You are on page 1of 21

Table of Contents

A b s t r a c t / S u m m a r y ................................................................................................................2 I n t r o d u c t i o n ................................................................................................................................2 A i m s / O b j e c t i v e s ....................................................................................................................3 T h e o r y ...........................................................................................................................................4 A p p a r a t u s ....................................................................................................................................7 E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e ........................................................................................................8 R e s u l t s ..........................................................................................................................................9 S a m p l e C a l c u l a t i o n s .............................................................................................................19 D i s c u s s i o n s ...............................................................................................................................20 C o n c l u s i o n s ..............................................................................................................................21 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ..................................................................................................................21 R e f e r e n c e s .................................................................................................................................22 A p p e n d i c e s ...............................................................................................................................22

1|Page

ABSTRACT / SUMMARY

The main purpose of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. The apparatus used is Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, F1-15. In this experiment, the pressure difference taken is from h1- h5. The time to collect 3 L water in the tank was determined. Lastly the flow rate, velocity, dynamic head, and total head were calculated using the readings we got from the experiment and from the data given for both convergent and divergent flow. Based on the results taken, it has been analysed that the velocity of convergent flow is increasing, whereas the velocity of divergent flow is the opposite, whereby the velocity decreased, since the water flow from a narrow area to a wider area. Therefore, Bernoulli’s principle is valid for a steady flow in rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates, and the flow rates, static heads and total heads pressure are as well calculated. The experiment was completed and successfully conducted.

INTRODUCTION
In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli’s principle is best explained in the application that involves in viscid flow, whereby the speed of the moving fluid is increased simultaneously whether with the depleting pressure or the potential energy relevant to the fluid itself. In various types of fluid flow, Bernoulli’s principle usually relates to Bernoulli’s equation.

2|Page

In the case of a fluid that moves horizontally. To measure flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent / divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. AIMS / OBJECTIVES 1. In a steady flow. the highest speed is the one at the lowest pressure. As a matter of fact. Bernoulli’s principle complies with the principle of conservation of energy.Technically. whereas the lowest speed is present at the most highest pressure. at all points of the streamline of a flowing fluid is the same as the sum of all forms of mechanical energy along the streamline. if a fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline. To investigate the validity of Bernoulli equation when applied to a steady flow of water in a tapered duct. 2|Page . 2. different types of fluid flow involve different forms of Bernoulli’s equation. Fluid particles’ core properties are their pressure and weight. It can be simplified as constant practices of the sum of potential energy as well as kinetic energy. the increase in speed can be explained due to the fluid that moves from a region of high pressure to a lower pressure region and so with the inverse condition with the decrease in speed.

THEORY The specific hydraulic model used in this experiment is Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus. The tapings allow the measurement of static pressure head simultaneously. and the bench supply control valve. which is provided with a number of hole-sided pressure tapings. The test section. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. 1|Page . connected to the manometers housed on the rig. F1-15. is indeed an accurately machined clear acrylic duct of varying circular cross section. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control valve.

x along the connecting tube consists of a velocity pressure of 68. which is as well under pressure. Bernoulli’s principle relates much with incompressible flow... As the fluid enters chamber B.... it is slowed down. and operates equally in all directions.48 kPa.. .Consider a system whereby Chamber A is under pressure and is connected to Chamber B.. From the above illustration. The force required to absorb its inertia equals the force required to start the fluid moving originally....(1) 1|Page . The pressure in Chamber A is static pressure of 689. so that the static pressure in chamber B is equal to that in chamber A. plus the unused static pressure of 90 psi.95 kPa exerted 10 psi exerted in a direction parallel to the line of flow.. and its velocity is changed back to pressure... Below is a common form of Bernoulli’s equation. The pressure at some point. where it is valid at any arbitrary point along a streamline when gravity is constant..

.. it can be rewritten as the followings. or even zero pressure.(2) Or . Most often.. .. I f e q u a t i o n ( 1 ) i s m u l t i p l i e d w i t h f l u i d d e n s i t y . and at even higher speeds the pressure is negative.. is the acceleration due to gravity. is the pressure at the point.. The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero... gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure..... i s t h e piezometric head o r h y d r a u l i c h e a d ( t h e s u m o f t h e elevation z and the pressure head and is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q).(3) where: is dynamic pressure.. ρ. so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before 2|Page .where: is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline.. and is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.. with the positive z-direction pointing upward — so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration... is the elevation of the point above a reference plane.

