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**GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING & TOLERANCING
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The following terms and conditions are based on the ANSI Y14.5M - R1988 Standard and should serve as guides to good geometric dimensioning and tolerancing techniques:

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Geometric dimensioning and tolerance clarifies the dimensioning of parts in relation to their assumed geometry, function and relationship to other parts.

Example: The top and bottom surfaces of a part are drawn are as two horizontal lines; given one height dimension; and assumed to be parallel. The surfaces of the actual part may or may not be parallel but may still be usable if given a geometric dimensional tolerance.

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The five (5) types of geometric tolerances are form, profile, orientation, location and run out.

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The four (4) characteristics of "Form" are straightness, flatness, circularity and cylindricity.

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The two (2) characteristics of "Profile" are profile of a line and profile of a surface. The three (3) characteristics of "Orientation" are angularity, perpendicularity and parallelism.

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The three (3) characteristics of "Location" are true position, concentricity and symmetry.

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The two (2) characteristics of "Runout" are circular and total.

"Modifiers" are used to clarify the status of the material when a tolerance is applied. • There are four (4) types of "Modifiers": maximum material condition, least material condition, regardless of feature size and projected tolerance zone.

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A "Feature Control Frame" is drawn as a rectangle .375" high and long enough to include a Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerance Symbol, a total tolerance value and a datum letter. "Feature Control Frames" are attached to edges and surfaces by extension lines and to features by a leader. "Datums" are edges, surfaces or features that are considered accurate for locating other features or surfaces. "Datums" are labeled with a rectangle .375" high by .75" long that contains a letter preceeded by a dash (-) and followed by a dash (-). "Datums" are attached to edges and surfaces by extension lines and to features by a leader.

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NOTE: The American National Standard, ANSI Y14.5M, for the "Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Engineering Drawings and Related Documentation Practices" should be adhered to for uniformity and acceptance by other concerns. It must be remembered that there are no absolutely hard and fast rules, nor any practice, not subject to change or modification under special conditions or requirements of a particular industry. When there is a variation of any rule, there must always be a reason which can be completely justified.

Unified National Extra Fine . buffed or polished CI .International Standards Organization . engineering and building of structures CAD . engineering and drafting SI .diameter .counter-bore .classification of screw threads ANSI .software used by engineers and architects to create three dimensional models of products and structures on a computer CADD .centerline . sanded.cold rolled steel .typical . noncritical measurements . usually very shallow in depth FAO .governmental organization that establishes minimum construction procedures and practices for design.used to create a smooth surface at the top of a hole.software used by engineers and architects to create two and three dimensional drawings of products and structures on a computer .Technology Education Department Technical Drawing Program ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS R .depth .Unified National Fine .counter-sink .when same values or sizes are used in other locations on a drawing REF .classification of screw threads UNEF .radius .to indicate the center locatioon of symetrical shapes . easily worked metal UNC .type of steel sheet made by passing steel through rollers AL .Computer Aided Design .Computer Assisted Drafting & Design .used to taper the top portion of a hole to accept a flathead screw .all surfaces have been machined.Systems International .to indicate how deep a hole is drilled .soft.metric system of measurements BOCA .distance from edge to edge of circle through the center TYP .cast iron .American National Standards Institute .used to indicate a general measurement for checking overall size.finished all over .spot-face . engineering and drafting ISO .material used to make parts cast in molds in a foundry CRS .distance from center to edge of circle or arc Ø .classification of screw threads UNF .Building Officials Congress of America .governmental organization that establishes uniform procedures and practices for design.Unified National Course .used to create over-sized hole to recess the head of a screw or bolt .reference .international body that establishes uniform procedures and practices for design.aluminum . light weight.

Trimetric pictorial views emphasize one surface that uses an angle such as 100° and distort the other surfaces at 125° and 135° or any combination in which all three are different (105-120-135) (110-120-130) but more than 90°. A single isometric ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on any of the three surfaces.DIMETRIC . a second angle size ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the right-side surface. Dimetric pictorial views emphasize two surfaces that use two axis at equal angles such as 110° and 110° and distort the third surface which would be at 140° or any combination in which two of the axis are equal (105-105-150) (115-115-130) but more than 90°. and a third angle size ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the top surface. One angle size ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the front surface.Technical Drawing Program Types of Pictorial Views AXONOMETRICS . width and height are equally spaced at 120° apart and can be measured at actual size. Actual size measurements can be made on the vertical axis but a reduced scale (3/4 size) must be used on the length and width axis. One angle size ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the front and right-side surfaces and a second angle size ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the top surface.ISOMETRIC .TRIMETRIC Isometric pictorial views are the easiest to draw as the three axis for length.CABINET & CAVALIER . OBLIQUES . Actual size measurements can be made on the vertical axis but a reduced scale (3/4 size) must be used on the length axis and another reduced scale (1/2 size) must be used on thewidth axis.

