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Maglev (transport

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Maglev, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother than wheeled mass transit systems. The power needed for levitation is usually not a particularly large percentage of the overall consumption; most of the power used is needed to overcome air drag, as with any other high speed train. The highest recorded speed of a Maglev train is 581 kilometres per hour (361 mph), achieved in Japan in 2003, 6 kilometres per hour (3.7 mph) faster than the conventional TGV speed record. This is slower than many aircraft, since aircraft can fly at far higher altitudes where air drag is lower, thus high speeds are more readily attained. The technology has the potential to exceed 6,400 kilometres per hour (3,977 mph) if deployed in an evacuated tunnel. The first commercial Maglev "people-mover" was officially opened in 1984 in Birmingham, England. It operated on an elevated 600-metre (2,000 ft) section of monorail track between Birmingham International Airport and Birmingham International railway station, running at speeds up to 42 km/h (26 mph); the system was eventually closed in 1995 due to reliability and design problems. Perhaps the most well known implementation of high-speed maglev technology currently operating commercially is the IOS (initial operating segment) demonstration line of the German-built Transrapid train in Shanghai, China that transports people 30 km (18.6 miles) to the airport in just 7 minutes 20 seconds, achieving a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph), averaging 250 km/h (160 mph).

1 History 1.1 First patents 1.2 New York, United States 1968 1.3 Hamburg, Germany 1979 1.4 Birmingham, United Kingdom 1984– 1995 1.5 Japan, 1980s1.6 Vancouver, Canada & Hamburg, Germany 1986-1988 1.7 Berlin, Germany 1989– 1991 1.8 Other patents 2 Technology 2.1 Overview 2.1.1 Electromagnetic suspension 2.1.2 Electrodynamic suspension 2.2 Pros and cons of different technologies 2.2.1 Propulsion 2.2.2 Stability 2.2.3 Guidance

2.3 Evacuated tubes 2.4 Power and energy usage 3 Advantages and disadvantages 3.1 Compared to conventional trains 3.2 Compared to aircraft 4 Economics 5 History of maximum speed record by a trial run 6 Existing maglev systems 6.1 San Diego, USA 6.2 Emsland, Germany 6.3 JR-Maglev, Japan 6.4 Linimo (Tobu Kyuryo Line, Japan) 6.5 FTA's UMTD program 6.6 Southwest Jiaotong University, China 6.7 Shanghai Maglev Train 6.8 Daejeon, Korea 7 Under construction 7.1 Old Dominion University 7.2 AMT Test Track - Powder Springs, Georgia 7.3 Applied Levitation/Fastransit Test Track - Santa Barbara, California 8 Proposed systems 8.1 Australia 8.1.1 Melbourne Maglev Proposal 8.1.2 Sydney-Illawarra Maglev Proposal 8.2 United Kingdom 8.3 Japan 8.4 Venezuela 8.5 China 8.6 India 8.7 United States 8.8 Germany 8.9 Indonesia 9 Significant incidents 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

First patents
High speed transportation patents were granted to various inventors throughout the world.[1] Early United States patents for a linear motor propelled train were awarded to the inventor, Alfred Zehden (German). The inventor was awarded U.S. Patent 782,312 ( vid=782312) (June 21, 1902) and U.S. Patent RE12,700 (

the Tracked Hovercraft.765 (http://www.vid=RE12700) (August 21.[11] Based on experimental work commissioned by the British government at the British Rail Research Division laboratory at Derby. 3. having carried more than 50. Several favourable conditions existed when the link was built: 1. a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Patent 3. where he continued his successful development of the linear motor.[4] An early modern type of maglev train was described in U. Magnetic system of transportation. United Kingdom 1984– 1995 In the late 1940s.[7][8] Hamburg. and trains "flew" at an altitude of 15 millimeters (0. thought of using magnetically levitated transportation to solve the traffic problem. It was in operation for nearly eleven years. Professor Eric Laithwaite of Imperial College in London developed the first full-size working model of the linear induction motor. it became a common fixture on many advanced transportation systems being developed in the 1960s and 70s. but obsolescence problems with the electronic systems made it unreliable in its later years and it has now been replaced with a cable-drawn system.[3] A series of German patents for magnetic levitation trains propelled by linear motors were awarded to Hermann Kemper between 1937 and 1941. R. Birmingham.[6] Powell and BNL colleague Gordon Danby jointly worked out a MagLev concept using static magnets mounted on a moving vehicle to induce electrodynamic lifting and stabilizing forces in specially shaped loops on a guideway.000 passengers. Laithwaite himself joined development of one such project. The British Rail Research vehicle was 3 tonnes and extension to the 8 tonne vehicle was easy. although funding for this project was cancelled in Only one crossing over a public road was required and no steep gradients were involved . the length of the track was 600 meters (1.S.[12] One of the original cars is now on display at Railworld in Peterborough. The first use of "maglev" in a United States patent was in "Magnetic levitation guidance"[5] by Canadian Patents and Development Limited.[9] As the linear motor does not require physical contact between the vehicle and guideway. In 1979 a 908 m track was opened in Hamburg for the first International Transportation Exhibition (IVA 79). another early electromagnetic transportation system was developed by F. S. 4. Polgreen (August 25. He became professor of heavy electrical engineering at Imperial College in 1964. There was so much interest that operations had to be extended three months after the exhibition finished. It was reassembled in Kassel in 1980. while the RTV31 hover train vehicle is preserved on the Nene Valley Railway in Peterborough. when he was delayed during rush hour traffic on the Throgs Neck Bridge. Smith. Electrical power was easily available. 1959).969 ft).6 in).com/patents?vid=3158765) .[2] In 1907. The airport and rail buildings were suitable for terminal platforms. 2. by G. The world's first commercial automated maglev system was a low-speed maglev shuttle that ran from the airport terminal of Birmingham International Airport to the nearby Birmingham International railway station between 1984– 1995. United States 1968 In 1961. Germany 1979 Transrapid 05 was the first maglev train with longstator propulsion licensed for passenger transportation. James Powell.[10] The linear motor was naturally suited to use with maglev systems as well.158. New York. 1907).

