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2021 Report

Scientific, Legal, Pro-Life, & Pro-Choice

Sources on When a Human’s Life Begins

Table of Contents

I. Scientific Sources Page 003

II. Legal Sources Page 155

III. Pro-Life Sources Page 182

IV. Pro-Choice Sources Page 211

V. Additional Sources Page 282

Scientific Source #1

“Fertilization' is the process of union of two gametes (i.e., ovum and sperm) whereby
the somatic chromosome number is restored and the development of a new individual
is initiated"1

1Fertilization, Dictionary, Jun. 24, 2020,


Scientific Source #2

"[E]mbryo: An organism in the earliest stage of development; is a man, from the

time of conception to the end of the second month in the uterus"2

2 Harper Collins Illustrated Medical Dictionary, New York: Harper Perennial, 1993, p. 146.

Scientific Source #3

“Zygote. This cell results from the union of an oocyte and a sperm during
fertilization. A zygote or embryo is the beginning of a new human being.”3

3 Moore, K.L., The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 8th ed., Philadelphia:
Saunders, 2007. p. 2.

Scientific Source #4

“Zygote. This cell, formed by the union of an oocyte and a sperm, is the beginning of
a new human being.”4

4Moore, K.L. & Persaud, T.V.N., Before We Are Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects, 7th
ed., Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008, p. 2.

Scientific Source #5

“Note on the meaning of scientific terminology for human development: "Organism"

is the scientific name for a living human being. Only organisms undergo development.
"Zygote" is the one-cell human organism produced by sperm-egg fusion. "Embryo" is
a human organism during the first eight weeks of development”5

5 Condic, M.L., The Origin of Human Life at Fertilization: Quotes Compiled from Medical Textbooks
and Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, Bioethics Defense Fund, 2017,

Scientific Source #6

“Fertilization is the union of gametes to initiate development of a new individual”6

6Machaty, Z., Miller, A.R., & Zhang, L., Egg Activation at Fertilization, Adv Exp Med Biol, 2017, 953:1-

Scientific Source #7

“Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of

a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes”7

7Marcello, M.R., Singaravelu, G., & Singson, A., Fertilization, Adv Exp Med Biol, 2013, 757:321-50,

Scientific Source #8

“In multicellular organisms the fusion of two gametes with a haploid set of
chromosomes leads to the formation of the zygote, the first cell of the embryo”8

8El Yakoubi, W. & Wassmann, K., Meiotic Divisions: No Place for Gender Equality, Adv Exp Med Biol,
2017, 1002:1-17,

Scientific Source #9

"The oocyte-to-embryo transition refers to the process whereby a fully grown,

relatively quiescent oocyte undergoes maturation, fertilization, and is converted into
a developmentally active, mitotically dividing embryo, arguably one of the most
dramatic transitions in biology"9

9 Robertson, S. & Lin, R., The oocyte-to-embryo transition, Adv Exp Med Biol, 2013, 757:351-72,

Scientific Source #10

“In higher animals, the beginning of new life and transfer of genetic material to the
next generation occurs in the oviduct when two distinct gametes cells unite resulting
in the formation of a zygote.”10

10Salilew-Wondim, D., Schellander, K., Hoelker, M., & Tesfaye, D., Oviductal, endometrial and
embryonic gene expression patterns as molecular clues for pregnancy establishment, Anim Reprod Sci,
2012, 134(1-2):9-18,

Scientific Source #11

“A crucial step of fertilization is the sperm-egg interaction that allows the two
gametes to fuse and create the zygote”11

11 Evans, J.P., Sperm-egg interaction, Annu Rev Physiol. 2012, 74:477-502,

Scientific Source #12

“At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single
set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing

12Gat, I. & Orvieto, R., “This is where it all started” - the pivotal role of PLCζ within the sophisticated
process of mammalian reproduction: a systemic review, Basic Clin Androl, 2017, 21;27:9,

Scientific Source #13

“We have discovered that a single sperm protein, phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ), can
stimulate intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in the unfertilized oocyte (‘egg’) culminating
in the initiation of embryonic development. Upon fertilization by a spermatozoon, the
earliest observed signalling event in the dormant egg is a large, transient increase in
free Ca(2+) concentration. The fertilized egg responds to the intracellular Ca(2+) rise
by completing meiosis“13

13Nomikos, M., Swann, K., & Lai, F.A., Starting a new life: sperm PLC-zeta mobilizes the Ca2+ signal
that induces egg activation and embryo development: an essential phospholipase C with implications
for male infertility, Bioessays, 2012, 34(2):126-34,

Scientific Source #14

"The result has been a curious avoidance of the scientific fact, which everyone really
knows, that human life begins at conception and is continuous whether intra- or
extra-uterine until death. The very considerable semantic gymnastics which are
required to rationalize abortion as anything but taking a human life would be
ludicrous if they were not often put forth under socially impeccable auspices. It is
suggested that this schizophrenic sort of subterfuge is necessary because while a new
ethic is being accepted the old one has not yet been rejected"14

14A New Ethic for Medicine and Society, Editorial, California Medicine 113, September 1970, p. 67-68,

Scientific Source #15

“Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all
sexually reproducing organisms”15

15Raj, I., Sadat, A.l., Hosseini, H., Dioguardi, E., Nishimura, K., Han, L., Villa, A., de Sanctis, D., &
Jovine, L., Structural Basis of Egg Coat-Sperm Recognition at Fertilization, Cell, 2017, 169(7):1315-

Scientific Source #16

“Pronuclear/zygotic stage is the very first stage of life”16

16Okada, Y. & Yamaguchi, K., Epigenetic modifications and reprogramming in paternal pronucleus:
sperm, preimplantation embryo, and beyond, Cell Mol Life Sci, 2017, 74(11):1957-1967,

Scientific Source #17

“One of the most fundamental developmental transitions occurs at fertilization when

two haploid gametes join to initiate the development of a multicellular organism.”17

17Nader, N., Kulkarni, R.P., Dib, M., & Machaca, K., How to make a good egg!: The need for remodeling
of oocyte Ca(2+) signaling to mediate the egg-to-embryo transition, Cell Calcium, 2013, 53(1):41-54,

Scientific Source #18

"[F]ertilization is the process by which male and female haploid gametes (sperm and
egg) unite to produce a genetically distinct individual"18

18 Signorelli, J., Diaz, E.S., & Morales, P., Kinases, phosphatases and proteases during sperm
capacitation, Cell Tissue Res, 2012, 349(3):765,

Scientific Source #19

“Ca2+ signaling plays a crucial role in virtually all cellular processes, from the origin
of new life at fertilization to the end of life when cells die”19

19Santella, L., Ercolano, E., & Nusco, G.A., The cell cycle: a new entry in the field of Ca2+ signaling,
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2005, 62(21):2405-13,

Scientific Source #20

“Mammalian embryo development begins when the fertilizing sperm triggers a series
of elevations in the oocyte's intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration”20

20Machaty, Z., Signal transduction in mammalian oocytes during fertilization, Cell Tissue Res, 2016,

Scientific Source #21

“Membrane fusion has an overarching influence on living organisms. The fusion of

sperm and egg membranes initiates the life of a sexually reproducing organism.”21

21Marsden, H.R., Tomatsu, I., & Kros, A., Model systems for membrane fusion, Chem Soc Rev,
2011, 40(3):1572,

Scientific Source #22

“It is intuitive that fertilization-the start of life-involves communication between a

sperm cell and an egg”22

22 Asano, A., Nelson-Harrington, J.L., & Travis, A.J., Membrane rafts regulate phospholipase B
activation in murine sperm, Commun Integr Biol, 2013, 6(6):e27362,

Scientific Source #23

“Mammalian life, with all its complexity comes from a humble beginning of a single
fertilized egg cell”; “In mammals, a new generation begins when an oocyte is fertilized
by a sperm to form a zygote.”23

23Leung, C.Y. & Zernicka-Goetz, M., Mapping the journey from totipotency to lineage specification in
the mouse embryo, Curr Opin Genet Dev, 2015, 34:71-6,

Scientific Source #24

“Activation of the egg by the sperm is the first, vital stage of embryogenesis”24

24 Hachem, A., Godwin, J., Ruas, M., Lee, H.C., Ferrer Buitrago, M., Ardestani, G., Bassett, A., Fox,
S., Navarrete, F., de Sutter, P., Heindryckx, B., Fissore, R., & Parrington J., PLCζ is the physiological
trigger of the Ca2+ oscillations that induce embryogenesis in mammals but conception can occur in its
absence, Development, 2017, 144(16):2914-2924,

Scientific Source #25

“New parents anticipate their job begins at birth. Little do they know they have been
exerting control within the baby’s first cell since fertilization”25

25 Chu, D., Parental Control Begins at the Beginning, Genetics, 2016, 204(4):1377-1378,

Scientific Source #26

“[A] new individual is derived from the fusion of a single sperm and egg...”26

26Wilding, M., Coppola, G., De Icco, F., Arenare, L., Di Matteo, L., & Dale, B., Maternal non-Mendelian
inheritance of a reduced lifespan? A hypothesis, J Assist Reprod Genet, 2014, 31(6):637-43,

Scientific Source #27

“Fertilization is a complex process comprised of numerous steps. During fertilization,

two highly specialized and differentiated cells (sperm and egg) fuse and subsequently
trigger the development of an embryo from a quiescent, arrested oocyte”27

27Marcello, M.R. & Singson, A., Fertilization and the oocyte-to-embryo transition in C. elegans, BMB
Rep, 2010, 43(6):389-99.

