Table of Contents

A b s t r a c t / S u m m a r y ................................................................................................................2 I n t r o d u c t i o n ................................................................................................................................2 A i m s / O b j e c t i v e s ....................................................................................................................3 T h e o r y ...........................................................................................................................................4 A p p a r a t u s ....................................................................................................................................7 E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e ........................................................................................................8 R e s u l t s ..........................................................................................................................................9 S a m p l e C a l c u l a t i o n s .............................................................................................................19 D i s c u s s i o n s ...............................................................................................................................20 C o n c l u s i o n s ..............................................................................................................................21 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ..................................................................................................................21 R e f e r e n c e s .................................................................................................................................22 A p p e n d i c e s ...............................................................................................................................22

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ABSTRACT / SUMMARY

The main purpose of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. The apparatus used is Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, F1-15. In this experiment, the pressure difference taken is from h1- h5. The time to collect 3 L water in the tank was determined. Lastly the flow rate, velocity, dynamic head, and total head were calculated using the readings we got from the experiment and from the data given for both convergent and divergent flow. Based on the results taken, it has been analysed that the velocity of convergent flow is increasing, whereas the velocity of divergent flow is the opposite, whereby the velocity decreased, since the water flow from a narrow area to a wider area. Therefore, Bernoulli’s principle is valid for a steady flow in rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates, and the flow rates, static heads and total heads pressure are as well calculated. The experiment was completed and successfully conducted.

INTRODUCTION
In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli’s principle is best explained in the application that involves in viscid flow, whereby the speed of the moving fluid is increased simultaneously whether with the depleting pressure or the potential energy relevant to the fluid itself. In various types of fluid flow, Bernoulli’s principle usually relates to Bernoulli’s equation.

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the increase in speed can be explained due to the fluid that moves from a region of high pressure to a lower pressure region and so with the inverse condition with the decrease in speed. In a steady flow. As a matter of fact. 2|Page .Technically. 2. whereas the lowest speed is present at the most highest pressure. AIMS / OBJECTIVES 1. It can be simplified as constant practices of the sum of potential energy as well as kinetic energy. at all points of the streamline of a flowing fluid is the same as the sum of all forms of mechanical energy along the streamline. the highest speed is the one at the lowest pressure. To measure flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent / divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. To investigate the validity of Bernoulli equation when applied to a steady flow of water in a tapered duct. if a fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline. different types of fluid flow involve different forms of Bernoulli’s equation. Fluid particles’ core properties are their pressure and weight. Bernoulli’s principle complies with the principle of conservation of energy. In the case of a fluid that moves horizontally.

F1-15. The tapings allow the measurement of static pressure head simultaneously. The test section.THEORY The specific hydraulic model used in this experiment is Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus. and the bench supply control valve. connected to the manometers housed on the rig. which is provided with a number of hole-sided pressure tapings. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control valve. is indeed an accurately machined clear acrylic duct of varying circular cross section. 1|Page .

plus the unused static pressure of 90 psi. so that the static pressure in chamber B is equal to that in chamber A. and its velocity is changed back to pressure. it is slowed down.95 kPa exerted 10 psi exerted in a direction parallel to the line of flow.... x along the connecting tube consists of a velocity pressure of 68..48 kPa. From the above illustration..(1) 1|Page .. The pressure in Chamber A is static pressure of 689.. which is as well under pressure. The force required to absorb its inertia equals the force required to start the fluid moving originally. Below is a common form of Bernoulli’s equation. The pressure at some point.. where it is valid at any arbitrary point along a streamline when gravity is constant. As the fluid enters chamber B..... . and operates equally in all directions..Consider a system whereby Chamber A is under pressure and is connected to Chamber B.. Bernoulli’s principle relates much with incompressible flow.

