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**Erbao Cao1,2, Mingyong Lai1,2
**

1

College of Economics and Trade, Hunan University, Changsha, 410079,China Czp9491@163.com.cn

2

Hunan Province Laboratory of Logistics Information and Simulation Technology, Changsha, 410079,China

Abstract: The vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up (VRP-SDP) is a variant of the classical vehicle routing problem (VRP) where clients require simultaneous delivery and pick-up. Deliveries are supplied from a single depot at the beginning of the vehicle’s service, while pick-up loads are taken to the same depot at the conclusion of the service. One important characteristic of this problem is that a vehicle’s load in any given route is a mix of delivery and pick-up loads，at the same time in any route the vehicle can not violate some constraints ,for example the vehicle capacity and traveling distance constraints. In this paper, VRP-SDP was introduced and described from the point of view that combines the logistics and reverse logistics (bidirectional logistics), we constructed a universal integer programming mathematic model of VRP-SDP in detail, which can transform into other classical vehicle routing problems by setting different parameters. Meantime, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) was proposed to overcome the shortcomings of premature convergence and slow convergence of conventional genetic algorithm (GA). The novel crossover-operator、 swapping operator and inversion operator as the core of IGA were constructed to solve VRP-SDP. We compared the performance of the proposed IGA with GA. The experiment results show that the performance of IGA is better than GA. Keywords: reverse logistics, improved genetic algorithm (IGA), integer programming, optimization

1. INTRODUCTION Reverse logistics can be defined as the reverse process of logistics. The Council of Logistics Management (CLM) defines reverse logistics as“The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal”[1].In our work, VRP-SDP as an extension for vehicle routing problem, which is a complex combinational optimization problem, and is a well-know non-polynomial hard (NP-hard) Problem. VRP-SDP often encountered in fact, and has broad prospects in theory and practice, for example in the soft drink industry, where empty bottles must be returned, and in the delivery to grocery stores, where reusable pallets/containers are used for the transportation of merchandise. Reverse logistics is an important area in which the planning of vehicle routes takes the form of a VRP-SDP problem, as companies become interested in gaining control over the whole lifecycle of their products. For example, in some countries legislation forces companies to take responsibility for their products during lifetime, especially when environmental issue are involved(as in the disposal of laser printers’ cartridges).Returned goods are another example where the definition of vehicle routes may take the form of a

2100………………The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track

VRP-SDP problem. Owing to difficulty of the problem itself and deficiency of attention, even now little work can be found [2]-[3]. Most of the algorithms of solving the VRP-SDP are based on that of classical VRP. In recent years, most published research for the VRP-SDP has focused on the development of heuristics. Although the development of modern heuristics has led to considerable progress, the quest for improved performance continues. Angelelli and Mansini

[4]

using a branch-and-price algorithm for VRP-SDP, which is an exact algorithm originally

developed for the classical VRP. Dethloff [3] proposed a mathematical formulation for VRP-SDP and developed insertion-based heuristics that use four different criteria to solve the problem. Tang and Galvao developed a local search heuristics [5] and a tabu search algorithm [6] for VRP-SDP. GA

[7]-[9]

has drawn great attention from

researchers due to its robustness and flexibility and has been used to tackle many combinatorial problems, including certain types of vehicle routing problem. In this paper, we adopted an improved genetic algorithm to solving the VRP-SDP. We developed an integer programming mathematical formulation for VRP-SDP and further proposed an improved genetic algorithm to solve VRP-SDP. In operation process, we firstly adopted the novel decimal coding which can consider effectively the vehicle capacity and traveling distance restrictions at the same time, then we designed the novel crossover-operator(NOX)、 swapping operator and inversion operator, which are the key of the improved genetic algorithm (IGA).The IGA avoids effectively the common defects of early convergence and the diversity of population in traditional genetic algorithm. Computational results suggest that IGA solves the weakness of conventional GA effectively and obtains the optimal or near-optimal solution of VRP-SDP. This paper is organized as follows: In section 2, we describe the vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up service and present an integer programming mathematic model of VRP-SDP. In section 3, we design an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) to solve this model. Then we will give a numerical experiment to reveal the performance of the improved genetic algorithm in section 4. In section 5, we draw a conclusion. 2 .FORMULATION FOR VRP-SDP There are k vehicles in the depot 0, and V stands for the set of customers to be visited, where n= V is the number of customers. The location of depot and customers are known. Each customer has a known delivery demand level d j and a know pick-up demand level

p j , j=1,2,…,n. Delivery routes for vehicles are required to

start and finish at the depot, so that all customer demands are satisfied and each customer is visited just by one vehicle. V0 = V

