:

i) the production terms need not to be modelled;

ii) thanks to i) it can selectively augment or damp the stresses due to

curvature effects, acceleration/retardation, swirling ﬂow, buoyancy

etc.

Disadvantages with RSMs:

40

5.3 Curvature Eﬀects 41

0

0

A

A

B

B

U

θ

(r)

r

Figure 5.1: Curved boundary layer ﬂow along r = constant. U

θ

=

U

θ

(r), U

r

= 0.

i) complex and difﬁcult to implement;

ii) numerically unstable because small stabilizing second-order deriva-

tives in the momentum equations (only laminar diffusion);

iii) CPU consuming.

5.3 Curvature Eﬀects

Curvature effects, related either to curvature of the wall or streamline cur-

vature, are known to have signiﬁcant effects on the turbulence [3]. Both

types of curvature are present in attached ﬂows on curved surfaces, and

in separation regions. The entire Reynolds stress tensor is active in the

interaction process between shear stresses, normal stresses and mean ve-

locity strains. When predicting ﬂows where curvature effects are impor-

tant, it is thus necessary to use turbulence models that accurately predict

all Reynolds stresses, not only the shear stresses. For a discussion of curva-

ture effects, see Refs. [12, 13].

When the streamlines in boundary layer type of ﬂow have a convex

(concave) curvature, the turbulence is stabilized (destabilized), which damp-

ens (augments) the turbulence [3, 39], especially the shear stress and the

Reynolds stress normal to the wall. Thus convex streamline curvature de-

creases the stress levels. It can be shown that it is the exact modelling of the

production terms in the RSM which allows the RSM to respond correctly to

this effect. The k −ε model, in contrast, is not able to respond to streamline

curvature.

The ratio of boundary layer thickness δ to curvature radius R is a com-

mon parameter for quantifying the curvature effects on the turbulence. The

work reviewed by Bradshaw demonstrates that even such small amounts

of convex curvature as δ/R = 0.01 can have a signiﬁcant effect on the tur-

bulence. Thompson and Whitelaw [44] carried out an experimental inves-

41

5.3 Curvature Eﬀects 42

x

y

streamline

Figure 5.2: The streamlines which in ﬂat-plate boundary layers are along

the x-axis are suddenly deﬂected upwards (concave curvature) owing to e.g.

an approaching separation region.

tigation on a conﬁguration simulating the ﬂow near a trailing edge of an

airfoil, where they measured δ/R ≃ 0.03. They reported a 50 percent de-

crease of ρv

2

(Reynolds stress in the normal direction to the wall) owing to

curvature. The reduction of ρu

2

and −ρuv was also substantial. In addition

they reported signiﬁcant damping of the turbulence in the shear layer in

the outer part of the separation region.

An illustrative model case is curved boundary layer ﬂow. A polar coor-

dinate systemr −θ (see Fig. 5.1)) with

ˆ

θ locally aligned with the streamline

is introduced. As U

θ

= U

θ

(r) (with ∂U

θ

/∂r > 0 and U

r

= 0), the radial

inviscid momentum equation degenerates to

ρU

2

θ

r

−

∂p

∂r

= 0 (5.7)

Here the variables are instantaneous or laminar. The centrifugal force ex-

erts a force in the normal direction (outward) on a ﬂuid following the stream-

line, which is balanced by the pressure gradient. If the ﬂuid is displaced by

some disturbance (e.g. turbulent ﬂuctuation) outwards to level A, it en-

counters a pressure gradient larger than that to which it was accustomed

at r = r

0

, as (U

θ

)

A

> (U

θ

)

0

, which from Eq. 5.7 gives (∂p/∂r)

A

> (∂p/∂r)

0

.

Hence the ﬂuid is forced back to r = r

0

. Similarly, if the ﬂuid is displaced

inwards to level B, the pressure gradient is smaller here than at r = r

0

and

cannot keep the ﬂuid at level B. Instead the centrifugal force drives it back

to its original level.

It is clear from the model problem above that convex curvature, when

∂U

θ

/∂r > 0, has a stabilizing effect on (turbulent) ﬂuctuations, at least in

the radial direction. It is discussed below how the Reynolds stress model

responds to streamline curvature.

Assume that there is a ﬂat-plate boundary layer ﬂow. The ratio of the

normal stresses ρu

2

and ρv

2

is typically 5. At one x station, the ﬂow is

deﬂected upwards, see Fig. 5.2. How will this affect the turbulence? Let us

study the effect of concave streamline curvature. The production terms P

ij

owing to rotational strains can be written as

42

5.3 Curvature Eﬀects 43

∂

¯

U

θ

/∂r > 0 ∂

¯

U

θ

/∂r < 0

convex curvature stabilizing destabilizing

concave curvature destabilizing stabilizing

Table 5.1: Eﬀect of streamline curvature on turbulence.

RSM, u

2

−eq. : P

11

= −2ρuv

∂

¯

U

∂y

(5.8)

RSM, uv −eq. : P

12

= −ρu

2

∂

¯

V

∂x

−ρv

2

∂

¯

U

∂y

(5.9)

RSM, v

2

−eq. : P

22

= −2ρuv

∂

¯

V

∂x

(5.10)

k −ε : P

k

= µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂y

+

∂

¯

V

∂x

2

(5.11)

As long as the streamlines in Fig. 5.2 are parallel to the wall, all pro-

duction is a result of ∂

¯

U/∂y. However as soon as the streamlines are de-

ﬂected, there are more terms resulting from ∂

¯

V /∂x. Even if ∂

¯

V /∂x is much

smaller that ∂

¯

U/∂y it will still contribute non-negligibly to P

12

as ρu

2

is

much larger than ρv

2

. Thus the magnitude of P

12

will increase (P

12

is nega-

tive) as ∂

¯

V /∂x > 0. An increase in the magnitude of P

12

will increase −uv,

which in turn will increase P

11

and P

22

. This means that ρu

2

and ρv

2

will

be larger and the magnitude of P

12

will be further increased, and so on. It

is seen that there is a positive feedback, which continuously increases the

Reynolds stresses. It can be said that the turbulence is destabilized owing

to concave curvature of the streamlines.

However, the k −ε model is not very sensitive to streamline curvature

(neither convex nor concave), as the two rotational strains are multiplied

by the same coefﬁcient (the turbulent viscosity).

If the ﬂow(concave curvature) in Fig. 5.2 is a wall jet ﬂowwhere ∂

¯

U/∂y <

0, the situation will be reversed: the turbulence will be stabilized. If the

streamline (and the wall) in Fig. 5.2 is deﬂected downwards, the situation

will be as follows: the turbulence is stabilizing when ∂

¯

U/∂y > 0, and desta-

bilizing for ∂

¯

U/∂y < 0.

The stabilizing or destabilizing effect of streamline curvature is thus

dependent on the type of curvature (convex or concave), and whether there

is an increase or decrease in momentum in the tangential direction with

radial distance from its origin (i.e. the sign of ∂

¯

U

θ

/∂r). For convenience,

these cases are summarized in Table 5.1.

43

5.4 Acceleration and Retardation 44

x1

x2 x1

x2

x

y

Figure 5.3: Stagnation ﬂow.

5.4 Acceleration and Retardation

When the ﬂowaccelerates and/or decelerate the irrotational strains (∂

¯

U/∂x,

∂

¯

V /∂y and ∂

¯

W/∂z) become important.

In boundary layer ﬂow, the only term which contributes to the pro-

duction term in the k equation is −ρuv∂U/∂y (x denotes streamwise direc-

tion). Thompson and Whitelaw [44] found that, near the separation point

as well as in the separation zone, the production term −ρ(u

2

− v

2

)∂U/∂x

is of equal importance. This was conﬁrmed in prediction of separated ﬂow

using RSM [12, 13].

In pure boundary layer ﬂow the only term which contributes to the

production term in the k and ε-equations is −ρuv∂

¯

U/∂y. Thompson and

Whitelaw [44] found that near the separation point, as well as in the sepa-

ration zone, the production term−ρ(u

2

−v

2

)∂

¯

U/∂x is of equal importance.

As the exact form of the production terms are used in second-moment clo-

sures, the production due to irrotational strains is correctly accounted for.

In the case of stagnation-like ﬂow (see Fig. 5.3), where u

2

≃ v

2

the pro-

duction due to normal stresses is zero, which is also the results given by

second-moment closure, whereas k −ε models give a large production. In

order to illustrate this, let us write the production due to the irrotational

strains ∂

¯

U/∂x and ∂

¯

V /∂y for RSM and k −ε:

RSM : 0.5 (P

11

+ P

22

) = −ρu

2

∂

¯

U

∂x

−ρv

2

∂

¯

V

∂y

k −ε : P

k

= 2µ

t

∂

¯

U

∂x

2

+

∂

¯

V

∂y

2

¸

If u

2

≃ v

2

we get P

11

+ P

22

≃ 0 since ∂

¯

U/∂x = −∂

¯

V /∂y due to continuity.

The production term P

k

in k −ε model, however, will be large, since it will

be sum of the two strains.

44

REFERENCES 45

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[2] Baldwin, B., and Lomax, H. Thin-layer approximation and alge-

braic model for separated turbulent ﬂows. AIAA 78-257, Huntsville,

AL, 1978.

[3] Bradshaw, P. Effects of streamline curvature on turbulent ﬂow.