Scientific Source #28

“Oocyte maturation is an essential cellular differentiation pathway that prepares the

egg for activation at fertilization leading to the initiation of embryogenesis”28

28Machaca, K., Ca2+ signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation, J Cell Physiol, 2007,

Scientific Source #29

“In sexual organisms, division of the zygote initiates a new life cycle”29

29 Yang, K.J., Guo, L., Hou, X.L., Gong, H.Q., & Liu, C.M., ZYGOTE-ARREST 3 that encodes the tRNA
ligase is essential for zygote division in Arabidopsis, J Integr Plant Biol, 2017, 59(9):680-692,

Scientific Source #30

“The time of our conception is when we are most vulnerable to survival and growing
as a healthy human being”30

30Norman, R.J., 2015 RANZCOG Arthur Wilson Memorial Oration 'From little things, big things grow:
The importance of periconception medicine', Aust. NZ J Obstet Gynaecol, 2015, 55(6):535-40,

Scientific Source #31

“Fertilization is the process that leads to the formation of a diploid zygote from two
haploid gametes”31

31Lorenzetti, D., Poirier, C., Zhao, M., Overbeek, P.A., Harrison, W., & Bishop, C.E., A transgenic
insertion on mouse chromosome 17 inactivates a novel immunoglobulin superfamily gene potentially
involved in sperm-egg fusion, Mamm Genome, 2014, 25(3-4):141-8,

Scientific Source #32

“As representatives of the 60 trillion cells that make a human body, a sperm and an
egg meet, recognize each other, and fuse to create a new generation”32

32Inoue, N. & Okabe, M., Sperm-egg fusion assay in mammals, Methods Mol Biol, 2008, 475:335-45,

Scientific Source #33

“Mammalian life begins with a cell-cell fusion event, i.e. the fusion of the
spermatozoid with the oocyte”33

33Willkomm, L. & Bloch, W., State of the art in cell-cell fusion, Methods Mol Biol, 2015, 1313:1,

Scientific Source #34

“Sperm are remarkably complex cells with a singularly important mission: to deliver
paternal DNA and its associated factors to the oocyte to start a new life”34

34Wu, T.F. & Chu, D.S., Sperm chromatin: fertile grounds for proteomic discovery of clinical tools, Mol
Cell Proteomics, 2008, 7(10):1876-86,

Scientific Source #35

“In mammals, egg activation is initiated by multiple cytosolic Ca(2+) transients

(Ca(2+) oscillations) that are triggered following delivery of a putative sperm
factor from the fertilizing sperm. The identity of this 'sperm factor' thus holds
much significance, not only as a vital component in creating a new life, but also
for its potential therapeutic and diagnostic value in human infertility”35

35Kashir, J., Nomikos, M., Swann, K., & Lai, F.A., PLCζ or PAWP: revisiting the putative mammalian
sperm factor that triggers egg activation and embryogenesis, Mol Hum Reprod, 2015, 21(5):383-8,

Scientific Source #36

“Aging is a developmental process that begins with fertilization and ends up with
death involving a lot of environmental and genetic factors”36

36Ahmed, M.S., Ikram, S., Bibi, N., & Mir, A., Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome: A Premature
Aging Disease, Mol Neurobiol, 2017,

Scientific Source #37

“The seminal question in modern developmental biology is the origins of new life
arising from the unification of sperm and egg”37

Evsikov, A.V. & Marín de Evsikova, C., Gene expression during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in

mammals, Mol Reprod Dev, 2009, 76(9):805-18,


Scientific Source #38

“When sperm meets egg: the spark of new life”38

Wozniak, K.L., Luque, G.M., & Ahn, S.H., When sperm meets egg: the spark of new life, Mol Reprod

Dev, 2017,

Scientific Source #39

“After fertilization, to initiate development, gametes are reprogramed to become


39Jachowicz, J.W., Bing, X., Pontabry, J., Bošković, A., Rando, O.J., & Torres-Padilla, M.E., LINE-1
activation after fertilization regulates global chromatin accessibility in the early mouse embryo, Nat
Genet, 2017, 49(10):1502-1510,

Scientific Source #40

"The life cycle of mammals begins when a sperm enters an egg."40

40Okada, Y., Yamagata, K., Hong, K., Wakayama, T., & Zhang, I., A role for the elongator complex in
zygotic paternal genome demethylation, Nature, 2010, 463(7280):554-8,

Scientific Source #41

“Representing the 60 trillion cells that build a human body, a sperm and an egg meet,
recognize each other, and fuse to form a new generation of life”41

41Inoue, N., Ikawa, M., Isotani, A., & Okabe, M., The immunoglobulin superfamily protein Izumo is
required for sperm to fuse with eggs, Nature, 2005, 434(7030):234-8,

Scientific Source #42

“Fertilization occurs when sperm and egg recognize each other and fuse to form a
new, genetically distinct organism”42

Bianchi, E., Doe, B., Goulding, D., & Wright, G.J., Juno is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for

mammalian fertilization, Nature, 2014, 508(7497):483-7,

Scientific Source #43

“Fertilization is defined as the process of union of two gametes, eggs and sperm. When
mammalian eggs and sperm come into contact in the female oviduct, a series of steps
is set in motion that can lead to fertilization and ultimately to development of new

43Wassarman, P.M., Jovine, L., & Litscher, E.S., A profile of fertilization in mammals, Nat Cell Biol,
2001, 3(2):E59-64,

Scientific Source #44

“Fertilization is the culminating event in sexual reproduction and requires the

recognition and fusion of the haploid sperm and egg to form a new diploid organism”44

44Bianchi, E. & Wright, G.J., Cross-species fertilization: the hamster egg receptor, Juno, binds the
human sperm ligand, Izumo1, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2015, 370(1661):20140101,

Scientific Source #45

“A proper dialogue between spermatozoa and the egg is essential for conception of a
new individual in sexually reproducing animals. Ca(2+) is crucial in orchestrating
this unique event leading to a new life”45

45Darszon A., Nishigaki, T., Beltran, C., & Treviño, C.L., Calcium channels in the development,
maturation, and function of spermatozoa, Physiol Rev, 2011, 91(4):1305-55,

Scientific Source #46

“Fertilization is a process involving multiple steps that lead to the final fusion of one
sperm and oocyte to form the zygote”46

46 Sun, T.T., Chung, C.M., & Chan, H.C., Acrosome reaction in the cumulus oophorus revisited:
involvement of a novel sperm-released factor NYD-SP8, Protein Cell, 2011, 2(2):92-8,

Scientific Source #47

“Human life begins with sperm and oocyte fusion”47

47Soygur, B. & Sati, L., The role of syncytins in human reproduction and reproductive organ cancers,
Reproduction, 2016, 152(5):R167-78,

Scientific Source #48

"The oviduct or Fallopian tube is the anatomical region where every new life begins
in mammalian species. After a long journey, the spermatozoa meet the oocyte in the
specific site of the oviduct named ampulla, and fertilization takes place."48

48 Coy, P., Garcia-Vazquez, F.A., Visconti, P.E., & Aviles, M., Roles of the oviduct in mammalian
fertilization, Reproduction, 2012, 144(6):649,

Scientific Source #49

“In sexually reproducing organisms, embryogenesis begins with the fusion of two
haploid gametes”49

49Tscherner, A., Gilchrist, G., Smith, N., Blondin, P., Gillis, D., & LaMarre, J., MicroRNA-34 family
expression in bovine gametes and preimplantation embryos, Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2014, 12:85.

Scientific Source #50

“Fertilization is the sum of the cellular mechanisms that pass the genome from one
generation to the next and initiate development of a new organism”50

50Primakoff, P. & Myles, D.G., Penetration, adhesion, and fusion in mammalian sperm-egg interaction,
Science, 2002, 296(5576):2183-5,

Scientific Source #51

“At fertilization, eggs unite with sperm to initiate developmental programs that give
rise to development of the embryo. Defining the molecular mechanism of this
fundamental process at the beginning of life has been a key question in cell and
developmental biology”51

51Sato, K., Fukami, Y., & Stith, B.J., Signal transduction pathways leading to Ca2+ release in a
vertebrate model system: lessons from Xenopus eggs, Semin Cell Dev Biol, 2006, 17(2):285-92,

Scientific Source #52

“At the time of fertilization, an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration

([Ca(2+)](i)) underlies egg activation and initiation of development in all species
studied to date”52

52Wakai, T., Vanderheyden, V., Yoon, S.Y., Cheon, B., Zhang, N., Parys, J.B., & Fissore, R.A.,
Regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor function during mouse oocyte maturation, J Cell
Physiol, 2012, 227(2):705-17,

Scientific Source #53

“As the start of a new life cycle, activation of the first division of the zygote is a critical
event in both plants and animals”53

53Guo, L., Jiang, L., Zhang, Y., Lu, X.L., Xie, Q., Weijers, D., & Liu, C.M., The anaphase-promoting
complex initiates zygote division in Arabidopsis through degradation of cyclin B1, Plant J, 2016,

Scientific Source #54

“The fusion of a sperm with an oocyte to form new life is a highly regulated event”54

54Gadella, B.M. & Boerke, A., An update on post-ejaculatory remodeling of the sperm surface before
mammalian fertilization, Theriogenology, 2015, 85(1):113-24,

Scientific Source #55

“Most readers of this review originated from a sperm-egg fusion event”55

55 Oren-Suissa, M. & Podbilewicz, B., Cell fusion during development, Trends Cell Biol, 2007,

Scientific Source #56

“In human sexual reproduction, both in vivo (inside the body) and in vitro (outside
the body), the biological beginning of a new human being/organism occurs at Carnegie
Stage 1a, at first contact of the sperm and the oocyte, the beginning of the biological
process of fertilization.”56

56Stanton, B., Science tells us when life begins. Why isn't it taught in the classroom?, Washington
Examiner, 2018,

Scientific Source #57

“Human development begins at fertilization when a male gamete or sperm unites with
a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. This highly specialized,
totipotent cell marks the beginning of each of us as a unique individual.”57

57Moore, K.L., The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 8th ed., Philadelphia:
Saunders, 2007. p. 15.

Scientific Source #58

“Human development is a continuous process that begins when an oocyte (ovum)

from a female is fertilized by a sperm (spermatozoon) from a male. Cell division, cell
migration, programmed cell death, differentiation, growth, and cell rearrangement
transform the fertilized oocyte, a highly specialized, totipotent cell, a zygote, into a
multicellular human being.”58

58Moore, K.L., The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 8th ed., Philadelphia:
Saunders, 2007. p. 2.

Scientific Source #59

"Development of the embryo begins at Stage 1 when a sperm fertilizes an oocyte and
together they form a zygote"59

59 England, M.A., Life Before Birth, 2nd ed., London: Mosby-Wolfe, 1996, p. 31.

Scientific Source #60

“The term pre-embryo is useful in the political arena -- where decisions are made
about whether to allow early embryo (now called pre-embryo) experimentation -- as
well as in the confines of a doctor's office, where it can be used to allay moral concerns
that might be expressed by IVF patients. 'Don't worry,' a doctor might say, 'it's only
pre-embryos that we're manipulating or freezing. They won't turn into real human
embryos until after we've put them back into your body.”60

60Silver, L.M., Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World, New York: Avon Books,
1997, p. 39.