width and length dimensions are actual size. indicates the appropriate thickness or darkness. ALPHABET OF LINES The "Alphabet of Lines" is a list of line symbols that are used on technical drawings to represent the shape and describe the size of an object.Cabinet oblique pictorial views are commonly used for drawing furniture or cylindrical shaped objects that do not have a lot of detail on the top or right-side surfaces. explains how the line is used. If two lines fall on top of one another (coinside). the more important line is shown. A circle template is used to draw circles and arcs on the front surface and an angle-sized ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the right-side and top surfaces. The height and length axis are at a 90° angle and the width axis is usually at 45° to horizontal. A circle template is used to draw circles and arcs on the front surface and an angle-sized ellipse template is used to draw ellipses on the right-side and top surfaces. and hidden lines take presidence over center lines. The number of "points" refers to the "vanishing points" that are needed to make the object appear smaller as the eye moves from the front surface or a corner toward the back of the object. Height and length dimensions are actual size but the width dimension is divided in half.THREE POINTS Perspective views are used when a more realistic appearance is needed. These views are more difficult to draw as measurements are made in one view and projected to the "vanishing points". Height. Two point perspective views are used for buildings and houses usually showing the front and a side.TWO POINTS . Three point perspective views are used for very tall structures. Each of the following lines is drawn at different thickness or darkness for contrast as well as according to the importance of the line. Visible lines take presidence over hidden lines and center lines. and provides the recommended pencil weight for drawing the line. . Cavalier oblique pictorial views are commonly used for drawing thin objects that do not have a lot of width. The list below gives the name of the line. PERSPECTIVES .ONE POINT . The height and length axis are at a 90° angle and the width axis is usually at 45° to horizontal. One point perspective views are used for simple objects or for doing room interior views.

The following terms and conditions are based on the ANSI B4.1967.Technical Drawing Program PRECISION DIMENSIONING General dimensioning rules and techniques are necessary for uniformity and clarity on Detail Drawings. R1987 Standard Fit Tables in Appendix B of your textbook and should serve as guides to good precision dimensioning techniques: • The size of a part can be expressed in three ways: nominal size.1 . Products or parts of products that must fit together or move within each other must be dimensioned more precisely using tolerances. . design size or actual size.

80 / .the largest size would be 2.05 or 10.45. • A tolerance is the total amount of variation in the size of a part or feature on a part.74 or .001" and the axle would be dimensioned as 1.. • Tolerance dimensions can be express as plus or minus (+/-) values or as limits (largest size over smallest size) values.9955").75 +..001" (maybe 1. and the tolerance would be .74 and the hole size is .00 which means the feature or parts can be as small as 3.995" +/-. Example: A 2"Ø hole is to be drilled in a wheel for a 2"Ø axle with a loose fit.000" +/-. the clearance would be . Example: A 1"Ø steel rod that is actually .007". Example: 3.. • Actual size is used to describe the measured size of the part or parts after they are produced. Example: .05/-.. Example: If the axle size is .0125 • Tolerances are determined by industry standards and are influenced by the use of the part. • A unilateral tolerance is the amount of variation in one direction either above or below the design size. • A bilateral tolerance is the amount of variation above or below the design size. • Design size is used to describe the optimum or ideal size of the part or parts before tolerances are applied.80 minus . The hole in the wheel described above could be anywhere between 1.999" to 2.001" for a clearance of .9995") and the axle could be anywhere between 1.75 +/-.05 . Example: Given a dimension of 2.994" to 1.996" (maybe 1. • Different tolerances or limits can be specified for each of the three types of dimensions: overall length.xx = +/.06 and the allowance would be .78 minus .Nominal size is used to refer to the descriptive size of the part.76 / .45. Example: 3.10.55 / 10.78.70 or as large as 3. The hole would actually be dimensioned as 2. the type of material the part is constructed from and how the part fits together with other parts.50 +/. • .75 or as large as 3.003" and an allowance of ..xxxx = +/.025 locational limit dimensions might have a tolerance of +/. • Two parts such as a wheel and an axle that must roll freely about each other will have an allowance (tightest fit) and a clearance (loosest fit). To find the tolerance of a part or feature substract the smallest size from the largest size. Example: 10. the smallest size would be 2.55.. width and height limit dimensions might have a tolerance of +/.05 .02.05 specific size limit dimensions of features might have a tolerance of +/.5".76 of .995"Ø or a 2" x 4" wooden stud that is actually 1.0125 Generall tolerances can be specified on a drawing as a note using the number of decimal places to indicate the degree of accuracy.80.025 .50 +/..5" x 3.xxx = +/.80..05 which means the feature or parts can be as small as 3.