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[4] Bradshaw, P., Ferriss, D., and Atwell, N. Calculation of

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48

CONTENTS

2

Contents

Nomenclature 1 Turbulence 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Turbulent Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction . 1.4 Energy spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Turbulence Models 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Boussinesq Assumption . . . . . . 2.3 Algebraic Models . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy . . . 2.4.1 The Exact k Equation . . . . ¯ ¯ 2.4.2 The Equation for 1/2(Ui Ui ) 2.5 The Modelled k Equation . . . . . 2.6 One Equation Models . . . . . . . . 3 Two-Equation Turbulence Models 3.1 The Modelled ε Equation . . . 3.2 Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . 3.3 The k − ε Model . . . . . . . . 3.4 The k − ω Model . . . . . . . 3.5 The k − τ Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 5 6 7 9 12 12 15 16 16 16 18 20 21 22 22 22 25 26 27 28 29 32 33 34 35 36 36 38 39 40 41 44

4 Low-Re Number Turbulence Models 4.1 Low-Re k − ε Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re k − ε Models . . . . 4.3 Boundary Condition for ε and ε . . . . . . . . . . . ˜ 4.4 The Two-Layer k − ε Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 The low-Re k − ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 The low-Re k − ω Model of Peng et al. . . . 4.5.2 The low-Re k − ω Model of Bredberg et al. . 5 Reynolds Stress Models 5.1 Reynolds Stress Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs. Eddy Viscosity Models 5.3 Curvature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Acceleration and Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Nomenclature

3

Nomenclature

Latin Symbols

c1 , c2 , cs c′ , c′ 1 2 cε1 , cε2 cω1 , cω2 cµ E f k U Ui ¯ U ¯ Ui uv, uw u u2 ui ui uj V ¯ V v v2 vw W ¯ W w w2 constants in the Reynolds stress model constants in the Reynolds stress model constants in the modelled ε equation constants in the modelled ω equation constant in turbulence model energy (see Eq. 1.8); constant in wall functions (see Eq. 3.4) damping function in pressure strain tensor turbulent kinetic energy (≡ 1 ui ui ) 2 instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in x-direction instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in xi -direction time-averaged velocity in x-direction time-averaged velocity in xi -direction shear stresses ﬂuctuating velocity in x-direction normal stress in the x-direction ﬂuctuating velocity in xi -direction Reynolds stress tensor instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in y-direction time-averaged velocity in y-direction ﬂuctuating (or laminar) velocity in y-direction normal stress in the y-direction shear stress instantaneous (or laminar) velocity in z-direction time-averaged velocity in z-direction ﬂuctuating velocity in z-direction normal stress in the z-direction

Greek Symbols

δ ε κ µ µt ν νt Ωi boundary layer thickness; half channel height dissipation wave number; von Karman constant (= 0.41) dynamic viscosity dynamic turbulent viscosity kinematic viscosity kinematic turbulent viscosity instantaneous (or laminar) vorticity component in xi -direction 3

Nomenclature ¯ Ωi ω ωi σΦ τlam τtot τturb

4

time-averaged vorticity component in xi -direction speciﬁc dissipation (∝ ε/k) ﬂuctuating vorticity component in xi -direction turbulent Prandtl number for variable Φ laminar shear stress total shear stress turbulent shear stress

Subscript

C w centerline wall

4

In turbulent ﬂow the diffusivity increases. The ﬂow consists of a spectrum of different scales (eddy sizes) where largest eddies are of the order of the ﬂow geometry (i. III. The slightly larger eddies receive their energy from even larger eddies and so on. are highly turbulent. which is independent of time (when the mean ﬂow is steady). This process of transferred energy from the largest turbulent scales (eddies) to the smallest is called cascade process. Diﬀusivity. increases as the ﬂow becomes turbulent. The small eddies receive the kinetic energy from slightly larger eddies. The largest eddies extract their energy from the mean ﬂow.1 Turbulence Introduction Almost all ﬂuid ﬂow which we encounter in daily life is turbulent. Also the ﬂow and combustion in engines. Turbulent ﬂow is dissipative. This means that the spreading rate of boundary layers. At the other end of the spectra we have the smallest eddies which are by viscous forces (stresses) dissipated into internal energy. Even though turbulence is chaotic it is deterministic and is described by the Navier-Stokes equations. jet width. Large Reynolds Numbers. jets. However.5 1 1. V.g. random and chaotic. Air movements in rooms are also turbulent. 5 . In turbulent ﬂow we usually divide the variables in one time-averaged ¯ part U . There is no deﬁnition on turbulent ﬂow. boundary layers and reduces or delays thereby separation at bluff bodies such as cylinders.e. Irregularity. For example. aeroplanes and buildings. IV. Three-Dimensional. and in boundary layers at Rex ≃ 100000. II. Turbulent ﬂow is always three-dimensional. aeroplanes and buildings are turbulent. airfoils and cars. the transition to turbulent ﬂow in pipes occurs that ReD ≃ 2300. Dissipation. at least along the walls where wall-jets are formed. The turbulence increases the exchange of momentum in e. The boundary layers and the wakes around and after bluff bodies such as cars. and ¯ one ﬂuctuating part u so that U = U + u. Hence. which means that kinetic energy in the small (dissipative) eddies are transformed into internal energy. boundary layer thickness. Turbulent ﬂow occurs at high Reynolds number. when the equations are time averaged we can treat the ﬂow as two-dimensional. etc. Turbulent ﬂow is irregular. The increased diffusivity also increases the resistance (wall friction) in internal ﬂows such as in channels and pipes. Typical examples are ﬂow around (as well as in) cars. etc). both in piston engines and gas turbines and combustors. but it has a number of characteristic features (see Tennekes & Lumley [43]) such as: I. when we compute ﬂuid ﬂow it will most likely be turbulent.

4. However it is assumed that most of the energy (say 90 %) that goes into the large scales is ﬁnally dissipated at the smallest (dissipative) scales. The friction forces exist of course at all scales. for example the boundary layer thickness.2 Turbulent Scales As mentioned above there are a wide range of scales in turbulent ﬂow. Even though we have small turbulent scales in the ﬂow they are much larger than the molecular scale and we can treat the ﬂow as a continuum. Continuum. We write υ = νa εb [m/s] = [m2 /s] [m2 /s3 ] (1.1). 6 . The smallest scales where dissipation occurs are called the Kolmogorov scales: the velocity scale υ. We assume that these scales are determined by viscosity ν and dissipation ε. the length scale η and the time scale τ . These scales extract kinetic energy from the mean ﬂow which has a time scale comparable to the large scales. the larger viscosity.1) where below each variable its dimensions are given. the larger the velocity gradients must be. we can express υ.2 Turbulent Scales 6 VI. We get two equations. 1. Having assumed that the dissipative scales are determined by viscosity and dissipation.1. The larger scales are of the order of the ﬂow geometry. i. but they are larger the smaller the eddies. The more energy that is to be transformed from kinetic energy to internal energy. The dimensions of the left-hand and the right-hand side must be the same.e. the larger scales. The dissipation is denoted by ε which is energy per unit time and unit mass (ε = [m2 /s3 ]). η and τ in ν and ε using dimensional analysis. The amount of energy that is to be dissipated is ε. The dissipation is proportional to the kinematic viscosity ν times the ﬂuctuating velocity gradient up to the power of two (see Section 2. ¯ ∂U ∂y = O(T −1 ) = O(U/ℓ) The kinetic energy of the large scales is lost to slightly smaller scales with which the large scales interact. with length scale ℓ and velocity scale U. Through the cascade process the kinetic energy is in this way transferred from the largest scale to smaller scales. Since the kinetic energy is destroyed by viscous forces it is natural to assume that viscosity plays a part in determining these scales. Thus it is not quite true that eddies which receive their kinetic energy from slightly larger scales give away all of that the slightly smaller scales but a small fraction is dissipated. At the smallest scales the frictional forces (viscous stresses) become too large and the kinetic energy is transformed (dissipated) into internal energy.

stretching drical coordinate system with the x1 -axis as the cylinder axis and x2 as the (1.3) (1.j + νΩi. (1. cylindrical ﬂuid element which vorticity Ω. We see that this equation is not an ordinary convection-diffusion equation but is has an additional term on the right-hand side which represents ampliﬁcation and rotation/tilting of the vorticity lines.1 + Ω2 U3. In order to gain some insight in vortex shedding we will study an idealized.3 Ω1 U2. 46] Uj Ωi.1 + Ω2 U1.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction 7 one for meters [m] 1 = 2a + 2b. j k are equal). −1 if i. τ= ν ε 1/2 (1.4) 1.jj Ωi = ǫijk Uk.2 + Ω3 U3.j (1.j = Ωj Ui. i.2) which gives a = b = 1/4. The equation for instanta¯ neous vorticity (Ωi = Ωi + ωi ) reads [43. which still are laminar and organized and well deﬁned in terms of physical orientation and frequency are turned into chaotic.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction The interaction between vorticity and velocity gradients is an essential ingredient to create and maintain turbulence. We introduce a cylin. In the same way we obtain the expressions for η and τ so that υ = (νε)1/4 . If we write it term-by-term it reads Ω1 U1.1.6) 7 .5) where ǫijk is the Levi-Civita tensor (it is +1 if i. j k are in cyclic order.). η = ν3 ε 1/4 .e. three-dimensional.1 + Ω2 U2. inviscid (viscosity equals to zero) case. j k are in anti-cyclic order. 33.3 Ω1 U3. Two idealized phenomena in this interaction process can be identiﬁed: vortex stretching and vortex tilting.j denotes derivation with respect to xj . and where (. Disturbances are ampliﬁed – the actual process depending on type of ﬂow – and these disturbances.2 + Ω3 U1. and one for seconds [s] − 1 = −a − 3b. and 0 if any two of i. turbulent ﬂow by interaction between the vorticity vector and the velocity gradients. random ﬂuctuations. Imagine a Vortex slender.3 The diagonal terms in this matrix represent vortex stretching.2 + Ω3 U2.

1.1: Vortex stretching.1.6 represent vortex tilting. For example if U3 ≡ 0 and all derivatives with respect to x3 are zero. From the discussion above we can now understand why turbulence always must be three-dimensional (Item IV on p. The turbulence is also maintained by these processes.6 disappears.2 in line one in Eq. Finally. We have neglected the viscosity since viscous diffusion at high Reynolds number is much smaller than the turbulent one and since viscous dissipation occurs at small scales (see p.1) so that Ω = (Ω1 .1 will stretch the cylinder. because vorticity generated by vortex stretching and vortex tilting interacts with the velocity ﬁeld and creates further vorticity and so on. 6). This process will affect the vorticity components in the other two coordinate directions. The second term Ω2 U1.3 ≡ 0 the third column in Eq.3 Vorticity/Velocity Gradient Interaction Ω1 Figure 1.2 will tilt the ﬂuid element so that it rotates in clock-wise direction. 1. The ve.6 gives a contribution to Ω1 . The vorticity and velocity ﬁeld becomes chaotic and random: turbulence has been created. Fig. 0). 1.tilting locity gradient U1.2 = 0 r we ﬁnd that the radial derivative of the radial velocity U2 must be negative.7) remains constant as the radius of the ﬂuid element decreases (note that also the circulation Γ ∝ Ωr 2 is constant). Vortex stretching and vortex tilting thus qualitatively explains how interaction between vorticity and velocity gradient create vorticity in all three coordinate directions from a disturbance which initially was well deﬁned in one coordinate direction. The off-diagonal terms in Eq. 1.e. the radius of the cylinder will decrease.6 vanishes. Thus there are no viscous stresses acting on the cylindrical ﬂuid element surface which means that the rotation momentum r2Ω (1. i. Once this process has started it continues.1 + (rU2 ). A positive U1.6 vanish. 1. We see that a stretching/compressing will decrease/increase the radius of a slender ﬂuid element and increase/decrease its vorticity component aligned with the element. From the continuity equation 1 U1. Ω1 8 radial coordinate (see Fig.2. the 8 . 1. 5). take a Vortex slender ﬂuid element with its axis aligned with the x2 axis. Equation 1. If U3 ≡ 0 the third line in Eq. Again. and if Ui. 0.7 shows that the vorticity increases as the radius decreases. 1. If the instantaneous ﬂow is two-dimensional we ﬁnd that all interaction terms between vorticity and velocity gradients in Eq.

i.8) where Eq.4 Energy spectrum The turbulent scales are distributed over a range of scales which extends from the largest scales which interact with the mean ﬂow to the smallest scales where dissipation occurs. thus we can think of wave number as proportional to the inverse of an eddy’s radius.4 Energy spectrum 9 Ω2 U1 (x2 ) Ω2 Figure 1. The total turbulent kinetic energy is obtained by integrating over the whole wave number space i. 1. create smaller and smaller scales.e independent of direction.9) .2: Vortex tilting.3 ≡ 0 Ω2 = U1. Thus the small scales will be isotropic. 1.8 expresses the contribution from the scales with wave number between κ and κ + dκ to the turbulent kinetic energy k. 1. on average. The dimension of wave number is one over length. The interaction between vorticity and velocity gradients will.1 ≡ 0.2 − U2.1. In wave number space the energy of eddies from κ to κ + dκ can be expressed as E(κ)dκ (1.3 − U3.6 will also be zero since Ω1 = U3. Whereas the large scales which interact with the mean ﬂow have an orientation imposed by the mean ﬂow the small scales will not remember the structure and orientation of the large scales. remaining terms in Eq.e. ∞ k= 0 E(κ)dκ 9 (1.e κ ∝ 1/r. i.