Generally in many applications of Bernoulli’s equations.(3) where p0 is called total pressure. which are as the followings:  The fluid involved is incompressible  The flow is steady  The flow is frictionless APPARATUS • • • • • Venturi meter Pad of monometer tubes Pump Stopwatch Water 2|Page . and q is dynamic pressure.zero pressure is reached.(4) However. Thus... a few assumptions are taken into account in order to achieve the objectives of experiment... . whereas p usually refers as static pressure........ cavitations occur. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared and pressure. Thus. the previous expression can be simplified as the following. when the pressure becomes too low.. Total pressure = static pressure + dynamic pressure. In liquids. since the change is so small compared to other values. it is common to neglect the values of ρ g z term.

2. T h e b a l l v a l v e i s c l o s e d a n d t h e t i m e t a k e n t o a c c u m u l a t e a k n o w n volume of 3L fluid in the tank is measured to determine the volume flow rate. 3. T h e p u m p s w i t c h i s o p e n e d . 5. 6. N e x t . T h e w h o l e p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d u s i n g Δ ( h 1 – h 5 ) 1 0 0 a n d 1 5 0 m m w a t e r . The bench valve is adjusted until the h1 – h5 head difference of 50mm water is obtained. 1|Page . T h e t e s t s e c t i o n t u b e i s s e t t o b e c o n v e r g i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f l o w . t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s r e p e a t e d f o r d i v e r g e n t t e s t s e c t i o n t u b e . T h e f l o w c o n t r o l v a l v e i s t h e n o p e n e d a n d the bench valve is adjusted to allow the flow through the manometer. T h e a i r b l e e d s c r e w i s o p e n e d a n d t h e c a p i s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e adjacent air valve until the same level of water in manometer is reached.• • Water tank equipped with valves water controller Water hosts and tubes EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. 4.

0268 0.RESULTS Convergent Flow Pressure difference = 50 mm water Volume (m3) = 0. (m) 0.5961 0.0603 0.003 Time (s) = 46 Flow rate (m3/s) = 6.0094 0. A (m2) 490.0732 0.00 0.7 x10 109.4 x10-6 89.1368 0.1459 0.8308 head h.5 x10-6 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.7255 0.0009 0.0687 0.1302 1|Page .0181 0.4299 0. (m) 145x 10-3 135 x 10 125 x 10-3 110 x 10-3 95 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.0352 Total head ho (m) 0.9 x10-6 78.522x10-5 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.1329 0.0811 Duct area.9 x10-6 151.1431 0.1444 0.

0760 1. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0. (m) 0.003 Time (s) = 31 Flow rate (m3/s) = 9.1971 0.0775 Total head ho (m) 0.5 x10-6 Pressure difference = 150 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.00 0.1649 0.003 1|Page .0590 0.6379 0.0207 0.9 x10-6 151.7 x10-6 109.0399 0.1657 0.9 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.1475 x10-6 78.0732 0.1590 0.2330 head h.0020 0.0687 0.1720 0. A (m2) 490.4 x10 89.8846 1.Pressure difference = 100 mm water Volume (m3) = 0. (m) 170 x 10-3 145 x 10-3 125 x 10 100 x 10-3 70 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.677x10-5 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.0603 0.0811 Duct area.

00 0. A (m2) 490.1192 Total head ho (m) 0.4 x10 89. (m) 190 x 10-3 160 x 10-3 125 x 10 90 x 10-3 40 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.1930 0.7910 1.0603 0.0687 0.1808 0.2444 0.1863 0. (m) 0.9 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.0970 1.9 x10-6 151.000x10-4 1|Page .0030 0.7 x10-6 109.003 Time (s) = 30 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.1919 0. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.200x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.0908 0.3350 1.0811 Duct area.Time (s) = 25 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.0732 0.0613 0.5 x10-6 Divergent Flow Pressure difference = 50mm water Volume (m3) = 0.0319 0.5290 head h.1592 x10-6 78.

