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I'm very well acquainted too with matters mathematical, I understand equations, both the simple and quadratical, About

binomial theorem I'm teeming with a lot 'o news-With many cheerful facts about the square of the hypotenuse. ~W.S. Gilbert, The Pirates of Penzance, 1879 The principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale. ~Thomas Jefferson Money, which represents the prose of, in its effects and laws, as beautiful as roses. ~Ralph Waldo Emerson The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax. ~Albert Einstein Requiring Algebra II in high school gains momentum nationwide 1. Define: imaginary number, Algebra II, economic strength, Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, rigorous, tier, asymptote, prerequisite 2. “There was a fair amount of judgment that went into this.” Why was researchers’ judgment part of the study? How can you tell if their judgment was good? 3. Do most students take Algebra II, according to the article? 4. Is the purpose of students’ education for their own benefit, or for the benefit of the country and its economy? 5. Should we require kids to take a course because it leads to more college graduates? 6. What is correlation? If A causes B, why will A and B be correlated? If A does not cause B, why might A and B be correlated anyway? 7. How would you try to control an experiment to determine whether Algebra II was causing success, or whether some other factor was causing both? 8. What is the purpose of graduation requirements--why don’t high schools and colleges just offer classes and let kids choose? 9. Suppose that somebody failed to complete high school because of the Algebra II requirement, and applied to work at the Kimberly-Clark plant. How would that company likely respond? Does the company care about Algebra II? 10. What kinds of businesses, if any, would benefit from an Algebra II requirement? 11. What kind of thinking does mathematics encourage? What about algebra? Do you think ability to think this way will help you in life? 12. Look at this question set again. Where do you see letters used similarly to how they are used in algebra? Did you understand this use? How can such understanding help you? Link to article source Washington Post Requiring Algebra II in high school gains momentum nationwide By Peter Whoriskey Sunday, April 3, 2011 With its intricate mysteries of quadratics, logarithms and imaginary numbers, Algebra II often provokes a lament from high-schoolers. What exactly does this have to do with real life? The answer: maybe more than anyone could have guessed. Of all of the classes offered in high school, Algebra II is the leading predictor of college and work success, according to research that has launched a growing national movement to require it of graduates. In recent years, 20 states and the District have moved to raise graduation requirements to include Algebra II, and its complexities are being demanded of more and more students. The effort has been led by Achieve, a group organized by governors and business leaders and funded by corporations and their foundations, to improve the skills of the workforce. Although U.S. economic strength has been attributed in part to high levels of education, the workforce is lagging in the percentage of younger workers with college degrees, according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. But exactly how to raise the education levels of the U.S. workforce is a matter of debate. And whether learning Algebra II causes students to fare better in life, or whether it is merely correlated with them doing better — because smart, motivated kids take Algebra II — isn’t clear. Meanwhile, some worry that Algebra II requirements are leading some young people to quit school. The District this year joins other states requiring high school graduates to meet the Achieve standards that include Algebra II; Maryland and Virginia do not. But no state has pushed Algebra II more than Arkansas, which began requiring the class last year for most graduates and assesses how well students have done with a rigorous test — one of only two states to administer the test. Only 13 percent of those who took the Algebra II test in Arkansas were deemed “prepared” or better, but state officials said they are aiming to raise that figure rather than lower standards. “All those numbers and letters, it’s like another language, like hieroglyphics,” said Tiffany Woodle, a Conway High