there are two independently developed Maglev trains. a new design was decided upon.312 (http://www. Japan (1987). they achieved 550 km/h (unmanned) and 531 km/h (manned). Germany 1989– 1991 Main article: M-Bahn In West Berlin. is JR-Maglev by Japan Railways Group. Its fastest recorded speed was 30 km/h. It was a driverless maglev system with a 1. In that year. Japan (1989). the HSST-05 acquires a business driver's license at Yokohama exhibition and carries out general test ride driving. The development of the latter started in 1969.[13] The guideway was reused in 2003 when the replacement cable-hauled AirRail Link people mover was opened.[15] Early United States patents for a linear motor propelled train were awarded to the inventor. After the fall of the Berlin Wall. the JR-Maglev took a test ride at holding Vancouver traffic exhibition and runs.6 km track connecting three stations. Maximum speed 42 km/h. but after an accident that destroyed the train. Some government finance was provided and because of sharing work. the JR-Maglev took a test ride at the Okazaki exhibition. Local industries and councils were supportive 7. Canada & Hamburg. The inventor was awarded U. Tests through the 1980s continued in Miyazaki before transferring a far larger and elaborate test track (20 km long) in Yamanashi in 1997. the TR-07 in international traffic exhibition (IVA88) performed Hamburg. The maximum speed so far is 581 km/h (2003). Central Japan Railway Company announced the plan to start commercial maglev service between Tokyo and Nagoya in the year 2025. the HSST-03 (Linimo) wins popularity in spite of being 30 km/h slower at the Tsukuba World Exposition. Canada (1986).5. the HSST-04-1 was revealed at the Saitama exhibition performed in Kumagaya. Japan (1988). Germany (1988). it terminated at the UBahn station Gleisdreieck. and Miyazaki test track had regularly hit 517 km/h by 1979. Germany 1986-1988 In Vancouver. based on technologies introduced from Germany. plans were set in motion to reconnect this line (today's U2). In April 2007. and regular operation started in July . In Tsukuba. where it took over a platform that was then no longer in use. In Okazaki. which is more well-known. Berlin. One is HSST by Japan Airlines and the other. the M-Bahn was built in the late 1980s. In Hamburg. the original guideway lay dormant. Deconstruction of the M-Bahn line began only two months after regular service began that was called Pundai project and was completed in February 1992. After the original system closed in Development of HSST started in 1974. Vancouver. In Yokohama. Although the line largely followed a new elevated alignment. Land was owned by the railway or airport 6. In Saitama.[14] Japan. Patent 782. it was from a line that formerly ran to East Berlin. Testing in passenger traffic started in August 1989. Japan (1985). the cost per organization was not high. Alfred Zehden (German). 1980sIn Japan. Other patents High speed transportation patents were also granted to various other inventors throughout the world.S.

The Applied Levitation SPM Maglev system is interoperable with steel rail tracks and would permit maglev vehicles and conventional trains to operate at the same time on the same right of way. These changes in force are dynamically unstable . specifically designed for magnetic levitation and vid=RE12700) (August 21. Other technologies such as repulsive permanent magnets and superconducting magnets have seen some research. but it was never fully developed. Patent RE12. another early electromagnetic transportation system was developed by F. but is yet to be built. Technology Overview The term "maglev" refers not only to the vehicles. these maglev systems must be designed as complete transportation systems. the train levitates above a steel rail while electromagnets. MAN in Germany also designed a maglev system that worked with conventional rails.158.if there is .[20] See also fundamental technology elements in the JR-Maglev article. is the magnetodynamic suspension (MDS).S. Magnetic levitation There are two particularly notable types of maglev technology: For electromagnetic suspension (EMS). All operational implementations of maglev technology have had minimal overlap with wheeled train technology and have not been compatible with conventional rail tracks. Patent 3. 1959). Magnetic system of transportation. attached to the train. and the lower inside edge containing the magnets. Technology in the Transrapid article. R. The first use of "maglev" in a United States patent was in "Magnetic levitation guidance"[19] by Canadian Patents and Development Polgreen (August 25. electromagnets in the train repel it away from a magnetically conductive (usually steel) track. S. peer reviewed.765 (http://www.S.[18] An early modern type of maglev train was described in U. with the upper portion of the arm attached to the vehicle. Electrodynamic suspension (EDS) uses electromagnets on both track and train to push the train away from the rail.vid=782312) (June 21. The rail is situated between the upper and lower edges. which uses the attractive magnetic force of a permanent magnet array near a steel track to lift the train and hold it in . Because they cannot share existing infrastructure. so minor changes in distance between the magnets and the rail produce greatly varying forces. Smith.700 (http://www. which was designed. but to the railway system as well. are oriented toward the rail from proven mathematically. 1907). Another experimental technology.[16] In 1907. The system is typically arranged on a series of C-shaped arms. Magnetic attraction varies with the cube of distance. 1902) and U.[17] A series of German patents for magnetic levitation trains propelled by linear motors were awarded to Hermann Kemper between 1937 and 1941. and patented. by G. Electromagnetic suspension Main article: Electromagnetic suspension In current electromagnetic suspension (EMS) systems.