Scientific Source #61

‘5,337 biologists affirmed the view that a human’s life begins at fertilization’61

61Jacobs, S.A., Balancing Abortion Rights and Fetal Rights: A Mixed Methods Mediation of the U.S.
Abortion Debate, Knowledge@UChicago, 2019,

Scientific Source #62

“Overall, 95% of all biologists affirmed the biological view that a human’s life begins
at fertilization (5212 out of 5502)”62

62Jacobs, S., Biologists' Consensus on 'When Life Begins', SSRN, 2018,

Scientific Source #63

“During fertilization of an egg with a sperm, the haploid genomes of each parent are
unified to form the diploid genome of a new and unique individual.”63

63Clift, D. & Schuh, M., Re-starting life: Fertilization and the transition from meiosis to mitosis, Nat
Rev Mol Cell Biol., 2013, 14(9): 549-562,

Scientific Source #64

“96% affirmed at least one of the five statements [that represented the view that a
human’s life begins at fertilization]”64

64Jacobs, S., How Views on ‘When Life Begins’ Drive Americans’ Abortion Attitudes, Heterodox
Academy: The Blog, 2020,

Scientific Source #65

"The scientific definition for the start point of any mammalian organism, including
humans, is “fertilization.” For humans, this happens when a sperm travels up a
woman’s fallopian tube to join with the woman’s egg after it’s been released."65

65Harrison, D., The Science About When Life Begins Makes Pro-Choicers Look Terrible, The
Federalist, Jun. 25, 2018,

Scientific Source #66

“[E]ach individual human is initiated at fertilization. These are scientific answers,

and do not reflect my or anyone else’s opinions. These are facts, and not a matter of

66Walls, B., Pro-life science, pro-choice politics: Professors speak out about abortion research, The
College Fix, Oct. 10, 2019,

Scientific Source #67

“Through fertilization, the egg and sperm are saved: the egg is activated to begin its
developmental program, and the haploid nuclei of the two gametes come together to
form the genome of a new diploid organism.”67

67Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis J, et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, New York: Garland
Science, 2002,

Scientific Source #68

“The predominance of human biological research confirms that human life begins at
conception—fertilization. At fertilization, the human being emerges as a whole,
genetically distinct, individuated zygotic living human organism”68

68When Human Life Begins, American College of Pediatricians, Mar. 2017,

Scientific Source #69

"Well, there's absolutely no doubt, from the science of embryology, that a new human
life is created when the sperm and the egg unite"69

69 Delgado, G., Life begins at fertilization - Dr. George Delgado, YouTube,

Scientific Source #70

"You and I all started at the single-celled embryo"70

70 Prentice, D., Dr. David Prentice on the science of life before birth, YouTube,

Scientific Source #71

“Life has a very, very long history, but each individual has a very neat beginning--
the moment of its conception.”71

71 Testimony of Dr. Jerome LeJeune, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 8.

Scientific Source #72

“It is an established scientific fact. Theologians and philosophers may go on to debate

the meaning of life or the purpose of life, but it is an established fact that all life,
including human life, begins at the moment of conception.”72

72 Testimony of Dr. Hymie Gordon, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 13.

Scientific Source #73

“So, therefore, it is scientifically correct to say that an individual human life begins
at conception, when egg and sperm join to form the zygote, and that this developing
human always is a member of our species in all stages of its life.73

73Testimony of Dr. Micheline Mathews-Roth, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before
the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 17.

Scientific Source #74

“If we are talking, then, about the biological beginning of a human life or lives, as
distinct from other human lives, the answer is most assuredly that it is at the time of
conception — that is to say, the time at which a human ovum is fertilized by a human

74Testimony of Dr. Watson A. Bowes Jr., M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 24.

Scientific Source #75

“I have quizzed hundreds of doctors: ‘When do you think the actual human life
begins?’ There is no other answer except: ‘At the minute of conception.’”75

75Testimony of Dr. McCarthy DeMere, J.D., M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 28.

Scientific Source #76

"A new human being -- a new whole, individual, living human being -- begins to exist
at the beginning of the process of fertilization; at first contact between the sperm and
the oocyte”76

76The Scientific Reality Behind When Life Begins, YouTube,

TlzzDWKgByI at 1:35.

Scientific Source #77

“I submit that human life is present throughout this entire sequence from conception
to adulthood and that interruption at any point constitutes termination of human

77Testimony of Dr. Alfred M. Bongiovanni, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 41.

Scientific Source #78

"The work of Edwards and his associates in England with test tube babies has
repeatedly proved that human life begins when after the ovum is fertilized”78

78 Testimony of Dr. Jasper Williams, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 48.

Scientific Source #79

"It is well-established that when a human sperm and ovum unite, the resultant
zygote contains the biological and genetic material of a new human organism”79

79Testimony of Dr. Sherman M. Mellinkoff, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 70.

Scientific Source #80

“The events of the first 24 hours following sperm-egg fusion are clearly unique, but
they are also clearly acts of a human organism, not acts of a mere human cell.”80

80Swanson, K., The Facts of When Human Life Begins, Eternal World Television Network, Nov. 7,

Scientific Source #81

“If the question is whether an individual human life in the sense of a new generation
is beginning, I think the consensus answer on that would be that genetically, yes, it
[begins] at fertilization because new genetic information is put together in

81Testimony of Dr. Clifford Grobstein, Ph.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 84.

Scientific Source #82

“The union of these two specialized cells results in a fertilized egg which contains all
the genetic information necessary for the eventual development of a new being or new
member of our species”82

82Prepared Statement of Dr. Jessica G. Davis, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before
the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 138.

Scientific Source #83

“[T]he moment that the interaction at the cell wall begins [“fertilization”] that you
begin the continuous process that we know as “life,” I do not understand what people
are talking about when they say they do not have evidence of that point of

83Testimony of Dr. Mildred F. Jefferson, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 118.

Scientific Source #84

“I WILL MAINTAIN the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception;
even under threat, I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of

84DECLARATION OF GENEVA, Adopted by the General Assembly of The World Medical Association
at Geneva, Switzerland, Sep. 1948,

Scientific Source #85

“If we have proved the existence of foetal life begin quickening has taken place or can
take place, and by all analogy and a close and conclusive process of induction, its
commencement at the very beginning, at conception itself, we are compelled to believe
unjustifiable abortion always a crime.”85

85 Storer, H.R., On Criminal Abortion in America, J.B. Lippincott & Co. (1860), p. 13,

Scientific Source #86

“[T]he child is really alive from the very moment of its conception, and from that very
moment is, and should be considered, a distinct being”86

86Suffolk District Medical Society Report of the Committee on Criminal Abortion. Boston, 1857, p. 8, 1218760-bk.

Scientific Source #87

“[Abortion is the] unwarrantable destruction of human life”87

87 The Transactions of the American Medical Association, 78 (1859).

Scientific Source #88

"To accept the fact that after fertilization has taken place a new human has come into
being is no longer a matter of taste or of opinion. The human nature of the human
being from conception to old age is not a metaphysical contention, it is plain
experimental evidence."88

88 Testimony of Dr. Jerome LeJeune, M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 10.

Scientific Source #89

"An egg changes dramatically after fertilization mediating the beginning of life,
which mainly includes the transformation of the egg envelope via hardening"89

89Wang Y, Chen F, He J, Xue G, Chen J, Xie P. Cellular and molecular modification of egg envelope
hardening in fertilization. Biochimie. 2021 Feb;181:134-144. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2020.12.007. Epub
2020 Dec 14. PMID: 33333173.

Scientific Source #90

"After a long road, the questions raised by the Greeks about the beginning of life
and the process of generation of a new individual have taken us to clarifying life
begins without any doubt in the moment of fertilization."90

90Ventura-Juncá, P. & Santos, M.J., The beginning of life of a new human being from the scientific
biological perspective and its bioethical implications, Biol Res 44: 201-207, 2011.

Scientific Source #91

“In the process of fertilization, a male and female gamete unite to form a single cell,
the zygote, from which a new individual develops.”91

Patten, B.M. & Corliss, C. E., Patten's Human Embryology: Elements of Clinical Development,

McGraw-Hill, 1976, p. 9.

Scientific Source #92

"You began as a single cell stocked with DNA inherited from your parents."92

92 Urry, L., Campbell Biology. 12ª ed. Pearson, 2020, p. 7

Scientific Source #93

“Fertilization marks the beginning of one of the most remarkable phenomena in all
of biology—the process of embryogenesis, in which the zygote develops into a new

93Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Raff, M., Lewis, J., Roberts, K., & Walter, P., Molecular Biology of the Cell,
4th edition, New York: Garland Science; 2002,

Scientific Source #94

“Sexual reproduction is the process that allows the formation of a new individual and
is underpinned by gamete quality defined as the ability of spermatozoa and oocytes
to interact during fertilization”.94

94Gallo A, Boni R, Tosti E. Gamete quality in a multistressor environment. Environ Int. 2020
May;138:105627. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105627. Epub 2020 Mar 6. PMID: 32151884,

Scientific Source #95

“Fertilization encompasses a series of different steps which have to be performed in

a well-orchestrated way to create a new individual.”95

95Canovas, S. & Ross, P.J., Epigenetics in preimplantation mammalian development. Theriogenology.

2016 Jul 1;86(1):69-79. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.04.020. Epub 2016 Apr 21. PMID: 27165992;
PMCID: PMC4885810,

Scientific Source #96

“Fertilization is an ordered sequence of cellular interactions that promotes gamete

fusion to form a new individual.”96

96 Silva-Neta HL, Torrezan E, de Araújo Leite JC, Santi-Gadelha T, Marques-Santos LF. Involvement
of ABCB1 and ABCC1 transporters in sea urchin Echinometra lucunter fertilization. Mol Reprod Dev.
2012 Dec;79(12):861-9. doi: 10.1002/mrd.22125. Epub 2012 Nov 26. PMID: 23070745,

Scientific Source #97

“[F]ertilization in mammals, including humans . . . ultimately result in successful

embryo development and creation of a new individual.”97

97Tosti E, Ménézo Y. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications. Hum Reprod
Update. 2016 Jun;22(4):420-39. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmw014. Epub 2016 Jun 8. PMID: 27278231;
PMCID: PMC4917743,

Scientific Source #98

“Fertilization is a key process in biology to the extent that a new individual will be
born from the fusion of two cells”.98

98 Jiménez-Movilla M, Hamze JG, Romar R. Oolemma Receptors in Mammalian Molecular

Fertilization: Function and New Methods of Study. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 May 19;9:662032. doi:
10.3389/fcell.2021.662032. PMID: 34095128; PMCID: PMC8170029,

Scientific Source #99

“As a result of finely tuned interactions between numerous mechanisms, the goal of
fertilization is to form a full healthy new individual.”99

99Canovas S, Ross PJ. Epigenetics in preimplantation mammalian development. Theriogenology.

2016 Jul 1;86(1):69-79. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.04.020. Epub 2016 Apr 21. PMID:
27165992; PMCID: PMC4885810,

Scientific Source #100

“In various places we have defended the position that a new human organism, that
is, an individual member of the human species, comes to be at fertilization, the union
of the spermatozoon and the oocyte.”100

Lee P, Tollefsen C, George RP. The ontological status of embryos: a reply to Jason Morris. J Med

Philos. 2014 Oct;39(5):483-504, PMID: 25223411,

Scientific Source #101

“Sexually reproducing animals require an orchestrated communication between

spermatozoa and the egg to generate a new individual.”101

101Visconti PE, Krapf D, de la Vega-Beltrán JL, Acevedo JJ, Darszon A. Ion channels, phosphorylation
and mammalian sperm capacitation. Asian J Androl. 2011 May;13(3):395-405,

Scientific Source #102

“Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive

cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental
and genomic processes.”102

102Martinez G, Köhler C. Role of small RNAs in epigenetic reprogramming during plant sexual
reproduction. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2017 Apr;36:22-28,

Scientific Source #103

“Fertilization is a stepwise process that allows two mature gametes to reach each
other, fuse and eventually give rise to a new individual.”103

103 Muratori M, Luconi M, Marchiani S, Forti G, Baldi E. Molecular markers of human sperm
functions. Int J Androl. 2009 Feb;32(1):25-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2008.00875.x. Epub 2008 Feb
20. PMID: 18298567,

Scientific Source #104

“Every animal grows from a single fertilized egg into an intricate network of cell types
and organ systems.”104

McKenna A, Gagnon JA. Recording development with single cell dynamic lineage tracing.