” said Michael Cohen. from eighth grade to a time when most were working.” said Gayle Potter. 84 percent had taken Algebra II or a higher class as their last high school math course. a database company that employs 2. they needed the skills taught in Algebra II. and you have to work at it. One conducted by U.” In Arkansas and elsewhere. president of Achieve and a former assistant secretary of education in the Clinton administration. “then you’ve lost them. demand-based. which makes feminine hygiene and adult incontinence products. epochal. Similarly. the annual summer festival is known as Toad Suck Daze.” And Hunter Venable.000 people applied. “Most people don’t use Algebra II in college. intentionally stumbling over the word “asymptotes.” said Teresa George. About 44 percent of its students have qualified for free or reducedprice lunches. “It obviously says something.” Achieve and other educational groups. The study showed that of those who held top-tier jobs. The state governments need to be careful with this. just above West Virginia.” 1.100 in the town. But “not the ability to do exponential functions or logarithms. they say. “Algebra II does increase the likelihood of being employed in a good job. “Everybody else in the world believes it takes effort when it comes to math. they found that whether students were going into work or college. Garrett Baldwin. “In America. scheme. By contrast. “We’re looking for people with the ability to think critically. is leaving some kids behind by “getting locked into a one-size-fits-all curriculum. students need look no farther than the largest employers in Conway.S. a veteran teacher. And what’s their next option?” For proof of the usefulness of Algebra II. very weak. although warning that many factors come into play. “There was a fair amount of judgment that went into this. I’m just not sure what. He warns against thinking of Algebra II as a cause of students getting good jobs merely because it is correlated with success. at the Kimberly-Clark plant. the difficulties were apparent.” said Jeremy Cannady. What resource is San Francisco selling? Why do most resources increase in price as people use more of them? Why has public parking been an exception? . until recently a manufacturing efficiency coordinator at the plant. “Some students. quickly fastened on Algebra II as a fundamental component. The jobs pay 11 to $20 an hour. gauge 2. Among the 15 students gathered recently in an Algebra II class. sometimes. fluctuate. But “it turns out to get the skills needed. The state has ranked near the bottom in the percentage of adults with bachelor’s degrees. then both at the Educational Testing Service.” he said. are never going to pass Algebra II. market economy. and it was embraced by many states. state officials are loath to lower the bar. after a morning coaxing students through rational functions.” Whatever the demands for Algebra II.” Conway. we seem to believe that there is a math gene. Yet its students have performed better on the test than all but a handful of other districts. production workers need only a high school education. associate director of academic standards in the Arkansas education department. “I have no idea what those are. “The causal relationship is very. But math is challenging. most of whom have bachelor’s degrees in technical fields. a local reference to a time when steamboats worked the Arkansas River. For them. Only 50 percent of employees in the bottom tier had taken Algebra II. is a small town with rural roots. But not everyone is convinced that Algebra II is the answer. about 2. Department of Education researcher Clifford Adelman found that students who took Algebra II and at least one more math course attained “momentum” toward receiving a bachelor’s degree. who likes nothing better than duck hunting — “it’s all I do” — snorted at a question about the real-life relevance of Algebra II. “Ass-um-topes. They used a data set that followed a group of students from 1988 to 2000.” The danger. one of the researchers who reported the link between Algebra II and good jobs.School student and an aspiring beauty salon owner. students had to reach Algebra II. an outfielder on the baseball team who wants to be a firefighter. and when 70 spots recently came open during an expansion. To check the Algebra II findings against the “real world. So despite the complaints. which spent years defining standards to better prepare students for college and work. Algebra II skills are a prerequisite. students should be made to try.” he said. Acxiom. Define: tentative.” which they have been studying. forget it. who’ve gotten behind over the years. at Snapon Equipment. about 30 miles north of Little Rock. real-time. “I’d enjoy it — if I ever knew what was going on. If it becomes an obstacle to graduation. Other independent studies backed them up. Eight of the students said it was the hardest class they had ever taken. The Conway High School mascot is the mythical Wampus Cat. and if it’s not there.” The push for Algebra II had begun. he said. educators worry that the class requirement could lead students to quit. most production jobs require associate’s degrees in electronics.” the Achieve researchers then asked college professors and employers to identify which skills are necessary to succeed. hires software and database developers. a plant that employs 170 making the sophisticated gears that garages use to align and balance tires. let alone in real life. Among the skeptics is Carnevale.” they reported. however. Somewhat to their surprise. said. One of the key studies supporting the Algebra II focus was conducted by Anthony Carnevale and Alice Desrochers. and several questioned why they needed it.

