You are on page 1of 16

SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering, SoEIT, Adama University (2010-11

)

Unit 1 Wood uses for manufacturing industry
Introduction
Ethiopia possesses a big range of woody species amongst its luxuriant flora. To select the best wood for a particular purposes calls for an accurate knowledge of the qualities required and reliable information as to the woods possessing those qualities. The important technical features usually concerned in this selection are: (1) anatomical structure, (2) shape & size of the trees, (3) specific gravity, (4) strength, (5) hardness, (6) flexibility, (7) elasticity, (8) toughness, (9) adaptability or otherwise to seasoning, (10) natural durability and adaptability to preservative treatment, (11) color, grain, figure and similar characteristics,(12) freedom from defects, (13)adaptability to working with tools and on machines. In the choice of wood for a particular purpose, laboratory tests are necessary for ascertaining the desired properties and characteristics, but its suitability is finally decided only after actual trial. The basic physical and mechanical properties are not possessed in an equal degree by all woods; in fact, there is a very considerable variation among timbers both in appearance and their properties, particularly as regards weight, hardness, strength, degree of shrinkage, easy of working, ability to hold nails and screws, and reaction to pulping agents. Equally notable are the chemical and anatomical differences. The choice of species for any particular use is decided by combined presence of desired properties and characteristics. It should be realized that an appreciable equalization of the properties of wood can be achieved by proper design and treatment.

1.1 Aircraft timber industry
Requirement of timber
Timber is required for the following four purposes: a. b. c. d. For general constructional work and main members. For the high quality plywood used for covering purposes. For propeller manufacture. For linings and for sandwich construction between two plywood skins.

Qualities of timber required 
The timber has to be sound, free from knots, straight-grained and light in weight, should possess high strength/weight ratio. 1

 Timber for packing cases should preferably be of light color so that it may carry stencil marks well.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. soaps. aircraft parts. viz.Balsa (Ochroma pyramidalis) is the world¶s best timber for this purpose. white good..  In the international market.Erythrina suberosa( density 240 kg/cu m) and Sterculia villosa(density about 272kg/cu m) Finally. a weight of up to 224kg/cu m is considered to be satisfactory. champ(Michelia champaca). packing is one of the important end uses of wood. Manufacturers of shoes.Fir (Abies pindrow) and spruce (Picea smithiana) alone come up to international standard. the use of wood in aircraft construction is not as much as it once was. only pieces with 3 to 6 growth rings/cm being accepted. Timbers weighing about 350-420 kg/cu m in air-dry condition are suitable for packing cases. ease of handling and advertisement. pencils. 2 . b) Aircraft quality plywood. machinery. Timbers suitable for aircraft construction a) For main members. this having an advertising value in trade: the trade would prefer a goodlooking. Suitable substitute of balsa are Cryptomeria japonica (density about 256 kg/cu m). resilience and sound-proofing properties are chief consideration. though the demand for wood will continue for certain parts. Crates and Packing Cases In Ethiopia. More advanced types of propeller are made wholly or purely of compregnated wood (resin-impegnated laminated and compressed wood). as elsewhere. 1. SoEIT. c) For propeller-Timber suitable for propeller are padauk.2 Boxes.Indian birch and maple are suitable. Adama University (2010-11)  The growth should be uniform. paints and varnishes etc require large quantities of packing cases. it should not be forgotten that aeroplanes are being constructed very largely of metal nowadays and that. and good nail and screw holding power. chemicals and toilet preparations.  The primary requirements of a wood for use in packing cases are lightness in weight combined with required strength for purpose. Pieces with a density of 128-224kg/cu m are accepted commercially.  The timber for ammunition boxes should have good retention of shape and size combined with required strength. articles of stationery. Qualities required in packing case wood  Packaging serves three principal purposes. precision instruments etc.  For linings and sandwich construction.chickrassy(Chukrasia tabularis). lightness in weight coupled with minimum required strength. Wooden packaging has always been preferred for fresh fruits. Paper mills and coffee-packing industry also require large quantities of wood for this purpose. particularly for small arms and ammunition. aini (Artocarpus hirsuta). d) Materials for linings and for sandwich construction between two plywood skins. protection. matches.