. and at even higher speeds the pressure is negative.. is the acceleration due to gravity.. it can be rewritten as the followings.. is the elevation of the point above a reference plane. ρ.... The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero. and is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid. with the positive z-direction pointing upward — so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration. gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure...where: is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline. is the pressure at the point..(2) Or ... Most often. i s t h e piezometric head o r h y d r a u l i c h e a d ( t h e s u m o f t h e elevation z and the pressure head and is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q).... so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before 2|Page .(3) where: is dynamic pressure. or even zero pressure. I f e q u a t i o n ( 1 ) i s m u l t i p l i e d w i t h f l u i d d e n s i t y .. ..

which are as the followings:  The fluid involved is incompressible  The flow is steady  The flow is frictionless APPARATUS • • • • • Venturi meter Pad of monometer tubes Pump Stopwatch Water 2|Page .(4) However.. when the pressure becomes too low. and q is dynamic pressure.... whereas p usually refers as static pressure. Total pressure = static pressure + dynamic pressure. since the change is so small compared to other values. In liquids. Thus.. a few assumptions are taken into account in order to achieve the objectives of experiment.... Thus... Generally in many applications of Bernoulli’s equations. . the previous expression can be simplified as the following. cavitations occur.(3) where p0 is called total pressure..zero pressure is reached. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared and pressure.. it is common to neglect the values of ρ g z term.

6. T h e f l o w c o n t r o l v a l v e i s t h e n o p e n e d a n d the bench valve is adjusted to allow the flow through the manometer. 4. T h e a i r b l e e d s c r e w i s o p e n e d a n d t h e c a p i s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e adjacent air valve until the same level of water in manometer is reached. N e x t . T h e p u m p s w i t c h i s o p e n e d .• • Water tank equipped with valves water controller Water hosts and tubes EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. 5. t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s r e p e a t e d f o r d i v e r g e n t t e s t s e c t i o n t u b e . T h e w h o l e p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d u s i n g Δ ( h 1 – h 5 ) 1 0 0 a n d 1 5 0 m m w a t e r . 1|Page . T h e b a l l v a l v e i s c l o s e d a n d t h e t i m e t a k e n t o a c c u m u l a t e a k n o w n volume of 3L fluid in the tank is measured to determine the volume flow rate. T h e t e s t s e c t i o n t u b e i s s e t t o b e c o n v e r g i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f l o w . The bench valve is adjusted until the h1 – h5 head difference of 50mm water is obtained.

0811 Duct area.5 x10-6 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0. A (m2) 490.0732 0.1302 1|Page .522x10-5 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.7255 0.1431 0.9 x10-6 151.4299 0.7 x10 109. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.0603 0.003 Time (s) = 46 Flow rate (m3/s) = 6.0181 0.0268 0.9 x10-6 78.0687 0.8308 head h.0009 0. (m) 0.0352 Total head ho (m) 0.1368 0.00 0. (m) 145x 10-3 135 x 10 125 x 10-3 110 x 10-3 95 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.1444 0.0094 0.4 x10-6 89.1329 0.1459 0.5961 0.RESULTS Convergent Flow Pressure difference = 50 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.

8846 1.0732 0. (m) 170 x 10-3 145 x 10-3 125 x 10 100 x 10-3 70 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.1475 x10-6 78. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.0811 Duct area.1649 0.0399 0.0603 0.1590 0.003 1|Page .0020 0.6379 0.003 Time (s) = 31 Flow rate (m3/s) = 9.9 x10-6 151.Pressure difference = 100 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.1657 0. (m) 0.1720 0.0590 0.677x10-5 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.0775 Total head ho (m) 0.4 x10 89.0760 1. A (m2) 490.5 x10-6 Pressure difference = 150 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.0687 0.2330 head h.1971 0.00 0.9 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.7 x10-6 109.0207 0.

1919 0.5290 head h.1192 Total head ho (m) 0.3350 1.1863 0.00 0.7 x10-6 109. (m) 0.4 x10 89.7910 1.0811 Duct area.Time (s) = 25 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.000x10-4 1|Page .0732 0.200x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.0613 0.0603 0. A (m2) 490.1808 0.0970 1. (m) 190 x 10-3 160 x 10-3 125 x 10 90 x 10-3 40 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.0908 0.5 x10-6 Divergent Flow Pressure difference = 50mm water Volume (m3) = 0.0030 0.0687 0.003 Time (s) = 30 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.1592 x10-6 78.1930 0. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.2444 0.9 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.0319 0.9 x10-6 151.