We ﬁnd region I. The eddies in this region are independent of both the large.4) II.1. Dimensional reasoning gives E(κ) = const. 1. The kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energy of the three ﬂuctuating velocity components. In the region we have the large eddies which carry most of the energy. III.11) This is a very important law (Kolmogorov spectrum law or the −5/3 law) which states that. II: the inertial subrange.4 Energy spectrum 10 E(κ) I II III κ Figure 1. Energy per time unit (ε) is coming from the large eddies at the lower part of this range and is given off to the dissipation range at the higher part. Their energy is past on to slightly smaller scales.3. The eddies are small and isotropic and it is here that the dissipation occurs. The existence of this region requires that the Reynolds number is high (fully turbulent ﬂow). ε 3 κ− 3 2 5 (1. energy containing eddies. This region is a “transport” region in the cascade process. The scales of the eddies are described by the Kolmogorov scales (see Eq. respectively. 1 1 2 u + v 2 + w 2 = ui ui (1. These eddies interact with the mean ﬂow and extract energy from the mean ﬂow. II and III which correspond to: k= I.3: Spectrum for k. I: Range for the large. III: Range for small.e. Dissipation range. The eddies’ velocity and length scales are U and ℓ. Inertial subrange. energy containing eddies and the eddies in the dissipation range. One can argue that the eddies in this region should be characterized by the ﬂow of energy (ε) and the size of the eddies 1/κ. 1. The eddies in this region represent the mid-region. i. isotropic scales.10) 2 2 The spectrum of E is shown in Fig. if the ﬂow is fully turbulent (high Reynolds 10 .

This often used in experiment and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) to verify that the ﬂow is fully turbulent.12) 11 . which gives U2 ℓ/U U3 ℓ ε=O =O (1. the energy spectra should exhibit a −5/3-decay.1. The energy at the large scales lose their energy during a time proportional to ℓ/U. As explained on p. 6 (cascade process) the energy dissipated at the small scales can be estimated using the large scales U and ℓ.4 Energy spectrum 11 number).

i = 0 ∂t . (2.1 Turbulence Models Introduction When the ﬂow is turbulent it is preferable to decompose the instantaneous variables (for example velocity components and pressure) into a mean value and a ﬂuctuating value. ∂t (2.e low Mach number) the dilatation term on the righthand side of Eq.12 2 2.6 which is called the Reynolds stress tensor.i = 0 ∂t ∂ρUi 2 + (ρUi Uj ).4) Note that we here use the term “incompressible” in the sense that density is independent of pressure (∂P/∂ρ = 0) .2) and the Navier-Stokes equation (2. Another reason is that when we want to solve the Navier-Stokes equation numerically it would require a very ﬁne grid to resolve all turbulent scales and it would also require a ﬁne resolution in time (turbulent ﬂow is always unsteady).j ¯ ∂ρUi ¯ ¯ + ρUi Uj ∂t ¯ ¯ ¯ = −P. 2.6) A new term ui uj appears on the right-hand side of Eq.i + µ(Ui. 2.j + Uj. We need a model for ui uj to close the equation system in Eq. i.k ∂t 3 .j (2.j = −P.6.3 is neglected so that ∂ρUi + (ρUi Uj ).j denotes derivation with respect to xj .3) where (.i + [µ(Ui.i )].).e. It is an additional stress term due to turbulence (ﬂuctuating velocities) and it is unknown.1 into the continuity equation (2. The continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation read ∂ρ + (ρUi ). it can be dependent on for example temperature or concentration. The tensor is symmetric (for example u1 u2 = u2 u1 ). (2.i + µ Ui.i − δij Uk. Since we are dealing with incompressible ﬂow (i. It represents correlations between ﬂuctuating velocities.4) we obtain the time averaged continuity equation and NavierStokes equation ∂ρ ¯ + (ρUi ).1) One reason why we decompose the variables is that when we measure ﬂow quantities we are usually interested in the mean values rather that the time histories. 12 . Inserting Eq.2) (2. 2.j (2.5) . but it does not mean that density is constant.j = −P.j .j + Uj. ¯ Ui = Ui + ui ¯ P = P + p.j + Uj. 2.i ) − ρui uj .

1.closure ity components. ¯ /∂y on the right-hand side of Eq. 2.8) x = x1 denotes streamwise coordinate. Note that the total shear stress is constant only close to the wall.e.7) V ≪ U. two-dimensional boundary-layer type of ﬂow (i. a turbulent shear stress. boundary layers along a ﬂat plate.6 reads ¯¯ ¯¯ ∂ρU U ∂ρV U + ∂x ∂y = − ¯ ¯ ∂P ∂ ∂U + − ρuv .problem tions (four: the continuity equation and three components of the NavierStokes equations).8 shear To the viscous shear stress µ∂ U appears an additional turbulent one. etc. In the logarithmic layer the viscous stress is negligible compared to the turbulent stress. and y = x2 coordinate normal to ¯ the ﬂow. ∂x ∂y Eq. the buffert layer and the logarithmic layer) the total shear stress is approximately constant and equal to the wall shear stress τw . For steady. pipe ﬂow.2. jet and wake ﬂow.1: Shear stress near a wall.) where ¯ ¯ ∂ ≪ ∂ (2. The total shear stress stress is thus ¯ ∂U − ρuv τtot = µ ∂y In the wall region (the viscous sublayer. further away from the wall it decreases (in fully developed channel ﬂow it decreases linearly by the distance form the wall). As we go away from the ∗ wall the viscous stress decreases and turbulent one increases and at y + ≃ 10 they are approximately equal. six stresses) is larger than the number of equa. At the wall the turbulent shear stress vanishes as u = v = 0. µ ∂x ∂y ∂y τtot (2. pressure. channel ﬂow.1 Introduction τ τtot τlam y y + ≃ 10 Figure 2. In boundary-layer type of ﬂow the turbulent shear stress and the ve¯ locity gradient ∂ U /∂y have nearly always opposite sign (for a wall jet this 13 . and the viscous shear stress attains its wall-stress value τw = ρu2 . Often the pressure gradient ∂ P /∂x is zero. τturb 13 This is called the closure problem: the number of unknowns (ten: three veloc. 2. see Fig. 2.

Thus the streamwise ﬂuctuation is positive.e. A ﬂuid particle is moving downwards (particle drawn with solid line) from y2 to y1 with (the turbulent ﬂuctuating) velocity v.e. An algebraic equation is used to compute a turbulent viscosity. If we look at the other particle (dashed line in Fig. i.1 Introduction 14 y2 v<0 y1 y x Figure 2. At its new location the U velocity is in average ¯ ¯ smaller than at its old. Thus.2. There are different levels of approximations involved when closing the equation system in Eq. i.2) we reach the same conclusion. This means that when the particle at y2 (which has streamwise velocity U (y2 )) comes down to y1 (where the streamwise velocity is U (y1 )) is has an excess of streamwise velocity compared to its new environment at y1 . To get a physical picture of this let us study the ﬂow in a boundary layer. I. in a wall jet) this means that there are other terms in the transport equation which are more important than the production term. In cases where the shear stress and the velocity gradient have the same sign (for example. The Reynolds stress tensor is then computed using an assumption which relates the Reynolds stress tensor to the velocity gradients and the turbulent viscosity. Algebraic models. If we study this ﬂow for a long time and average over time we get uv < 0. The particle is moving upwards (v > 0). Above we have used physical reasoning to show the the signs of uv ¯ and ∂ U /∂y are opposite.2: Sign of the turbulent shear stress −ρuv in a boundary layer. often called eddy viscosity. 2. u > 0 and the correlation between u and v is negative (uv < 0). Models which are based on a turbulent (eddy) viscosity are called eddy viscosity mod14 v>0 U (y) . and it is bringing a deﬁcit in U so that u < 0. This assumption is called the Boussinesq assumption.6. 2. 2. If we change the sign ¯ of the velocity gradient so that ∂ U /∂y < 0 we will ﬁnd that the sign of uv also changes. uv < 0. again.2. is not the case close to the wall). see Fig. This can also be found by looking at the production term in the transport equation of the Reynolds stresses (see Section 5). U (y1 ) < U (y2 ).

j ¯ ¯ = (µ + µt )(Ui.9) . Above the different types of turbulence models have been listed in increasing order of complexity. The latter is obtained from the two transported scalars. II.2.e.9 do a contraction (i. One-equation models. where the Reynolds stress tensor in the time averaged Navier-Stokes equation is replaced by the turbulent viscosity multiplied by the velocity gradients. (2. 2. ability to model the turbulence.6 and make an identiﬁcation ¯ ¯ µ(Ui.i ) − ρui uj which gives ¯ ¯ ρui uj = −µt (Ui. The turbulent viscosity is calculated from Boussinesq assumption.9 15 . Here a transport equation is derived for the Reynolds tensor ui uj . To show this we introduce this assumption for the diffusion term at the right-hand side of Eq. These models fall into the class of eddy viscosity models.2 Boussinesq Assumption 15 els.10). On the other hand the continuity equation (Eq. setting indices i = j) the right-hand side gives ui ui ≡ 2k where k is the turbulent kinetic energy (see Eq. Two-equation models.2 Boussinesq Assumption In eddy viscosity turbulence models the Reynolds stresses are linked to the velocity gradients via the turbulent viscosity: this relation is called the Boussinesq assumption. Reynolds stress models. for example the turbulent kinetic energy k and its dissipation ε. and cost in terms of computational work (CPU time).j + Uj. 2.5) gives that the right-hand side of Eq. One transport equation has to be added for determining the length scale of the turbulence. 2. III. 2.i ).j If we in Eq.i ) . Usually an equation for the dissipation ε is used.j + Uj.j + Uj. 2. Two transport equations are derived which describe transport of two scalars. IV. 1. In these models a transport equation is solved for a turbulent quantity (usually the turbulent kinetic energy) and a second turbulent quantity (usually a turbulent length scale) is obtained from an algebraic expression. The Reynolds stress tensor is then computed using an assumption which relates the Reynolds stress tensor to the velocity gradients and an eddy viscosity.