∪ {0} is the set of clients plus depot (client 0)； cij is the distance between i and j, and the

= 1，if arc (i, j ) belongs to the route operated by

capacity of each vehicle is Q; the decision variable xijk

vehicle k, otherwise is 0 ； y ij is the demand picked-up in clients routed up to node i and transported in arc (i, j ) ； z ij is the demand to be delivered to clients routed a after node i and transported in arc (i, j ) . The corresponding integer programming mathematical formulation of VRP-SDP is given by： minimize

∑∑∑ c

k =1 i = 0 j = 0

k

n

n

ij

xijk

（1）

The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track………………2101

s. t.

∑∑ x

i = 0 k =1

n

k

ijk

= 1,

n

j=1,2,…,n;

（2）

∑ xijk − ∑ x jik = 0 ,

i =0

n

n

j=0,1,…,n; k=0,1,…, k ;

（3）

i =0

∑x

j =1 n

0 jk

≤ 1, k=1,2,…, k ;

n

（4）

∑ y ji − ∑ yij = p j ,

i =0 n i =0 n i =0 i =0

∀j ≠ 0 ;

（5）

∑ zij − ∑ z ji = d j , ∀j ≠ 0 ;

y ij + z ij ≤ Q ∑ xijk , i, j=0,1,…,n;

k =1 k

（6）

（7）

∑∑ d

i =0 j =0

n

n

ij ijk

x ≤L

k = 0,1, 2,..., k

（8）

xijk ∈ {0， ， y ij ≥ 0 ， z ij ≥ 0 ，i, j=0,1,…,n; k=0,1,…, k ; 1}

（9）

The objective function seeks to minimize total distance traveled. Constraints（2）ensure that each client is visited by exactly one vehicle；constraints（3）guarantee that the same vehicle arrives and departs from each client it serves；Restrictions（4）define that at most k vehicles are used；restriction（5）and（6）are flow equations for pick-up and delivery demands, respectively；Constraints（7）establish that pick-up and delivery demands will only be transported using arcs included in the solution；Restrictions 8） the maximum distance （ are constraints， L is the upper limit on the total load transported by a vehicle in any given section of the route； Finally, constraints（9）define the nature of the decision variable。 The above formulation is very universal，and can easily turn into other classical vehicle routing problems. If p j =0，then it transformed into conventional VRP formulation；If in someone customer, the all former clients p j =0，and the followed clients d j =0，then changes into VRP-B equivalent；If for all clients only ，then it changes into VRP-PD equivalent；If only have delivery or pick-up demand either p j or d j equals 0） （ one vehicle can finish service，then it turns into TSP equivalent. 3. THE PROPOSED IGA FOR VRP-SDP 3.1 Framework The IGA starts by computing an initial population, i.e. the first generation. We assume that the initial population contains popsize individuals, where popsize is an integer. After computing the fitness values of the

2102………………The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track

individuals, we select a pair of individuals, and apply the crossover operator to produce two new (children) individuals. Subsequently, we adopt the swapping mutation and inversion operator to the genotypes of the newly produced children. After determining the fitness of each child individual, the steady-state approach is carried out to obtain the next generation. The algorithm stops if a prespecified number of generations which is denoted as maxgen is reached. 3.2 Coding and fitness function Like conventional GA for the VRP, a chromosome I(n) simply is a sequence (permutation) S of n customer nodes. For instance, there are 10 customer nodes, a randomly generated chromosome is 1 3 6 8 9 5 4 10 2 7, which can be interpreted as r=3 feasible routes: 0-1-3-6-0, 0-8-9-5-0, and 0-4-10-2-7-0. If k >=r, then this chromosome is legal; otherwise, it is illegal. In order to prevent illegal chromosome entering the next generation in great probability, a penalty function is designed. R is the total distance vehicles traveled of the corresponding chromosome, let m = r − k , if