without the need for a separate reaction plate. which can offset. Laithwaite led development of such "traverseflux" systems at his Imperial College lab. as it creates a varying force in the rails that can be used as a reactionary system to drive the train.6 in)). due to equipment problems for instance. while a slight increase in distance greatly reduced the force and again returns the vehicle to the right separation.[20] The drag force can be used to the electrodynamic system's advantage. Another downside is that the repulsive system naturally creates a field in the track in front and to the rear of the lift magnets. (approximately 15 millimeters (0. Since a train may stop at any location. At slow speeds. this problem was addressed through increased performance of the feedback systems. which allow the system to run with close tolerances. The offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward. unlike electrodynamic systems (see below) which only work at a minimum speed of about 30 km/h.[20] Alternately. The frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train.[20] No feedback control is needed. highly skeptical of the concept. and complex systems of feedback control are required to maintain a train at a constant distance from the track. the tendency will be to exacerbate this. however. the current induced in these coils and the resultant magnetic flux is not large enough to support the weight of the train. the gap between the magnets and rail would have to be increased to the point where the magnets would be unreasonably large. and can simplify the track layout as a result. the dynamic instability of the system demands high tolerances of the track.[21][22] The major advantage to suspended maglev systems is that they work at all speeds. both the rail and the train exert a magnetic field. Repulsive systems have a major downside as well. the entire track must be able to support both low-speed and high-speed operation. Electrodynamic suspension In electrodynamic suspension (EDS). as in most linear motor systems. which act against the magnets and create a form of drag. and the train is levitated by the repulsive force between these magnetic fields. This is generally only a concern at low speeds.minor narrowing in distance between the track and the magnets create strong forces to repel the magnets back to their original position. or eliminate this advantage. A major advantage of the repulsive maglev systems is that they propulsion coils are naturally stable . On the downside. The magnetic field in the train is produced by either electromagnets (as in JR-Maglev) or by an array of permanent magnets (as in Inductrack). The propulsion coils that exert a force on the train are effectively a linear motor: an alternating current flowing through the coils generates a continuously varying magnetic field that moves forward along the track. propulsion coils on the guideway are used to exert a force on the magnets in the train and make the train move forward.[20] In practice. This eliminates the need for a separate low-speed suspension system. at higher speeds the effect does not have time to build to its full potential and other forms of drag dominate. The repulsive force in the track is created by an induced magnetic field in wires or other conducting strips in the EDS Maglev Propulsion via track. Laithwaite. For this reason the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation.a slight divergence from the optimum position. was concerned that in order to make a track with the required tolerances. .

cooled with inexpensive liquid nitrogen Inductrack System[27][28] (Permanent Magnet EDS) Failsafe Suspension . although Inductrack provides levitation down to a much lower speed. New technology that is still under development (as of 2008) and as yet has no commercial version or full scale system prototype. EMS systems are wheel-less. and wirelessly for Transrapid. the Transrapid is still able to generate levitation down to 10 km/h (6. using the power from onboard batteries. no wheels or secondary propulsion system needed Onboard magnets and large margin EDS[25][26] (Electrodynamic) between rail and train enable highest recorded train speeds (581 km/h) and heavy load capacity. The German Transrapid.2 mph) speed. Technology Pros Cons The separation between the vehicle and the guideway must be constantly monitored and corrected by computer systems to avoid collision due to the unstable nature of electromagnetic attraction. and Korean Rotem EMS maglevs levitate at a standstill. necessitating the use of magnetic shielding. Strong magnetic fields onboard the train would make the train inaccessible to passengers with pacemakers or magnetic data storage media such as hard drives and credit cards. This is not the case with the HSST and Rotem systems. Halbach arrays of permanent magnets may prove more cost-effective than electromagnets Neither Inductrack nor the Superconducting EDS are able to levitate vehicles at a standstill. If guideway power is lost on the move. Magnetic fields inside and outside the EMS[23][24] (Electromagnetic vehicle are less than EDS. Magnetic field is localized below the car. and whose implementation. wins out commercially. limitations on guideway inductivity limit the maximum speed of the vehicle. due to the system's inherent instability and the required constant corrections by outside systems. can generate enough force at low speeds (around 5 km/h) to levitate maglev train. in case of power failure cars slow down on their own safely.Pros and cons of different technologies Each implementation of the magnetic levitation principle for train-type travel involves advantages and disadvantages. vibration issues may occur. Requires either wheels or track segments that move for when the vehicle is stopped. proven. Time will tell us which power required to activate magnets. has recently demonstrated (December 2005) successful operations using high temperature superconductors in its onboard magnets. . Japanese HSST (Linimo). commercially available technology that suspension) can attain very high speeds (500 km/h). wheels are required for these systems. vehicle must be wheeled for travel at low speeds. with electricity extracted from guideway using power rails for the latter two.