works as advertised." The premise may seem simple. That way. “This isn’t about pricing to raise revenue…This is about getting drivers off the street quicker. How do sellers measure the demand for other resources we buy (think of your local Wal Mart. 2011 San Francisco drivers will be the focus of a nationally watched experiment to combat congestion and air pollution by regularly adjusting parking prices at curbside meters and public garages. credit card and prepaid parking cards. they will vary during times of the day. The idea is to charge more when demand is high. cabs or bikes. Online updates Real-time parking availability will be available online and by smart-phone app. street festivals and Fleet Week. The hourly rate to park at a meter in San Francisco currently ranges from $2 to $3. there will be a trade-off of added convenience. walking. late-afternoon and nighttime periods. If the city-run program. Drivers unwilling to pay higher rates will adjust their travel plans either by driving at off-peak times or abandoning their cars for transit. “Rates at curbside meters in the project area will be adjusted block by block in an attempt to have at least one parking space available at any time on a given block. Time restrictions at many meters will be extended to four hours.F. tentatively set to launch April 21. resulting in less traffic congestion. If a seller is trying to raise revenue. the price will stay the same. More than four years in the making. transportation planners speculate. SFpark aims to use demand-based pricing to influence where and when people park. Market economy City-owned garages also will be included in the project. an economist and professor of urban planning at UCLA who has been at the forefront of the parking-reform movement.50. April 2. with different rates for the morning. and the meters will accept payment by coin. However. The first price adjustments at the meters are expected in late spring or early summer when public acceptance will be put to the first real test. "Now sometimes I have to circle the block 10 times to find parking. Agency officials anticipate the price will fluctuate between 25 cents and $6 under SFpark." said the 17-year-old San Francisco resident. A pay-by-phone option also is in the works.3. with a similar pricing strategy. how could the city create more parking spaces? 7. but developing the right formula is much more complex. If the occupancy rate falls within a band of 65 to 85 percent. Kerina Yao fed a meter across the street from City Hall on Friday afternoon and said she would welcome the changes under SFpark . If parking prices became high enough. or are the costs of measuring demand for parking more than the revenues from exploiting that demand? Why is the federal government better able than the city of San Francisco to fund a project that takes a long time to pay for itself? 9. drivers will spend less time circling for parking. The city has embedded thousands of sensors in the pavement to measure when a parking space is being used. "This isn't about pricing to raise revenue. early-afternoon. Chronicle Staff Writer Saturday. . “Drivers unwilling to pay higher rates will adjust their travel plans…” How would people have responded if the city had only asked everyone nicely to avoid parking at peak hours in order to make spaces available for those who truly needed them? How does charging money change things? 8. Rates at curbside meters in the project area will be adjusted block by block in an attempt to have at least one parking space available at any time on a given block. "It's just going to bring parking into the rest of the market economy. City officials released more details of the potentially epochal scheme last week.” Why does Nathaniel Ford think that charging the maximum price that people will pay is beneficial for people? 5. ozone-depleting carbon emissions and aggravation. executive director of the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. The price could jump as high as $18 an hour for special events. the special event rates initially will be closer to $5 an hour. the hourly rate will go up or down by increments of 25 cents.even if she ends up paying more. "This is about getting drivers off the street quicker. how will the seller respond to changing demand? Is this response a good thing? Who else will respond to the seller’s change in price? 6." said Nathaniel Ford. If the parking-availability target isn't met. releases details on flexible pricing Rachel Gordon. However. depending on the neighborhood. such as popular ballgames. The meter prices will be adjusted once a month. it will change not only the way motorists pay for parking. While drivers could end up paying more to park. He said the concept is no different than charging more for theater tickets on Friday and Saturday nights. but also how they think about it. for instance)? What are the costs of doing so? Link to article source San Francisco Chronicle Parking: S. and on-street electronic message signs will be installed to alert drivers to parking availability in nearby city garages.” How will the rates change as the parking space gets close to filling? How will it change if hardly anybody is parking? 4. It's frustrating. Why did the federal government think that San Francisco needed a grant to fund this project? Do you think it will pay for itself over time." said parking guru Donald Shoup.