In boundary layer-type of ﬂow (see Eq. because it is these scales which are responsible for most of the transport by turbulent diffusion. 2. and the model is called the mixing length model.11) Above we have used U and ℓ which are characteristic for the large turbulent scales.12) where y is the coordinate normal to the wall. constant viscosity (cf. More modern algebraic models are the Baldwin-Lomax model [2] and the Cebeci-Smith [6] model which are frequently used in aerodynamics when computing the ﬂow around airfoils.7) we obtain νt = ℓ2 mix ∂U ∂y (2. In an algebraic turbulence model the velocity gradient is used as a velocity scale and some physical length is used as the length scale.e. This is reasonable.3 Algebraic Models In eddy viscosity models we want an expression for the turbulent viscosity µt = ρνt .i + µUi. viscosity i. 16 (2. 2. The dimension of νt is [m2 /s] (same as ν).9 valid upon contraction we add 2/3ρδij k to the left-hand side of Eq. and where ℓmix is the mixing length. In order to make Eq. 2. For a presentation and discussion of algebraic turbulence models the interested reader is referred to Wilcox [48]. etc.4 2. 2.3 Algebraic Models 16 is equal to zero.4. aeroplanes. 2. model νt ∝ Uℓ (2.9 so that 2 ¯ ¯ ρui uj = −µt (Ui.1 Equations for Kinetic Energy The Exact k Equation The equation for turbulent kinetic energy k = 1 ui ui is derived from the 2 Navier-Stokes equation which reads assuming steady.i ) + δij ρk.4) (ρUi Uj ).j + Uj. A turbulent velocity Eddy scale multiplied with a turbulent length scale gives the correct dimension.jj . 3 Note that contraction of δij gives δii = δ11 + δ22 + δ33 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 (2.j = −P. It is an old model and is hardly used any more. One problem with the model is that ℓmix is unknown and must be determined.10) 2. Eq. incompressible.2.13) .

j .18.18) The third term in Eq.21) .2.21. 2 The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Eq.14) Subtract Eq.j (2. (2. multiply by ui and time average and we obtain ¯ ¯ ρUi Uj − ρUi Uj . the ﬁrst term is rewritten as . 2.17) ¯ We obtain the second term (using (ρUj ). 2.15 is zero.j = −P.j ui = ¯ − P −P ¯ u + µ Ui − Ui . 2. Now we can assemble the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy.6) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (ρUi Uj ).j .23) The terms in Eq.j 1 ¯ ¯ ρUj {ui ui.15) The left-hand side can be rewritten as ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ (Ui + ui )(Uj + uj ) − Ui Uj ¯ ρUi uj ¯ ui = ρui uj Ui.i + µUi. 2. 2. 2.j For the ﬁrst term we use the same trick as in Eq.j (2.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy 17 The time averaged Navier-Stokes equation reads (cf.j ui .i i u + ρ(ui uj ).jj i ¯ ¯ ui = ρ Ui uj + ui Uj + ui uj (2.j = −ρui uj Ui.j ui . 2.17.i ui = −(pui ).18) 1 (ρuj ui ui ). 2.j ui.23 have the following meaning.j − ui.j 1 ¯ = Uj ρ ui ui 2 = .j − uj p + ρuj ui ui − µk.16) Using the continuity equation (ρuj ).j ui. 2.18 so that 1 (2. 2.13. Eq.20. 2.j IV (2.jj − ρ(ui uj ).20) (2.2. 2.j .j ui ).j + ui ui.j − µui.j = 0) from ¯ ρUj k .i The second term on the right-hand side of Eq.j = µ (ui ui ).jj ui = µ (ui.j 2 I II III (2.19) (2. 2.j ui ).15 has the form − p.j .22) µ(ui. Equations 2.14 from Eq.j } = ui ρUj ui 2 (2.j = 0. .16 can be written as (using the same technique as in Eq.22 give 1 ¯ ¯ (ρUj k).15 reads µui.jj = µk. 17 .jj 2 The last term on the right-hand side of Eq.

I. This is because the dissipation term is at its largest for small.jj − Ui ρ(ui uj ).2 0.j − ρUj (Ui Ui ).05 0 0 5 10 15 20 x+ 2 Figure 2.j − ρUi Uj Ui. i i Assume steady.j (2. and velocity ﬂuctuations. Dissipation. Both terms are normalized by u4 /ν. The two ﬁrst terms represent turbulent diﬀusion by pressure-velocity ﬂuctuations.26) . Convection.j 2 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = ρUj (Ui Ui ).25) Ui (ρUi Uj ). isotropic scales where the usual boundary-layer approximation that ∂ui /∂x ≪ ∂ui /∂y is not valid. Solid line: ν(∂ V1 /∂x2 )2 .15 0. dashed line: ε. respectively. 2. The large turbulent scales extract energy from the mean ﬂow.2.2 ¯ ¯ The Equation for 1/2(Ui Ui ) ¯ ¯ The equation for 1/2(Ui Ui ) is derived in the same way as that for 1/2u′ u′ .j = ρUj (Ui Ui ).j = (ρUj KK). Comparison of mean and ﬂuctuating dissipation terms.i + µUi Ui. This term (including the minus sign) is almost always positive.j . IV.25 0. The term on the left-hand side can be rewritten as 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (ρUi Ui Uj ).j = −Ui P.j ui.3: Channel ﬂow at Reτ = 2000. DNS τ ¯ data [21. The last term is viscous diffusion. III.4.14) so that ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (2. 20]. In boundary-layer ﬂow the exact k equation read ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 ∂ ∂U ∂k ∂ρU k ∂ρV k pv + ρvui ui − µ + = −ρuv − − µui.24) ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y 2 ∂y Note that the dissipation includes all derivatives.4 Equations for Kinetic Energy 18 0. The term (including the minus sign) is always negative. incompressible ﬂow with constant viscosity and multiply the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (Eq. 2. II.1 0. Production. This term is responsible for transformation of kinetic energy at small scales to internal energy.j 2 18 (2.

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ µUi Ui. is much larger than the dissipation by the mean ﬂow (left side of Eq.22.e. 2. is largest at the wall where it takes the value ν = 1/2000 (normalized by u4 /ν). (2.27) The viscous term in Eq.j .30) (2. 2. transport by pressure-velocity interaction.31) (2.j . The mean dissipation.32).j Ui.j − Ui ρ(ui uj ).26. (2. 2. Note that the last term in Eq. ¯ ν(∂ U1 /∂x2 )2 .jj − (Ui P ).29) On the left-hand side we have the usual convective term.i − µUi.j .21 and 2.j + ρui uj Ui.25 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (ρUj K). 2. The last term is rewritten as ¯ ¯ ¯ −Ui ρ(ui uj ).i − µUi. (2. 2.j + ρui uj Ui.28) ¯ Now we can assemble the transport equation for K by inserting Eqs. 2.j .27 and 2. 2.3. 2.5 The Modelled k Equation 19 The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Eq.j Ui.33) (2.j .jj − (Ui P ). 2.31 is the same as the last term in Eq.1.i = −(Ui P ).j = µK.25 can be written as −Ui P. 2.23 but with opposite sign: here we clearly can see that the main source term in the k equation ¯ (the production term) appears as a sink term in the K equation.j ui. is much smoother ′ .jj = µK. 2.e. On the right-hand side we ﬁnd: transport by viscous diffusion. (2. viscous dissipation.28 into Eq. ¯ equation the dissipation term and the negative production In the K term (representing loss of kinetic energy to the k ﬁeld) read ¯ ¯ ¯ −µUi.j Ui.j − µui.j + ρ(ui uj )Ui. and in the k equation the production and the dissipation terms read ¯ −ρui uj Ui.29 gives ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (ρUj K).j = −(Ui ρui uj ). ε. This is clearly seen in Fig. Ui .j ¯ ¯ − (Ui ρui uj ).j = µK. i. Hence the dissipation by the than that of the ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁeld.jj − µUi.j .25 is rewritten in the same way as the viscous term in Section 2. see Eqs. transport by velocity-stress interaction and loss of energy to the ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁeld.32) ¯ The gradient of the time-averaged velocity ﬁeld. τ 19 . ui ﬂuctuations.i . ¯ ¯ ¯ where K = 1/2(Ui Ui ).4.2. i.j Ui. Inserted in Eq. to k.

the dissipation term ρk 2 /ℓ in Eq. The dissipation term in Eq. There is no model for the pressure diffusion term in Eq.12. The dissipation term contains another unknown quantity.39) . 4.1 and 4.j + Uj. 2.j .23 is basically estimated as in Eq.36) so that ε ≡ νui.j − ρkUi. where ε is obtained from its 3 own transport. 2. the turbulent diffusion term and the dissipation term.38) We have one constant in the turbulent diffusion term and it will be determined later.38 has the form ¯ ¯ ∂ρU k ∂ρV k ∂ + = ∂x ∂y ∂y µt µ+ σk 20 ∂k + µt ∂y ¯ ∂U ∂y 2 k2 −ρ .34 is zero for incompressible ﬂow due to continuity. 1. For boundary-layer ﬂow Eq.38 is simply ρε. Fourier’s law for heat ﬂux: heat is diffused term from hot to cold regions).37) The modelled k equation can now be assembled and we get ¯ (ρUj k).e from region of diﬀusion high k to regions of small k (cf.10 inserted in the production term (term II) in Eq. 2.23. We get µt 1 ρuj ui ui = − k.23 gives 2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Pk = −ρui uj Ui.j ui. It is small (see Figs. In the production term it is the stress tensor which is unknown.j k2 = ℓ 3 (2. 2. 2. Equation 2. Since production we have an expression for this which is used in the Navier-Stokes equation term we use the same expression in the production term. The dissipation velocity scale is now term √ U= k (2.j k2 + Pk − ρ ℓ 3 (2. 2. 2.34) Note that the last term in Eq.23 a number of terms are unknown.j = µt µ+ σk k.5 The Modelled k Equation In Eq.i 3 (2.5 The Modelled k Equation 20 2. 2.j . namely the production term.2.j = µt Ui.35) where σk is the turbulent Prandtl number for k. 2 σk (2. ℓ 3 (2. the turbulent length scale.23 is modeled using a gradient turbulent law where we assume that k is diffused down the gradient. An additional transport will be derived from which we can compute ℓ. In the k − ε model.3) and thus it is simply neglected.i Ui. The triple correlations in term III in Eq. i.

for example. This length scale is. taken as proportional to the thickness of the boundary layer. The main disadvantage of this type of model is that it is not applicable to general ﬂows since it is not possible to ﬁnd a general expression for an algebraic length scale. 32].2. However. 21 . and often an algebraic expression is used [4. some proposals have been made where the turbulent length scale is computed in a more general way [14. 50]. the width of a jet or a wake. The unknown turbulent length scale must be given.6 One Equation Models In one equation models a transport equation is often solved for the turbulent kinetic energy.6 One Equation Models 21 2. In [32] a transport equation for turbulent viscosity is used.

