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Evolution

In the beginning…  Earth had a hydrogen based atmosphere - Ex: CH4, H2, and NH3 - In time, the early atmosphere of Earth changed from a hydrogen dominated one to on which contained oxygen-rich molecules - Ex: Co2, H2O, SO2 - Jupiter’s atmosphere today is representative of the ancient atmosphere of the smaller planets - Jupiter has such enormous gravity that it retains every molecule, and elements of the atmosphere cannot drift away as they do on other planets - Jupiter’s atmosphere is an example of what such primitive atmosphere must have been like Chemical evolution or the Chemosynthetic theory: - life developed from non-living materials that eventually, by the process of natural selection over hundreds of millions of years, became able to self-replicate and metabolize - This hypothesis presumes that at least 4 steps happened to bring about this chemical evolution  1. The abiotic (nonliving) synthesis and accumulation of small organic monomers like amino acids or nucleotides (Miller-Haldane-Urey Experiment)  2. Joining of monomers into polymers (protenoids: organic monomers hare heated and splashed onto hot sand or rocks)  3. The self-assembly of molecules into droplets that had chemical characteristics inside different from the environment outside. • Protobionts (nonliving molecules): Abiotically produced molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into droplets that enclose a watery solution and maintain a chemical environment different from their surrounding  4. The ability to replicate  The RNA world hypothesis: The first hereditary molecules on Earth were RNA molecules that served as both a genome as well as the enzymes to copy itself • A. RNA can function as an enzyme in cells called ribozyme. • B. RNA can make copies of itself in a test tube - Note: Lab experiments cannot prove that life was created in this way on the primitive earth, only that the key steps could have happened The Oxygen Revolution - The oxygen atmosphere that we depended on was generated by numerous cyanobacteria - Cyanobacteria lived in colonies that formed stromatolites - released oxygen reacted with dissolved iron ions which precipitated as iron oxide - took a few millions years until precipitation exhausted the dissolved iron - This would have caused the oceans to become saturated with oxygen and gas out to accumulated in the atmosphere

reduced phenotypic variation 2.shifts the frequency curve to favor one end .Iron rich rocks that were rusted red by oxidation .Both have their own genome and it resembles that of bacteria not that of the nuclear genome . They cannot be formed in a cell that lacks them because nuclear genes encode only some of the proteins of which they are made . Disruptive/Diversifying selection: favors both phenotypic extremes . Stabilizing selection: favors the intermediate (not the extremes) .most common when members of a species migrate to another environment 3.chloroplasts.There are no histones (proteins that DNA is wrapped around) associated with the DNA Results of Natural Selection… 1..evolved from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria .Both genomes consists of a single circular molecule of DNA .evolved from aerobic bacteria living within their host cell .Evidence: both can arise only from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplasts.mitochondria.cyanobacteria were in trouble because oxygen attacks the bonds of organic molecules and likely caused the extinction of some of the species  Endosysmbiosis and the Origin of Eukaryotes . Directional selection: favors one extreme .