the Financial District. Social Security eventually would be cut. Department of Transportation grant. The 14 city-owned public garages in the project area also will be included. the Mission District. The first two garages affected are the Moscone Center Garage on Third Street and the Lombard Street Garage in the Marina. "At stake is America. How do Republicans want to reduce the deficit? How do Democrats want to accomplish this? Can you tell from the article how much debt each Party’s plan would reduce? What information could it give you to help you figure this out? 7. South of Market. At first. parking garage rates will stay the same or decrease. bipartisan. Hayes Valley. where a bipartisan group of lawmakers is seeking a compromise to cut the deficit by $4 trillion over 10 years…. not at the bank. Why does Ryan’s proposal call for changing the system for people 54 and younger rather than current beneficiaries? 4. The Republican-controlled House of Representatives likely will pass the plan.” Ryan said. in politics. The two-year SFpark test will operate in Civic Center. Define: revamp. What would happen to Medicare and other programs if government ran out of money? 10. SFpark was conceived when George W. Seniors and people with disabilities would have to pay more for the best coverage. How would government still be involved in health care for old people. or offer them less.3 trillion debt is so damaging that it could cause a market crisis similar to those in Europe. too. government-run system. 1. But. the government-run health insurance program covering about 47 million seniors and people with disabilities. you get mad at the guy who gave you a check that bounced. the Fillmore. but it will run into a roadblock in the Democrat-led Senate. "Our goal here is to leave our children and our grandchildren with a debt-free nation.” What has happened in Europe? Should people be worried that something similar will happen in the U. “Waste is inevitable in a top-down.? Does the article give you enough information to determine this? 9. What is Medicare? Why do you think people decided to create Medicare rather than saving for their own oldage medical needs? 3. What are the differences between the current Medicare system and Paul Ryan’s proposal? 5.S. It is like blaming the bank for saying that the check bounced. Bush was president and has since been embraced by the Obama administration to gauge its effectiveness as a tool to cut carbon emissions and congestion. beneficiaries. pillars. antipathy." said Ryan. It will include 5. Would Ryan’s proposal cause future recipients to change their expectations about what government will provide? Link to article source USA Today GOP Seeking Dramatic Changes In Medicare And Medicaid April 6. avoid a potential economic crisis and leave future generations in better financial shape. Great Society. red ink. For Democrats — who noted Tuesday that some Republicans attacked President Obama's health care overhaul . taking a huge political risk that could reverberate all the way to November 2012 and beyond. Consider this recent comment by economist Thomas Sowell: “In your own life. Medicare…or whatever other unfounded promises have been made. Republicans “reason that the nation’s $14. the proposed changes represent an enormous political gamble for the GOP because they would strike at the heart of popular insurance programs long viewed as backbones of stability for millions of families. the federal-state program covering more than 50 million low-income Americans. and it translates into runaway health inflation. under Paul Ryan’s plan? Why does he favor changing Medicare? 6. legitimate 2." Ryan and his party are betting that after the 2010 midterm elections — in which Republicans campaigned successfully against big government and excessive spending — Americans are ready to sacrifice to reduce red ink. you get mad at whoever tells you that there is no money…Anyone who says that we don’t have the money to pay what was promised is accused of trying to destroy Social Security. the Marina and Fisherman's Wharf.” Why do people see Social Security and Medicare as promises to them? How have they planned around having these programs? Where are the people who initially made these promises? 11. Why might Ryan think this? Why doesn’t the article provide an explanation for why he thinks it? 8. reverberate. However. Medicaid. with offers of discounted rates for entering and exiting the garages during off-peak hours. subsidize. 2011 By Richard Wolf and Kelly Kennedy WASHINGTON — Republicans unveiled a budget-cutting plan Tuesday that would dramatically revamp the twin health care pillars of the Great Society. would be turned over to the states and cut by $750 billion over 10 years. forcing lesser benefits or higher co-payments.Funded largely with a $20 million U.S.100 metered spaces. 41. or about 20 percent of the city's total. would be run by private insurers and would cost beneficiaries more. Medicare. of Wisconsin.