If we choose to include ui uj and Ui. for instance.38) ε ¯ ¯ ¯ Ui.j .22 3 3.2 Wall Functions The natural way to treat wall boundaries is to make the grid sufﬁciently ﬁne so that the sharp gradients prevailing there are resolved.j + Uj. The assumption that the ﬂow near the wall has the characteristics of a that in a boundary layer if often not true at all. we take. k Pε = −cε1 (3. the number of unknown terms is very large and they involve double correlations of ﬂuctuating velocities.j in the production term and only turbulent quantities in the dissipation term.1) Note that for the production term we have Pε = cε1 (ε/k)Pk .j + ε (cε1 Pk − cε2 ρε) k (3.j k ε2 diss. However. it is often preferable to use wall functions which allows us to use ﬁne grid in other regions where the gradients of the ﬂow variables are large. when computing complex three-dimensional ﬂow. turbulent quantities ¯ and and velocity gradients. Wilcox [48]). given a maximum number of nodes that we can afford to use in a computation. Now we can write the transport equation for the dissipation as ¯ (ρUj ε). glancing at the k equation (Eq. as in the k equation. Often. In a fully turbulent boundary layer the production term and the dissipation term in the log-law region (30 < y + < 100) are much larger than the 22 .2 reads ¯ ¯ ∂ ∂ρU ε ∂ρV ε + = ∂x ∂y ∂y µ+ µt σε ∂ε ε + cε1 µt ∂y k ¯ ∂U ∂y 2 − ρcε2 ε2 (3. that requires too much computer resources.j = µ+ µt σε ε. It is better to derive an ε equation based on physical reasoning. In the exact equation for ε the production term includes.term = −cε2 ρ . 2.2) For boundary-layer ﬂow Eq. and gradients of ﬂuctuating velocities and pressure. 3. However. An alternative is to assume that the ﬂow near the wall behaves like a fully developed turbulent boundary layer and prescribe boundary conditions employing wall functions.i Ui.3) k 3.1 Two-Equation Turbulence Models The Modelled ε Equation An exact equation for the dissipation can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equation (see.

other terms. 2. ∗ 3.043.3. 3. 2. see Fig.8 we get cµ = u2 ∗ k 2 (3.39) as B = 0 = µt ¯ ∂U ∂y 2 (3. 3.15 into Eq.5) Comparing this with the standard form of the log-law U u∗ y +B = A ln u∗ ν we see that A = 1 κ (3. see Fig. and inserting Eqs.10) 23 .7) 1 ln E. κ In the log-layer we can write the modelled k equation (see Eq.10) ¯ ∂U τw = −ρuv = µt (3. 3. The Boussinesq assumption for the shear stress reads (see Eq. Energy balance in k equation [45].6) − ρε. u∗ /U0 ≃ 0.1. Reδ ≃ 4400.1. In the log-law region the shear stress −ρuv is equal to the wall shear stress τw .9) ∂y Using the deﬁnition of the wall shear stress τw = ρu2 .8) where we have replaced the dissipation term ρk 2 /ℓ by ρε.9.1: Boundary along a ﬂat plate. 2.0 Eu∗ y ν (3. 3 (3. The log-law we use can be written as U 1 = ln u∗ κ E = 9.2 Wall Functions 23 20 Gain 10 0 −10 −20 0 200 400 600 Production Dissipation Diﬀusion Convection 800 1000 1200 Loss y+ Figure 3.4) (3.

i. cµ con∗ When we are using wall functions k and ε are not solved at the nodes stant adjacent to the walls.3.3 so that cµ = 0.4. 3.e.P ∂U ≈ µt.e. 3.2 Wall Functions 24 From experiments we have that in the log-law region of a boundary layer u2 /k ≃ 0. The wall shear stress τw is obtained by calculating the viscosity at the node adjacent to the wall from the log-law. prescribing heat ﬂux in the temper. 24 . from the log-law (Eq. i.4) we ﬁnally can write ρu∗ ηκ ln(Eη + ) where η + = u∗ η/ν.09. b.P ∂η η ¯ where U . 3. iteratively. ∂y κy (3. for k −1/2 kP = cµ u2 ∗ (3.11) where the friction velocity u∗ is obtained.13) For the velocity component parallel to the wall the wall shear stress is b.c.4). The shear stress at the wall can be expressed as τw = µt. Instead they are ﬁxed according to the theory presented above. The viscosity used in momentum equations is prescribed at the nodes adjacent to the wall (index P) as follows.12) where the velocity gradient in the production term −uv∂U/∂y has been computed from the log-law in Eq. for used as a ﬂux boundary condition (cf.P = ∗ .velocity ature equation).P = with the log-law (Eq. for ε εP = Pk = u3 ∗ κy (3. it is more convenient to prescribe the turbulent viscosity.P ¯ Substituting u∗ /U µt.P ¯ ¯ U .P u∗ ρu∗ η U . ∂U u∗ = .P denotes the velocity parallel to the wall and η is the normal distance to the wall.10. 3. Using the deﬁnition of the friction velocity u∗ τw = ρu2 ∗ we obtain µt.8). When the wall is not parallel to any velocity component.P U .c. The turbulent kinetic energy is set from Eq.c. 3. Index P denotes the ﬁrst interior node (adjacent to the wall). The dissipation can thus be written as b. The dissipation ε is obtained from observing that production and dissipation are in balance (see Eq.P η = ρu2 → µt.

36. 1. ε (3.18.16) The dissipation and production term can be estimated as (see Sub-section 3.12) νt = cµ k1/2 ℓ = cµ k2 . Simple ﬂows are chosen where the equation can be simpliﬁed and where experimental data are used to determine the constants.12. In a similar way we can ﬁnd a value for the cε1 constant . We look at the cε1 conε equation for the logarithmic part of a turbulent boundary layer.3 The k − ε Model In the k − ε model the modelled transport equations for k and ε (Eqs. The cµ constant was determined above (Subsection 3.18) In the logarithmic layer we have that ∂k/∂y = 0.17) Pk = ρ u3 ∗ κy . σk and σε .38.2.2) ε = k3/2 ℓ (3. we can write Eq. The turbulent length scale is obtained from (see Eq. (3. 3.3 as 0= ε2 ∂ µt ∂ε + (cε1 − cε2 ) ρ ∂y σε ∂y k Dε (3. cε1 .3 The k − ε Model 25 3. which we hope should be universal i. Instead the diffusion term in Eq. 1. ε (3.16 can be rewritten using Eqs.19) 25 . 2.2) are solved.3.11.15) We have ﬁve unknown constants cµ . 3. 3.14) The turbulent viscosity is computed from (see Eqs.15 as Dε = ∂ ∂y µt ∂ σε ∂y k3/2 κcµ −3/4 y = k2 κ2 σε ℓ2 cµ 1/2 (3.17. 2.e same for all types of ﬂows. but from Eqs. The k equation in the logarithmic part of a turbulent boundary layer was studied where the convection and the diffusion term could be neglected. 3. 2. where the stant convection term is negligible.37) ℓ= k3/2 . 3. 3.17. 3. which together with Pk = ρε gives −3/4 ℓ = κcµ y. 3. cε2 .18 we ﬁnd that ∂ε/∂y = 0. and utilizing that production and dissipation are in balance Pk = ρε.2).

16 gives cε1 = cε2 − κ2 cµ σε 1/2 26 (3. 3.92. Far behind the grid the velocity cε2 congradients are very small which means that Pk = 0. 3.17 into Eq. σk and σε . In this model the standard k equation is solved.j + (3. 3.3. 2.21. and cε2 = 1.24) ¯ (ρUj ω).j . jets.25) k µt = ρ . The modelled k and ω equation read ¯ (ρUj k). 3. 3.20. ε = β ∗ ωk.10.23) Experimental data give m = 1. cε1 = 1. Insert this in Eq.22 yields cε2 = m+1 m (3.4 The k − ω Model Inserting Eq. etc.j = µ+ µt ω σk k.92 is chosen. derivate to ﬁnd dε/dx and insert it into Eq. σk = 1.j . The ﬁve constants are given the following values: cµ = 0.21 gives k ∝ −mx−m−1 . 48.20) The ﬂow behind a turbulence generating grid is a simple ﬂow which allows us to determine the cε2 constant.21) ¯ ρU (3.4 The k − ω Model The k − ω model is gaining in popularity.0. 3.25 ± 0. σε = 1.06 [45]. 38].23) to determine three of the ﬁve unknown constants. wakes. 3.j + Pk − β ∗ ωk ω (cω1 Pk − cω2 ρkω) k (3. 3. pipes. are optimized by applying the model to various fundamental ﬂows such as ﬂow in channel.2) read ¯ ρU dk = −ρε dx dε ε2 = −cε2 ρ dx k (3. We have found three relations (Eqs.19 and Eq. This quantity is often called speciﬁc dissipation from its deﬁnition ω ∝ ε/k. 3.31. 3. but as a length determining equation ω is used. Furthermore V = 0 and stant the diffusion terms are negligible so that the modelled k and ε equations (Eqs.44.38.09.22) Assuming that the decay of k is exponential k ∝ x−m .j = µ+ µt σω ω. 3. The last two constants. cε2 = 1. The model was proposed by Wilcox [47. Eq. ω 26 .