decay.  Timber for cheap type of packing cases should be seasoned to moisture content not exceeding 18%. objectionable knots. Adama University (2010-11)  Timber for packing cases should be straight grain and free from insect attack. Types of load Class of timber recommended Very easy load or up to 320 kg cu m Easy load or 321-640 kg/cu m Average load or 641-1280 kg/cu m Difficult load or more than 1281 kg/cu m III III & II II II & I Recommended Ethiopian timber: Assignment. splits and warping. 1. depending on the locality of use and manufacturer.3 Match box & splints  The match box industry is one of the most important timber-using industries in world.  Timber for better quality of packing cases should be thoroughly seasoned to moisture content of 12-18%. 3 .Classify Ethiopian timber based on their density. Classification of packing case timber  Timbers are classified as follows from the point of view of their suitability for packing cases intended for varying loads: Class Density of timber Class I Class II Class III Class IV 640 kg/cu m and above 481-639 kg/cu m 400-480 kg/cu m less than 400 kg/cu m  The suitability of different classes of timbers according to the loads to be handled is roughly as follows. SoEIT. The annual production and consumption run to many trillions of matches requiring several millions cu m of wood.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering.

Blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ). and is at present the one most widely used in the world for paper pulp.73 cmx1. Quality of a match wood  The essential qualities required in match wood are: straightness of grain. matches are primarily made of wood only. Spruce (Picea smithiana). respectively. good white color.  Efforts have been made from time to time to manufacture splints and boxes from bamboos. including boxes and splints. and 4. Adama University (2010-11)  A match is a piece of inflammable material generally made of wood. Suitable wood for match industry  Bombax ceiba. but sometimes also of cardboard or other material and provided with a tip consisting of a mixture of chemicals and other substances that may be ignite by friction.4 Pulp wood  Wood is an important raw material for the production of pulp. Match boxes are of µfull size¶. and the wood should be easily available. SoEIT. or µhalf size¶. and capacity to absorb paraffin readily and hold the head firmly.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. 1. In Ethiopia.Green wattle (Acacia decurrens). and measure.60 cm x 3.83 cm. freedom from knots and cracks. Full size¶.Poplar (Populus ciliata) 4 . Chir (Pinus roxburghii) . Endospermum melaceense.  Match boxes are also of different types: all wood.  The log should be round and easily peelable on the veneering lathe. or a mixture of both.Spondias pinnata.29cm x 1. Some suitable species are listed below:  Fir (Abies pindrow) .  Woods of various coniferous and broadleaved species are suitable for pulping. reeds and grasses. good strength and toughness combined with lightness. and µhalf size¶ are common.  While woods of coniferous species are more widely used than those of broadleaved species. the demand for paper and pulp products is so great that the woods of broadleaved trees are being employed in ever-increasing amounts.  It is the most widely used agency yet invented for obtaining fire. but the results have seldom been satisfactory. Siris (Albizia chinensis) .30 cmx3. Salai (Boswellia serrata) . all cardboard. Dysoxylon malabaricum. 7. Salmalica insignis. Suji (Cryptomeria japonica).55cm. µthree quarter size¶.

SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. Adama University (2010-11) Unit 2 Wood uses for transportation industry 2. Framework  A strong wood which is not too heavy is preferable for this purpose (Gmelina arborea) is an excellent timber for light carts.  The main parts of a cart or carriage are: i) the framework ii) the axle. axel wood (Anogeissus latifolia) 5 . Sissoo (Delbergia sissoo) is one of the best woods in the market for the framework of carriages Axle  A very hard and tough wood is essential for this purpose. SoEIT. Such timbers as babul (Acacia nilotica. and require different qualities of wood for real efficiency. iii) the wheals and iv) the shafts or poles.1 Carts and Carriage  The various parts of a cart or carriage are subjected to different kinds of stresses and strains.