rising to $916 billion in 2020 from $526 billion in 2010. De Ann Friedholm." White House press secretary Jay Carney said. which adds a person to its rolls every eight seconds. and it translates into runaway health inflation. with beneficiaries making up any costs the insurers wouldn't cover…. chairman of Senate Democrats' campaign committee. "While we agree with his ultimate goal" of deficit cuts.8%." The plan would turn Medicare. The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press found 65% opposed to Social Security or Medicare reductions. expects 2. said the GOP budget plan leaves her . people with disabilities and low-income families." said Mickey Edwards. about 800. Under his proposal. For the next 35 years. D-N. behind Ryan. Republicans. said private insurance has a proven track record of high-quality. "we strongly disagree with his approach. During the early Boomer entry years. as well as its refusal to roll back tax cuts for wealthy Americans. choosing instead to create budget rules that would force both parties to fix Social Security eventually…. the industry trade group. The approach is modeled after Medicare's prescription drug program. Gingrich said Medicare eventually would "wither on the vine. those 54 and younger would be able to choose from a list of competing private plans.. director for health care reform at the Consumers Union. the current system focuses "almost exclusively" on treating people when they are sick. They avoided including a detailed plan for cutting Social Security benefits or raising the retirement age from 67. A USA TODAY/Gallup Poll in January showed that 61% of Americans don't want to cut Medicare. a former member of the House Republican leadership now at the Aspen Institute.. starting in 2022. The president believes there is a more balanced way to put America on a path to prosperity. a privatized form of the program. when the GOP last seized power. chairman of House Democrats' campaign committee…. Under the plan. or go gold-plate and contribute handsomely. Research by his group found that Medicare Advantage. they will have nearly doubled the size of Medicare to 80 million.8 million." said Rep. "Any plan to reduce our deficit must reflect the American values of fairness and shared sacrifice.even though it included much smaller cuts to Medicare than what the GOP is proposing now — the plan outlined by Ryan could be a rallying cry to attract those who count on Medicare and Medicaid. he said. The absence of a Social Security plan didn't stop Democrats from blasting the GOP plan. Driving up deficits. . new beneficiaries would choose a private health plan." The political game begins The Republicans' plan for Medicare got most of the attention Tuesday. By contrast." Ryan said. Even before Ryan released it. a think tank that promotes leadership. when the last of the Baby Boomers turn 65. that it has spent too much. Patty Murray of Washington. the federal agency that administers the nation's health care plan for seniors. they were ready with attacks on its Medicare and Medicaid cuts. "The gamble by Republicans is that there is a public willing to deal with these issues.Y.S. affordable coverage for seniors. spokesman for America's Health Insurance Plans. Democrats seized on those views Tuesday.. reduced emergency room visits by 24% and hospital readmissions by 39%. Medicare would provide a payment to subsidize the cost.700 per person. From then on.8 million 65-year-old Americans to enter Medicare this year. By 2030." Ryan and fellow Republicans realized the risk when writing their budget. "We must do everything we can to responsibly reduce our nation's debt and keep our economy on the path to prosperity. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. into a program that would pay private insurers a set amount of money. "I think it's a risk. Steve Israel. government would subsidize the cost. "At least in 2012. debt For years. The size of the challenge that Republicans face in persuading Americans to back their plan can be seen in public opinion polls. government-run system. But the Kaiser Family Foundation found Medicare Advantage plans cost 9% more than similar fee-for-service plans. Other polls this year have shown an even greater antipathy toward Medicare cuts. Their average costs will exceed $7. Robert Zirkelbach. "they'll have a real choice. rather than preventive services that can catch disease and bad health behaviors early. "Waste is inevitable in a top-down. A CBS poll in March found 76% unwilling to cut the program to reduce the deficit. where it is headed now. but we draw the line at penalizing seniors and children for an economic mess they did not create. there is a strong feeling that government has really gone too far into debt.3 trillion debt is so damaging that it could cause a market crisis similar to those in Europe." Republicans believe that Americans now are ready to take their medicine." said Sen. Low-income recipients and those with greater health risks would get extra help. and the U. spending is projected to increase at an annual rate of 5. They reason that the nation's $14. But I also do think that more than any other time in my entire lifetime." Ryan said. the beneficiary would be on his or her own: stay cheap and conserve out-of-pocket costs. passed in 2003. "House Republicans should be honest with the American people and repeal giveaways to the oil companies and tax breaks for the ultra-wealthy before forcing seniors to clip coupons if they need to see a doctor. Congressman Ryan's plan fails this test. drew no such lines.000 more than the average annual enrollment from 1975 through 2010. lawmakers in both parties have known that the nation's mammoth health care programs were the major drivers of the soaring national debt. the agency projects annual new enrollments to average 3. Their prescriptions are every bit as revolutionary as those espoused by Newt Gingrich and his band of Republicans in 1994.