Development. 2019 Jun 27;146(12):dev169730. doi: 10.1242/dev.169730. PMID: 31249005; PMCID:


Scientific Source #105

“Fertilization is a fundamental process in sexual reproduction, creating a new

individual through the combination of male and female gametes.”105

105Ohto U, Ishida H, Krayukhina E, Uchiyama S, Inoue N, Shimizu T. Structure of IZUMO1-JUNO

reveals sperm-oocyte recognition during mammalian fertilization. Nature. 2016 Jun

Scientific Source #106

“Fertilization is a matter of life or death. In animals of sexual reproduction, the

appropriate communication between mature and competent male and female
gametes determines the generation of a new individual.”106

Darszon A, Labarca P, Nishigaki T, Espinosa F. Ion channels in sperm physiology. Physiol Rev.

1999 Apr;79(2):481-510,

Scientific Source #107

“Since fertilization involves the forming of a new constellation of DNA in the zygote .
. . [t]his privileges fertilization above the other possible scientifically valued times
when 'human life' begins.”107

107Gilbert, S.F. & Howes-Mischel, R., 'Show Me Your Original Face Before You Were Born': The Con-
vergence of Public Fetuses and Sacred DNA, HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF THE LIFE
SCIENCES, (2004), Vol. 26, No. 3/4, 380,

Scientific Source #108

“Chapter 7. Fertilization: Beginning a new organism”108

108 Gilbert, S.F., Developmental Biology, 6th Edition,

Scientific Source #109

“In sexual reproduction, sex cells (gametes) from two parents combine in the process
of fertilization, leading to the formation of a new, genetically distinct individual.”109


Scientific Source #110

“Such activity is particularly important at the beginning of human life, i.e. at

fertilization, immediately after and at the very onset of embryonic development.”110

Ménézo Y, Dale B, Cohen M. DNA damage and repair in human oocytes and embryos: a review.

Zygote. 2010 Nov;18(4):357-65,

Scientific Source #111

“Development begins at fertilization, when a sperm unites with an oocyte to form a

zygote (from the Greek zygotus, meaning “yoked together”). Each of us started life as
a cell called a zygote.”111

Moore, K., The Developing Human 1, 12 (2d. ed. 1977) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S.

158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th
Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 7).

Scientific Source #112

“In this first pairing, the spermatozoon has contributed its 23 chromosomes, and the
oocyte has contributed its 23 chromosomes, thus re-establishing the necessary total
of 46 chromosomes. The result is the conception of a unique individual, unlike any
that has been born before and unlike any that will ever be born again. ”112

112Krieger, M., The Human Reproductive System 88 (1969) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on
S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary,
97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 7).

Scientific Source #113

“[A]ll organisms, however large and complex they may be when full grown begin life
as but a single cell”; “This is true of the human being, for instance, who begins life as
a fertilized ovum”.113

Asimov, I., The Genetic Code 20 (1962) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S. 158 Before the

Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 7-8).

Scientific Source #114

“It is the penetration of the ovum -by a spermatozoon and the resultant mingling of
the nuclear material each brings to the union that constitutes the culmination of the
process of fertilization and marks the initiation of the life of a new individual.”114

114Patten, B., Human Embryology 43 (3d ed 1968) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S. 158
Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th
Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #115

“The formation, maturation and meeting of a male and female sex cell are all
preliminary to their actual union into a combined cell, or zygote, which definitely
marks the beginning of new individual.”115

Arey, L., Developmental Anatomy 55 (7th ed. 1974) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S. 158

Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th
Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #116

“A human being originates in the union of two gametes, the ovum and the

Roberts, J., An Introduction to Medical Genetics 1 (3d ed. 1963) (cited in The Human Life Bill:

Report on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the
Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #117

“Bisexual reproduction is characteristic of all vertebrates, and gametogenesis (the

production of germ cells) is its first phase. The next phase, the beginning of the
development of a new individual, is the fusion of two germ cells (gametes) of different
nature; one, the spermatozoon from the male parent; the other, the ovum from the
female parent. The result of this fusion is the formation of the first cell of the new
individual, the zygote.”117

117Hamilton, W. & Mossman, H., Human Embryology 14 (4th. ed 1972) (cited in The Human Life
Bill: Report on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on
the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #118

“The zygote thus formed [by the moving together of two of chromosomes] represents
the beginning of a new life.”118

118 Greenhill, J. & Friedman, E., Biological Principles and Modern Practice of Obstetrics 23 (1974)
(cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of
the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #119

“The zygote is the starting cell of the new organism”.119

Luria, S., Thirty-Six Lectures in Biology 146 (1975) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S.

158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th
Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #120

“A new individual is initiated by the union of two gametes—a male gamete, or

spermatozoon, and a female gamete, or mature ovum.”120

Brash, J., Human Embryology 2 (1956) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report on S. 158 Before the

Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #121

“Fertilization is significant in that new life is created, but specifically the cardinal
features of fertilization are that (1) the diploid number of chromosomes [46] is
reconstituted and (2) the sex of the conceptus is designated chromosomally.”121

121Thomas, J., Introduction to Human Embryology 52 (1968) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report
on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary,
97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #122

“A new individual is inaugurated in a single cell (zygote) that results from the union
of a male gamete (spermatozoön) with a female gamete (ovum or egg).”122

122Torrey, T., Morphogenesis of the Vertebrates 47 (3d ed. 1971) (cited in The Human Life Bill: Report
on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary,
97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 8).

Scientific Source #123

“The fertilized egg cell—or zygote—contains nuclear material from both parents. It
marks the beginning of the life of a new human being and is a useful focal point for
presenting all the diverse aspects of organic reproduction.”123

123Simpson, G. & Beck, W., Life: An Introduction to Biology 139 (2d ed. 1965) (cited in The Human
Life Bill: Report on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee
on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 9).

Scientific Source #124

“In that fraction of a second when the chromosomes form pairs, the sex of the new
child will be determined, hereditary characteristics received from each parent will be
set, and a new life will have begun.”124

Kaluger, G. & Kaluger, M., Human Development: The Span of Life, The C.V. Mosby Co., St.

Louis, 1974, 28-29.

Scientific Source #125

“It should always be remembered that many organs are still not completely developed
by full term and birth should be regarded only as an incident in the whole
developmental process.”125

125 Beck, F., Human Embryology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1985, vi-vii.

Scientific Source #126

“Biologically speaking, human development begins at fertilization.”126

126 The Biology of Prenatal Development, National Geographic, 2006.

Scientific Source #127

“The two cells gradually and gracefully become one. This is the moment of conception,
when an individual’s unique set of DNA is created, a human signature that never
existed before and will never be repeated.”127

127 In the Womb, National Geographic, 2005.

Scientific Source #128

“The zygote therefore contains a new arrangement of genes on the chromosomes

never before duplicated in any other individual. The offspring destined to develop
from the fertilized ovum will have a genetic constitution different from anyone else
in the world.”128

128 DeCoursey, R.M., The Human Organism, 4th edition McGraw Hill Inc., Toronto, 1974, 584.

Scientific Source #129

“Genetically, the zygote is complete. It represents a new single-celled individual.”129

Thibodeau, G.A. & Anthony, C.P., Structure and Function of the Body, 8th edition, St. Louis:

Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishers, St. Louis, 1988, 410.

Scientific Source #130

“The development of a new human being begins when a male’s sperm pierces the cell
membrane of a female’s ovum, or egg”.130

130Scarr, S., Weinberg, R.A., & Levine, A., Understanding Development, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
Inc., 1986, 86.

Scientific Source #131

“Each human begins life as a combination of two cells, a female ovum and a much
smaller male sperm.”131

131Clark, J. ed., The Nervous System: Circuits of Communication in the Human Body, Torstar Books
Inc., Toronto, 1985, 99.

Scientific Source #132

“A zygote (a single fertilized egg cell) represents the onset of pregnancy and the
genesis of new life.”132

Turner, J.S. & Helms, D.B., Lifespan Development, 2nd ed., CBS College Publishing (Holt,

Rhinehart, Winston), 1983, 53.

Scientific Source #133

“At the moment the sperm cell of the human male meets the ovum of the female and
the union results in a fertilized ovum (zygote), a new life has begun.”133

Considine, D. (ed.), Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia, 5th edition, New York: Van Nostrand

Reinhold Company, 1976, 943.

Scientific Source #134

“The development of a human being begins with fertilization, a process by which two
highly specialized cells, the spermatozoon from the male and the oocyte from the
female, unite to give rise to a new organism, the zygote.”134

134 Langman, J., Medical Embryology. 3rd edition, Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1975, 3.

Scientific Source #135

“A new individual is created when the elements of a potent sperm merge with those
of a fertile ovum, or egg.”135


Scientific Source #136

“These pronuclei [of the sperm and oocyte] fuse with each other to produce the single,
diploid 2N nucleus of the fertilized zygote. This moment of zygote formation may be
taken as the beginning or zero time point of embryonic development.”136

136 Larsen, W.J., Essentials of Human Embryology, (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998), 14.

Scientific Source #137

"Fertilization, then, has taken place. A baby has been conceived."137

137Mary Calderone, M.D. quoted by Magda Denes in Hensley, J., The Zero People: Essays on Life,
Servant Publications (Mar. 1983), 8.

Scientific Source #138

"The birth of a human life really occurs at the moment the mother's egg cell is
fertilized by one of the father's sperm".138

LIFE Magazine, Apr 30, 1965, 57,



Scientific Source #139

"[T]he beginning of the development of a new individual, is the fusion of two germ
cells (gametes) of different nature; one, the spermatozoon from the male parent; the
other, the ovum from the female parent. The result of this fusion is the formation of
the first cell of the new individual, the zygote."139

139 Hamilton, W. Boyd, & Mossman, H., Human Embryology 14 (4th ed. 1972), 14.

Scientific Source #140

“[E]mbryo (em’bre-o) a new organism in the earliest stage of development; the

human young from the time of fertilization of the ovum until the beginning of the
third month.”140

Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health (Philadelphia: WB Sanders

Co., 1978) 2nd edition, 335.

Scientific Source #141

“[T]he independent and actual existence of the child before birth, as a living being”.141

141 AMA Committee on Criminal Abortion Report, 12 Trans. of the Am.Med.Assn. 778 (1859).

Scientific Source #142

“[O]ne of two cells, male and female, whose union is necessary in sexual reproduction,
to initiate the development of a new individual.”142

142 Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (24th edition, 1965), 595.

