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Emma Porio, PhD
Professor of Sociology and Chairperson, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, Ateneo de Manila University. Presented at the ADB Seminar Series on Environments of the Poor and Climate Change, April 27, 2011. Please send comments

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Introduction and Key Messages
• Slum Poverty of Urban Poor Communities (w/ Social-Political-Economic Vulnerabilities): INTERACT with Individual-Based Vulnerabilities: Age, Gender, Income, Resource, Tenure Status)HEIGHTENED by Ecological-Environmental Vulnerabilities of Cities/Places & Climate Change-Related Risks Deepen the poverty levels of the urban poor; exacerbate gender impacts of climate change Integrate spatial-ecological-gender based planning and investments , green development or technologies/jobs to “climate-proof” urban planning and development initiatives

• •

Gender Vulnerabilities: Practical and Strategic Needs of Women in Poor Communities
• • How does climate change effects affect gender division of labor in slum HHs/communities? Practical (e.g., access to productive resources, basic services) and strategic needs of women e.g., education, training, community organizing) Multiple burdens/enabling spaces for women: Women’s additional social, pol-eco roles (double-edged, allows women to fulfill production/social reproduction and com mgt. roles (e.g., health aide, solid waste mgt., microfinance, green police, etc.)

Data Bases/References
• Climate Change Study Among the Urban Poor in 15 Riverine Communities of Metro Manila: Vulnerability, Adaptation, and Resilience Among Marginal Populations (Porio/JBIC-JICA) Preliminary data from: Cities at Risk Study on Climate Change Responses (Mumbai-BKK-Manila), (Asia Pacific Network)

Caveat: Not focused on CC and Gender

Metro Manila: Urban Governance and Climate Change Adaptation
Sources of Risk/Exposure: •Population: 12 M; daytime: 1618M people •Poverty Incidence: 20-30 percent •Percentage of population living in informal settlements/no security of tenure: 40-50 percent •National capital—below sea level •Located in 3 flood basins •Density: 18,000 per •Urban-Economic Primacy— pop.12x the next largest city; accounts 37 % of nat. GDP •Earthquake fault runs through the metropolis; high soil subsidence •Governance (decentralized and democratized): MMDA (16 cities) and local government units (17) •Drainage System (very poor)

Research Sites: 15 Urban Poor Communities in Three Flood Basins

Flood Map: Flooded Areas-10, 30, 100 Year Flood in Metro Manila

Rescue Operations in Marikina City
Metro Manila Flood Control Stations (Right)

Source: Manda, E. (2009)

Source: Manda, E. (2009)

Day After Typhoon Milenyo: Children Looking at playgound in Navotas

Bangkulasi, Navotas City: After Typhoon Milenyo

• • •

Social-Political-Economic Vulnerabilities of Men/Women in Urban Poor Communities

Low, Irregular, Insecure Sources of Income Housing: No security of tenure, danger demolition & relocation & loss of livelihood Residing in areas unsuitable for human habitation:1) danger zones: along bays, rivers, creeks, swampy/wetlands; 2) high subsidence; and 3) costly to install infrastructure and services CC, Floods & women: Ecologcal. Vulnerability of place/residence interacts with socio-pol. eco. Vulnerabilities of poor women multiple disaster  loss of life, housing, appliances, services and livelihood!

Ecological-Environmental Vulnerabilities of Metro Manila and Urban Philippines
• • • • • Mostly Located in Coastal Areas/Flood Plains Infrastructure/Urban Basic Services: Sometimes non-existent; NOT “Climate Proofed” Located along Seismic Lines (e.g., Marikina Earthquake Fault) Wetlands/Marsh/Swampy Lands: inferior soil, subsidence, habitat for disease-bearing vectors Sea Level Rise and the low-lying areas of most coastlines and related river systems Environmental Pollution/Degradation

Socio-Pol-Economic Forces: Increasing the Vulnerability of the Poor & Women to CC • Rapid urban growth, slow population decline, and slow economic growth • Degraded urban environments, inadequate basic services • Decentralization/governance of cities: Uneven capacity and increasing LGU disparities  incoherent land use planning and urban development policies • Renders the city so vulnerable to climate change effects

Social-Ecological Vulnerabilities of Riverlines
• Infrastructure/Urban Basic Services: Almost non-existent Collection of garbage: almost non-existent, canals/creeks cloogged Roads—water-logged, fast to deteriorate Continued construction/building: substandard, no permits Informal filling of water-logged areas by informal settlers vs. formal filling by real estate developers disappearance and/or siltation and clogging of waterways