ω cω2 = 3/40. ωwall = (β ∗ )−1/2 ∗ u∗ . The modelled k and τ equations read ¯ (ρUj k).27) ¯ (ρUj τ ).j − µt = cµ ρkτ. When wall functions are used k and ω are prescribed as (cf. no such problems appear in the ω equation. σk = 2 and σω = 2. they must both go to zero at a correct rate to avoid problems. recirculating ﬂow.26) In regions of low turbulence when both k and ε go to zero.5 The k − τ Model One of the most recent proposals is the k − τ model of Speziale et al. Note that the production term in the ω equation does not include k since ω ω cω1 Pk = cω1 µt k k ¯ ¯ ∂ Ui ∂ Uj + ∂xj ∂xi ¯ ∂ Ui = cω1 β ∗ ∂xj ¯ ¯ ∂ Ui ∂ Uj + ∂xj ∂xi ¯ ∂ Ui . [41] where the transport equation for the turbulent time scale τ is derived. The exact equation for τ = k/ε is derived from the exact k and ε equations. Sub-section 3.j + Pk − ρ k τ (3.3.j . [37] the k − ω model was used to predict transitional.3: β ∗ = 0.2): kwall = (β ∗ )−1/2 u2 .j τ.5 The k − τ Model 27 The constants are determined as in Sub-section 3. ε = k/τ τ The constants are: cµ .j + k τ (1 − cε1 )Pk + (cε2 − 1) (3. ∂xj In Ref. 27 .j τ.j = µ+ µt τ σk k. On the contrary. cε1 and cε2 are taken from the k − ε model.24.36. cω1 = 5/9.28) k τ 2 τ µ+ µt στ 2 τ.j = + 2 k µ+ µt στ 2 µt στ 1 τ. If k → 0 in the ω equation in Eq. and this causes problems as k → 0 even if ε also goes to zero. large numerical problems for the k − ε model appear in the ε equation as k becomes zero. the turbulent diffusion term simply goes to zero. κy (3.j µ+ k.09.j . and this is often not the case. 3. and σk = στ 1 = στ 2 = 1. 3. The destruction term in the ε equation includes ε2 /k.

This Reynolds number varies throughout the computational domain and is proportional to the ratio of the turbulent and physical viscosity νt /ν. . i.1).). . Rex etc. . ships. the viscous diffusion is much larger that the turbulent one (see Fig. However. as the ﬂow ﬁeld is often pressure-determined.e. however. c2 are functions of space and time. Please note that “high Reynolds number” and “low Reynolds number” do not refer to the global Reynolds number (for example ReL . aeroplanes etc. at the wall ∂u/∂x = ∂w/∂z = 0. Reℓ ∝ νt /ν.e. Furthermore. In this section we will discuss modiﬁcations of high-Re number models so that they can be used all the way down to the wall. . the ﬂow conditions in the boundaries are almost invariably important.) but here we are talking about the local turbulent Reynolds number Reℓ = Uℓ/ν formed by a turbulent ﬂuctuation and turbulent length scale. 4. However. the turbulence models presented so far may not be correct since fully turbulent conditions have been assumed. if the ﬂow near the boundary is important. can be rather crude. For external ﬂows (for example ﬂow around cars.1) 28 . When we are predicting heat transfer it is in general no good idea to use wall functions. . i. We start by studying how various quantities behave close to the wall when y → 0. Thus. Taylor expansion of the ﬂuctuating velocities ui (also valid ¯ for the mean velocities Ui ) gives u = a0 + a1 y + a2 y 2 .e. when the wall is approached the viscous effects become more important and for y + < 5 the ﬂow is viscous dominating. . . symmetry planes. inlet or outlets – the boundary layer may not be that important. These modiﬁed models are termed low Reynolds number models. u = v = w = 0 which gives a0 = b0 = c0 . i. When we chose not to use wall functions we thus insert sufﬁciently many grid lines near solid boundaries so that the boundary layer can be adequately resolved. w = c0 + c1 y + c2 y . v = b 0 + b1 y + b 2 y 2 . Rex .28 4 Low-Re Number Turbulence Models In the previous section we discussed wall functions which are used in order to reduce the number of cells. we must be aware that this is an approximation which. where a0 . this type of models are often referred to as high-Re number models. and the continuity equation gives ∂v/∂y = 0 so that 2 (4. . In many internal ﬂows – where all boundaries are either walls. because the heat transfer at the walls are very important for the temperature ﬁeld in the whole domain. At the wall we have noslip. This ratio is of the order of 100 or larger in fully turbulent ﬂow and it goes to zero when a wall is approached.

. Production Pk . .2 y+ Figure 4. . . Equation 4. From Eq. 4. 1.3) In Fig.3 0. . . = (a2 + c2 )y 2 . . 1 1 = a1 . ∗ b1 = 0. . Re = UC δ/ν = 7890. . Let us study 29 .2 0. . Direct numerical simulations [23]. u∗ /UC = 0. 1 = a1 b2 y 3 . = O(y 2 ) = O(y 4 ) = O(y 2 ) = O(y 3 ) = O(y 2 ) = O(y 0 ) (4. 10. v = b2 y 2 .2 DNS-data for the fully developed ﬂow in a channel is presented. 1 = b2 y 4 .2 we immediately get u2 v2 w2 uv k ¯ ∂ U /∂y = a2 y 2 .1 0 29 Gain Dν DT + Dp Pk Loss −0. 29].2) (4. .1 Low-Re k − ε Models There exist a number of Low-Re number k − ε models [34. All terms have been scaled with u4 /ν.050. w = c1 y + c2 y 2 .1 ε 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 −0. . When deriving low-Re models it is common to study the behavior of the terms when y → 0 in the exact equations and require that the corresponding terms in the modelled equations behave in the same way. 4. . . Energy balance in k equation. 2 = c2 y 2 . 4.1: Flow between two parallel plates. . dissipation ε. . . and viscous diﬀusion D ν . .1 can now be written u = a1 y + a2 y 2 . 7. turbulent diﬀusion (by velocity triple correlations and pressure) D T + D p .4.1 Low-Re k − ε Models 0.

4 0.04 0.3 (see also [30]).24). 2.050.06 0. i the exact k equation near the wall (see Eq.4. partly because it is not measurable. see Fig.j ∂y O(y 0 ) The pressure diffusion ∂pv/∂y term is usually neglected.5 2 1. 4.8 1 w′ /u∗ v ′ /u∗ 20 40 60 80 100 0. u∗ /UC = 0. Direct numerical simulations [23].12 0.08 0.6 0.1 ¯ u′ /UC ¯ w′ /UC ¯ v ′ /UC 0.14 30 u′ /u∗ 0.4 and 4.5 we ﬁnd that the dissipation term in the modelled equation behaves in the same way as in the exact equation when 30 .2: Flow between two parallel plates.02 0 0 y+ y/δ Figure 4.4) O(y 3 ) + ∂ ∂y µt ∂k σk ∂y O(y 4 ) (4.5 1 0.5) +µ ∂2k ∂y 2 Comparing Eqs.2 0.5 0 0 0. Fluctuating velocity components u′ = u2 i .1 Low-Re k − ε Models 3 2.j ui. The modelled equation reads ¯ ¯ ∂ρU k ∂ρV k + = µt ∂x ∂y ¯ ∂U ∂y O(y 4 ) − ρε O(y 0 ) When arriving at that the production term is O(y 4 ) we have used νt = cµ ρ k2 O(y 4 ) = = O(y 4 ) ε O(y 0 ) (4.6) 2 1 ρvui ui 2 O(y 3 ) (4. 4. ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ U ∂pv ∂ ∂ρU k ∂ρV k − + = −ρuv − ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂2k + µ 2 − µui. and partly because close to the wall it is not important. Re = UC δ/ν = 7890.

Please note that the term “damping term” in this case is not correct since fµ actually is augmenting µt when y → 0 rather than damping. An alternative way is to study the modelled ε equation near the wall and keep only the terms which do not tend to zero. However. and viscous diﬀusion D ν . ∗ y → 0. We ﬁnd that the only term which do not vanish at the wall are the viscous diffusion term and the dissipation term 31 .3 we get ¯ ¯ ∂ ∂ρU ε ∂ρV ε ε + = cε1 Pk + ∂x ∂y k ∂y O(y 1 ) O(y 1 ) ∂2ε ε2 + µ 2 − cε2 ρ ∂y k O(y 0 ) O(y 1 ) µt ∂ε σε ∂y O(y 1 ) (4. 3. Re = UC δ/ν = 7890.050. Energy balance in k equation. All terms have been scaled with u4 /ν. both the modelled production and the diffusion term are of O(y 4 ) whereas the exact terms are of O(y 3 ). see Ref. it is common to call all low-Re number functions for “damping functions”.05 −0.1 0 5 10 DT 15 20 25 30 y+ Figure 4. we can choose to solve for a modiﬁed dissipation which is denoted ε.1 0.1 Low-Re k − ε Models 0. From Eq.3: Flow between two parallel plates. Instead of introducing a damping function fµ . ˜ It is possible to proceed in the same way when deriving damping functions for the ε equation [41]. Direct numerical simulations [23]. However.2 31 Gain Dν 0. Turbulent diﬀusion by pressure D p . [27] and Section 4.05 Loss Dp 0 −0. Turbulent diﬀusion by velocity triple correlations D T .4. This inconsistency of the modelled terms can be removed by replacing the cµ constant by cµ fµ where fµ is a damping function fµ so that fµ = O(y −1 ) when y → 0 and fµ → 1 when y + ≥ 50.25 0.15 0.2. u∗ /UC = 0.7) O(y −2 ) where it has been assumed that the production term Pk has been suitable modiﬁed so that Pk = O(y 3 ).

4.12 Sharma 32 .4.11) ε =ε+D ˜ (4.3). Most of them can be cast in the form [34] (in boundary-layer form.10. 4.10) µt = cµ fµ ρ (4. f1 and f2 ) and different extra terms (D and E). i. for convenience) ¯ ¯ ∂ ∂ρU k ∂ρV k + = ∂x ∂y ∂y ¯˜ ¯˜ ∂ρU ε ∂ρV ε ∂ + = ∂x ∂y ∂y µ+ µt σk ∂k + µt ∂y ¯ ∂U ∂y 2 − ρε ¯ ∂U ∂y 2 (4. 4. ∂y 2 k 32 (4.12) Different models use different damping functions (fµ . 4. D = 0.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re k − ε Models There are at least a dozen different low Re k − ε models presented in the literature. the Launder-Sharma model [27] which is based on the model of LaunderJones & Launder [22].9) µ+ µt σε ∂ε ˜ ε ˜ + c1ε f1 µt ∂y k ε2 ˜ − cε2 f2 ρ + E k k2 ε ˜ (4. Other models which solve for ε use ˜ no extra source in the k equation.11 and 4.2 The Launder-Sharma Low-Re k − ε Models so that close to the wall the dissipation equation reads 0=µ ε2 ∂2ε − cε2 ρ .9.8) The equation needs to be modiﬁed since the diffusion term cannot balance the destruction term when y → 0. The model is given by Eqs.e. Many models solve for ε rather than for ˜ ε where D is equal to the wall value of ε which gives an easy boundary condition ε = 0 (see Sub-section 4. Below we give some details for one of the most popular low-Re k − ε models.

