EMBRYOLOGY

Is the study of human development.

GAMETOGENESIS
‡ ‡ Is the process of formation and development of gametes. Gametes are highly specialized sex cells in male---------Sperms. in female---------Oocyte (ovum). Gamete contains half the number of chromosomes present in any body cell (Haploid Number of chromosomes).

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GAMETOGENESIS
‡ Normal somatic cell = 46 chromosomes (diploid) ‡ Gamete = 23 chromosomes (haploid) ‡ Male gamete (23) + female gamete (23)------- zygote (46) ‡ The reduction of chromosome number occur during reduction division called MEIOSIS

CELL DIVISION
‡ MITOTIC DIVISION 1. Occurs in whole body cells (somatic cell) 2. Each somatic cell contain 46 chromosomes (diploid number of chromosomes). 2. Each cell------ 2 cells. 3. Daughter cells contain diploid number of chromosome (46). 4. Is for growth and repair.

Cell division
‡ MEIOTIC DIVISION Occurs in sex cells in testis and ovary----(Spermatogonia) in male & (Oogonia) in female. 2. A permatogonia-----4 sperms. One oogonia-------one oocyte. 3. Daughter cells contain haploid number (23) of chromosome. 4. Provide a constancy of chromosomes from generation to generation.

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GAMETOGENESIS
I. SPERMATOGENESIS (formation of sperm) 1. Begins at puberty till very old age. 2. Occur at all time . 3. Spermatogonia (sex cell) is present in testis in all ages. 4. Stages are: ‡ Spermatogonia (46) ‡ 1ry spermatocyte (46) ‡ 2ry spermatocytes (23) ‡ Spermatids (23) ‡ Sperms (23)

GAMETOGENESIS
II. OOGENESIS (formation of the ovum) 1. 1st meiotic division begins at 3rd month prenatal life---- arrested till puberty. At birth NO OOGONIA exist in the ovary. 2. Division resumed at puberty ---till menopause. Stop at menopause. 3. Stages are: ‡ Oogonia (46) ‡ Iry oocyte (46) ‡ 2ry oocyte (23) ‡ Mature oocyte (23)

Oogenesis

GAMETOGENESIS
SPERMATOGENESIS 1. Begins at puberty till very old age. 2. Occur at all time . 3. Spermatogonia is present in testis in all ages. 4. Stages are: ‡ Spermatogonia (46) ‡ 1ry spermatocyte (46) ‡ 2ry spermatocytes (23) ‡ Spermatids (23) ‡ Sperms (23) 1. 2. 3. 4. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ OOGENESIS Begins at prenatal life---arrested till puberty. Stop at menopause. At birth NO OOGONIA exist in the ovary. Stages are: Oogonia (46) Iry oocyte (46) 2ry oocyte (23) Mature oocyte (23)

Sperm

Gametes
‡ ‡ ‡ Oocyte (ovum) Massive cell. Immotile. One ovum is formed each month from puberty till menopause. Chromosome= 22 + x chromosome (23) Sperm ‡ Small, scanty cytoplasm. ‡ Number in millions, all days, all time from puberty till very old age. ‡ Chromosome 2 types: 22+x chromosome(23) 22+y chromosome(23)

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QUIZ
‡ Normal complement of chromosome in a sperm is ? a) 22 autosomes + sex chromosome. b) 23 autosomes + sex chromosome. c) 22 autosomes. d) 46 chromosomes. e) 23 autosomes.

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