Ryan's plan calls for reducing the top individual and corporate tax rates to 25% from their current 35% levels — and paying for that by wiping out some special-interest tax breaks. Warner’s two partners. known to the police by his given name. 2011 A Cigarette for 75 Cents. Lonnie Warner. Should government take advantage of people's addiction to make money? 4. What would the results be if New York lengthened the jail sentences for illegal sales? Would the money New York gained be worth the cost? 7. "And there are going to be.with more questions than answers. black market. and Democrats were equally united against it. Define: methadone. Shady Sale of ‘Loosies’ By JOSEPH GOLDSTEIN By 8:30 a. "It's taking away the guarantee that is in the current system that when you reach retirement age. Democrats and liberal advocacy groups rejected that notion. plaza. bars and playgrounds. “The tax went up. Bloomberg has outlawed smoking in restaurants. "The states will have to increase taxes. Is it wrong for people to buy cigarettes illegally? Is there any level of taxation at which it would be okay to buy smuggled goods? 3." Pollack said. the block to the south is occupied by Carlton. 54." 'A legitimate debate to have' As the dust settled Tuesday evening. Even city parks. Soon Mr. executive director of the health care consumers group Families USA.” Rarely does a minute go by without a customer stopping just long enough to pass a dollar bill to Lonnie Loosie. The Center for Medicare Advocacy called the GOP health care rationing. felony 2. A few blocks north. It devotes none of those savings to the deficit.m. I think. misdemeanor. amid the procession of sleepy-eyed office workers and addicts from the nearby methadone clinic.. bodega.” Mr. who sells loosies. Republicans had lined up solidly behind Ryan's plan. That's a legitimate debate to have. "That's unlikely to happen." she said. The Center for American Progress warned that 16 million seniors and people with disabilities would face higher costs or risk losing Medicaid coverage. “Bloomberg thinks he’s stopping . very sharply contrasting visions in terms of where we should move the country. 2 for $1: The Brisk." Obama said. poach. another man sells cigarettes near a check-cashing storefront. House Speaker John Boehner.50 at many Midtown newsstands." a bipartisan group of senators trying to come up with a plan that includes devoting tax revenue to the deficit as well as spending cuts. What exactly is government charging you for when it taxes a purchase or other activity? What happens when it charges too much? 8. and we started selling 10 times as much. and the block grants to states would amount to a 33% cut by 2021. both younger men. like bodegas that sell individual cigarettes in violation of state law. furtive. a $1. Lonnie Loosie plants himself in the middle of the sidewalk on Eighth Avenue in Midtown. Add to these a few roving vendors who poach territory when they can. the black market for loosies is now thriving on the streets." Why do people with products to sell like to maintain control of an area? How does government help do this for people with legal products to sell? What do people do when they have an illegal product to sell? 5. and outside hospital entrances. Ron Pollack. arrive for the day and fan out along the same block. "We're going to have some very tough negotiations. By midmorning. Medicaid would be turned into a block grant to states and cut by $750 billion over the decade. Newports. said Medicaid pays for twothirds of long-term care for seniors. They clench the two “loosies” — as single cigarettes are called — that he thrusts back in return. so the states will cut benefits. Waiting in the wings is the Senate's "Gang of Six. as does Carlton’s younger brother. packs and loosies. itinerant. What are the advantages to a business of participating in the legitimate economy? What are the drawbacks? 6. But with cigarette prices up and the number of smoke-friendly places down. "We don't allow people to sell drugs on this block. Warner said. he calls out his one-size-fits-all greeting: “Newports. Norman. beaches and pedestrian plazas will soon be off limits to smokers. 50. Then there have been successive rounds of taxes — the most recent one. you will have access to a certain set of benefits. The administration of Mayor Michael R. Addressing no one in particular. Why doesn't the government ban cigarettes rather than taxing them? Would it be right to take away people's freedom to smoke? Are New York's taxes a restriction on that freedom? What about the laws against smoking in certain areas? 9. Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell and Republican National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus all said it shows the GOP is willing to lead the debate on cutting deficits and debt. How do New York's cigarette taxes affect a poor person who purchases on the legitimate market? What about a rich person? Link to article source New York Times April 4." 1.60 rise in the state tax in July — that raised the price of a pack of cigarettes to $12. Itinerant cigarette vendors have long been a fixture in some parts of the city. That doesn't bode well for budget compromises in the months ahead.