16) where ∂/∂y ≫ ∂/∂x ≃ ∂/∂z and u ≃ w ≫ v have been assumed. ∂y 2 (4. Using Taylor expansion in Eq.17) .15) From Eq.3 Boundary Condition for ε and ε ˜ 33 where fµ = exp f1 = 1 2 f2 = 1 − 0.25 to m = 2. The largest term in the k equation (see Eq. .1 gives ε = ν a2 + c2 + . 2. ∂y 2 (4.14 we can derive alternative boundary conditions. 4. . 4.13) E = 2µ RT = µt ρ ¯ ∂2U ∂y 2 2 k2 νε ˜ The term E was added to match the experimental peak in k around y+ ≃ 20 [22]. 4.24) ∂u ∂y 2 ε=ν + ∂w ∂y 2 (4.4 (1 + RT /50)2 (4.5. 1 1 33 (4. The f2 term is introduced to mimic the ﬁnal stage of decay of turbulence behind a turbulence generating grid when the exponent in k ∝ x−m changes from m = 1. are the dissipation term and the viscous diffusion term which both are of O(y 0 ) so that 0=µ ∂2k − ρε.4. 4.3 Boundary Condition for ε and ε ˜ In many low-Re k − ε models ε is the dependent variable rather than ε. The exact form of the dissipation term close to the wall reads (see Eq.3 exp −RT √ 2 ∂ k D = 2µ ∂y −3.4) close to the wall. ˜ The main reason is that the boundary condition for ε is rather complicated.14) From this equation we get immediately a boundary condition for ε as εwall = ν ∂2k .

i.23) The Reynolds number Rn and the constants are deﬁned as √ kn −3/4 Rn = . 4.22) 4.12 and 4. . ˜ ˜ In the model of Chien [8]. 4.18) = 1 2 a + c2 . Aµ = 70. the following boundary condition is used εwall = 2ν k y2 (4.18 so that ε = 2νa2 1 k = a2 y 2 1 which gives Eq. 1 2 1 (4.09. (4. µt = cµ ρ kℓµ ℓε (4. 4. .19) Comparing Eqs. The turbulent length scales are prescribed as [15.13. is used.4 The Two-Layer k − ε Model Near the walls the one-equation model by Wolfshtein [50].e. 1 2 1 (4.19 we ﬁnd εwall = 2ν √ ∂ k ∂y 2 . the diffusion term in the k-equation is modelled using the eddy viscosity assumption. Aε = 2cℓ ν 34 . cℓ = κcµ . ε = 0. 11] ℓµ = cℓ n [1 − exp (−Rn /Aµ )] .4. .4 The Two-Layer k − ε Model In the same way we get an expression for the turbulent kinetic energy k= so that √ ∂ k ∂y 2 34 1 2 a + c2 y 2 .20) In the Sharma-Launder model this is exactly the expression for D in Eqs.21.17 and 4. In this model the standard k equation is solved. cµ = 0. . which means that the boundary condition for ε is zero. (4. modiﬁed by Chen and Patel [7]. 4. ℓε = cℓ n [1 − exp (−Rn /Aε )] (n is the normal distance from the wall) so that the dissipation term in the k-equation and the turbulent viscosity are obtained as: ε= √ k3/2 .17 and 4.21) This is obtained by assuming a1 = c1 in Eqs.

25) ω= ε β∗k = O(y −2 ) (4. In the same way we can here use the ω equation (Eq.26) The ω equation is normally not solved close to the wall but for y + < 2. One problem is the boundary condition for ω at walls since (see Eq.5 The low-Re k − ω Model A model which is being used more and more is the k−ω model of Wilcox [47]. or it could be deﬁned as the cell where the damping function 1 − exp (−Rn /Aµ ) takes. the value 0.5. and thus no boundary condition actually needed.5 The low-Re k − ω Model 35 The one-equation model is used near the walls (for Rn ≤ 250).e. Wilcox has also proposed a k − ω model [49] which is modiﬁed for viscous effects.26. 35 . a true low-Re model with damping function.25) close to the wall to derive a boundary condition for ω. He demonstrates that this model can predict transition and claims that it can be used for taking the effect of surface roughness into account which later has been conﬁrmed [35].e. The matching of the one-equation model and the k − ε model does not pose any problems but gives a smooth distribution of µt and ε across the matching line. 3.g. and the standard high-Re k − ε in the remaining part of the ﬂow. The standard k − ω model can actually be used all the way to the wall without any modiﬁcations [47. ∂y 2 (4. ω is computed from Eq.. A slightly different approach must then be used [16]. A modiﬁcation of this model has been proposed in [38].95. This works well in ﬁnite volume methods but when ﬁnite element methods are used ω is needed at the wall. 0=µ ∂2ω − cω2 ρω 2 .25) The solution to this equation is ω= 6ν cω2 y 2 (4. 31.24) tends to inﬁnity. 3. e. The matching line could either be chosen along a pre-selected grid line.3 we derived boundary conditions for ε by studying the k equation close to the wall. i. 4. In Sub-section 4. The largest terms in Eq. 36]. 4. i.25 are the viscous diffusion term and the destruction term.4. 3.

3 exp − . [5] which reads ∂k ∂ ¯ ∂ νt ∂k + (Uj k) = Pk − Ck kω + ν+ ∂t ∂xj ∂xj σk ∂xj ∂ ¯ ω ∂ω + (Uj ω) = Cω1 Pk − Cω2 ω 2 + ∂t ∂xj k ν νt ∂k ∂ω ∂ νt Cω + + ν+ k k ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj σω The turbulent viscosity is given by ν t = Cµ f µ k ω 1 3 Rt 1 − exp − Rt 25 2.3 exp − Rt 1.5 2 fω = 1 + 4.001 exp − Rt Rt 1.35 (4.09 + 0.975 + Rt 10 4 1 − exp − Rt 10 Rt 200 1/2 3/4 0.09.5 The low-Re k − ω Model 4.27) 4.5.75 (4.4. fω = 1 + 4.42.28) ∂ω ∂xj (4. σω = 1. reads [38] ∂ ¯ ∂k + (Uj k) = ∂t ∂xj ∂ ¯ ∂ω + (Uj ω) = ∂t ∂xj ∂ ∂xj ∂ ∂xj k νt = f µ ω νt σk νt ν+ σω ν+ ∂k + Pk − ck fk ωk ∂xj ∂ω νt ω + (cω1 fω Pk − cω2 kω) + cω ∂xj k k ∂k ∂ω ∂xj ∂xj fk = 1 − 0.025 + 0.075 cω = 0. cω2 = 0.2 The low-Re k − ω Model of Bredberg et al.29) fµ = 0.8. 36 The k − ω model of Peng et al. σk = 0.75.5.91 + 36 .5 1/2 ck = 0.1 The low-Re k − ω Model of Peng et al. A new k−ω model was recently proposed by Bredberg et al.722 exp − fµ = 0. cω1 = 0.

Cω2 = 0. σk = 1. Cω = 1.1. (4.072.49. σω = 1.09.5 The low-Re k − ω Model 37 with the turbulent Reynolds number deﬁned as Rt = k/(ων). Cµ = 1. The constants in the model are given as Ck = 0.4.8 Cω1 = 0.30) 37 .

respectively. Take the Navier-Stokes equation for the instantaneous velocity Ui (Eq.10) is not used but a partial differential equation (transport equation) for the stress tensor is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation.i = 0 ρ (5. which promotes isotropy of the turbulence. v 2 and w2 ).4). The resulting equation reads p ¯ ¯ ¯ (Uk ui uj ). εij is the dissipation (i. Add the two equations and time average. When taking the trace the pressure-strain term vanishes since p Φii = 2 ui.e.k (5. 2. 5. transformation of mechanical energy into heat in the small-scale turbulence) of ui uj .k εij where 1 Pij is the production of ui uj [note that Pii = 2 Pk (Pii = P11 + P22 + P33 )].38 5 Reynolds Stress Models In Reynolds Stress Models the Boussinesq assumption (Eq.23). Cij and Dij are the convection and diffusion.1 and divide by two we get the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy (Eq. 38 .6) and multiply by uj . ¯ Subtract the momentum equation for the time averaged velocity Ui ((Eq.k + (ui.k ρ ρ Dij − 2νui. Furthermore. This is done in the same way as for the k equation (Eq.1) Φij is the pressure-strain term.k = −ui uk Uj.j + uj. it can be shown using physical reasoning [19] that Φij acts to reduce the large normal stress component(s) and distributes this energy to the other normal component(s).k − uj uk Ui.23). 2.k uj. of ui uj . Thus the pressure-strain term in the Reynolds stress equation does not add or destruct any turbulent kinetic energy it merely redistributes the energy between the normal components (u2 . Note that if we take the trace of Eq. Derive the same equation with indices i and j interchanged.i ) ρ Cij Pij Φij − ui uj uk + puj pui δik + δjk − ν(ui uj ).2) due to continuity. 2. . 2. 2.

1 + Φij. 25]. x = 0 this mean that the normal stress v 2 is damped).m The pressure diffusion term is for two reasons commonly neglected. 4.55xn ε Φij. 4.3). Near a wall (the term “near” may well extend to y + = 200) the normal stress normal to the wall is damped (for a wall located at.Φij tion is signiﬁcant. 5. The dissipation tensor εij is assumed to be isotropic.2 = −c2 Pij − δij Pk 3 ′ ′ ε 2 Φnn. which is an important term since its contribu.3) ′ The object of the wall correction terms Φ′ nn.2 + Φ′ + Φ′ ij. 12). and the dissipation tensor εij .2 2 ui uj − δij k 3 2 Φij. see p.1 = −2c1 un f k ′ ′ ε 2 Φss.1 = −c1 ε k (5.1 Reynolds Stress Models 39 5.1 ij. The pressure strain term. εij = 2 δij ε. from DNS-data is has indeed been found to be small (see Fig.4) tion Dij = cs ρuk um (ui uj ). Here we have introduced a s − n coordinate system. for example. the pressure diffusion (puj δik + +pui δjk )/ρ and the pressure strain Φij . 3 (5.1 Reynolds Stress Models We ﬁnd that there are terms which are unknown in Eq. and the other two are augmented (see Fig.5.1 = c1 un f k 3 k2 f= 2.1. 5. triple The triple correlation in the diffusion term is often modelled as [9] correlak (5.e. with s along the wall and n normal to the wall. In the literature there are many proposals for better (and more complicated) pressure strain models [42. it is not possible to measure this term and before DNS-data (Direct Numerical Simulations) were available it was thus not possible to model this term.k ε .2).5) From the deﬁnition of εij (see 5.1) we ﬁnd that the assumption in Eq. First. i.1 is to take the effect of the wall into account. such as the triple correlations ui uj uk . Instead we supply models for the unknown terms. From Navier-Stokes equation we could derive transport equations for this unknown quantities but this would add further unknowns to the equation system (the closure problem. is modelled as [26.5 is equivalent to assuming that for small scales (where dissipation occurs) the 39 .1 and Φss. 17] Φij = Φij. Second.