naturally curved or bent timber is the best. Each of these parts requires certain distinct quality in the wood used. and bijasal. and must be hard. dhaman(Grewia tiliaefolia). strong.  Bamboos are very commonly used for buggy shafts. c) For foot -boards± hard and strong timbers are needed for this use 6 ..  Felloes-These are subjected too much crushing and alternation all of wetting and drying. and Shorea robusta are of the type likely to be most suiable. other properties have also to be taken in to account with reference to the specific parts of the carriage for which the wood is to be used. elastic and durable. partitions seats. Although frames of carriages and wagons are now a days invariably made of steel. 2.  Hub ± the wood for this purpose must be straight grained. The best woods are Grewia spp. and the felloes. such as bottom sides. Shafts or poles  Woods for this purpose should be straight grained. being light and strong. can¶t rears and cross bars: a generally strong and very steady wood is required for this component. but now Indian teak and padauk (Petrocarpus dalbergioides) have been accepted as equally good substitute. The best woods for the purpose are rose wood (Delbergia latifolia) sissoo.  Pterocarpus dalbergiodes. As explained below. strong and elastic. Anogeissus spp.  The proportion of wood used is gradually decrees as the railway are bringing in to use carriages with steel shell in which the use of wood is restrict to interior fitting. pillars. reasonably good retention of shape and size in service. paneling. and good figure. so that the grain of the wood follows the line of the circumference of the wheel as nearly as possible. only Burma teak (Tectona grandis) was being used.  The timbers required for carriage and wagon building fall in to the following for distinct class: a) Fore main members of passenger coaches. dhaman and bijasal. Qualities required in the wood  Wood used for railway carriage building should generally be strong but not very heavy. SoEIT. wooden bodes are also in use. and similar very strong wood. For along time.  The best woods for the felloes are babul. Adama University (2010-11) Wheels  Wheels are composed of three main parts: the nave or hub. the main requirements being moderate strength. tough. It should also be free from defect and not liable to warp or sharing. etc« most furniture class woods can be used for this components. elastic and very strong.grain and color. To make a really strong wheel. rosewood.2Railway carriages and wagons  The manufacture of railway carriages and wagons is an important timber utilizing industry in the world. the later fault resulting in the spokes becoming lose in the mortise of the hub and felloes. the spokes. b) For interior fittings such as boarding.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. ceiling .

. shops. Characteristic required in wood  The chief requisites of good wooden paving-block are durability. and non. Even in the modern days of reinforced concrete and other compositions.  2. wood has certain qualifications as a street-surfacing material which none of the other materials so far discovered for the purpose possesses.  It should have spike holding power to resist undue spike loosening and good seasoning property without excessive splitting. as otherwise the blocks wear unevenly. Pinus roxburghii. steel and pre-stressed concrete. Cedrus deodara.  The texture should also be even. Pinus wallichiana. Anogeissus latifolia.Shorea robusta. America and elsewhere. Treated sleepers. wooden paving-blocks compare favorably in cost with other surfacing materials and offer better resistance to the skidding of motor cars than concrete or composition surfaces. Abies pindrow. Qualities required in the wood  The wood for sleepers should have strength.  For all treated sleepers. . warping etc. cracking. Cedrus deodara. lagerstromea lanceolata.  It should be hard to resist rail abrasion. including transverse strength to resist breakage by centre.  They also compare very favorable in durability and wear and tear with other roadsurfacing materials.Albizia lebbeck. binding and compressive strength to resist the pressure. 2.4 Road paving blocks  The use of wood for paving streets is said to have originated in Russia.3 Railway sleepers  The chief functions of sleepers are to support the rails. they are silent under heavy traffic. Adama University (2010-11) d) For floor boards : hard and strong timbers are needed to with stand the continual wearing out and indentation stresses to which floor boards are subjected 2. Suitable timbers  1. the railways are trying to effect a gradual reduction in the use of wood for sleepers and are going for sleepers of cast iron. Untreated sleepers.liability to absorb water excessively. distribute the load from the rail to the ballast. Xylia xylocarpa. which in street fronted with offices.  The average annual requirement of sleepers of all categories is assessed to be at about 10 million.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. Lagerstromia purviflora. 7 .Shorea robusta.  The method consists in embedding small blocks of wood in bituminous compounds. Ptreocarpus marsupium.  As supply of wooden sleepers is limited. hospitals etc is an important consideration. the timber must be amenable to treatment with coal tar creosote or other preservative at reasonable cost. Wooden sleeper fulfils all this requirements very satisfactorily. resilience.  Above all. resistance to wear and tear. It was later introduced into England.  In the first place. and maintain a gauge. SoEIT.

