Attraction, Altruism, and Peacemaking

729-740

I) Attraction 1. The Psychology of Attraction a) Proximity -proximity is geographic nearness...close proximity increases attraction -mere exposure effect- the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them b) Physical Attractiveness -first impressions most effected by physical appearance -people¶s attractiveness is surprising unrelated to self esteem and happiness -attractiveness judgements are relative to culture -attractiveness also depends on feelings c) Similarity -we are more attracted to those like us (opposites do not attract) 2. Romantic Love a) Passionate Love- an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship -Two Factor theory: (1) emotions are made up of physical arousal and cognitive appraisal and (2) arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal ²adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder b) Compassionate Love- the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are entwined -passionate love wanes, and is replaced by compassionate love over time -equity- a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it -self-disclosure- revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others II) Altruism 1. Altruism- unselfish regard for the welfare of others 2. Bystander Intervention -Bystanders help if they: (1) notice the incident (2) Interpret as emergency (3) Assume Responsibility for helping -bystander effect- the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present -Best odds of our helping someone are when: (1) we have just observed someone else being helpful (2) we are not in a hurry (3) the victim appears to need and deserve help (4) the victim is in some way similar to us (5) we are in a small town or rural area (6) we are feeling guilty (7) we are focused on others and not preoccupied (8) we are in a good mood 3. The Psychology of Helping -social exchange theory- the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize and minimize costs

III) Peacemaking a) Cooperation -contact helps conflicting parties to make peace if under right circumstances -superordinate goals. inclusive group that dissolves their former subgroups b) Communication c) Conciliation -GRIT.shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation -cooperative contact reduces conflict -cooperation has especially positive effects when it leads people to define a new.Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tention-Reduction²a strategy designed to decrease national tensions .