Power is also needed to force the train through the air ("air drag"). the total time spent levitating to travel each mile is greatly reduced. stabilisation of pitch. and may be produced when the train slowed ("regenerative braking"). EMS systems can only levitate the train using the magnets onboard. sway (sideways motion) or heave (up and down motions) can be problematic with some technologies. also known as Null Current systems. for air conditioning. no current flows. . At low speeds the levitation power can be significant. heating. Over long distances where the cost of propulsion coils could be prohibitive. a propeller or jet engine could be used. but the air drag energy increases with the speed-squared. alternating fields. Such systems constantly measure the bearing distance and adjust the electromagnet current accordingly.Propulsion An EDS system can provide both levitation and propulsion using an onboard linear motor. EMS systems rely on active electronic stabilization. giving reduced energy use per mile. All EDS systems are moving systems (no EDS system can levitate the train unless it is in motion). In addition translations. but at high speeds. When the vehicle is in the straight ahead position. lighting and other miscellaneous systems. roll and yaw is required by magnetic technology. Power and energy usage Power for maglev trains is used to accelerate the train. but if it moves off-line this creates a changing flux that generates a field that pushes it back into line. it is also usually used to make the train fly. Because Maglev vehicles essentially fly. Evacuated tubes Some systems (notably the swissmetro system) propose the use of vactrains — evacuated (airless) tubes used in tandem with maglev technology to minimize air drag. A linear motor (propulsion coils) mounted in the track is one solution. Earnshaw's theorem assumes that the magnets are static and unchanging in field strength and that the relative permeability is constant and greater than 1 everywhere. This has the potential to increase speed and efficiency greatly. Stability Earnshaw's theorem shows that any combination of static magnets cannot be in a stable equilibrium. and to stabilise the flight of the train.[31] One potential risk for passengers of trains operating in evacuated tubes is that they could be exposed to the risk of cabin depressurization and asphyxiation unless tunnel safety monitoring systems can repressurize the tube in the event of a train malfunction or accident.[30] these use a coil which is wound so that it enters two opposing. not propel it forward. and hence at high speed dominates. vehicles need some other technology for propulsion. surge (forward and backward motions).[29] However. Guidance Some systems use Null Flux systems. the various levitation systems achieve stable levitation by violating the assumptions of Earnshaw's theorem. as most of the energy for conventional Maglev trains is lost in air drag. As such.

which indciates that a full-scale train should be able to navigate curves with the same or narrower radius as a conventional train. maglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train at equivalent speeds. An SPM maglev system. can instantaneously switch tracks using electronic controls. Control Systems EMS Maglev needs very fast-responding control systems to maintain a stable height above the track. noise. and the energy cost of maintaining the field. weight. . By contrast conventional high speed trains such as the TGV are able to run at reduced speeds on existing rail infrastructure. Backwards Compatibility Maglev trains currently in operation are not compatible with conventional track. As with many technologies. Maglev would eliminate these issues. Other maglev systems do not necessarily have this problem. Curves must be gentle. with no moving parts in the track.[33][34] Design Comparisons Braking and overhead wire wear have caused problems for the Fastech 360 railed Shinkansen. For example. rolling resistance. advances in linear motor design have addressed the limitations noted in early maglev systems. maglev trains experience no rolling resistance. Efficiency Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle. SPM maglev systems have a stable levitation gap of several centimeters. or on extensions where traffic does not justify new infrastructure. potentially improving power efficiency. A very strong magnetic field is required to levitate a massive train. thus reducing expenditure where new infrastructure would be particularly expensive (such as the final approaches to city terminals). However. leaving only air resistance and electromagnetic drag. Noise. and control systems. while switches are very long and need care to avoid breaks in current. but new alloys and manufacturing techniques have resulted in magnets that maintain their levitational force at higher temperatures. As linear motors must fit within or straddle their track over the full length of the train. in which the vehicle permanently levitated over the tracks. design constraints.Advantages and disadvantages Compared to conventional trains Major comparative differences between the two technologies lie in backward-compatibility. Because the major source of noise of a maglev train comes from displaced air. the psychoacoustic profile of the maglev may reduce this benefit: A study concluded that maglev noise should be rated like road traffic while conventional trains have a 5-10 dB "bonus" as they are found less annoying at the same loudness level. For this reason one research path is using superconductors to improve the efficiency of the electromagnets.[32] Weight The weight of the large electromagnets in many EMS and EDS designs is a major design issue. and therefore require all new infrastructure for their entire route. Magnet reliability at higher temperatures is a countervailing comparative disadvantage (see suspension types). A prototype SPM maglev train has also navigated curves with radius equal to the length of the train itself. this needs careful design in the event of a failure in order to avoid crashing into the track during a power fluctuation. track design for some EDS and EMS maglev systems is challenging for anything other than pointto-point services.

History of maximum speed record by a trial run 1971 . Aircraft are also more flexible and can service more destinations with provision of suitable airport facilities. or 111.93 billion yuan to build. maglev trains are powered by electricity and thus need not carry fuel. The only low-speed maglev (100 km/h) currently operational. electric trains emit little carbon dioxide emissions. even ignoring operating costs. at high cruising speeds.West Germany -TR-02(TSST). but noise pollution issues would make it infeasible.3 million US dollars per kilometer). hence despite their lift-to-drag ratio disadvantage.West Germany .1 miles.164 km/h . and 53 million a year for operations. Economics The Shanghai maglev cost 9. For maglev systems these ratios can exceed that of aircraft (for example Inductrack can approach 200:1 at high speed. China aims to limit the cost of future construction extending the maglev line to approximately 200 million yuan per kilometer. they can travel more efficiently at high speeds than maglev trains that operate at sea level (this has been proposed to be fixed by the vactrain concept).[38] Besides offering improved operation and maintenance costs over other transit systems. Jet transport aircraft take advantage of low air density at high altitudes to significantly reduce drag during cruise. Unlike airplanes. far higher than any aircraft). income from the system is incapable of recouping the capital costs (including interest on financing) over the expected lifetime of the system. the Japanese Linimo HSST.[35] The United States Federal Railroad Administration 2003 Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed Baltimore-Washington Maglev project gives an estimated 2008 capital costs of 4. as no new tunnel blasting would be needed. However. Aircraft fuel is a significant danger during takeoff and landing accidents. At 50 yuan per passenger[36] and the current 7. As maglev systems are deployed around the world. The Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) conducted their own Environmental Impact Statement. Also.Prinzipfahrzeug .[35] This total includes infrastructure capital costs such as manufacturing and construction facilities. these low-speed maglevs provide ultra-high levels of operational reliability and introduce little noise and zero air pollution into dense urban settings. This can make maglev more efficient per kilometre. aerodynamic drag is much larger than lift-induced drag.5 million US dollars per mile (69.361 billion US dollars for 39. experts expect construction costs to drop as new construction methods are innovated along with economies of scale.90 km/h 1971 . cost approximately US$100 million/km to build. and operational training. it is possible to define a lift-to-drag ratio.9 billion dollars for construction. with a route blasting long tunnels through mountains. A Tokaido maglev route replacing current Shinkansen would cost some 1/10th the cost.Compared to aircraft For many systems. and put the pricetag at 4. especially when powered by nuclear or renewable sources. This changes if capacity utilization increases from the current 20%.[37] The proposed Ch Shinkansen maglev in Japan is estimated to cost approximately US$82 billion to build.000 passengers per day.