Warner carries only one or two cartons of cigarettes in his backpack.” For the moment. mostly immigrants from West Africa. “He’s like the goodwill ambassador of Eighth Avenue. some of it spent sweeping cigarette butts. Among all of Midtown’s cigarette vendors. “We just don’t allow it.000 cigarettes. Warner tried to find steady work in New York. where he will drop off a pack.” Mr. 2011 Because of an editing error. When he is on the move. The ever-present risk of arrest makes working with partners valuable — “we have six eyes on this block.” he said. an article on Tuesday about the sale of individual cigarettes in New York City misstated the timing of the city’s ban on smoking in parks and pedestrian plazas and on beaches. The article also misstated. Warner takes the train up to Harlem. Mr. two for $1 or $8 for a pack ($7 for friends). Mr. Warner is constantly on his cellphone scheduling meetings in the lobbies of office buildings. Mr. His girlfriend sometimes complains. “When they need a body to arrest. After his release from a 13-year sentence in 2006. “A lot of customers. He said he would like to work someday as a barker for tour buses. So each time he and his two partners run out. don’t like coming out to the block. Warner grew up in Jersey City and spent about two decades in New Jersey prisons for a series of armed robberies. He has been arrested so often that he can recognize 10 different plainclothes police officers. he says hello to everybody. who know him as Lonnie Loosie and consider him better company than the typical misdemeanor defendant.” Mr.” For Mr. He currently relies on his periodic stays on Rikers Island — an occupational hazard — for medical attention.” he explained. “I love the streets. Start offering customers a light and “you’ll have a crowd of four or five smokers around you in no time. and then there’s him. not by the Bloomberg administration. This article has been revised to reflect the following correction: Correction: April 9. he noted that his customers included office workers from as far south as 32nd Street and as far north as 40th Street — people with good-paying jobs.” In the four years since he began selling cigarettes. Mr. I ask for all the blood tests.” he said. Mr. “A lot of them believe they are quitting. That may be because his style of salesmanship is hardly furtive. selling Manhattan’s attractions to wandering tourists. “You look for the crowd. What he will not do is light a cigarette for anybody. or walks a few blocks east to meet one of his half-dozen suppliers.” he said.” Mr. mostly two at a time. partly because he seems to get arrested more frequently than others. prostitutes. Mr. “There are people who are known bad guys. Mr. Warner said he bought his cigarettes — almost always Newports — for a bit over $50 a carton from smugglers who get them in states like Virginia. in some copies. He sometimes hears from customers who explain to him they are quitting as they buy two final loosies. “We don’t allow people to sell drugs on this block. profit made from selling about 2. Warner. Warner said he and each of his two partners took home $120 to $150 a day. Warner said during a series of recent interviews. because that is the most he cares to lose should he be arrested. There are also deliveries to make. He started out on Seventh Avenue. business is good enough that Mr. It was imposed by state law. Mr. they come pick me up.” In his time. shoplifters and public drunks. Mr. he said.” he said. Warner said he intended to buy health insurance for the first time. He then resells them for 75 cents each. Warner returns to Harlem.” Mr. from 35th to 36th Street. Over many court appearances. Warner has learned a lot about smokers’ habits. Mr. he is unable to put his day entirely behind him. it is not currently in effect. Warner walks exceptionally fast. he claims. or a week of community service. Warner stands out. And when he comes into court. Warner recalls being arrested 15 times. “I’m sorry that it’s come to this. Mr. Mr. Warner has made a favorable impression on the lawyers in Midtown Community Court. he suspects. “When they screen me. but dozens by face. Warner knows few customers by name. He’s just turning them onto loosies. where the state tax is well under a dollar a pack. “The cops call me a fish — that’s my nickname. as he often is.people from smoking. It goes into effect May 23. but eventually moved a block west. He is often pulled away from his Eighth Avenue post on business.” At the end of the day. Mr. That could attract the police. Covering tremendous stretches of sidewalk each day keeps him fit. But even in bed. Novack. but this is what it’s come to.” he said. just before completing the sale. He often tells female customers that they are too pretty to smoke. in front of Staples at 35th. generally on the charge of selling untaxed tobacco. Warner and his partners patrol the east side of Eighth Avenue. Warner explained. “but they come back every day. Warner asserts that the block is safer and less unruly because of him. cause I’m easy to catch. When he considers his options for making a living. the history of a 1975 ban on smoking in movie theaters in New York.” said Russell S. . Each transaction is a misdemeanor offense. that he mutters the word “Newports” again and again in his sleep. “They think it’s too hot.” he explained. he sees few besides selling loosies.” he said. where he often stays with his girlfriend. punishment usually means a few days in jail on Rikers Island. as far as he can discern. Those crimes date from a time when he says he was addicted to crack cocaine. Warner said he believed that the official price was above what many people were willing or able to pay. especially women. Mr. As evidence. Mr. but was invariably rebuffed — because of his felony status. the Legal Aid lawyer who represents many of Midtown’s hustlers. “I love the people in the streets.