0630 0.0603 0. A (m2) 490. h into duct (m) Duct area.0827 Total head ho (m) 0.00 0.003 Time (s) = 23 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.6592 0.1120 1.1877 x10-6 78.Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.0687 0.9141 1.0811 Duct area. (m) Dynamic head.9 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.7 x10-6 109.1571 0. (m) 0.1403 0.4 x10 89. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.304x10-4 Distance Pressure No head.1780 0.2037 0. A (m2) Velocity (m/s) Static head h.9 x10-6 151. (m) 155 x 10-3 130 x 10-3 120 x 10 115 x 10-3 105 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.2740 head h. (m) Total head ho (m) 1|Page .1626 0.5 x10-6 Pressure difference = 100 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.0021 0.0732 0.2703 0.0426 0.

0687 Duct area.1073 0.0498 0.0377 0.4 x10-6 89. (m) 0.0048 0.1574 0. (m) 185 x 10-3 135 x 10-3 55 x Dynamic head.9 x10-6 151.7 x10-6 109.1920 1.3711 Static head h.3056 0.1848 0.1898 0.00 0.1786 0.0811 490.1873 0. h h1 h2 h3 into duct (m) 0.0036 0.500x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 head.2156 x10-6 Pressure difference = 150 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.1 2 3 4 5 h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.8596 1.7 x10-6 109.6610 175 x 10-3 135 x 10-3 85 x 10-3 80 x 10 75 x 10-3 -3 0.4 Velocity (m/s) 0.0958 Total head ho (m) 0.0603 0.5 -6 0.1508 1|Page .0687 0.9 x10 78.00 0.9 x10-6 151.2657 0.0732 0.0603 0.4510 1.9888 1.0724 0.003 Time (s) = 20 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.1727 0. A (m2) 490.1406 0.

1475 Static Head. h° (m) 0.09 0.1431 0.0760 1. Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.125 0.4295 0.5 Pressure Difference = 50mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.145 0.09 -0.7 109.5961 0.1329 0.145 0.1869 0.03 -0.5 x10-6 1.2211 Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.135 0.4 89. % 0 -0.1861 0.7255 0.1459 0.1329 0.9 151.1302 Static Head.009 0.5 Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.100 0.1657 0.8846 1.110 0.02 0.51 -0. Ax106 (m2) 490.170 0.095 0.070 Va = √[2g(h°hi)] 0.6685 1.0732 0.4 5 h4 h5 0.0759 1.1444 0.9 78.4299 0. hi(m) 0.7 109.008 1|Page .06 0.125 0.9108 10-3 45 x 10-3 35 x 10-3 0.9 x10-6 78.1649 0.4 89.9 151.1419 0.1720 0.04 -0. hi(m) Va = √[2g(h°hi)] Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.1590 0.8849 1.1971 0.1368 0.5959 0.6373 0.1981 0.8308 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.6379 0.7251 0.2331 Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.9 78.0811 x10-6 89. h° (m) 0.2330 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb % 0.8310 490.

% -0.5293 Using Continuity Equation Duct Area. hi(m) 0.74 0.1808 0. % -0.04 Va = √[2g(h°hi)] 0.4 89.1863 0.02 Pressure Difference = 150mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) h1 Total Head.9 .013 -0. Ax106 (m2) 490.1930 0.0970 1.5 Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.2426 0.1919 0.2037 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.160 0.3350 1.7911 1.190 0.Pressure Difference = 100mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.0967 1.1571 Static Head.3347 1.7910 1.9 151.34 1|Page 0. Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0. hi(m) Va = √[2g(h°hi)] Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.7 109. h° (m) 0.125 0. h° (m) 0.155 0.5290 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.02 0.1592 Static Head.09 0.2030 490.9 78.03 -0.2444 0.

5 Pressure Difference = 100mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (divergent Total Static Head.6585 0.085 0.1120 1.02 -0.01 -0.4 89.2658 0.02 Pressure Difference = 50mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.04 0.1521 0. Vb = Flow Difference (Va-Vb) 1|Page .01 0.1920 1. Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.h2 h3 h4 h5 0.4509 1.8596 1.120 0.4510 1.5 0.01 -0.1727 0.9142 1.02 -0.6610 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.075 0.135 0. % 0.9 151. hi(m) Va = √[2g(h°hi)] Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.130 0.2740 -0.9141 1.080 0.1918 1.2738 151.7 109. h° (m) 0.2657 0.1786 0.11 0.1626 0.6609 490.8600 1.1118 1.2156 Static Head.7 109.1574 0.9 78.1877 0.4 89.05 -0.1780 0.105 0.9 78.175 0. Va = √[2g(h°- Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.115 0.6592 0.1873 0.