• .inside the rectangle. slow speeds) to RC9 (fit loosely. no play. thin sections or long engagement) to FN5 (high stresses and pressures) Transition Locational Fit .Tolerances are applied to the shaft and hole using the nominal size of the shaft as a starting point NOTE: The American National Standard. not subject to change or modification under special conditions or requirements of a particular industry. higher speeds) Force and Shrink Fits .) with dashes and a letter -A. ANSI Y14.5M.75" w. for the "Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Engineering Drawings and Related Documentation Practices" should be adhered to for uniformity and acceptance by other concerns.there are five classes of force and shrink (FN) fits from FN1 (light drive fit and pressures. surfaces or features on an object that are considered accurate starting points for referencing the location or size of other edges. It must be remembered that there are no absolutely hard and fast rules. higher operating temperatures. surfaces or features.375" h. nor any practice.there are eleven classes of clearance locational (LC) fits from LC1 (small amounts of clearance) to LC11 (large amounts of clearance) Interferance Locational Fit .when the most material is available on the part (higher limit for a shaft or lower limit for a hole) • Basic Hole System . The datum symbol can be attached to an edge or surface by using an extension line or to feature by using a leader.there are nine classes of running and sliding (RC) fits from RC1 (fit together. there must always be a reason which can be completely justified.there are three classes of interference locational (LN) fits from LN1 (small amounts of intereference) to LN3 (large amounts of intereference) • Least Material Condition . When there is a variation of any rule. Running or Sliding Fit .Tolerances are applied to a hole and a shaft using the nominal size of the hole as a starting point • Basic Shaft Systems .when the sizes of the shaft is always larger than the sizes of the hole Transition Fit .when the largest shaft is always smaller than the smallest hole Interferance Fit . Datums are represented by a rectangle (. The fit of two or more parts can be classified as: Clearance Fit . x .there are six classes of transition locational (LT) fits from LT1 (small amount of interference and large amount of clearance) to LT6 (small amount of clearance and large amount of interference) Clearance Locational Fit .when largest shaft is larger than the largest hole but the lsmallest shaft may fit in the largest hole.when the least material is available on the part (lower limit for a shaft or higher limit for a hole) • Maximum Material Condition .Datums are edges.

(tight) 7H. Study the Views carefully and then move to the bottom of this page to see a Multiview Drawing that includes Auxiliary Views.TPI • the thread Series .distance between crest of threads • the thread tolerance (class of Fit) 1.5 . bolts and nuts have threads that allow two objects to be assembled and disassembled. The size of the threads are indicated on a drawing using a leader and a note or "CALL OFF". . external 3.1 (loose). internal & 8g. (medium) 6H. (free) 5H. external PRINCIPAL (NORMAL) VIEWS & TERMINOLOGY The Isometric View shown below is of a Single Object. external 2. internal & 4g.THREAD SPECIFICATIONS Fasteners such as screws.2 A x 3 METRIC SYSTEM • the letter M .UNC (Unified National Course).13 UNC .to denote metric system • the diameter in millimetre • the Pitch in millimetre . 2 (average) or 3 (tight) • the type of thread . The thread specification contains: INCH SYSTEM • the nominal diameter of the fastener • the number of threads per inch .A (external) or B (internal) • the length of the fastener EXAMPLE: . UNF (Unified National Fine) or UNEF (Unified National Extra Fine) • the class of Fit . internal & 6g.

PRESENTATION SKETCHES & DRAWINGS A "Presentation Sketch or Drawing" is used to illustrate and communicate the designer's or architect's solution to the client's design problem. the client's name and address. the designer's name with the company's name and address. interior views. sketching or bond papers. bath fixtures. appliances. Rooms should be labeled by name and square footage indicated. sectional views. vellum. . • Optional perspective or other pictorial views. The views should be labeled and all text should be of various sizes to indicate importance of information. built-in cabinetry. stairways and fireplaces. and a date. The heights of floor and ceiling from the ground should be indicated in feet & inches and the pitch of the roof should shown with the pitch symbol. doors. • A "Front Elevation" sketched or drawn at a reduced scale such as 1/4"=1'-0 or 1/8"=1'-0 showing window and door styles with trim. A "Presentation Sketch or Drawing" should include: • A "Floor Plan" sketched or drawn at a reduced scale such as 1/4"=1'-0 or 1/8"=1'-0 showing windows. plot plans. landscape plans and/or furniture plans may also be included on Presentation Sketches or Drawings. • A title. type of siding or masonry materials used on walls. "Presentation Sketches or Drawings" are usually prepared on illustration board. and type of roofing materials.

inks or markers may also be used to portray a more realistic appearance. . shading and rendering techniques along with colored pencils.Hatching.

