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II SEMESTER PAPER - I IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES 1.

History of Immunology - Innate and Acquired immunity, Mechanism of innate immunity, inflammation- inflammatory cells, Mediators, Inflammatory responses, Types. Antigens- Cells and Organs of immune system and evolution of immunity. 2. Immunoglobulins - Structure and Functions, Classes and Subclasses, Cryoglobulins, Pyroglobulins, immunoglobulin genes- Organization and Expression, antibody diversity and class switching. Monoclonal antibodies- Hybridoma Technique and M-antibody production, purification and characterization. Application in Biomedical Research, Clinical diagnosis and Treatment and Drug delivery systems. 3. Immune response- clonal selection theory and related theories, Primary and Secondary response, Humoral and Cell mediated immune response, Antigen processing and presentation, Role of MHL and accessory molecules, MHC molecules- Structure and role in antigen presentation, MHC genes, Formation, Activation and Differentiation of B and T cells, Structure and generation diversity cytokines- Properties and functions, Receptors, Relation to disease, Therapeutic uses, Cytokine antagonists, ADCC, NK cells, LAK cells, Regulation of immune response. Vaccines- Advances in the development of Vaccines. [Hemophilus B conjugate, Pertussis, Cholera, Malaria, Hepatitis B, Polio, HIV and Antitumour adjuants. 4. 5. 6. Complement system- Functions Complement receptors, Activation pathways, Control mechanisms, Role in inflammation, Kinin cascade, Kinins in diseases. Immunity against Bacteria, Virus, Fungi and Parasites. Immunological methods in clinical laboratories: Methods, interpretation and applications of following methods, Double diffusion in Agar, Single radial immuno diffusion, Electrophoresis and immuno electrophoresis, Chromatography- ion exchange, gel, and affinity. RIA, ELISA, Western Blotting, Detection of immune complexes, Nephelometry and Immunofluorescence.

Neutrophil function Tests and Histocompatibility Testing. 9. FACS clinical applications. 15. 11. 5. Latex agglutination tests. Hemolytic assays and Functional assays. Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination Inhibition. 7. PRACTICALS 1. 16.CFT. 13. . ELISA Widal test VDRL Demonstration of RIA Demonstration of Western Blot Technique. Haemagglutination Haemagglutination inhibition. Detection of Cellular Immunity: Delayed hypersensitivity Skin tests. Complement assays. 8. 7. 4. Double diffusion technique. 14.Agglutination Tests. Radial immuno diffusion. Flow cytometry. Complement fixation tests. Assays for Lymphocytes-T and B Cell Assays. Counter current immuno electrophoresis. NK cells. FITC conjugation of antibody.Direct and Indirect. Immuno electrophoresis. Mixed lymphocyte culture. 6. 10. 18. Detection of immune complex. Lymphocyte culture. Neutrophil function tests. 12. Lymphocyte activation. 2. Isolation of lymphoid organs of mice. 3. 17.