6 mi).504 km/h (unmanned) It succeeds in operation over 500 km/h for the first time in the world.3 km/h (by steam rocket propulsion.TR-07 .5 km/h (manned/three formation) 2003 . has a test track in Emsland with a total length of 31. They are also looking to apply their technology to high speed passenger services as well.250 km/h (manned) 1974 . Germany Main article: Emsland test facility Transrapid.Japan .Japan .412.West Germany .230 km/h (unmanned) 1975 .517 km/h (unmanned) 1987 .Japan . unmanned) 1978 . The single track line runs between Dörpen and Lathen with turning loops at each end. General Atomics has received $90 million in research funding from the federal government.TR-06 .548 km/h (unmanned) 1999 .6 km/h (manned) 1989 .West Germany .Japan . requiring no electromagnets for either levitation or propulsion. JR-Maglev. Japan Main article: JR-Maglev Transrapid at the Emsland test facility Japan has a demonstration line in Yamanashi prefecture where test trains JR-Maglev MLX01 have reached 581 kilometres per hour (361 mph).MLU002N . which is being used as the basis of Union Pacific's 8 km freight shuttle in Los Angeles.TR-06 .Germany .307.TR04 .MLU001 .[39] Existing maglev systems San Diego.431 km/h (unmanned) 1997 . slightly faster than any wheeled trains (the current TGV .China .(manned) 1973 .Japan .ML100 –60 km/h .MLX01 .401.[40] Emsland.1972 . a German maglev company.8 km/h (manned) 1988 . Guinness authorization.Japan .581 km/h (manned/three formation).MLX01 .Japan .Japan . 2003 .West Germany . made in Nissan.West Germany . Guinness authorization.436 km/h (manned) 1993 .552 km/h (manned/five formation).TR-07 .550 km/h (unmanned) 1999 .MLX01 .531 km/h (manned) 1997 .West Germany .West Germany . USA General Atomics has a 120 meter test facility in San Diego.450 km/h (manned) 1994 . unmanned) 1978 .110 km/h (manned) 1979-12-12 . The technology is "passive" (or "permanent").8 km/h (by supporting rockets propulsion.HSST-01 .EET-01 . The trains regularly run at up to 420 km/h (260 mph).406 km/h (manned) 1987 .400.Transrapid SMT (build in Germany) .Japan -ML-500R.Komet .Japan .Japan-ML-500R . 1979-12-21 .HSST-02 . The construction of the test facility began in 1980 and finished in 1984.501.Japan .5 km (19.MLX01 .MLX01 .

This is the ninestation 8. Japan) Main article: Linimo The world's first commercial automated "Urban Maglev" system commenced operation in March 2005 in Aichi. A documentary video about the Japanese maglev can be viewed here (http://youtube.79 in). the first crewed high-temperature superconducting maglev was tested successfully at Southwest Jiaotong University. 581 km/h. It has assessed HSST for the Maryland Department of Transportation and maglev technology for the Colorado Department of Transportation.8 kilometres per hour (357. developed by the Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central) and Kawasaki Heavy Industries. This system is based on the principle that bulk high-temperature superconductors can be levitated or suspended stably above or below a permanent magnet. otherwise known as the Linimo. These trains use superconducting magnets which allow for a larger gap. The load was over 530 kg (1166 lb) and the levitation gap over 20 mm (0. 2003. which also operates a test track in Nagoya. The line serves the local community as well as the Expo 2005 fair site. are currently the fastest trains in the world. and repulsive-type electrodynamic suspension (EDS).2 mph)). towards Fujigaoka Station in March 2005 FTA's UMTD program In the US. the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Urban Maglev Technology Demonstration program has funded the design of several low-speed urban maglev demonstration projects.000 have done so already. Shanghai Maglev Train Main article: Shanghai Maglev Train . Other US urban maglev demonstration projects of note are the LEVX in Washington State and the Massachusetts-based Magplane.[43] Linimo train approaching Banpaku Kinen Koen.[41][42] Yamanashi Prefecture residents (and government officials) can sign up to ride this for free. Linimo (Tobu Kyuryo Line. The system uses liquid nitrogen. China On December 31. China. The linear-motor magnetic-levitated train has a top speed of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph). Guinness World Records authorization. Southwest Jiaotong University.9 km long Tobu-kyuryo Line.speed record is . which is very cheap. In comparison Transrapid uses conventional electromagnets and attractive-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS). the MagneMotion M3 and of the Maglev2000 of Florida superconducting EDS system. The FTA has also funded work by General Atomics at California University of Pennsylvania to demonstrate new maglev designs. The trains were designed by the Chubu HSST Development Corporation. to cool the superconductor. achieving a record speed of 581 kilometres per hour (361 mph) on December 2. These "Superconducting Maglev Shinkansen". Japan. The line has a minimum operating radius of 75 m and a maximum gradient of 6%. Chengdu. 2005. JR-Maglev at Yamanashi test track in November. 2000. and some 100.

