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Chapter 2: Approach versus Method: An approach is a set of assumptions ( Why ) , a method is how to carry out these assumptions and

theories ( how ) , & techniques are steps to achieve certain goals. Late 19th century: Linguists like Sweet & Jasperson Improved language teaching = General principles and theories concerning how languages are learned; How language knowledge is represented and organized in memory; How language is structured. Edward Anthony (1963): Hierarchical relationship = techniques carry out a method that is consistent with an approach. Approach: Correlative assumptions & beliefs about dealing with language teaching and learning. Method: non-contradicting plan for the orderly presentation of language material. Focuses on skills, content and order of presentation putting theory into practice. Technique: is what takes place in the actual classroom. A trick, contrivance or stratagem to accomplish an immediate objective. Reform Movement = Approach & Direct method was one method typifying this. Other models: Mackey (1960 s) focused mostly on method and technique but focused on textbook organization analysis ignoring classroom techniques except where they were part of the textbook material. Problems with Anthony s model: y y y y Ignored the nature of method itself. Ignored roles of teachers/students. Ignored role/form of instructional materials. Fails to account for how an approach can be related to a method and how method and technique are related.

New model: Approach & Method = Design (Objectives, syllabus, content + roles of teacher, student & materials) Technique = Procedure 1

for example. Theory of Language Learning: A learning theory should respond to two questions: a) What are the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning? (Bloom) b) What are the learning conditions that need to be met for these language processes to be activated? (Maslow) Process oriented theories: build on learning processes like habit formation and generalization. lexus and grammar. method is theoretically related to an approach. Approach = Theories of Language & its nature: Structural view: language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning. Interactional view: language is a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relationships & social interactions between individuals. Emphasises semantic & communicative dimension rather than grammatical characteristics.Thus. classroom environment. organizationally determined by a design and practically realized in a procedure. Specification and Organisation of language content by meaning/function ESP movement is a good example. Condition oriented theories: emphasise the nature of human and physical contexts in which language learning takes place. Language may be organized by patterns of exchange & interaction or left unspecified to be shaped by the learners themselves. Objective is mastery of these elements through phonology. 2 . Stephen Krashen : Monitor Theory & I +1 (Acquistion and Learning) Curran (Community Language Learning) Learning is people. Embodied by: Audiolingual Method and TPR Functional view: language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.

6) role of instructional materials. Knowledge and Experimentation are key for EVERY teacher. 33% rule ESP = Subject focus. SLT/Audiolingual method = linguistic focus Syllabuses have traditionally been more product than process (What will be taught in what order rather than HOW) Brown(1995) lists 7 types of syllabuses: Syllabus: Structural Situational 3 Approach or Method: Audiolingual Method (ALM) Oral/Situational . Objectives: Skills? Accuracy? Communicating effectively? Processes or abilities? Beware: Many process-oriented methods are in fact concerned with grammar and accuracy! Content or Syllabus: All methods of language teaching involved the target language (L2) Decide WHAT to talk about/teach and HOW to talk about/teach it. 4) roles of learners. Why?! Principles/Theories may or may not lead to a method. Structuralism + Behaviorism = Audiolingual method. Design considers: 1) what the objectives of a method are 2) how language content is selected and organized within the method (syllabus) 3) types of learning tasks/teaching activities.Asher s Total Physical response. Language is coordinated with action. 5) roles of teachers.

does this mean that we can use Grammar Translation/ALM at first and Content & Task Based Instruction later on as the learners eveolve? 4 . b) Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. CLT: introduce or provide practice Activities impact roles. CLL/Silent Way/TPR) Learning & Teaching Activities: Differences among methods show up in the approaches and activities used: ALM: Silent Way: CLT: Dialogues & Pattern Practice Problem solving with special charts/colored rods. Question: So. Learner roles: Johnston and Paulston (1976): a) Learners plan their own program & assume responsibility for what they do in the classroom. learners and other sources. d) Learners tutor other learners. c) Learners are members of a group and learn through interactions. Tasks with Information Gaps & Information transfer Activity types and Uses are key: Games: ALM = add variety. grouping of students and the overall nature of the classroom. e) Learners learn from teachers. Curran (1976) learners develop from total dependence on the teacher to total independence just like a child evolves from child to adult.Topical Notional-Functional Skills Based Task Based CLL/Silent Way/TPR Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) SBELT (Subject Based ELT) Task Based Instruction Process based methods consider language content secondary and let students choose what to talk about.

practices and behaviours that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method. Role of materials needs to consider: y y y How to present content What form they will take. Counsellor or model b) Control of learning & how it takes place c) Determiner of content to be taught d) Interactional patterns between teachers and learners. Relationship to other forms of input (if any) Procedure: Moment to moment techniques. c) Feedback techniques for error correction of form/content. goals. Only teachers who are sure of their role and the leaner s role will move away from the security of traditional textbook-oriented teaching. 5 . objectives. etc. Is this always true? Instructional materials: Syllabus = linguistic content/learning tasks/goals. Tip of the Iceberg Three levels: a) Use of teaching activities (drills. clarify or demonstrate language. Instructional materials: Day to day content.Teacher roles: Teacher as: a) Director. b) Ways in which particular activities are used for practicing a language. design and procedure. and intensity of coverage even when no syllabus exists. Dialogues. 33 for a summary of approach. Information gaps.) to present. * see p.

Method and Technique? 2) Why did the authors modify the Anthony s model? 3) How do you think a teacher goes about picking his or her preferred way of teaching? 4) Is there a cultural element to the types of Approaches/Methods/Techniques teachers choose? 5) Some people argue that: Language is culture. Language classes are about making language into a subject to be taught rather than real language. This is a model. Testing is essential for proper learning. Methods can be developed out of any of the three categories presented here.Note: Very few methods are explicit at all these levels of analysis. not a developmental formula if such a thing is possible. Questions: 1) What is the relationship between Approach. What do you think? 6 .