and can be built to sizes far beyond the possibilities of wood. strength. of course. This. elastic and durable and free from defects to stand the enormous strains. before the advent of iron and steel. as the end-surface of wood wears far more evenly than the tangential or radial surfaces. 8 . This is necessary to ensure even wear and tear. is only natural when it is remembered that iron ships are stronger and more able to resist the buffetings. cabin fitments and interior decorative woods is greater than ever. of heavy seas. 2. Tectona grandis.  The shipping of today is many times what it was years ago. the demand for ship building timbers was one of the heaviest on the timber industry.  Nowadays wood is confined chiefly to deck planking and interior fitments. Acaia catechu. Adama University (2010-11)  The general rule is that the paving.5 Ship and boat building  In former times.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. Requisite properties of timber  Timber for ship building should be strong. are more durable and easier to repair. but the purposes for which the timber is required have changed.  Teak(Tactona grandis) is the best wood ship building timber in the world not only because of durability. SoEIT. and the demand for deck planking. The demand is even now very large. Wood recommended and in use  Irul (xylia xylocarpa). Hopea parviflora.blokes should be laid with the cross-section surfaces at top and bottom and not on the sides.

It should be white in colour or nearly so.1 Billiards cues  Timber for this purpose has to be right weight and must have a straight grain. 9 . shock resistance. The different categories of sports goods and the woods used or found suitable are discussed below. skies. golf clubs. cricket stumps and bails. SoEIT. It must be light with high strength/wt. etc. fishing rods. The requirements of wood for sports goods are very exacting. Different qualities are however. Polyanthia fragrans. Requisite properties of timber  The requirements of wood are very exacting. tough. and in India mulberry became the standard sports goods timber as a substitute for imported ash. cricket bats. free from knots and other defects.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. billiard cues. 3. have been tried and found suitable. such as hockey sticks. Adama University (2010-11) Unit 3 Wood uses for sports good industry  Sports goods include a large number of articles.) is commonly used for the purpose. easy to work.  Recommended Species: Ebony (Diospyros melanoxylon). ratio. pliable. tennis and badminton rackets. Sageraea elliptica.  In Europe and America. ash (Fraxinus spp. required for different articles of sport. capable of taking a good polish and preferably light in colour. Timbers with a combination of certain specific properties are needed and the choice of species is limited.

Polyalthia fragnus are also suitable.  Golf club heads are made of persimmon (Diospyros virginiana). 3. Tamarandus indica. 3. particularly in its shock resistance.  Cheap quality bats can be made from Melia azadarach. Some other species like Terminalia manii and Sageraea elliptica have also been found suitable. bamboos are chiefly used. Ash is commonly used in western countries. It should be able to take the shock of repeated striking of the ball with great force. Reeds and bamboos are also commonly used for arrows. Ash is also used for golf club shafts.  For arrows good strong wood which will not warp is required.6 Hockey sticks  The timber for this purpose should be reasonably light but strong. tough and an elastic wood.3 Cricket bats. Amongest other substitutes Celtis australis also makes a satisfactory hockey sticks..  Wood most commonly used for superior quality fishing rod is green heart (Ocotea rodioei).  It should be amenable to steam bending in thick sections.  Mulberry (Morus alba) has been found suitable for hockey sticks. Adama University (2010-11) 3. Pterocarpus marsupium are suitable.). Mesua ferrea have been used with success for heads of wooden clubs. Terminalia manii. Coniferous are sometimes used but are too light for the purpose.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. It is very strong. badminton and squash rackets of built-up construction obtained by bending and gluing together thin veneers of wood. Acacia nilotica. 10 . Delbergia sisoo. Pterocarpus marsupium. 3.4 Fishing rods  For cheap rods. badminton and squash rackets  All tennis. Other woods used for this purpose are Grewia tiliefolia.K. a South American species.2 Bows and arrows  Yew (Taxus baccata) is an excellent bow wood. Arundinaria falcate being amongst the most popular. populous Spp. 3.7 Tennis. Acacia catechu.  The best and the only wood used for bats is willow (Salix spp. stumps and bails  The timber for cricket bats should be light in colour and light in weight but reasonably strong. Chloroxylon swietenia. SoEIT. Mulberry( Morus alba) is most commonly used for stumps and bails but other woods like Celtis australis.5 Golf clubs  Wooden golf clubs are usually made of South American hickory (Carya spp). The best cricket bats are made of the English cricket bat willow( Salix alba var Caerulea) of the U. 3.