problems caused the company to abandon the project and turn it over to the University.[46] this same report states that the final decision has to be approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. UTM-03. In October 2006. Virginia. The system is currently not operational.[47][48][49] Research for urban maglev using electromagnetic suspension began in 1994 by the government. the Shanghai Maglev Train from downtown Shanghai (Shanghai Metro) to the Pudong International Airport. is scheduled to debut at the end of 2012 in Incheon's Yeongjong island where Incheon International Airport is located. MagneMotion Inc. is expected to bring its prototype maglev vehicle. The final UTM model of Rotem's urban maglev. HML-01 and HML-02. The urban maglev runs on 1 km track between Expo Park and National Science Museum. ODU has partnered with a Massachusetts-based company to test another maglev train on its campus.[58] In February 2009. in Germany.[44] It was inaugurated in 2002.[52][53] However UTM-02 is still the second prototype of a final model. The highest speed achieved on the Shanghai track has been 501 km/h (311 mph). Tests will continue. The whole system. Although the system was initially built by AMT.[55][56] This system uses a "smart train. the team was able to retest the sled. over a track length of 30 km.[50][51] Meanwhile UTM-02 remarked an innovation by conducting the world's first ever maglev simulation. USA. unfortunately. The Shanghai municipal government is considering building the line extension underground to allay the public's fears of electromagnetic pollution. increasing both speed and distance. to the campus to test in early 2010. or bogie. which was made by Hyundai Heavy Industries.[54] Under construction Old Dominion University Track of less than a mile in length has been constructed at Old Dominion University in Norfolk. [59] . finished in 2010. magnets. was removed from the power grid for nearby construction. Despite the speeds. Meanwhile.[49] The first urban maglev opened to public was UTM-02 in Daejeon on 21 April 2008 after 14 years of development and building one prototype. A maglev train coming out of [45] the Pudong International Construction of an extension to Hangzhou was planned to be Airport. dumb track" that involves most of the sensors.Transrapid. and was again successful despite power outages on campus. UTM-01. and computation occurring on the train rather than the track. which is about the size of van. for Daejeon Expo in 1993 after five years of research and manufacturing two prototypes. Korea The first maglev utilizing electromagnetic suspension opened to public was HML-03. constructed the first operational high-speed conventional maglev railway in the world. The $14 million originally planned did not allow for completion. the research team performed an unscheduled test of the car that went smoothly. Daejeon. [57] This system will cost less to build per mile than existing systems. but has been postponed in favour of a conventional high speed railway running at 350km/h. but research has proved useful. the maglev has been criticised as having few stops and a questionable commercial success.

in or near Santa Barbara.AMT Test Track . Northwest and Northeast of England and was reported to be under favourable consideration by the government. Applied Levitation/Fastransit Test Track . But a few of the following examples have progressed beyond that .[63] United Kingdom Main article: UK Ultraspeed The proposed Melbourne Maglev connecting the city of Geelong through Metropolitan Melbourne's outer suburban growth corridors. California Applied Levitation. Georgia. However despite relentless road congestion and the highest roadspace per capita Australia. a proposal was put forward to the Government of Victoria to build a privately funded and operated Maglev line to service the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area in response to the Eddington Transport Report which neglected to investigate above ground transport options. Inc (http://www. USA.[60] Many are still in the early planning stages. by American Maglev Technology.[64] But the technology was rejected for future planning in the Government White Paper Delivering a Sustainable Railway published on July 24. London –Glasgow: A maglev line was recently proposed in the United Kingdom from London to Glasgow with several route options through the Midlands. . $6 billion extension of the Eastlink to the Western Ring Road and a $700 million Frankston Bypass. Victoria in under 30 minutes. Inc (http://www.appliedlevitation. and .[61][62] The Maglev would service a population of over 4 million and the proposal was costed at AUD $8 billion. as with the transatlantic tunnel. Australia Melbourne Maglev Proposal In late 2008. Asia.5 billion road tunnel.american-maglev.Powder Springs. has built a levitating prototype on a short indoor track. Georgia The same principle is involved in the construction of a second prototype system in Powder Springs. and is now planning a quarter-mile outdoor track. with switches. or even mere speculation. Sydney-Illawarra Maglev Proposal There is a current proposal for a Maglev route between Sydney and Wollongong.Santa Barbara. Proposed systems Main article: Maglev train proposals Many maglev systems have been proposed in various nations of North America. the government quickly dismissed the proposal in favour of road expansion including an AUD $8. Tullamarine and Avalon domestic in and international terminals in under 20 mins and on to Frankston.