Why do governments try to discourage their workers from demanding bribes for providing government services? 4. manifestation. which possibly for want of a better word he describes as ”harassment bribes. Right now. Such bribes should be directed only toward getting services to which you and I are legally entitled at the moment. what values are motivating that official? Where does the official place his loyalty that prevents him from seeking to enrich himself or his friends or family? 9. or the appropriation by politicians of housing facilities meant for war widows and veterans. What might cause people to place their loyalty somewhere other than with themselves and their families or associates? 11. the spending and general mismanagement of the Commonwealth Games. which tries to analyze how players will act in situations where the outcome also depends on the behavior of others. bracketed 2. however does make the case that in the end there is no alternative to building up the values of honesty and integrity in society.” bribe giving should be a legitimate activity. In theory. Basu clarifies that the act of bribe taking is still considered illegal. companies to bribe foreign governments? What would you expect some results to be of such a policy? Link to article source Wall Street Journal Blog March 30. converge. Basu. What is the difference between a “harassment bribe” and other kinds of bribes? 3. along with countries like Cambodia and Indonesia as among the most corrupt nations in the Asia Pacific region.Note: Today's original current event was to a subscription article. In a working paper. allocation. once a demand for a bribe has been satisfied—and the service received. Define: decriminalizing. Basu’s radical suggestion is sure to generate wide chatter especially in the current context of moral outrage at the manifestation of corruption in all walks of life—be it the allocation of telecom spectrum to phone companies. one presumes—the bribe giver may be interested in cooperating in getting the bribe taker caught. while justifying his thesis. We apologize for any inconvenience. Basu argues that decriminalizing bribe paying would cause a sharp decline in the incidence of bribery. What are some ways in which public officials in our society use their office to reward those who have helped them? Are any of these practices corrupt? Are any of them "harassment bribes"? 10. In his postulation. and the total punishment meted out for bribery may still be the same.S. Have a great weekend! 1. The Hong Kong-based Political & Economic Risk Consultancy recently bracketed India. “Mr. the interests of both converge. such as an income tax refund or customs clearance for an exporter’s goods. the interests of the bribe giver and the bribe taker will be at odds—and that will help reduce corruption. Should America's government allow U. Mr. since both payer and taker face punishment if caught. under his proposed regime the bribe taker should pay the full amount if caught and the bribe giver nil. The reasoning he offers involves game theory. the top government economist has suggested a radical solution: Paying bribes should be legal. Mr. Basu…does make the case that in the end there is no alternative to building up the values of honesty and integrity in society. Why does Basu think that officials are more likely to demand bribes if it is illegal to give bribes? 7. When we get the link sorted out. He suggests that once the law is altered in this manner. What is game theory? How are games involving strategy similar to other social situations? Why do economists use game theory? 6. That possibility could deter the bribe taker from taking a bribe in the first place. and so the payer has a reduced interest in uncovering bribery. Why do we consider it immoral for government employees to demand bribes for providing public services? What are some other ways that public officials can enrich themselves and reward loyalists that we consider to be wrong? 8. postulation. India’s chief economic adviser Kaushik Basu argues that for a certain class of bribes. the bribe giver and the bribe taker are fined x rupees each if caught. knowing that he or she will not face any punishment. it will be reposted next week. corruption. He says that if under the existing system.” If a public official decides not to seek bribes. 2011 Kaushik Basu Says Make Bribe Giving Legal To help a nation plagued by corruption scandals on a veritably daily basis. the spiriting away of black money in undeclared overseas accounts. . Mr. Mr. deter. Is it wrong to pay a harassment bribe? 5. rupee.