deodar (Cedrus deodara) and other trees with durable heartwood. and such posts will give good service. post & poles 4. a short pole cut from a young or small tree is used as a fence post. Morus alba and Axel wood (Anogeissus latifolia ) have been found suitable for the purpose.  Such a post contains a large percentage of sapwood. usually in its natural round shape and often with the bark on. maple (Acer spp. Adama University (2010-11)  Straight grained. and as the sapwood of all species.). Unit 4 Wood uses for agricultural implements. flexibility.8 Skies  Toughness.  Mulberry is also found excellent for the purpose. the result will be more satisfactory. are commonly used in the western countries. 3. teak (Tectona grandis). even texture. and as the bark on a dead stem is sure to attract wood-boring insects. and straight grain are the essential qualities of a good ski wood.1 Fence posts  In many parts of Ethiopia. Ash (Fraxinus spp). including that of sal (Shorea robusta).  Delbergia sisoo. SoEIT. Other suitable woods are lagerstroemia hypoleuca and lagerstroemia lanceolata. a post of this type is not really serviceable.  If the bark and sapwood are chipped off before use. Ash and hickory are used in Western countries. long fibered wood with good shock resistance is essential for rackets. is very liable to attack by fungus and insects. at any rate for temporary 11 .SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering.

semul (Bombax ceiba) and bahera (Terminalia bellirica). should the post be required to give service for '1 number of years.  If the structure is to be completely Immersed in freshwater at all times. in such constructions as piers. a thorough treatment in a pressure cylinder is necessary.  If. selection is easy. owing to the prevalence of termites. 4. plays an important part in selecting the best wood for the purpose. as conditions most favorable for the rapid development of wood destroying fungi are at once set up. the heartwood of a fairly durable species should be used for fence posts.  Unfortunately. deodar.  Good examples of this are salai (Boswellia serrata). however. constructional work in freshwater is not subject to attack by these pests. but if kept completely submerged under freshwater. fungi and borers. as submerged wood is protected from attack by insects and ordinary fungi. jetties.  It is usually sufficient to' treat only the lower portion of the post.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. well 12 . as the portion above ground is often not subject to adverse influences. if the species used has reasonably durable heartwood. mango (Mangifera indica). they remain almost indefinitely in good condition. pterocarpus spp. and several woods which are considered as most perishable when exposed to the air give good service indefinitely if kept under water. Sal.  In most localities in Ethiopia. the situation is entirely changed.2 Fresh w ater piles  As marine borers are confined to brackish or saline water. hopea (Hopea parviflora). the structure is to be exposed to alternate wetting and drying. Erythrina suberosa. khair (Acacia catechu). Woods in use  The following timbers are likely to give good service: babul. teak and irul (Xylia xylocarpa).  A simple butt treatment in an open tank or barrel is usually adequate.  The type of structure for which the timber is required. SoEIT. but the treatment should extend up to a quarter of a meter or so above the groundlevel part of the post. and the selection of timbers for this type of work is thereby greatly simplified. bridge piles. Qualities required in the wood  Reasonable strength and durability are the only qualities required. Adama University (2010-11) purposes. on the other hand. All these woods are perishable timbers in ordinary circumstances. but. A very useful and moderately durable post can be obtained by charring its surface over a fire before planting it in the ground. or the posts should be treated with a good preservative.

SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. splitting and endcrushing. teak (Tectona grandis) and irul (Xylia xyIocarpa). used rails. sal (Shorea robusta).voltage transmission lines. This portion.  Owing to the prohibitive cost of tubular poles. restricted to such wood as babul. Woods in use  Amongst the best of the woods for the purpose are: babul (Acacia nilotica ssp indica).  Of these. hopea (Hopea spp. and river-bank protection against erosion. Alternate wetting and drying is unavoidable. therefore. The portion of the pile below water level is not subject to attack from termites or fungi.hopea (Hopea paroijiora). is very liable to at tack by termites and fungi. etc. Adama University (2010-11) curbs. They usually have the lower portion of their length sunk in the ground. and wood poles have been tried for this. wood poles are used both for shortspan low-voltage systems. 4. and unless preservative treatment is adopted. purposes.  Wood pole lines are considered to be the cheapest as regards initial cost as compared with all other types of supports. Artocarpus spp.. uriam and pyinma (Lagerstroemia hypoleuca) have been reported on as being exceptionally durable if kept wet. and also to a limited extent for high. telephone & electric poles The scope of use of wood poles  There is an increasing demand for cheap types of supports for' overhead power and telecommunication lines. Lagerstroamia spp and teak (Tectona grandis).  The choice is.). aini (Artocarpus hirsuta). SoEIT. deodar (Cedrus deodara). various other types of supports such as concrete posts.4 Telegraph. Quality required in the Wood  The essential qualities required in a good pile wood are great durability (the most important) and great strength and resistance to shearing. sluice gates. khair (Acacia catechu).  On account of their very elastic nature. and more especially that near the ground level on dry land. it is necessary to use only those timbers that are durable under these conditions. 13 . it must be capable of standing up to the continuous blows of the pile driver during the process of being driven into the ground. 4.3 P iles  Piles comprise the main upright members in bridge building. deodar (Cedrus deodara).

 It should be free from sap rot. Many woods are suitable for this purpose.  These must be made of a hard. which should also be tough enough to resist hammering.) and irul (Xylia xylocarpa). 4.  It should not split or crack excessively. kusum . sal.  4.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering. quite green. rollers. but in common use it usually refers to such appliances as ploughs. cross breaks and large holes all of which are categorized as a totally prohibited defects. Tent pegs  Tent pegs may vary in size from the small 15 cm pegs. sal and Teak (Tectona grandis). used with very light tents. harrows. sundri (Heritiera minor).  In Ethiopia. durable wood. irul etc. There is a big demand in the country for suitable woods for tent pegs of all descriptions. more often than not. and the amount of timber used for their construction is quite considerable. such poles can be either round or squared. hollows. and should have the required length. sissoo. toughest and hardest woods are of any use for such world and the local wood which complies best with these essentials is the one usually employed.6 Agricultural implements  "Agricultural implements" is a comprehensive term with a wide application. sandan (Ougeinia oojeinensis). A good strong wood is desirable. to the very large pegs '1 m long and 10 cm in diameter used with big marquees. but it is not uncommon to see large tent poles made of wood. This type of peg is liable to crack.  Only the strongest. 14 . Among the best of these are babul (Acacia nilotica spp indica).5 Tent poles and Tent pegs Tent poles   Tent poles are usually of bamboo. SoEIT. and clod-crushers. Acacia catechu. more often than not made entirely on wood. these implements are. dhaman (Grewia spp. Axel wood. Other good tent-peg woods are sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo). sal Tamarindus indica) .  A more satisfactory peg can be sawn from a plank of seasoned wood to the size and shape required. Common timbers in use are dhaman (Grewia tiliaefolia). the wood being.  The most common type of tent peg is a round peg cut from a branch or sapling. oaks. Adama University (2010-11) Essential and desirable properties of wooden poles  It should be obtainable in good straight length.  The following some woods are all used for agricultural implements of different kinds: Acacia nilotica.