Scientific Source #143

“The task force finds that the new recombinant DNA technologies indisputably prove
that the unborn child is a whole human being from the moment of fertilization".143

143 “When does life begin?” New Scientist 3/18/2006, Vol. 189, Issue 2543.

Scientific Source #144

“Every human embryologist, worldwide, states that the life of the new individual
human being begins at fertilization (conception) . . . We exist as a continuum of
human life, which begins at fertilization and continues until death.”144

C. Ward Kischer, professor of anatomy and human embryology, quoted in Watkins, C. (ed), The

Ethics of Abortion (New York: Greenhaven Press, 2005), 5.

Scientific Source #145

“Reproduction depends on the union of male and female gametes (reproductive,

or germ, cells) each with a half set of chromosomes, to form a new individual with a
full, unique set of chromosomes.”145

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems 2nd Cd Ed,Sherwood, Kell & Ward, 2013, Nelson

Education Ltd. 736.

Scientific Source #146

“The fertilization of an egg by the sperm is one of the greatest wonders of nature . . .
the growth of a living human being.”146

Dr. George W Corner, the endocrinologist and research scientist, quoted in Nathanson, B.N, M.D

The Hand of God: a Journey from Death to Life by the Abortion Doctor Who Changed His Mind
(Washington DC: Regnery Publishing Inc, 1996) 129.

Scientific Source #147

"With fusion of the two pronuclei (synkaryon) fertilization is completed and marked
changes occur in the organelles preparatory to the ensuing rapid cleavage division
(mitotic divisions of the early zygote)."147

147 Reid, Ryan, & Benirschke, “Principles and Management of Human Reproduction", 1972, 176.

Scientific Source #148

"[A] new composite individual is started at the moment of fertilization."148

148Dr. Landrum B. Shettles, M.D., The Presbyterian Hospital New York,

Scientific Source #149

“We conclude that it is plausible, therefore, that human organisms begin to exist at

Miller, C. & Pruss, A., Human organisms begin to exist at fertilization, Bioethics, 2017


Scientific Source #150

“Fertilization, the fusion of sperm and oocyte to form a zygote, is the first and
arguably the most important cell-cell interaction event in an organism's life.”150

150Wilson, L.D., Obakpolor, O.A., Jones, A.M., Richie, A.L., Mieczkowski, B.D., Fall, G.T., Hall, R.W.,
Rumbley, J.N., and Kroft, T.L. The Caenorhabditis elegans spe-49 gene is required for fertilization
and encodes a sperm-specific transmembrane protein homologous to SPE-42. Mol Reprod Dev. 2018

Scientific Source #151

“The mammalian oviduct is the place where life begins as it is the site of fertilization
and preimplantation embryo development.”151

151Pérez-Cerezales. S., Ramos-Ibeas, P., Acuña, O.S., Avilés, M., Coy, P., Rizos, D., & Gutiérrez-Adán,
A., The oviduct: from sperm selection to the epigenetic landscape of the embryo, Biol Reprod, 2018 Mar

Scientific Source #152

“The concept of the ovarian continuum can be understood as a process that occurs
during a woman's lifetime and begins during intrauterine life with fertilization.”152

152Vigil, P., Lyon, C., Flores, B., Rioseco, H., & Serrano, F., Ovulation, a sign of health, Linacre Q.,
2017 Nov;84(4):343-355,

Legal Source #1

“[A] fetus is a living organism while within the womb, whether it is viable outside
the womb… We do not understand this point to be contested”153

153 Gonzales v. Carhart, 550 U.S. 124 (2007), p. 147.

Legal Source #2

“Physicians, biologists, and other scientists agree that conception marks the
beginning of the life of a human being--of a being that is alive and is a member of
the human species. There is overwhelming agreement on this point in countless
medical, biological, and scientific writings”154

154The Human Life Bill: Report on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the
Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 7.

Legal Source #3

“The Task Force concludes the following… abortion terminates the life of a unique,
whole, living human being”155

155Report of The South Dakota Task Force to Study Abortion, Submitted to the Governor and
Legislature of South Dakota, 2005, p. 13,

Legal Source #4

“Recognizing and finding that the life of the human person commences at conception,
also known as fertilization, and that the United States Supreme Court 1973 Roe and
Doe decisions striking down state laws criminalizing abortion, which protected
preborn children, are based on false science”156

House Resolution No. 214, 2015,



Legal Source #5

"The Congress finds that present day scientific evidence indicates a significant
likelihood that actual human life exists from conception."157

157The Language of the Bill, The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on
Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 2.

Legal Source #6

"From both the legal and medical standpoint, there is absolutely no question in my
mind and I feel in the minds of most individuals who have given serious thought to
this question, the exact moment of the beginning [of] personhood and of the human
body is at the moment of conception."158

158Prepared Statement of Dr. McCarthy DeMere, J.D., M.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158
Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong.,
1st Sess. (1981), p. 35.

Legal Source #7

“HHS accomplishes its mission through programs and initiatives that cover a wide
spectrum of activities, serving and protecting Americans at every stage of life, from

159 Strategic Plan FY 2018 - 2022, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services,

Legal Source #8

“Legislative declaration that life begins at fertilization. (a) The legislature

hereby finds and declares the following: (1) The life of each human being begins at
fertilization; (2) unborn children have interests in life, health and well-being that
should be protected”160

KS Stat § 65-6732 (2014),



Legal Source #9

“A BILL To provide that human life shall be deemed to begin with fertilization.”161

Sanctity of Human Life Act, H.R.586 — 115th Congress (2017-2018),



Legal Source #10

“The general assembly of this state finds that: (1) The life of each human being begins
at conception”162

1622005 Missouri Revised Statutes - § 1.205,


Legal Source #11

“(3) PERSON. The term, when referring to the victim of a criminal homicide or
assault, means a human being, including an unborn child in utero at any stage of
development, regardless of viability.”163

163Ala. Code § 13A-6-1,


Legal Source #12

“[T]he term ‘unborn child’ means a child in utero, and the term ‘child in utero’ or
‘child, who is in utero’ means a member of the species homo sapiens, at any stage of
development, who is carried in the womb.’’164

Public Law 108-212, Apr. 2004,



Legal Source #13

“There is authority for the proposition that human life commences at the moment of

165 Steinberg v. Brown, 321 F. Supp. 741, 747, (ND Ohio 1970).

Legal Source #14

“The civil law and the law of property regard a child "en ventre sa mere," as a human
being from the moment of conception”166

166 Jones v. Com., 830 S.W.2d 877, 882 (SC Kentucky 1992).

Legal Source #15

“From the viewpoint of the civil law and the law of property, a child en ventre sa mere
is not only regarded as human being, but as such from the moment of conception
which it is in fact.”167

167 Bonbrest v. Kotz, 65 F. Supp. 138, 140 (D.D.C. 1946).

Legal Source #16

“The most cogent reason, we believe, for holding that a viable unborn child is an entity
within the meaning of the general word "person" is because, biologically speaking,
such a child is, in fact, a presently existing person, a living human being.”168

168 Mitchell v. Couch, 285 S.W.2d 901, 905 (1955).

Legal Source #17

“We had some very distinguished witnesses at our previous hearings who were quite
categorical that life does begin at the time of conception”169

169Senator John P. East, The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on
Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 80.

Legal Source #18

“If one wants to define human life in the narrowest genetic terms, one might say, yes,
it is true life begins [at fertilization]”170

170Testimony of Dr. Daniel Callahan, Ph.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 103.

Legal Source #19

“[The Human Life Bill] is a Congressional declaration of legal personhood for unborn
children. It finds that human life begins at conception or fertilization.”171

Prepared Statement of Representatives Romano L. Mazzoli and Charles F. Dougherty, The


Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate
Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 170.

Legal Source #20

“In passing the Human Life Bill, we are saying that the unborn child is a person, a
human being, and as such, it is entitled to the due process law of protection of the
14th amendment”172

Representative Charles F. Dougherty, The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the

Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1981), p. 176.

Legal Source #21

“Congress can examine the unanswered question of when life begins [and] reasonably
determine that at conception a life has come into being -- a specific, individual life in
terms of chromosomal structure and many consequential identifying

173 Galebach, S.H., A Human Life Statute, The Human Life Review, Winter 1981, p. 16.

Legal Source #22

“A final step would be the enactment of an Amendment actually mandating the

protection of human life from conception”174

174Prepared Statement of John Noonan, J.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the
Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess.
(1981), p. 275.

Legal Source #23

“Faced with the biological, scientific, and medical data that this subcommittee has
before it, is it conceivable that these men--the authors of the 14th amendment--would
have said no, [preborn] humans are not to be protected? I think not.”175

175Testimony of Basile Uddo, J.D., The Human Life Bill: Hearings on S. 158 Before the Subcommittee
on Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981), p. 353.

Legal Source #24

“Global bureaucrats have absolutely no business attacking the sovereignty of nations

that wish to protect innocent life. Like many nations here today, we in America
believe that every child, born and unborn, is a sacred gift from God”176

176Trump rebukes UN on abortion: ‘Americans will never tire of defending innocent life’, YouTube,

Legal Source #25

“That the abortion will terminate the life of a whole, separate, unique, living human

177S.D.C.L. Section 34-23A-10.1(1)(b),


Legal Source #26

“"Human being," an individual living member of the species of Homo sapiens,

including the unborn human being during the entire embryonic and fetal ages from
fertilization to full gestation”178

S.D.C.L. Section 34-23A-1,



Legal Source #27

‘In 1975, The German Constitutional Court affirmed that preborn humans are
persons with fundamental rights and held that respect for human dignity requires
the criminalization of elective abortions’179

179 BVerfGE 39, 1 - Schwangerschaftsabbruch I,

Pro-Life Source #1

“Since life begins at fertilization, an individual grows and develops between the
moment of fertilization throughout adulthood.”180

180Life's Beginning - When Does Life Begin?, Live Action,


Pro-Life Source #2

“A New, Distinct Human Organism Comes into Being at Fertilization - It is

undisputed that a new, distinct human organism comes into existence during the
process of fertilization”181

181Full Disclosure: Blurry or Broken Language and the Beginning of Human Life, Charlotte Lozier
Institute, Nov. 1, 2013,

Pro-Life Source #3

“The scientific community continues to prove that human life begins at conception

182Faulkner, L., Science confirms that human life begins at fertilization, Live Action, Mar. 1, 2017,

Pro-Life Source #4

“Some of the world’s most prominent scientists and physicians testified to a U.S.
Senate committee that human life begins at conception”183

183Alcorn, R., Scientists Attest to Life Beginning at Conception, EPM, Mar. 8, 2010, https://www.epm.