• •

Continuous increase in Source: Corpuz, A. (2010) population and density Mega Manila Region: Population Density, Urban Primacy, and Climate Change
Pampanga Bulacan Pampanga Bulacan

Rizal Metro Manila Metro Manila


Cavite Laguna

Cavite Laguna





Figure 1. Population Trends of Metro Manila (1970-2020)

Figure 1. Population Trends of Metro Manila (1970-2020

Metro Manila Cities and Concentration of Informal Settlers

Concentration of Informal Settlers


Source: Manda, E. (2009)

Poverty, Environment, and Climaterelated Risks in Metro Manila


Child crossing makeshift bridge to buy food across waterway in swampy Ibayo Tipas, Taguig City, West Mangahan Flood Basin

Table 2. Environmental Vulnerabilities of Places: Sources of Vulnerabilities for Urban Poor Households in the Three Metro Manila Flood Plains
Flood Plains

Environmental characteristics: Sources of vulnerabilities
Living in flood-prone areas along riverlines/riverbanks, subsidence, clogged waterways Living along flood-prone riverlines; near the coast (prone to floods and sea level rise/tidal surges), land subsidence, clogged waterways Living along flood prone riverlines (Mangahan Floodway, Napindan Channel) near Laguna Lake, swampy lands/wetlands, subsidence, clogged waterways


Socio-eco. characteristics: Sources of vulnerabilities Mdn monthly income: P18,000; Ave.Education--9.5 yrs. Mdn monthly income: P15,000 Ave. education: 11 years Mdn monthly income: P8,000;Educ: 7.5 years; Housing dilapidated, light materials, migrants, renters, women-headed households, no services

West Mangahan

Table 3. Summary of Costs/Losses/Inconveniences Due to Floods, Tidal Surges Effects on Basic Services Clogged sewage, drainage and toilets; have to use neighbor’s toilet, resort ―to wrap and throw‖ to river/creek, worms/snakes Brown-outs, grounding of electric lines and appliances Water become murky, dirty, and not potable Increase in costs of potable water from suppliers, with those in West Mangahan paying about 100-300 percent more Loss/repair of appliances Average: P4615 but West Mangahan and Maybunga floodway incurring more with average loss of P10,000 and P20,000 respectively
Transport costs (pedicab, styrofoam boats, tri-cycles) Usual cost of P10-50/per person -- double or triple depending on distance and depth of flood waters

Table 3. Summary of Losses/Inconveniences Due to Floods and Tidal Surges (last flood), cont’d. Absences from school 1-7 days with children from Marikina River Basin (ave. 6) and Mangahan floodway (ave. 5) incurring the most absences Health and Income Loss 2-98 workdays (ave. 5)* lost from sickness due to floods but West Mangahan 7 days 1-15 days workdays (ave. 4 days but Marikina-West Mangahan (6 days ave.) lost due to floods: about P1,500-P1715 income loss P200-350 spent on medicines (West Mangahan spent less as they did not have money for medical services so just rested to get well and losing more income from work)

*removed outliers

Adaptation: A Water Water-Based Lifestyle
Adaptations: 1.Transport: styro-foam/plastic boats, pedi-cabs and tricycle built high 2.Housing/architecture: stilts, taurpaulin/plastic roofs, raising of floors/posts, abandoning 1st floor/adding another floor; makeshift bridges to other houses, across creeks/rivers, to main roads 3.HH Tasks/Mgt.: string pulleys & baskets within & across houses for raising HH appliances, getting food across houses; makeshift bridges

Adaptation: A Water Water-Based Lifestyle
Adaptations (cont’d): 4. Apparel/Things: boots, raincoats, plastic-made 5.Physical structures and Life-style: Perennial temporariness, always make-shift and make-do 6. Livelihood/Diet in floody riverlines: • water hyacinths/lilies, water cress • fishing, over-flow fish from nearby fishponds • labor-hire, transporting things/people 7. Health: informal/self-medication for small complaints; heavy subsidy for deadly infections like leptospirosis or dengue

Costs of Water Water-Based Lifestyle: Summary •Basic services/infrastructure: substandard but costs more (e.g., potable water costs 100-300 %

•Loss/repair of appliances--do not last long •Education participation and performance of children compromised •Transport costs; other daily expenses double/triple •Health and Income Loss higher •Loss of income/livelihood; Socio-Psychological disposition w/environmental poverty: dirt, pollution, sickness

Gender Dimensions:CC & Environmental Poverty • Women: more time spent for cleaning, laundry, securing food; taking care of sick HH members; monitoring children who like to play in rain, river and floods, loss of income • Men: spend more time-repair of home, appliances (men had lower incomes, high unemployment compared to women, loss of income) • Climate change adds more burden to women

Source: Gonzales, Anna Maria M. ―Reminders from little brother Ondoy‖ Philippine Daily Inquirer. 4 Oct. 2009.