[72] initially by some 35 kilometers to Shanghai Hongqiao Airport and then 200 kilometers to the city of Hangzhou (Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Train). China Shanghai –Hangzhou: China is planning to extend the existing Shanghai Maglev Train. which connects Tokyo and Osaka by way of Nagoya.[71] The proposed UK Ultraspeed line map. this would be the first inter-city maglev rail line in commercial service. In May 2007 the project was suspended by officials due to concerns about radiation from the maglev system. The Shanghai municipal government is considered multiple options. as well as improving comfort. its improved life and performance over mechanical engines were cited as important factors. 2008. This same report states that the final decision has to be approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. pending definition of the route.2007.[74][75] Final approval to build the line was granted on August 18. The Linear Chuo Shinkansen Project aims to realize this plan using the Superconductive Magnetically Levitated Train.[76] current plans call for construction to start in 2010 for completion by 2014.[70] Venezuela Caracas –La Guaira: A maglev train has been proposed to connect the capital city Caracas to the main port town of La Guaira and Simón Bolívar International Airport.[66][67][68] Japan Tokyo — Nagoya — Osaka The plan for the Chuo Shinkansen bullet train system was finalized based on the Law for Construction of Countrywide Shinkansen. the capital city of Aichi. citing concerns about sickness due to exposure to the strong magnetic field.[77] . including building the line underground to allay the public's fear of electromagnetic pollution. a full-sized prototype train would be built with about one kilometre of test track. No budget has been allocated. noise.[69] In April 2007. The project has been controversial and repeatedly delayed. in approximately one hour at a speed of 500 km/h. Proposed Chuo Shinkansen route (gray) and existing Tokaido Shinkansen route (gold). safety. In proposing a maglev system. pollution and devaluation of property near to the lines. JR Central President Masayuki Matsumoto said that JR Central aims to begin commercial maglev service between Tokyo and Nagoya in the year 2025.[65] Another high speed link is being planned between Glasgow and Edinburgh but there is no settled technology for it. economics and environmental impact over conventional rail. The proposal envisages that. If built. initially.[73] In January and February 2008 hundreds of residents demonstrated in downtown Shanghai against the line being built too close to their homes. Originally scheduled to be ready by Expo 2010. although a route of between six and nine kilometres has been suggested.

[78] India Mumbai –Delhi: A maglev line project was presented to India's railway minister Lalu Prasad Yadav by an American company.[40] Seattle-Vancouver International Maglev: The Seattle-Vancouver International Maglev corridor is proposed to extend part of an I-5 expansion plan. Latur. The Baltimore proposal is competing with the Pittsburgh proposal for a . but the U.China also intends to build a factory in Nanhui district to produce low-speed maglev trains for urban use. Since the federal government decision.S. Nevada. California. this line would serve between the cities of Mumbai and Delhi. It is in demand for the area due to the high level of current traffic.[79] The State of Maharashtra has also approved a feasibility study for a Maglev train between Mumbai (the commercial capital of India as well as the State government capital) and Nagpur (the second State capital) about 1000 km away. Further studies have been requested although no funding has yet been agreed. Nanded and Yavatmal. but the federal government has ruled it must be separated from interstate public work projects. private groups from Nevada have proposed a line running from Las Vegas to Los Angeles with stops in Primm. the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that if the line project is successful the Indian government would build lines between other cities and also between Mumbai centre and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport. simply a chassis which glides to its destination.[81] This plan was originally supposed to be part of an I-5 or I-15 expansion plan. with UP's Intermodal Container Transfer Facility. and points throughout San Bernardino County into Los Angeles. especially well suited to freight transfer as no power is needed on-board. D. This initial project will serve a population of approximately 2. It plans to connect the developed area of Mumbai and Pune with Nagpur via underdeveloped hinterland via Ahmednagar. Maglev: A 39. Beed.[80] United States Union Pacific Freight Conveyor: Plans are under way by American rail road operator Union Pacific to build a 4.75 mi (64 km) project has been proposed linking Camden Yards in Baltimore and Baltimore-Washington International (BWI) Airport to Union Station in Washington. The system is being designed by General Atomics. The system would be based on "passive" technology.9 mi (8 km) container shuttle between the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. with intermediate stops in Downtown Pittsburgh and Monroeville. The Pennsylvania Project: The Pennsylvania High-Speed Maglev Project corridor extends from the Pittsburgh International Airport to Greensburg. many are concerned that a high speed rail line out of state would drive out dollars that would be spent in state "on a rail" to Nevada. while Canadian and Provincial politicians have not been receptive to these proposals. Southern California politicians have not been receptive to these proposals.4 million people in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Baltimore-Washington D. government has ruled it must be separated from public work projects.C.C. If approved. California-Nevada Interstate Maglev: High-speed maglev lines between major cities of southern California and Las Vegas are also being studied via the California-Nevada Interstate Maglev Project.[82] It is in demand for the area due to its current traffic/congestion problems. Baker.

85 billion euro project. Transrapid Deutschland.S. PT Maglev Indonesia working together with SNCF. shortly after leaving the terminal in Longyang. the maglev line would rival Atlanta's current subway system. Tennessee. city environment. Further studies have been requested although no funding has yet been agreed. the maglev would have the potential to carry high priority freight. the German Transport minister announced the project had been cancelled due to rising costs associated with constructing the track.[94] . and possibly even extend to Chattanooga. SANDAG says that the concept would be an "airports without terminals". Bavaria announced it would build the high-speed maglev . the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA).[83] San Diego-Imperial County airport: In 2006 San Diego commissioned a study for a maglev line to a proposed airport located in Imperial County. charges were brought against three Transrapid employees after a year long investigation.[91] On September 22. 2006 a Transrapid train collided with a maintenance vehicle on a test/publicity run in Lathen (Lower Saxony / north-western Germany).$90 million federal grant. In addition.[90] it has been suggested to have been an onboard battery unit. political opposition in Japan claimed maglev was a waste of public money. A new estimate put the project between 3. continue to the northern suburbs of Atlanta.4 billion euros. and other corporations will begin this construction around 2010. The accident was caused by human error. these were the first fatalities resulting from an accident on a Maglev system.[88] As a result of the fire. If built.[89] nobody was injured. 2008.[85] Germany On September 25. MLU002. Significant incidents There have been two incidents involving fires. This Maglev will have 7 stations including Semarang. The Japanese test train in Miyazaki. the rail system of which includes a major branch running from downtown Atlanta to Hartsfield-Jackson airport. The cause is believed to be a fault with the Maglev's electrical system. was completely consumed in a fire in 1991. allowing passengers to check in at a terminal in San Diego ("satellite terminals") and take the maglev to Imperial airport and board the airplane there as if they went directly through the terminal in the Imperial location. run through Atlanta.[87] Indonesia There are plans to build a 683 km long Maglev rail service between Jakarta and Surabaya.rail service from Munich city to its airport.[84] Atlanta –Chattanooga: The proposed maglev route would run from Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The purpose of the project is to see if the maglev system can function properly in a U. On August 11. 2006 a fire broke out on the Shanghai commercial Transrapid. The Bavarian government signed contracts with Deutsche Bahn and Transrapid with Siemens and ThyssenKrupp for the 1.[92][93] Twenty-three people were killed and ten were injured.[86] On March 27. 2007.2 and 3.