Examples where non-isotropic effects often are important are ﬂows with strong curvature. Advantages with eddy viscosity models: i) simple due to the use of an isotropic eddy (turbulent) viscosity. w2 ). ﬂows with strong acceleration/retardation.k are not correlated for i = j. 24. iii) work reasonably well for a large number of engineering ﬂows.k − uj uk Ui. Disadvantages with eddy viscosity models: i) isotropic. and thus not good in predicting normal stresses (u2 . 17] ¯ ¯ ¯ (Uk ui uj ). but isotropic eddy viscosity models handle this type of ﬂow excellent as far as mean ﬂow quantities are concerned.k + cs ρuk um (ui uj ). 5. Below we present list some advantages and disadvantages with RSMs and eddy viscosity models.k and uj. 28. swirling ﬂow. swirling ﬂows.6) 2 + Φij − δij ρε 3 . Eddy Viscosity Models Whenever non-isotropic effects are important we should consider using RSMs. see [18. Of course a k − ε model give very poor representation of the normal stresses. Advantages with RSMs: i) the production terms need not to be modelled.3. Disadvantages with RSMs: 40 . 40]. For a review on RSMs (Reynolds Stress Models). buoyancy etc.5. This is the same as assuming that for small scales ui and uj are not correlated for i = j which is a good approximation since the turbulence at these small scale is isotropic. Eddy Viscosity Models 40 two derivative ui. 5.1 and the modelled Reynolds equation reads [26. We have given models for all unknown term in Eq. ii) stable via stability-promoting second-order gradients in the meanﬂow equations. v 2 . acceleration/retardation.k = −ui uk Uj. ii) as a consequence of i) it is unable to account for curvature effects. see Section 1.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs. Note that in a turbulent boundary layer the turbulence is always non-isotropic.k k + µ(ui uj ). 5. iii) as a consequence of i) it is unable to account for irrotational strains.2 Reynolds Stress Models vs.4.m ε (5.k where Φij should be taken from Eq. ii) thanks to i) it can selectively augment or damp the stresses due to curvature effects.

01 can have a signiﬁcant effect on the turbulence. The work reviewed by Bradshaw demonstrates that even such small amounts of convex curvature as δ/R = 0. in contrast. It can be shown that it is the exact modelling of the production terms in the RSM which allows the RSM to respond correctly to this effect.3 Curvature Eﬀects Curvature effects.5. [12.3 Curvature Eﬀects 41 A 0 B r B 0 A Uθ (r) Figure 5. For a discussion of curvature effects. which dampens (augments) the turbulence [3. Uθ = i) complex and difﬁcult to implement. is not able to respond to streamline curvature. Both types of curvature are present in attached ﬂows on curved surfaces. and in separation regions. Thompson and Whitelaw [44] carried out an experimental inves41 . The entire Reynolds stress tensor is active in the interaction process between shear stresses. When the streamlines in boundary layer type of ﬂow have a convex (concave) curvature. The ratio of boundary layer thickness δ to curvature radius R is a common parameter for quantifying the curvature effects on the turbulence. see Refs. The k − ε model. When predicting ﬂows where curvature effects are important. 39]. related either to curvature of the wall or streamline curvature.1: Curved boundary layer ﬂow along r = constant. are known to have signiﬁcant effects on the turbulence [3]. Thus convex streamline curvature decreases the stress levels. Uθ (r). especially the shear stress and the Reynolds stress normal to the wall. 5. Ur = 0. the turbulence is stabilized (destabilized). iii) CPU consuming. normal stresses and mean velocity strains. 13]. it is thus necessary to use turbulence models that accurately predict all Reynolds stresses. ii) numerically unstable because small stabilizing second-order derivatives in the momentum equations (only laminar diffusion). not only the shear stresses.

if the ﬂuid is displaced inwards to level B.5. An illustrative model case is curved boundary layer ﬂow. it encounters a pressure gradient larger than that to which it was accustomed at r = r0 . It is clear from the model problem above that convex curvature. Instead the centrifugal force drives it back to its original level.3 Curvature Eﬀects 42 y x streamline Figure 5. The reduction of ρu2 and −ρuv was also substantial.g. 5. It is discussed below how the Reynolds stress model responds to streamline curvature.03. where they measured δ/R ≃ 0.7 gives (∂p/∂r)A > (∂p/∂r)0 . The ratio of the normal stresses ρu2 and ρv 2 is typically 5. the ﬂow is deﬂected upwards. turbulent ﬂuctuation) outwards to level A. 5.g. The production terms Pij owing to rotational strains can be written as 42 .2. an approaching separation region. The centrifugal force exerts a force in the normal direction (outward) on a ﬂuid following the streamline. As Uθ = Uθ (r) (with ∂Uθ /∂r > 0 and Ur = 0). They reported a 50 percent decrease of ρv 2 (Reynolds stress in the normal direction to the wall) owing to curvature.7) Here the variables are instantaneous or laminar. at least in the radial direction.1)) with θ locally aligned with the streamline is introduced. which is balanced by the pressure gradient. when ∂Uθ /∂r > 0.2: The streamlines which in ﬂat-plate boundary layers are along the x-axis are suddenly deﬂected upwards (concave curvature) owing to e. has a stabilizing effect on (turbulent) ﬂuctuations. Hence the ﬂuid is forced back to r = r0 . In addition they reported signiﬁcant damping of the turbulence in the shear layer in the outer part of the separation region. as (Uθ )A > (Uθ )0 . At one x station. How will this affect the turbulence? Let us study the effect of concave streamline curvature. Similarly. the pressure gradient is smaller here than at r = r0 and cannot keep the ﬂuid at level B. the radial inviscid momentum equation degenerates to 2 ρUθ ∂p − =0 r ∂r (5. tigation on a conﬁguration simulating the ﬂow near a trailing edge of an airfoil. If the ﬂuid is displaced by some disturbance (e. which from Eq. 5. Assume that there is a ﬂat-plate boundary layer ﬂow. see Fig. A polar coorˆ dinate system r − θ (see Fig.

these cases are summarized in Table 5.e. If the streamline (and the wall) in Fig. 43 . as the two rotational strains are multiplied by the same coefﬁcient (the turbulent viscosity).9) (5. An increase in the magnitude of P12 will increase −uv.11) As long as the streamlines in Fig. the situation will be reversed: the turbulence will be stabilized. v 2 − eq. and so on. : RSM.8) (5.2 is a wall jet ﬂow where ∂ U /∂y < 0. It can be said that the turbulence is destabilized owing to concave curvature of the streamlines. However. 5. the sign of ∂ Uθ /∂r). However as soon as the streamlines are de¯ ¯ ﬂected. RSM. : k−ε : P11 = −2ρuv P12 = −ρu2 ¯ ∂U ∂y (5.1. the situation ¯ will be as follows: the turbulence is stabilizing when ∂ U /∂y > 0. which in turn will increase P11 and P22 . which continuously increases the Reynolds stresses. bilizing for ∂ U The stabilizing or destabilizing effect of streamline curvature is thus dependent on the type of curvature (convex or concave). the k − ε model is not very sensitive to streamline curvature (neither convex nor concave).1: Eﬀect of streamline curvature on turbulence. and whether there is an increase or decrease in momentum in the tangential direction with ¯ radial distance from its origin (i. For convenience. 5. uv − eq. and desta¯ /∂y < 0. This means that ρu2 and ρv 2 will be larger and the magnitude of P12 will be further increased.2 are parallel to the wall. u2 − eq. ¯ If the ﬂow (concave curvature) in Fig. all pro¯ duction is a result of ∂ U /∂y. Thus the magnitude of P12 will increase (P12 is nega¯ tive) as ∂ V /∂x > 0.10) 2 ¯ ¯ ∂V ∂U − ρv 2 ∂x ∂y ¯ ∂V ∂x P22 = −2ρuv Pk = µt ¯ ¯ ∂V ∂U + ∂y ∂x (5. there are more terms resulting from ∂ V /∂x.5.2 is deﬂected downwards. It is seen that there is a positive feedback. : RSM. Even if ∂ V /∂x is much ¯ /∂y it will still contribute non-negligibly to P12 as ρu2 is smaller that ∂ U much larger than ρv 2 . 5.3 Curvature Eﬀects ¯ ∂ Uθ /∂r > 0 convex curvature concave curvature stabilizing destabilizing ¯ ∂ Uθ /∂r < 0 destabilizing stabilizing 43 Table 5.

5 (P11 + P22 ) = −ρu2 ¯ ∂U ∂x 2 ¯ ¯ ∂U ∂V − ρv 2 ∂x ∂y ¯ ∂V ∂y 2 k − ε : Pk = 2µt + ¯ ¯ If u2 ≃ v 2 we get P11 + P22 ≃ 0 since ∂ U /∂x = −∂ V /∂y due to continuity. which is also the results given by second-moment closure. 5. In boundary layer ﬂow. The production term Pk in k − ε model. since it will be sum of the two strains. whereas k − ε models give a large production. the production term −ρ(u2 − v 2 )∂U/∂x is of equal importance.3: Stagnation ﬂow. where u2 ≃ v 2 the production due to normal stresses is zero. In order to illustrate this. In the case of stagnation-like ﬂow (see Fig. Thompson and Whitelaw [44] found that near the separation point. will be large. let us write the production due to the irrotational ¯ ¯ strains ∂ U /∂x and ∂ V /∂y for RSM and k − ε: RSM : 0. however. the production due to irrotational strains is correctly accounted for.4 Acceleration and Retardation 44 x2 y x1 x x2 x1 Figure 5. As the exact form of the production terms are used in second-moment closures.4 Acceleration and Retardation ¯ When the ﬂow accelerates and/or decelerate the irrotational strains (∂ U /∂x.3). 5. This was conﬁrmed in prediction of separated ﬂow using RSM [12. near the separation point as well as in the separation zone. the only term which contributes to the production term in the k equation is −ρuv∂U/∂y (x denotes streamwise direction). the production term −ρ(u2 − v 2 )∂ U /∂x is of equal importance.5. In pure boundary layer ﬂow the only term which contributes to the ¯ production term in the k and ε-equations is −ρuv∂ U /∂y. ¯ ¯ ∂ V /∂y and ∂ W /∂z) become important. 13]. 44 . as well as in the sepa¯ ration zone. Thompson and Whitelaw [44] found that.

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