Case Studies : Urban Poor HHs and Women-Headed Households in Marikina/Pasig Cities (Post-Ondoy)
• CC

Impacts: (Losses/Costs, Adjustments)

•CC Effects on Basic Services (Water, Sanitation, Energy, Health/Medicine) and Needs (both Practical – Strategic)

•Psychological Impacts: Trauma, Ondoy hit during late morning, men were away; women doing marketing/HH chores; now when it rains-fear, cannot sleep at night)
•Economic Impacts: Loss of businesses; Loss of work for a month; loss of livelihood

SWAT and Pasig City Rescue Officials in the Immediate Rescue and Evacuation Plan for Flood Victims

SWAT and Pasig City Rescue Officials in the Immediate Rescue and Evacuation Plan for Flood Victims

Before: Ave. daily 110 trucks a day Ondoy : 250 trucks/day for 30 days

Sanitizing Operation:1 month-3 US$ M

Cost of Health Services in Health Center/Hospital to Climate Change-Related Complaints
Ordinary check-up Sputum analysis/check-u[

Estimated Cost
PhP300-500 up to 1,500 PhP750-1,500

1. Dengue (referred to public hospitals
where patient pay minimal payment)*


2. Leptospirosis

(referred to public



where patient pay minimal payment or free)*

Services given pro-bono or charge minimally to urban poor by medical missions

Blood analysis Urine analysis Blood typing ECG X-ray Physical Exam A (including Blood Chem, Blood typing and ECG)

P2320 = PhP750-3,200 P90 = P700 P90 = P700 P90 = P1,500 – 2,500 P90 =P500

P490 = P2,500

Summary of Costs/Losses Due to Floods (monthly)
Men HH Absences from school 6 Women HH

Ondoy Period
Men HH 14 Women HH

Men HH 6 Women HH 7



Number of workdays lost from sickness due to flood







Number of work days lost due to flood Average income loss due to floods Average amount of spent on medicine



















Average losses (appliances, etc.)
Average income P6,250 P5,000







Summary of Costs of Basic Needs/Services (in pesos, monthly
Men HH Food P6,000 Women HH P5,800

Ondoy Period
Men HH P2,500 + relief goods Women HH P2,000 + relief goods

Men HH P6,500 Women HH P6,000

Water • Drinking P50 P45 P240 P240 P60 P50

• Cooking/washing utensils

P80 (well) P500 (piped)

P80 (well) P550 (piped)

P80 (well, long lines) P1,500 (piped)

P80 (well, long lines) P1,500 (piped)

P80 (well) P740 (piped)

P80 (well) P700 (piped)




P2,000 (wet) P3,000 (dry) P360

P1,800 (wet) P2,500 (dry) P320

(mud, waist deep; cleaning – 2 weeks – one month)





House repair

P1,500 – P15,000

P1,000 – P8,000

Percent Increase/Decrease of Costs/Losses Between Menand Women- headed Households Due to Floods (monthly)
Men HH Absences from school Women HH 33% 40%

Ondoy Period
Men HH Women HH 21% 11%

Men HH Women HH 17% 60%

Number of workdays lost from sickness due to flood

Number of work days lost due to flood Average income loss due to floods Average amount of spent on medicine Average losses (appliances, etc.)