Pro-Life Source #5

“When it comes to the question of when human life begins, the science is crystal clear:
human life begins at conception or fertilization.”184

184Ertelt, S., Scientific Fact: Human Life Begins at Conception, or Fertilization,, Nov.
18, 2013,

Pro-Life Source #6

"Human embryos and fetuses are living members of the species Homo sapiens at the
embryonic and fetal stages of their lives. They are distinct organisms with human
DNA who are growing and directing their own development toward maturity. This is
not in dispute."185

Stark, P., When does life begin? It's pretty simple, Minnesota Citizens Concerned for Life, Apr. 12,


Pro-Life Source #7

“In doing so, they ignored the consistent testimony of embryologists that an
individual human life does, in fact, begin at conception.”186

186 Human Life Begins at Conception, Massachusetts Citizens for Life,

Pro-Life Source #8

"The more scientists and doctors investigate, the more evidence they find that
human life begins when sperm and egg meet and a new cell is formed, in other
words, at the moment of fertilization."187

187Katrina Gallic, LIFE BEGINS AT FERTILIZATION. THANKS, SCIENCE!, March for Life, Nov.
16, 2018,

Pro-Life Source #9

“Every new life begins at conception. This is an irrefutable fact of biology. It is true
for animals and true for humans.”188

188 Fact #1: Every abortion kills an innocent human being,,

Pro-Life Source #10

"We're left with one option. Life begins at conception. At fertilization. It's what science
tells us and logic requires us to acknowledge."189

Gray, S., When Does Life Begin?, YouTube, 2019,



Pro-Life Source #11

"If people just know this information, they would be better educated to see what
abortion really is. It's really killing a human being. My abortion position - 90% of it -
came from work as a scientist, and as a neonatologist... The truth is in the science."190

190 Malloy, C., Dr. Colleen Malloy: Why a 20 week ban on abortion?, YouTube,

Pro-Life Source #12

"Adult, teenager, child, infant, fetus, embryo, blastocyst, zygote: these are all stages
of development in the life of a human organism. Shouldn’t we treat all human
organisms, or what we usually call human beings, equally regardless of what level of
development they are currently at?"191

Horn, T., When Does a Human Life Begin?, YouTube,


0rVLbY at 3:18.

Pro-Life Source #13

"From the very beginning, at conception, what we have is a living, distinct, whole
human being. We know that it is alive; it fits the definition of an organism"192

192Almon, M., Does the scientific community agree that life begins at conception?, YouTube, at 0:22.

Pro-Life Source #14

"So while human sperm and eggs are merely parts of a human being. A zygote is a
full human being… When sperm and egg come together and meet in conception, that’s
when you have a new human being. That’s just basic science.”193

Shlemon, A., There's No Scientific Consensus on When Human Life Begins - Challenge Response,

YouTube, at 9:10.

Pro-Life Source #15

"A "human being" is a member of the species homo sapiens. While there is much
debate over when a human organism becomes a "person," there is not much
debate over when a human organism begins biologically”194

194 Abortion, Secular Pro-Life,

Pro-Life Source #16

"[I]ncreasing scientific testimony is to the effect that the fetus is in most significant
biological senses an individual human life”195

195 Breakthrough, The Human Life Review, Feb. 1981.

Pro-Life Source #17

“I came to the realization that if I shouldn’t be killing children in the second trimester,
then I shouldn’t be killing them earlier, either."196

196Levatino, A., I Regret Performing Abortions, Priests for Life,


Pro-Life Source #18

“[T]heir children are made fun of, and they're ripped apart into pieces, arms and legs
and pieces of rib cage that abortion clinic workers go through every day. They are not
blobs of cells, they are human beings, and their mothers are suffering."197

197Adair, C., We Lied to Them, Priests for Life,


Pro-Life Source #19

“After [my] three abortions and suffering from all these symptoms, and then helping
parents kill their children, lying to them and saying it's a sack of tissue, and two days
later, throwing their babies away in the garbage, can you imagine my soul and my

Sanivole, P., Hurting Myself and Others, Priests for Life,


Pro-Life Source #20

“[Fetuses] became human beings to me, in the truest sense of the word--they became
babies, they became children, really, in a deeper sense than ever before. So, what they
did to me was they made me feel uncomfortable doing the abortions. I just plain felt
uncomfortable doing them."199

199Randall, J., Testimony of former abortion provider, Priests for Life,

Pro-Life Source #21

“[S]howing her [the fetus], I remember very clearly seeing an arm and seeing the
deltoid muscle, and it just really struck me that day how beautiful that was. The
thought just flashed through my mind: What are you doing? Here is this beautiful
piece of human flesh here, what are you doing?"200

200McMillian, B., Testimony of Beverly McMillian, M.D. Former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life,

Pro-Life Source #22

“I began to see what I was doing in a whole new light. I saw these babies for what
they were-human beings. It was very hard for my heart and head to accept because I
had been leaving both my heart and head at home for so long to work [at an abortion

201 Madsen, D., Dina Madsen: Testimony of an Ex-Abortion Provider, Priests for Life,

Pro-Life Source #23

“The deception in the language of abortion is achieved through the use of

euphemisms… "Products of conception" rather than baby and placenta. "Tissues"
rather than flesh and bones… Even "fetus" and "embryo" are Greek and Latin words
for Baby."202

202 Jarrett, P., Testimony of Dr. Paul Jarrett, Former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life,

Pro-Life Source #24

“I, personally, then had to search through the jumbled-up mass of tissue to find the
fetal gonads, to be sure to include them on the slide so that we could study them. The
jumbled-up mass of tissue was easily identifiable as the torn and shredded body of a
tiny human being."203

203Hill, M., Testimony of Dr. McArthur Hill, former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life, https://www.

Pro-Life Source #25

“I have a great love for children and babies, and I figured the best way to be with
them is to work in an OB/GYN office. It was really exciting seeing the growth of the
baby from the time of conception through the delivery.”204

Henry, D., Testimony of Deborah Henry, former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life, https://

Pro-Life Source #26

“And then they say: Is it a baby? No, it's a product of conception; it's a blood clot; it's
a piece of tissue. They don't even really tell them it's a fetus, because, you see, that
almost humanizes it too much. It's never a baby. They can't admit it themselves when
they go in the back and have little 6-week fetuses, babies that they put down

205 Everett, C., Testimony of Carol Everett, former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life,

Pro-Life Source #27

“When I became a Christian I realized that life occurs at conception. And once that
startling discovery had been made, it was very simple to stop doing abortions.”206

206Brewer, D., Testimony of David Brewer, MD, former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life, https://www.

Pro-Life Source #28

"It is important to note that embryological evidence shows that the human embryo
is a whole, although obviously immature, human being".207

207Brewer, D., Testimony of David Brewer, MD, former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life, https://www.

Pro-Life Source #29

“Medical textbooks and scientific reference works consistently agree that human life
begins at conception . . . Among those scientists who have no vested interests in the
abortion issue, there is an overwhelming consensus that human life begins at

208Brewer, D., Testimony of David Brewer, MD, former Abortion Provider, Priests for Life, https://www.

Pro-Choice Source #1

"Abortion undoubtedly ends life. I am not here to argue that today. Of course a fetus
is a human being; of course a fetus is living and growing inside a womb."209

209 Chadwick, C., “Should Abortion Be Illegal?” Debate, YouTube, 2010, at 3:02.

Pro-Choice Source #2

"When we try to act like a pregnancy doesn't involve human life, we wind up drawing
stupid semantic lines in the sand"210

210 Elizabeth-Williams, M., So what if abortion ends life?, Salon, 2013,

Pro-Choice Source #3

"Clinging to a rhetoric about abortion in which there is no life and no death, we

entangle our beliefs in a series of self-delusions, fibs and evasions.”211

211 Wolf, N., Our Bodies, Our Souls, The New Republic, 1995, p. 26.

Pro-Choice Source #4

"Hence I have always frankly admitted that abortion is murder, the extermination of
the powerless by the powerful. Liberals for the most part have shrunk from facing
the ethical consequences of their embrace of abortion, which results in the
annihilation of concrete individuals and not just clumps of insensate tissue.”212

212 Paglia, C., Fresh blood for the vampire, Salon, 2008,

Pro-Choice Source #5

"Am I killing? Yes, I am. I know that."213

213 Boyd, C., Abortion doctor: 'Am I killing? Yes, I am', YouTube, 2009, at 0:23.

Pro-Choice Source #6

"We have reached a point in this particular technology [D&E abortion] where there
is no possibility of denying an act of destruction. It is before one’s eyes. The sensations
of dismemberment flow through the forceps like an electric current.”214

Hern, W. & Corrigan, B., What about us? Staff reactions to D & E, Advances in Planned Parenthood,

1980, p. 7.

Pro-Choice Source #7

"[The idea of] dismembering a baby and pulling it out in pieces … is obviously horrific.
But at the same time, it is easy to get caught up in that emotion."215

215 Vitagliano, E., Murder. So what?, AFA Journal, 2004,


Pro-Choice Source #8

"I believe that an abortion is a murder of a fetus”216

216 Barcella, L., The A-word, Salon, 2004,

Pro-Choice Source #9

"[A]bortion does involve the taking of a human life--because all life that is in and of
a human being is human life"217

217Maguire, M.R. & Maguire, D.C., Abortion: A Guide to Making Ethical Decisions, Catholics for a
Free Choice, 1983.

Pro-Choice Source #10

"[An abortion] kills the life of a baby after it has begun."218

218Planned Parenthood pamphlet from 1952 admits: Abortion ‘kills the life of a baby’, LiveAction, 2017,

Pro-Choice Source #11

“[T]here is no doubt that from the first moments of its existence an embryo conceived
from human sperm and eggs is a human being.”219

219 Singer, P., Practical Ethics, 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 85-86.

Pro-Choice Source #12

"Abortion, which means deliberately killing a developing human embryo”220

220Dworkin, R., Life's Dominion: An Argument about Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom,
Vintage Books, 1994.

Pro-Choice Source #13

"Aside from the fact that abortion is the taking of a life"221

221Calderone, M.S., Illegal Abortion as a Public Health Problem, American Journal of Public Health,
Vol. 50, No. 7, 1960,

Pro-Choice Source #14

"[A]bortion is killing. Nobody can argue with that. When the fetus is inside the uterus
it is alive and when the pregnancy terminated it is dead – that by any definition is

222Claire, M., The Abortion Dilemma: Personal Views on a Public Issue, New York: Insight Books,
1995, p. 59.

Pro-Choice Source #15

"Given that we actually see the fetus the same way, and given that we might actually
both agree that there’s violence in here, ask me why I come to work every day. Let’s
just give them all the violence, it’s a person, it’s killing, let’s just give them all that.”223

223Undercover Video, Center for Medical Progress, Facebook,

videos/10158803278780008 at 1:56

Pro-Choice Source #16

"I would feel this way right through, even as first-trimester fatigue left me drained…
[w]e had our outward lives, but now there was something inward happening, a baby
growing, a tiny girl”224

224 Obama, M., Becoming, Crown, 2018, p. 190.

Pro-Choice Source #17

"We can accept that the embryo is a living thing in the fact that it has a beating heart,
that it has its own genetic system within it. It's clearly human in the sense that it's
not a gerbil, and we can recognize that it is human life."225

Furedi, A., Abortion: A Civilised Debate, YouTube, 2008,


8QObrI at 5:46.