**r > k , then m > 0 , and R = R + M × m ，where M is a very large integer; if r < k m = 0 . The
**

fitness function can be expressed as f = 1 ( R + M × m) . For convenience, capacity of the vehicles is sameness, and the maximum distance that each vehicle can travel are equal, they can be denoted respectively as Q and L. 3.3 Population initialization Chromosome I (n) = { 1, 2,

, n} is a one-dimension array, which represents a feasible solution for

VRP-SDP. Then 2 integers i1 and i2, i1 , i 2 ∈ [1, n] , are generated by random generator. Exchange I(i1) and I(i2) to produce a random initial solution, iteration goes on until popsize initial solutions are created. 3.4 Genetic operation 3.4.1 Selection The selection of parents is done via traditional roulette method in iteration. 3.4.2 Crossover operator Crossover plays an important role in exchanging information among chromosomes. It leads to an effective combination of partial solutions in other chromosomes and speeds up the search procedure. We try a novel order crossover operator (NOX) in this paper.

Figure 1.

Example of the novel order crossover operator

The NOX operator may be the most useful crossover operator for operating the permutation. It chooses first two crossover points and exchanges the subsection of the chromosome between the two points, and then it fills up in front of the child chromosomes, the other genes of the child chromosome are filled with the other parent’s genes that different from the subsection. An example of the novel order crossover operator is given in Figure 1. The NOX operator can generate the child that different from their parent even if the parent are uniform, which better than other crossover operators.

The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track………………2103

3.4.3. Modified mutation operators The objective of the mutation is to disrupt the current chromosome slightly by inserting a new gene. Several mutation operators have been proposed for permutation representation. In this research we use swapping mutation and inversion operator together as a modified mutation operator. a. Swapping mutation Selects two positions randomly and then swaps the genes on these positions. As shown in Figure 2, from the parent we select two position, i1=2 and i2=6, and the values on position 2 and 6 will exchange form the parent to produce a child. An example of swapping mutation operator is given in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Example of the swapping operator

b. Inversion operator Finding out two cutting points within a chromosome randomly and then inverts the substring between these two positions and produce a child. For instance, we select two positions i1=3 and i2=7in chromosome parents, then inverts the substring between position 3 and 7 to produce the child that shorter the total distance of parent. An example of inversion operator is given in Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Example of the inversion operator

3.5 Replacement scheme The GA we have developed uses the steady-state approach, in which eligible offspring enter the population as soon as they are produced, with inferior individuals being removed at the same time, so that the size of the population, popsize, remains constant. 4. COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIMENTS The algorithm described in the previous section is coded in Matlab language and applied to the 8-customers vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up. There are three vehicles in the depot, capacity of each vehicle is 8 tons, delivery and pick-up demands of the 8 customers are listed in Table 4, the distances between customers and depot is listed in Table 5. The parameters for the proposed algorithm are included as follows: popsize is 40, maxgen is 200, probability of crossover operation is 0.95, probability of mutation is 0.01, and the maximum distance L is 400 kilometers. There are 10 independent trials are carried out to evaluate the average performance. The results of simulations are presented in Table 6, and the best solution obtained is showed in Figure 7.

Table 4.

Customer i Delivery demands Pick-up demands 1 2 3

**The delivery and pick-up demands of customers
**

2 1.5 1 3 4.5 2 4 3 2 5 1.5 3 6 4 4 7 2.5 1.5 8 3 3

2104………………The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track

Table 5.

i j 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 40 60 75 90 200 100 160 80 1 40 0 65 40 100 50 75 110 100 2 60 65 0 75 100 100 75 75 75

**The distance matrix
**

3 75 40 75 100 100 50 90 90 150 4 90 100 100 100 0 100 75 75 100 5 200 50 100 50 100 0 70 90 75 6 100 75 75 90 75 70 0 70 100 7 160 110 75 90 75 90 70 0 100 8 80 100 75 150 100 75 100 100 0

Table 6.