uk/uk/1999/oct/11/timradford) ".com.See also Applied Levitation.Magnetic levitation technology was abandoned by government ( ".858. 1907-07-02. 7. Patent 3. ^ Muller.S. Air cushion . 1973-03-26. ^ US3. travelling magnetic field propulsion device by Harry A. The Guardian. "Nasa takes up idea pioneered by Briton .S. 1997-12-06. omnidirectionally steerable. ^ These German patents would be GR643316(1937). http://www.511 (http://www. (U. developer of the only maglev transportation system that has permanent levitation with no ground contact Birmingham International Airport (UK) Patent 4. January 21. Patent 3. 2.html. ^ Radford.521 ( Patent 3. railserve.472 (http://www.813 (http://www. ^ U.html. 4. 6. Tim (1999-10-11). Page 10 Column 1 Line 15 to Page 10 Column 2 Line 25. Brookhaven National Laboratory.html) ".uk/1/hi/sci/tech/ . http://www.018 (http://www. BBC News.131. ^ "Obituary for the late Professor Eric Laithwaite" (http://keelynet. 1999-1109. ^ These patents were later cited by Electromagnetic apparatus generating a gliding magnetic field by Jean Delassus (U. former home of world's first commercial maglev line Ch Shinkansen. Oleg Tozoni is working on a published non linearly stabilised maglev design SkyTrain (Vancouver) Shanghai Maglev Train Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev developing commercial applications of the Applied Levitation SPM maglev system Ground effect train High-speed rail Transrapid JR-Maglev MLX01 Land speed record for railed vehicles Launch loop would be a maglev system for launching to orbit or escape velocity Linear motor Magnetic levitation Mass driver Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line ) and Two-sided linear induction motor especially for suspended vehicles by Schwarzler et al.railserve. .820. Christopher (1997-01-23).uk/uk/1999/oct/11/ GR707032(1941).google. planned Tokyo-Osaka maglev Shinkansen line Fastransit. Mackie ( GR44302(1938) "Magnetic Levitation for Transportation (http://www.S. ^ U. ^ "Brookhaven Lab Retirees Win Benjamin Franklin Medal For Their Invention of Magnetically Levitated Trains ( vid=3820472) ) 3. 8. http://news. proposed maglev line in China StarTram Patent Daily Telegraph.htm) . ^ U. 5. 2000-04-18.828 Granted 1969-10-17.880 (http://www. also sometimes mis-spelled Fast Transit.S.html) ".a maglev launch system Railway Vactrain Notes http://www. ^ "The magnetic attraction of trains ( .bnl. Patent )

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com. ISBN 0-471-55925-3. Joseph (1992-05-01). China Daily. Shinkansen –From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern The International Maglev Board (http://magnetbahnforum. Further reading Jack. China Daily.html) ".urbanmaglev.php/23_dead_in_German_maglev_train_accident_ 94.html. http://www. Oxford: Oxford University Gernot (2008-03-27).gov/str/Post. ^ "Report: Shanghai maglev fire likely caused by electrical fault (http://www.stm. Gordon (1997). Arnie (June 1998). Science & Technology Hood.stm) " Biddle.00. http://www. "High speed hopes soar (http://www. 93.htm.00.reuters. Wiley-VCH.forbes. 200709-25.appliedlevitation. 90.html) ".chinadaily.chinapost.html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory discusses magnetic levitation. 88. ".chinadaily. 89. M&C Europe. 87.php/23_dead_in_German_maglev_train_accident_ ".com/europe/news/article_1204030. (1994). Christopher P. http://www. Maglev Net .co. Applied Levitation (http://www. http://news. http://news. 91.monstersandcritics. http://www.monstersandcritics.asp? United States Federal Railroad Administration (http://www. External links Urban Maglev (http://www. magnetic flux trapping and superconductivity Windana Research (http://www.asp?id=40427) ".com/article/rbssIndustryMaterialsUtilitiesNews/idUSL2777056820080327?sp=true) ".html) ".accessmylibrary.fsu. 2006-08-21.Maglev News & Information ( Fastransit ( ". ISBN 303. (2006).windana. ISBN 0-19-211697-5. Superconducting Levitation Applications to Bearings and Magnetic Transportation.html.forbes. Railway Age. Speigel Online. ^ "Flawed Battery likely cause of Shanghai Maglev fire (http://www. ^ "German prosecutor charges three Transrapid employees over year-old disaster ( AFX News.html. ^ "'23 dead' in German maglev train accident (http://news. 2006-09-22.php?en_aboutimb) . "Germany scraps Munich Transrapid as cost spirals ( http://www. ^ "Several Dead in Transrapid Accident (http://www.chinapost. the Meissner Effect. China "A New Approach for Magnetically Levitating Trains— and Rockets (http://www.86. Francis C. http://www.htm) ". ^ "Germany to build maglev railway ( Maglev Trains ( BBC ^ http://www. ^ Heller.fastransitinc. 2006-09-22. ^ "Experts start maglev train blaze investigation (http://www.chinadaily. 92. The Oxford Companion to British Railway History: From 1603 to the 1990s.

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