Pro-Choice Source #18

"An abortion requires an operation. It kills the life of a baby after it has begun.”226

Ekeocha, O., Planned Parenthood Pamphlet, Twitter, 2017,



Pro-Choice Source #19

"Perhaps the most straightforward relation, between you and me on the one hand
and every human fetus on the other is this: All are living members of the same
species, homo sapiens. A human fetus, after all, is simply a human being at a very
early stage”227

227 Boonin, D., A Defense of Abortion, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 20, 2003.

Pro-Choice Source #20

“The development of a potential human life requires conception as a first step.”228

228Jacobson, J., Life Begins At Conception. That’s Not the Point, Rewire.News, Nov. 4, 2012,

Pro-Choice Source #21

"The technology has clearly helped to define how people think about a fetus as a full,
breathing human being," admits former NARAL president Kate Michelman. "The
other side has been able to use the technology to its own end.""229

229Kliff, S., Why Young Voters Are Lukewarm on Abortion Rights, Newsweek, Apr. 15, 2010,

Pro-Choice Source #22

"I think that it is a baby and I tell our... I use it with the patients"230

BBC Interview of Dr. LeRoy Carhart, at 0:45, YouTube, Aug. 14, 2019,


Pro-Choice Source #23

"Sure, it sometimes hurts to end life instead of bringing it into the world."231

231Rosen, N., Between Guilt and Gratification: Abortion Doctors Reveal Their Feelings, New York
Times Magazine, 1977, p. 73-74.

Pro-Choice Source #24

“The solution is lethal. It kills the baby in the womb.”232

Sweeney, W.J. & Lang Stern, B., Woman’s Doctor: A Year in the Life of an Obstetrician-Gynecologist,

New York: Morrow & Company, 1973, p. 207.

Pro-Choice Source #25

“The pro-choice movement has not owned or owned up to the reality of the fetus, or
the reality of fetal parts.”233

233Harris, L., Second Trimester Abortion Provision: Breaking the Silence and Changing the
Discourse, Reproductive Health Matters, Sep. 2, 2008, p. 77.

Pro-Choice Source #26

“For a long time, these images made me anxious. They are proof that what grows
within a pregnant woman’s body is a human being, living and unfolding according
to a timetable that has existed as long as we have. Obviously, it would take a
profound act of violence to remove him from his quiet world and destroy him.”234

234 Flanagan, C., The Dishonesty of the Abortion Debate, The Atlantic, Dec. 2019,

Pro-Choice Source #27

“If it was a pencil, it’s not a problem. It’s because we know what is a child, it is a

Dr. Jeanne St. Amour, quoted by Ann Collins in The Big Evasion: Abortion, the Issue That Won’t

Go Away, Toronto, Ontario: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1985, p. 114.

Pro-Choice Source #28

“Abortion kills a human being”236

Practicing Abortionist: "Abortion kills a human being.", YouTube,



Pro-Choice Source #29

“Of course we know [abortion is] killing, but the state permits killing in certain

237Abortion Doctor Dr. Neville Sender, M.D., Milwaukee Journal Article, cited in Miller, M.M.,
Abandoned: The Untold Story of the Abortion Wars, Charlotte, North Carolina: St. Benedict Press,
2012, p. 183.

Pro-Choice Source #30

“There’s a Native American nurse at an abortion clinic in San Francisco who put it
this way. She said, “If you have twins and it’s a bad year, you have to put one in the
badger hole.”238

238Samara Azam-Yu, Director of Access Women’s Health Justice in Oakland, California, cited in
Oberman, M., Her Body, Our Laws: On the Front Lines of the Abortion War from El Salvador to
Oklahoma, Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press, 2018, p. 108.

Pro-Choice Source #31

“I have the utmost respect for life; I appreciate that life starts early in the womb, but
also believe that I'm ending it for good reasons.”239

239 As told to Alkon, C., Confessions of an Abortion Doctor, Boston Magazine, Dec. 2004,

Pro-Choice Source #32

“Abortion is... a form of killing. It is a form of killing that we need to be able to


Lewis, S., A radical defence of abortion | Sophie Lewis, YouTube,



Pro-Choice Source #33

“No one, neither the patient receiving an abortion, nor the person doing the abortion,
is ever, at anytime, unaware that they are ending a life."241

241Harrison, W., WHY I PROVIDE ABORTIONS, Daily Kos, May 31, 2007,

Pro-Choice Source #34

““I think it's apt [to describe abortion as the] destruction of life. Look!”… I spent a lot
of years learning to deliver babies. Sure, it sometimes hurts to end life instead of
bringing it into the world.”242

242Dr. William Rashbaum, quoted by Norma Rosen, Between Guilt and Gratification: Abortion
Doctors Reveal Their Feelings, New York Times Magazine, Apr. 17, 1977,

Pro-Choice Source #35

“What we do here is end a life. And if you’re not okay with that, you can’t work

Former abortion clinic worker Jewels Green quoting the director of the abortion clinic, quoted in

Madrid, P. Surprised by Life, Manchester, New Hampshire: Sophia Institute Press, 2017, p. 52.

Pro-Choice Source #36

“What this acknowledgment of the fetus leads us to is a profound taking of

responsibility for our choices, for the fact that we have, with full consciousness,
terminated life.”244

244McDonnell, K., Not An Easy Choice: A Feminist Re-examines Abortion, Second Story Press, 2003, p.

Pro-Choice Source #37

“And I just decided it’s not worth it to do, because I have had such terribly strong
feelings that it’s turned me off. I feel that I am destroying life. I feel that I’m actually
killing them.”245

Abortion doctor Michael Christie, M.D., quoted in Denes, M., In Necessity and Sorrow, New York:

Basic Books, Inc., 1976, p. 144.

Pro-Choice Source #38

“[Abortion] goes against all things which are natural. It’s a termination of a life,
however you look at it.”246

Abortion doctor Robert Harris, M.D., quoted in Denes, M., In Necessity and Sorrow, New York:

Basic Books, Inc., 1976, p. 147.

Pro-Choice Source #39

“We of today know that man is born of sexual union; that he starts life as an embryo
within the body of the female; and that the embryo is formed from the fusion of two
single cells, the ovum and the sperm.”247

247Guttmacher, A., Life in the Making: the Story of Human Procreation, New York: Viking Press,
1933, p. 3.

Pro-Choice Source #40

“"FERTILIZATION--if a SPERM CELL enters, or unites with, a woman's EGG CELL,

fertilization happens. The "fertilized" egg starts to divide and grow"”248

248 Wattleton, F., How to Talk to your child about Sexuality, Garden City: Doubleday, 1986.

Pro-Choice Source #41

“I am 77 years young and my heart and its valves have been working nonstop since
my days as an embryo in my mother’s uterus.”249

249Guttmacher, A., Life in the Making: the Story of Human Procreation, New York: Viking Press,
1933, p. 3.

Pro-Choice Source #42

"No new life begins unless there is conception."250

250Sanger, M., The Pope’s Position on Birth Control, 1932, The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger:
Volume 2., Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006, p. 150.

Pro-Choice Source #43

"There is no longer serious doubt in my mind that human life exists within the womb
from the very onset of pregnancy..."251

Nathanson, B., Deeper into Abortion, New England Journal of Medicine, 1974, Vol.. 291, No. 22, p.


Pro-Choice Source #44

“I feel that abortion involves taking a human life, irrespective of the gestation.”252

252Guttmacher, A., Life in the Making: the Story of Human Procreation, New York: Viking Press,
1933, p. 3.

Pro-Choice Source #45

““I can now say openly that I do think I am ending a life every time I do an

253 A British abortionist, Anonymous “Personal View” British Medical Journal 1984, 289: 1377.

Pro-Choice Source #46

““Good grief! They accuse us of pretending we’re not doing what we’re doing . . . I’m
in the business of death!”254

254 Stern, L., “Abortion Wars” The Ottawa Citizen 28 May 2000 (Joan Wright, abortion clinic director).

Pro-Choice Source #47

“I am 77 years young and my heart and its valves have been working nonstop since
my days as an embryo in my mother’s uterus.”255

255 Frank Behrend, M.D., abortionist, Tape-recorded speech November 7, 1977


Pro-Choice Source #48

“[I]t is an end of life, and while I feel the patient should have an option, I didn’t feel
comfortable being a provider.”256

Freedman, L., Willing and Unable: Doctors’ Constraints in Abortion Care (Nashville, Tennessee:

Vanderbilt University Press, 2010), 40 (Quoting Dr. Vivian Costa).

Pro-Choice Source #49

“If it’s [a miscarriage], you’re like [with a pained voice], “Oh, here’s this little life!”
And you know that it was meant to be because, that’s what happened. And if it’s an
abortion, you just feel sad that the woman wasn’t able to raise the child.”257

Freedman, L., Willing and Unable: Doctors’ Constraints in Abortion Care (Nashville, Tennessee:

Vanderbilt University Press, 2010) 80 – 81.

Pro-Choice Source #50

"When Judith worked for Planned Parenthood, pro-life activists would often ask her
when she thought life began. She would answer, ‘Life begins at conception and what
I do is murder.’”258

258Democratic Chronicle 7/5/92, Quoted in Mark Crutcher “Lime 5: Exploited by Choice ” (Denton,
Texas: Life Dynamics Incorporated, 1996) 204.

Pro-Choice Source #51

“Killing a baby is not the way I want to think about myself.”259

Second Trimester Abortion: Perspectives After a Decade of Experience (Berger, Brenner, Keith, eds,

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1981), p. 246.

Pro-Choice Source #52

“I don’t think that anyone can say that abortion is right… It’s a form of life… This
has to be killing… The question then becomes, “Is this kind of killing justifiable?” In
my mind, it is justifiable, but only with the informed consent of the mother… Why
kid ourselves? It’s better to say, ‘This is a life, albeit an early life. Giving it that kind
of respect, and then make the decision.’”260

260Democratic Chronicle 7/5/92, Quoted in Mark Crutcher “Lime 5: Exploited by Choice ” (Denton,
Texas: Life Dynamics Incorporated, 1996) 204.

Pro-Choice Source #53

“Of course human life begins at conception.”261

Aileen Klass, the owner of Oregon’s largest abortion clinic, testified under oath in, Surgi-center vs.

Advocates for Life Ministries, et al., 1989 (cited in Randy Alcorn Why Pro-Life? Caring for the Unborn
and Their Mothers (Hendrickson Publishers, 2011)).

Pro-Choice Source #54

"Is it life? Clearly it’s life."262

262James D Slack Abortion, Execution, and the Consequences of Taking Life (New Brunswick:
Transaction Publishers, 2009) 49 (quoting “Michelle” who owns an abortion clinic).