(m) Dynamic head. A (m2) Velocity (m/s) Static head h.6592 0.0021 0.00 0.0811 Duct area.1120 1.9 x10-6 151.9141 1.4 x10 89.1877 x10-6 78. (m) 0.0732 0.0687 0.1403 0.304x10-4 Distance Pressure No head.0630 0. h h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 into duct (m) 0.7 x10-6 109.1571 0.003 Time (s) = 23 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1. (m) 155 x 10-3 130 x 10-3 120 x 10 115 x 10-3 105 x 10-3 -3 Dynamic head.5 x10-6 Pressure difference = 100 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.0603 0.2703 0.9 -6 Static Velocity (m/s) 0.1626 0. A (m2) 490.0426 0.2037 0. h into duct (m) Duct area.1780 0. (m) Total head ho (m) 1|Page .Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 4 5 head.2740 head h.0827 Total head ho (m) 0.

003 Time (s) = 20 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.9 x10-6 151.0732 0. (m) 0.0498 0.1727 0.5 -6 0.1508 1|Page .1898 0.2156 x10-6 Pressure difference = 150 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.0687 Duct area.4510 1.1574 0.9 x10 78.6610 175 x 10-3 135 x 10-3 85 x 10-3 80 x 10 75 x 10-3 -3 0.1406 0.1786 0.9 x10-6 151.7 x10-6 109. h h1 h2 h3 into duct (m) 0.4 Velocity (m/s) 0.00 0.0603 0.0958 Total head ho (m) 0.0048 0.0724 0.0036 0.1 2 3 4 5 h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.8596 1. A (m2) 490.1920 1.0687 0.1073 0.0603 0.0811 490.7 x10-6 109. (m) 185 x 10-3 135 x 10-3 55 x Dynamic head.4 x10-6 89.9888 1.500x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 2 3 head.1848 0.00 0.0377 0.1873 0.2657 0.3056 0.3711 Static head h.

1981 0.125 0.7 109.095 0.5959 0.100 0.1431 0. % 0 -0.135 0.145 0.06 0.4 5 h4 h5 0.9108 10-3 45 x 10-3 35 x 10-3 0.5961 0.6373 0.6685 1.8310 490.110 0. Ax106 (m2) 490.7255 0.5 Pressure Difference = 50mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.04 -0.7251 0.9 78.1971 0.9 151.0760 1.5 x10-6 1.8849 1.1720 0.2331 Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.9 151.8846 1. hi(m) 0.02 0.1657 0.1329 0.0811 x10-6 89.2211 Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.1302 Static Head.008 1|Page .9 78.4295 0. Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.7 109.1419 0.125 0.09 0.2330 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb % 0.51 -0.5 Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.8308 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.03 -0.1869 0.4 89.1329 0. h° (m) 0.1861 0.6379 0. hi(m) Va = √[2g(h°hi)] Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.070 Va = √[2g(h°hi)] 0.1649 0. h° (m) 0.1590 0.9 x10-6 78.4299 0.1368 0.145 0.009 0.1459 0.0759 1.09 -0.170 0.4 89.0732 0.1444 0.1475 Static Head.

1930 0.09 0.1863 0.0970 1.2030 490. h° (m) 0. Ax106 (m2) 490.125 0.03 -0.34 1|Page 0.0967 1.1919 0. hi(m) 0. % -0.5290 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.1592 Static Head. h° (m) 0.1808 0.9 .2444 0.2426 0.155 0.2037 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.Pressure Difference = 100mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.3350 1.02 Pressure Difference = 150mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) h1 Total Head.5 Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.9 78.04 Va = √[2g(h°hi)] 0.5293 Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.7910 1.9 151. Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.160 0.190 0. % -0.1571 Static Head. hi(m) Va = √[2g(h°hi)] Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.013 -0.4 89.3347 1.7 109.7911 1.74 0.02 0.