Vehicl es Distanc es（km）

**The average computational results of iterating 200
**

Computationa l time(second) 1.6720 0-6-7-2-0;0-8-4-0;0-3-5-10 Routes Standard deviation of total distance 0

Percentage of reaching optimal solution 100%

3

790

1100 change of optimal value change of average value

1100 IGA GA

1050

1050

The total distance value

The total distance value

1000

1000

950

950

900

900

850

850

800

800

750

0

20

40

60 80 100 120 140 The iteration number of IGA

160

180

200

750

0

20

40

60

80

100 120 Iteration

140

160

180

200

Figure 7.

The results of iterating 200

Figure 8.

The comparison of IGA with GA

The program was coded in Matlab language and simulations are performed on a personal computer with 3.06MHz Pentium 4 processor and 1G of RAM, the runtime do not exceed two seconds. A run of the improved genetic algorithm shows that the best operational plan is Vehicle 1 : depot—6—7—2—depot, the delivery demand is 8 tons, and achieve full loads, the pick-up demand is 6.5 tons, the route distance is 305kms. Vehicle 2: depot—8—4—depot, corresponding delivery demand is 6 tons, full loads ratio is 87.5%, pick-up demand is 5 tons, the route distance is 270kms. Vehicle 3: depot—3—5—1—depot, the delivery and pick-up demand both are 8 tons and achieve full loads, the route distance is 215kms.

The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track………………2105

The total distance traveled by the three vehicles is 790kms. From the computational results of Table 6, the results obtained by our IGA are robust, the distance approximate balance of the three routes, we explain this from the viewpoint of crossover operator and inversion operation we carried out. To verify the performance of the proposed improved genetic algorithm, the above example system was repeatedly by two hundred times by the IGA and GA

[9]

respectively. The parameters for GA are included as

follows: popsize is 40, maxgen is 200, probability of crossover operation is 0.95, probability of mutation is 0.01, and the maximum distance L is 400 kilometers. The total distance traveled by three vehicles is 805kms, and the operational plan is Vehicle1: depot—8—5—4—depot. Vehicle 2: depot—6—7—2—depot. Vehicle 3: depot—1—3—depot. The comparison results between two algorithms were shown in Figure 8, obviously, the total distance traveled of IGA reduced 15kms, and the convergence speed is more rapid and the robustness is better than GA. 5. CONCLUSIONS This paper contributed to vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up in the following respects: (a) an integer programming mathematic model of VRP-SDP was proposed for finding the optimal solutions, which described the relationship between VRP-SDP and other vehicle routing problems ; (b) an improved genetic algorithm to solve the vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up was presented, focusing on total traveled distance minimization, in the operation process, decimal permutation encoding was used to represent solution and penalty function was designed to eliminate illegal solutions, more importantly, the NOX crossover, swapping mutation and inversion operator were used as improved genetic operators to prevent premature convergence and accelerate searching procedure; (c)the effectiveness of the improved genetic algorithm was shown by some numerical examples. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research was supported by the Specialized Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant 20050532029.

REFERENCES [1]Stock J R. (1992). Reverse Logistics. Council of Logistics Management, Oak Brook , IL. [2]Min H. (1989). The multiple vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pickup points. Transportation Research A. 23,377–386. [3]Dethloff, J. (2001).Vehicle routing and reverse logistics: the vehicle routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pick-up. OR Spektrum.23,79–96. [4]Angelelli, E. Mansini, R. (2003). A branch-and-price algorithm for a simultaneous pick-up and delivery problem. Working Paper, Article presented at the EURO/INFORMS Meeting [5]Tang FA, Galvao RD. (2002). Vehicle routing problems with simultaneous pick-up and delivery service. Journal of the Operational Research Society of India (OPSEARCH) 39, 19-33. [6]Tang FA, Galvao RD. (2006). A tabu search algorithm for the vehicle routing problems with simultaneous pick-up and delivery service. Computer & Operation Research. 33,595-619. [7]Baker Barrie M, Ayechew M. A. (2003). A Genetic Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem. Computers & Operations Research. 30, 787-800 [8]Christian Prins. (2004). A Simple and Effective Evolutionary Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem. Computers & Operations Research.31, 1985-2002. [9]Gen, M.Cheng, R. (2000). Genetic Algorithms &Engineering Optimization. New York: Wiley. 2106………………The Sixth Wuhan International Conference on E-Business － Innovation Management Track

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