Pro-Choice Source #55

“Dr. Ed Jones (not his real name) . . . says that it is always in the back of his mind
that he is terminating a life.”263

263 Nancy Dey Abortion: Debating the Issue (Enslow Publishers: Springfield, IL) 1995, 49.

Pro-Choice Source #56

“[Abortion is the] destruction of life.”264

Dr. William Rashbaum, abortionist and chief of Family Planning Services at Beth Israel Medical

Center, New York Times Magazine April 17, 1977.

Pro-Choice Source #57

“There wasn’t a doctor, who at one time or another in the questioning did not say,
‘This is murder.’”265

265Dr. Magda Denes, who spent two years interviewing abortionists for her book In Necessity and
Sorrow: Life and Death Inside an Abortion Hospital, told Daily News (Chicago) October 22, 1976)
(quoted in Abortion: The Silent Holocaust by John Powell, S.J. p 67).

Pro-Choice Source #58

“I have never denied that human life begins at conception."266

266Clinic Counselor Tim Shuck, Peter Korn. Lovejoy: A Year in the Life of an Abortion Clinic (The
Atlantic Monthly Press: New York) 1996, 94.

Pro-Choice Source #59

“Nobody wants to perform abortions after ten weeks because by then you see the
features of the baby, hands, feet. It’s really barbaric. Abortions are very draining,
exhausting, and heartrending. There are a lot of tears."267

Unnamed abortionist, John Pekkanen. M.D.: Doctors Talk About Themselves (Delcorte Press: New

York) 1988, 90.

Pro-Choice Source #60

“I see more of murder the further along they get. Although inside me I know it’s
murder from the beginning, because there is the fact that when it is conceived it is a
potential human being”268

Anonymous abortion clinic worker, James Tunstead Burtechaell, C.S.C. Rachel Weeping: the Case

against Abortion (San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row Publishers, 1982) 135.

Pro-Choice Source #61

Quotes from abortion doctors, such as this one (“You tell the mother ‘because your
baby is defective, you have the right to kill it or not to kill it. If you choose to kill it, I
will do the killing.’”) caused the author to conclude that “doctors who perform
abortions know that they are ending human lives”.269

269Conversation with an abortion doctor, Jeff Lane Hensley. The Zero People (Servant Books: Ann
Arbor) 1983, 9.

Pro-Choice Source #62

"I feel that I am destroying life. I feel that I'm actually killing them."270

270Abortionist Michael Christie, Magda Denes, PhD. In Necessity and Sorrow: Life and Death Inside
an Abortion Hospital (Basic Books, Inc.: New York) 1976, 145.

Pro-Choice Source #63

“When you do a D & C most of the tissue is removed by the Olden forceps or ring
clamp and you actually get gross parts of the fetus out. So you can see a miniature
person so to speak, and even now I occasionally feel a little peculiar about it, because
as a physician I’m trained to conserve life and here I am destroying life.”271

271Dr. Benjamin Kalish, abortionist, Magda Denes, PhD. In Necessity and Sorrow: Life and Death
Inside an Abortion Hospital (Basic Books, Inc.: New York) 1976. 140.

Pro-Choice Source #64

“I dare say any thinking sensitive individual can’t not realize that he is ending life or
potential life.”272

272Abortionist Dr. Charles Bender, Magda Denes, PhD. In Necessity and Sorrow: Life and Death
Inside an Abortion Hospital (Basic Books, Inc.: New York) 1976, 64.

Pro-Choice Source #65

"How can having a child be so wrong for some people that they will pay me to end its

273 Dr. Beverly McMillan in Reid, K., Title When the Bough Breaks,, 2010, 93.

Pro-Choice Source #66

“’I don’t like killing,’ Dr. Guttmacher said. ‘I don’t like to do abortions, but many of
you people probably fought in World War II and killed”.274

Alan Guttmacher quoted in Alicia Armstrong, “Updated Abortion Laws Asked,” Milwaukee Journal,

May 5, 1961.

Pro-Choice Source #67

"Is abortion murder? All killing isn't murder."275

275 Don Sloan, M.D., Choice: a Doctor's Experience with the Abortion Dilemma (2nd edition, 2002), 84.

Pro-Choice Source #68

"Abortion is the narrowest edge between kindness and cruelty. Done as well as it can
be, it is still violence–merciful violence, like putting a suffering animal to death."276

276 Tisdale, S., “We Do Abortions Here”, Harper's, October, 1987, 66-70.

Pro-Choice Source #69

"Warren Hern, an abortion specialist [claimed that] those capable of performing or

assisting with [late abortion procedures] are having strong personal reservations
about participating in an operation which they view as destructive and violent"277


Pro-Choice Source #70

"What's really shocking is that a woman has the power to make a moral judgment
that involves a choice of life or death. That power has been reserved for men."278

278 Paris, G. The Sacrament of Abortion, 1992, 25-27.

Pro-Choice Source #71

"One of the facts of abortion is that women enter abortion clinics to kill their fetuses.
It is a form of killing, you're ending a life."279

279Ron Fitzsimmons, Executive Director of the National Coalition of Abortion Providers, "An Abortion
Rights Advocate Says He Lied About Procedure," New York Times, (February 26, 1997).

Additional Source #1

“A study found 80 percent of Americans say biologists should decide the question of
when life begins, and, when more than 5,500 biologists were asked that question, 96
percent affirmed life begins at fertilization”280

280Berry, S., Study: 96% of 5,577 Biologists Affirm Human Life Begins at Fertilization, Breitbart, 2019,

Additional Source #2

“[T]he life of a new human being commences at a scientifically well-defined event;

the fusion of the plasma membranes of sperm and egg… it is a matter of objective,
scientific observation”281

281Condic, M.L., When Does Human Life Begin? The Scientific Evidence and Terminology Revisited, 8
U. St. Thomas J.L. & Pub. Pol’y, 2013, p. 44-81,

Additional Source #3

“The results of Jacobs’ global survey of academic biologists was astonishing in its
consensus: ‘Overall, 95% of all biologists affirmed the biological view that a human’s
life begins at fertilization (5212 out of 5502)’”282

282Hammer, J., HAMMER: A World-Renowned University Suppressed Important Abortion Research.

Here’s The Full Story, Daily Wire, 2019,

Additional Source #4

“[T]he immediate product of sexual human reproduction is a new living genetically

unique single-cell human organism, human being, human embryo, human zygote,
human individual”283

Irving, D.N., What Human Embryo?: Funniest Mental Gymnastics from Medicine and Research,

Catholic Culture,

Additional Source #5

“I found that 5,337 biologists (96%) affirmed that a human’s life begins at

Jacobs, S., I Asked Thousands of Biologists When Life Begins. The Answer Wasn’t Popular, Quillette,


Additional Source #6

“[A] new human embryo, the starting point for a human life, comes into existence
with the formation of the one-celled zygote”285

Life Begins at Fertilization, Princeton University,



Additional Source #7

“A new human organism begins to exist when the process of fertilization is

successfully completed”286

286 Life Begins at Fertilization – Peer Reviewed Scientific Sources, The Fetal Position, 2019,

Additional Source #8

“[T]he biological and medical truths which prove the prenatal entity is in fact... a
distinct human being [that is] biologically alive from conception”287

287Smith, D., Pro-Choice Concedes: Prominent Abortion Proponents Concede The Barbarity Of
Abortion, Human Defense Initiative, 2018,

Additional Source #9

“Carnegie Stage 1 represents FERTILIZATION and [describes] the unicellular

embryo that contains genetic material and is a single-cell HUMAN BEING that
develops into all of the subsequent stages of a human being.”288

288The Carnegie Stages of Human Embryonic Development, Contend Projects, https://contendprojects.


Additional Source #10

“The life of a human being begins at conception—not at implantation, “viability,” or

birth. This is a scientific fact.”289

289Lee, P., Tollefsen, C.O., & George, R.P., Marco Rubio Is Right: The Life of a New Human Being
Begins at Conception, Public Discourse, Aug. 18, 2015,

Additional Source #11

“[I]mproved medical techniques, and other advances anchor the movement’s

arguments in scientific fact. ‘The pro-life message has been, for the last 40-something
years, that the fetus … is a life, and it is a human life’”290

290 Green, E., Science Is Giving the Pro-Life Movement a Boost, The Atlantic, Jan. 18, 2018,

Additional Source #12

“[S]cience is clear. That when there is conception that that is a human life in the early
stages of its total development”291

291Scott, E., Marco Rubio defends abortion stance: Human life begins at conception, CNN, Aug. 7, 2015,

Additional Source #13

“The majority of our group could find no point in time between the union of sperm
and egg, or at least the blastocyst stage, and the birth of the infant at which point we
could say that this was not a human life.”292

292The Conclusion from The First International Conference on Abortion (Oct. 1967), cited by Xalxo,
P., Complementarity of Human Life and Other Life Forms in Nature, 2007, p. 103.

Additional Source #14

“Life begins at conception. Because of that, every life must be valued.”293

293 Daines forms first ‘pro-life caucus’ in U.S. Senate, KRTV, Jan. 19, 2019,

Additional Source #15

“[Pre-Roe] laws reflected an ethical consensus, not based solely on religious tradition,
but also on scientific evidence that human life begins at conception”294

294 Meehan, M., Abortion and the “Consistency Thing”, The Human Life Review, Winter 1981, p. 60.

Additional Source #16

“When one of the father’s sperm cells, like the ones gathered here around the egg,
succeeds in penetrating the egg and becomes united with it, a new life can begin.”295

295 Flanagan, G.L., Beginning Life, New York: DK Publishing, 1996, p. 13.

Additional Source #17

“Abortion does end a human life, so it should not be done without grave consideration
for what is at stake, as we do with capital punishment and war.”296

296Shermer, M., Abortion Is a Problem to Be Solved, Not a Moral Issue, Scientific American, Sep. 1,

Additional Source #18

“[An] embryo [is t]he early developing fertilized egg that is growing into another
individual of the species. In man the term “embryo” is usually restricted to the period
of development from fertilization until the end of the eighth week of pregnancy”297

Walters, W. & Singer, P. [Eds.], Test-Tube Babies, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1982, p.


Additional Source #19

“FERTILIZATION: What new process is begun at conception? It is life itself. It is a

process involving manifold processes: the manifold acts and reactions of a new human

298Connolly, W. M., One Life: How the U.S. Supreme Court Deliberately Distorted the History,
Science and Law of Abortion, Xlibris, 2002, p. 227.

Additional Source #20

“A human fetus is not a nonhuman animal; it is a stage of human being."299

299 Sumner, W. Abortion and Moral Theory, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981, p. 10.

Additional Source #21

“A baby begins life as a single cell, smaller than the period at the end of this sentence,
and would be only barely visible to the naked eye. This cell is created by the union of
two parent cells: the female egg cell or ovum, and the male sperm cell."300

300 Sumner, W. Abortion and Moral Theory, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981, p. 10.


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