1727 0.115 0.01 -0.5 0.11 0.6585 0. Vb = Flow Difference (Va-Vb) 1|Page .130 0.080 0. Va = √[2g(h°- Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.9 78.4 89.7 109.075 0.9 78.h2 h3 h4 h5 0.6592 0.05 -0.8600 1.1574 0.4510 1.1118 1.2738 151. h° (m) 0.105 0.6609 490.120 0.1521 0.7 109.135 0.01 -0.04 0.02 -0.1920 1.2740 -0.1786 0. hi(m) Va = √[2g(h°hi)] Using Continuity Equation Duct Area.175 0.4 89.1626 0.02 -0.9 151.1873 0. Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.2657 0.1780 0.02 Pressure Difference = 50mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Total Head.1120 1. % 0.8596 1.2156 Static Head.9142 1.1918 1.01 0.6610 Difference (Va-Vb) /Vb.2658 0.5 Pressure Difference = 100mm Using Bernoulli’s Equation Pressure Head (divergent Total Static Head.085 0.1877 0.4509 1.9141 1.

h5 = 100 mm water Flow rate = 0.9 78.9108 /Vb.7 109.9108 490.6685 1.304× 10-4 m3/s Velocity.035 0.055 0.01 0.1869 0. h° (m) hi(m) hi)] Ax106 (m2) rate Q/ A 0.1508 0.9885 1.3710 1.3069 0.9 151.01 0 h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.135 0.2211 0.045 0.9888 1.1898 0.4 89.1848 0.003/23 = 1.43 -0. v = Flow rate Area into duct = 1.304 × 10-4m3/s 1|Page .185 0.03 -0.5 Pressure Difference = 150mm Figure 1 Graph of Total Head versus Pressure Head for Convergent Flow Figure 2 Graph of Total Head versus Pressure Head for Divergent Flow SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Divergent Flow Pressure difference = h1 .3711 1.6686 1.flow) Head.3056 0. % 0.

81m/s2 = 0.1786 m 3|Page .9 x 10-6 m2 = 0.0036 m 2 Total head = Static head + Dynamic head = (0.2657 m/s Dynamic head = v2 2g = (0.490.0036 + 1175x10-3) m = 0.2657 m/s) 2 x 9.

whereby the velocities are decreasing when the pressure difference between h1 and h5 is increased.8308 m/s. This is shown in all the results tables. the total head value for convergent flow is calculated to be the highest at pressure head h1 and the lowest at pressure head h5. the velocities at pressure head h5 at pressure difference of 50 millimetres. the velocity increases as the pressure difference increases.2740 m/s respectively. the velocity of the flowing fluid increases. Next. whereas the total head for divergent flow is in a different case where it is calculated to be the highest at pressure head h5 and the lowest at pressure head h1. be it convergent or divergent. The same goes to divergent flow. For instance.DISCUSSION Referring back to the objectives of the experiment. From the analysis of the results. which are increasing. One of them is. There must be some error or weaknesses when taking the measurement of each data. where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct increases as the duct area decreases. we can conclude that for both type of flow. the observer must have not 1|Page . Note that for divergent flow. 1. which is from narrow tube to wider tube. 100 millimetres and 150 millimetres for convergent flow are 0. which are to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli’s equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct as well as to measure the flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. the water flows form pressure head h5 to h1. As fluid flows from a wider pipe to a narrower one.5290 m/s and 1. regardless of the pressure difference and type of flow of each result taken.

RECOMMENDATION  Repeat the experiment several times to get the average value.  The valve and bleed screw should regulate smoothly to reduce the errors  Make sure there is no leakage along the tube to avoid the water flowing out 2|Page . the total head pressure increases for both convergent and divergent flow. The second objectives.  The eye of the observer should be parallel to the water level on the manometer.  The valve should be controlled slowly to maintain the pressure difference. where the eyes are not perpendicular to the water level on the manometer. where the flow rates and both static and total head pressures in a rigid convergent / divergent of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates are to be calculated. there are some minor effects on the calculations due to the errors.read the level of static head properly. This is exactly following the Bernoulli’s principle for a steady flow of water and the velocity is increasing along the same channel. are also achieved through the experiment. CONCLUSION From the experiment conducted. Therefore.  Make sure the bubbles are fully removed and not left in the manometer.

J. New York. 3rd ed.REFERENCES  B.. J.M.F..  Giles. 1998.B. Okiishi. D. and Cheng Lui. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. Munson. Longmans Singapore Publisher. Wiley and Sons.F. APPENDICES 2|Page . R.. and T. McGraw-Hill intl. Young. Evett. (1994). (1995). J. Gasiorek. Fluid Mechanics.V.R. and Swaffield. Schaumm’s Outline Series Theory and Problems of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic.H. 3rd edition.  Douglas.