90% 33%

-11% -6%

24% -10%


Average income




Percent Increase/Decrease of Costs of Basic Needs/Services in Men- and Women-headed Households (monthly)
Men HH Food Women HH -3%

Ondoy Period
Men HH -20% Women HH

Men HH -8% Women HH

Water • Drinking • Cooking/washing utensils Energy/electricity -10% 0% (well) 10% (piped) -10% 3% same 0% (well) 0% (piped) -10% -17% 0% (well) -5% (piped) -10%(wet) -17% (dry) -11%

(mud, waist deep; cleaning – 2 weeks – one month)


House repair

-33% to -47%

Climate Change Exacerbates Inequalities b/w Men and Women, especially among the Poor
• Increased burdens of multiple roles/engagements of women (production, social reproduction & com. Mgt.) • Increased Costs/losses in HH mgt due to CC: Loss in HH appliances, beds, garments Costs in house repair Increase in costs of laundry/sanitation Increase in water costs Increase in energy costs increase in hours of housework •Gender & HH mgt of resources: PAGKASYAHIN: Make DO w/ available funds; no income/job, no credit

Climate Change Exacerbates Inequalities b/w Men and Women, especially among the Poor
• Increases multiple burdens of women (Acc to Visayan migrant women in Tumana, Marikina, they have about 6 Burdens/Cares in their life (Buhay)):

1. Bata (children) 2. Bana (husband) 3. Basura (Waste-segregation/recycling) 4. Barangay (Com Mgt. volunteer work/BHWs) 5. Bagyo (Typhoon)  6.Baha (Floods)

•Community Mgt. Roles increases burden but greatly Expands Women’s Social-Pol.-Eco. Status

Integrating Strategic Needs of Women, CCA and Local Governance
•Linking practical-strategic needs of women to local governance (case study: Pasig City CCA Program) Integrating CCA and gender practical-strategic needs issues to the training/capability-building programs (livelihood, clean and green movement, barangay security/patrol (e.g., Pasig City), health, children, environmental literacy campaign, etc. • Encouraging/building political leadership among of women in both men/women’s groups •Institutionalize gender-sensitive policies through programs in climate change adaption (CCA)

Pasig City Environment Program LGU Partners
Manila Water, Meralco, SM, Asahi, Medical City, etc.

IPM Garbage Hauler
Pasig Chamber of Commerce DOH ACTO Transport Group

Kiwani’s Club

Cong. Romul o

Partnershi p for Clean Air Federatio n of Jeepney Assoc. Market Vendor’s Assoc.

Pamantasa n ng Lungsod ng Pasig

Catholic Church Pasig Pastoral Council
Federations of Parents Teachers Association MMASBA Metro Manila Anti-Smoke Belching Assoc.


Lion’s Club Rotary Clubs Ortigas Center Assoc.

Assoc. of Metro Manila Environme nt Officers




Association of Barangay Chairmen Pasig Nat’l Police


Balikatan sa Pamayanan

Pasig Greenhear t Movement Kilus Foundati on Inc.

City Engineerin g

City Command, Prosecutor’s Communication Office s, & Control Barangay Affair’s Office

Clean and Green Office Green City Program CENRO – major office

Green Police Volunteer s Committee on Ecology and Environment Protection

Solid Waste City Parks Office

Pasig City Council

Organization:Solid Waste Mgt. Program of Pasig City

Waste Diversion Strategies

Pasig City Materials Recovery Facilities

Ecological-Environmental Vulnerability of Wetlands Deepen Social Vulnerability of Poor Women • Water-based lifestyle/Climate Change Adaptations also heighten their vulnerability •Larger forces exacerbate CC effects on women: 1)rapid urbanization/congestion, 2) inadequate, uncalibrated infrastructural development, 3) inconsistent urban policies/development, etc. compound the effects of climate change on cities on the poor, especially women


•Climate Change Impacts and Gender: Income Class or employment status (related to education) intertwine with lack of housing tenure, inadequate services, migrant status DEFINES/SHAPES CC IMPACTS

Conclusions and Recommendations
• Inconsistent urban policies/development, etc. compound the effects of climate change on cities; •Need to integrate ecological-environmental (spatiallyanchored) aspects to urban planning/dev. ecological boundaries vs. pol-adm. boundaries in centralized-decentralized contexts water-based urban design, vertical urbanism, green economy- technologies, architecture

•Need to integrate gender concerns in planning and urban development •Invest in building the capability of women (organizing, green jobs, health and nutrition for children, etc.)

Process for Developing a City Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (cf.McGranahan et al)
Assessment of vulnerability to socio-economic stresses (integrate gender ) Assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts (integrate gender) National/Regional climate change strategy; Local (barangay/city) climate change assessments (integrate gender)

Local economic development strategies; integrated development plans; integrated municipal/city environment plans (integrate gender)

Overlay to identify vulnerable areas Develop adaptation options and actions Prioritize actions ( gendersensitive priorities) Gender-sensitive CAP (City Adaptation Plan)

Maraming salamat po!!!

Thank you very much!