Moreover. Species recommended. Species in use. Haldu Chaplash (Artoearpus chaplasha) Birch Toon (Toollo ciliata) Cll ickrassy (C/wkrasia tabularis) G?mari (Gmelina arborea) SilvFr oak Kal'ju J-fulnpte!ea intrg1'ljalia) Kw han ([1) menOdl(t)Ofl . Species recornmended.-Mango (Mangifera indica) and silver oak (Greyillea robust a) are most commonly used.4 Loom components Sp"cin ill use .) (b) For slwlU\s Haldu Toon Chickrassy Silver oak ~rango Kaim Sppcie.eJO. rnaplr: (Acer spp. imported maple.' arms..lm. (ii) .SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering.!1. birch.-Of Indian woods. ' .:xce!sum) 1\1ango Ch?mp (.1 Bobbins 5.--1 IalJu 1 ! I! l'. IV. ill /lSt'. introduction of 3-ply ends of wood construction and composite metal.l'.f ~b.lulIl ma{abalicum).te cular (D)so...2 Shuttles 5.-Babul '.. p W lJcd e.endi (Lagemru/'mia Ix/rvif!.'. ~ll.issl<S latijoli. For thinner"walled pirn~. birch (Betula spp. Ii) U)i. parti"'ula. maple. 5. mullilam and kaim Jute-mill bobbins are usually larger and thicker-walled in design.(lI~. '''rdj-nit I .) wh.lrms madc of thc aoove limbers have recently been introduced and have been "ery fa ""ourably reported upon.ln S:rcil ia tifi.I)..lute-mill bobbins cedar.er still used.'1 ../<I.. No imported timbers are used.{)mmqnh" \Is·>d wood for most kinds of bobbins. Lhe (.--Dhaman w"s found to be as good as' imported hickory in small·scale service trials 15 .Wood uses for textile & jute mill accessories II.. and mullilarn (FagfiTa budnmlfa) are p~elerred.and wood-desIgn has enabled the use of several cheap-grade secondary species.um (Phoebe spp.':. III. Lamina/cll-wood pi ekcr . Adama University (2010-11) I.'. white (1\1itrag)'t1a parvifolia) are recommended. tht !. and the requirements as to finish are not always as exacting as in the case of cOHon-mill bobbins.~t:Jrn~ IIdar'{'X). . birch and beech are still being used to some extent. A . V. extent. ci!l<.. haldu.3 Picker arms 5."'~ for jttte·mlil pIckel.igh t-colfJlH cd s.!).' amount of imported hicko:y is howt:\.(ia Ili!utir(l ssp irdie. SoEIT.ura) arc fi01\ being uscd to an inere. . axl(wood (Anog.d l.).'vfiehelia eharnpcca) Bon. bu~ these woods are in short suPUly ThcI'cfore. while haldu and kaim are also occasionally used. Unit 5.

but should have considerable resilience and resistance to splitting.)ivn .. Adama University (2010-11) c<lrried out in eottor--miJls by the Forest Research Institute. Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia) and the light-co loured sapwood of ebony (Diosp)'ros melano:<ylon) are indigenous timbers now being used to some extent.l .G lc ured sa p" (.'as found to be thi.--'I h e ligh H .. Efforts are under way to introduce more extensive use (.. and sardan (Ougeinia oojeinensis) were favourably reported upon. and laurd p:.g/cu m (air dry).. The hIll tirr"bers 'Kharsll cak (Q].··.alia tumcnlosa).‡ . al':1 rnoh-I. whilc babul. gardeni.2te and yarn. It should season wen without much degrade. d..ber she uld be straight-gl'aincd and fineand even-te.Gardenia latijc.--Imported cornel. sissoo (DalbergiQ sissco).ereus semecarpifolia) and parrotia (Parrotia jaequemollliana) apI-car to be very promlsll g on the of their physical and mechanical properties.'I he tin. Properties essential or desircble. Other timbers worth tf) ing for the purpose are rosewood. Iendi. Dehra Dun. Other suitable timber. It should turn well and should be smooth to finish. ebony (DiosRyros melanox)'lon). only the light-coloured Qutn' wood being used in the case of ebony.s "me: axlewood.:tured.f laminated and/or compre3sed wood.. It sho ld not split when metal fastenings are inserted. c. It should be reasonably strong. Laminated and/or co In pessed \\ ood has Lright prospects. It should have good wearing quality and sh uld wear smooth in prolcng(d friction against the loom-race pI.SPECIALIZED USES OF W00D: Department of Wood Science & Engineering..rmir. persimmon or horn bet-m (Carfinus spp. Dehra Dun. Compressed blocks with the sapwood of (DiospJToS melano:>:jlon) for the core arid laminated wood for the two sides have been introduced reclntly to a limited extent.hlt'bera swicteniaides). Species recommend. sandan. The timber shodd preferably he of weight about 8:30 j.) is still preferred. .d III DiGS!!) ros I/ulunox.. SoEIT. 16 .S. Species in use. nearest to and a l'casona !')ly goed substitute for imported cornel for shuttles in service tests carried out in cotton-miils by the Forest Research Institute.fia).