5 Pressure Difference = 150mm Figure 1 Graph of Total Head versus Pressure Head for Convergent Flow Figure 2 Graph of Total Head versus Pressure Head for Divergent Flow SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Divergent Flow Pressure difference = h1 .1869 0.4 89.9108 490.9888 1. % 0. h° (m) hi(m) hi)] Ax106 (m2) rate Q/ A 0.035 0.304 × 10-4m3/s 1|Page .7 109.045 0.1508 0.9885 1.9 78.01 0 h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.3056 0.6685 1.1898 0.135 0.43 -0. v = Flow rate Area into duct = 1.2211 0.3069 0.9108 /Vb.h5 = 100 mm water Flow rate = 0.1848 0.003/23 = 1.3710 1.304× 10-4 m3/s Velocity.flow) Head.185 0.055 0.01 0.9 151.3711 1.6686 1.03 -0.

0036 + 1175x10-3) m = 0.9 x 10-6 m2 = 0.2657 m/s) 2 x 9.490.81m/s2 = 0.1786 m 3|Page .2657 m/s Dynamic head = v2 2g = (0.0036 m 2 Total head = Static head + Dynamic head = (0.

From the analysis of the results. where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct increases as the duct area decreases. which are increasing. This is shown in all the results tables. One of them is. whereas the total head for divergent flow is in a different case where it is calculated to be the highest at pressure head h5 and the lowest at pressure head h1. the total head value for convergent flow is calculated to be the highest at pressure head h1 and the lowest at pressure head h5. the velocity of the flowing fluid increases.DISCUSSION Referring back to the objectives of the experiment. the observer must have not 1|Page . regardless of the pressure difference and type of flow of each result taken.5290 m/s and 1. we can conclude that for both type of flow. 1. For instance.2740 m/s respectively. 100 millimetres and 150 millimetres for convergent flow are 0. Next. the velocities at pressure head h5 at pressure difference of 50 millimetres. whereby the velocities are decreasing when the pressure difference between h1 and h5 is increased. which are to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli’s equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct as well as to measure the flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. be it convergent or divergent. which is from narrow tube to wider tube. The same goes to divergent flow. the water flows form pressure head h5 to h1. There must be some error or weaknesses when taking the measurement of each data. the velocity increases as the pressure difference increases. Note that for divergent flow. As fluid flows from a wider pipe to a narrower one.8308 m/s.

 The valve and bleed screw should regulate smoothly to reduce the errors  Make sure there is no leakage along the tube to avoid the water flowing out 2|Page . the total head pressure increases for both convergent and divergent flow. there are some minor effects on the calculations due to the errors.  Make sure the bubbles are fully removed and not left in the manometer. Therefore. are also achieved through the experiment.  The valve should be controlled slowly to maintain the pressure difference.  The eye of the observer should be parallel to the water level on the manometer.read the level of static head properly. The second objectives. CONCLUSION From the experiment conducted. This is exactly following the Bernoulli’s principle for a steady flow of water and the velocity is increasing along the same channel. RECOMMENDATION  Repeat the experiment several times to get the average value. where the eyes are not perpendicular to the water level on the manometer. where the flow rates and both static and total head pressures in a rigid convergent / divergent of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates are to be calculated.

Fluid Mechanics.. J.M.  Douglas.. and Cheng Lui. Schaumm’s Outline Series Theory and Problems of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic. and Swaffield. Munson.V. R..F. Okiishi.F. Longmans Singapore Publisher. D. J.B. 3rd ed. Young. and T. New York.H. Wiley and Sons.REFERENCES  B. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. Evett.  Giles. APPENDICES 2|Page . (1994). McGraw-Hill intl.R. J. (1995). 1998. 3rd edition. Gasiorek.

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