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25 SPF X . # OF HOLES THREADED HOLE .HOLES Holes are placed in objects for a variety of reasons.25 DEEP.75 THRU.Ø1. • To see through an object. DRILLED HOLE .0 CBORE x .Ø.0 x 90° CKS. # OF HOLES COUNTER BORED HOLE . # OF HOLES Technical Drawing Program GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTIONS .Ø.125 DEEP. # OF HOLES BLIND HOLE . TYPES OF HOLES LABELING HOLES Holes are labeled using notes and leaders.Ø1. # OF HOLES COUNTER SUNK HOLE . • To place other objects into or through an object.2B.75 THRU. • To make an object lighter in weight.5 DEEP. • To join two or more objects with a screw or a bolt and nut. # OF HOLES SPOT FACED HOLE .Ø1.75 THRU. .75 X .Ø. Ø. Ø. Ø.5 X 20 UNC .75 THRU. Each type of hole requires different information.

Bisect an arc . .locates the midpoint of an arc and creates a line that passes through the center of the arc.Geometric constructions allow the architect. • Given Line AB. Bisect an angle .divides an angle into two equal angles and can be used to create 45° angled lines. • Bisect a line . designer or drafter to apply the principles of geometry in the creation of accurate drawings of objects using only a compass to draw arcs and a straight-edge to draw lines. engineer. draw two arcs (red) AC & BD (AC=BD) and then draw a line (blue) at the points of intersection E & F.locates the midpoint of a line and creates a perpendicular line at the midpoint of the line. draw two arcs (red) AC & BD (AC=BD) and then draw a line (blue) at the points of intersection. • Given Arc AB.

. and finally. draw a line (blue) at the point of intersection F to point C. Construct a perpendicular line from a point to a line - Given Line AB and Point C. draw an arc (red) of any radius that intersects AB at two points E & F. then draw two arcs (blue) DF & EF (DF=EF). CF is now perpendicular to AB. draw a line (blue) at the points of intersection G to point C. then draw two equal arcs (blue) at the points of intersection and then draw a line (green) from the vertex at B to the intersection of the blue arcs. CG is now perpendicular to AB. Construct a perpendicular line from a point on a line - Given Line AB and Point C. then draw two arcs (blue) EG & EF (EG=EF).Given Angle ABC. draw an arc (red) at any radius from the vertex at B. and finally. draw an arc (red) of any radius that intersects AB at two points D& E.

18).41) radius from Point D interssecting AB at Point E.Construct a perpendicular line from a point near the end of a line - Given Line AB and Point C. draw an arc from Point C at any radius (2. Construct a line parallel to a line from a point - Given Line AB and Point C. draw a line from Point C to Point F.41) radius at Point F. then draw a line (blue) from point D throught the center of the (red) arc until it intersects the arc again at E.18) at Point D intersecting the (2. CE is now perpendicular to AB. then draw a line (green) at the points of intersection E to point C. then draw a Line CD (blue) that is tangenet to each arc. Now. Construct a line parallel to a line at a fixed distance - Given Line AB and a specific distance (ex.18) and repeat the (1. Repeat the (2.41) intersecting Line AB at Point D. At Ponit E draw a radius from Point C (1. draw an arc (red) of any radius that intersects AB at points C & D. draw two arcs (red) at random points on Line AB. . 1.

From Point A . Connect Points BH. draw arcs (green) equal to the length of line AB that intersect the circle (blue) at Points H & I. HJ. JI & IA inclose the pentagon (violet). Label each arc 2. Point J is found by drawing two additional arcs (green) at Points H & I. . draw a line (red dashed) through Point E and intersecting an arc (red) at Point F equal to an arc (red) from Point E to Pont A. is the center of a circle (blue) that contains the pentagon. Next draw a vertical line (red) from Point A to E equal in length to an arc (red) at Point A at a radius equal to the bisection of Line AB. & 5. From Point B.draw an arc (blue) toward Point B equal to A5 (5 units). Construct a regular pentagon given the length of one side - Given Line AB. From Point 3. Point G. bisect Line AB by drawing two arcs (red) at any radius at Points A & B that intersect at Points C & D. draw four (4) arcs (red) equal to A1 to the right of Point 1 along a horizontal line. To finish the pentagon.Construct a right triangle given one measurement - Given a distance From Point A to Point 1. 4. Draw an additional arc (red) equal to A1 to the left of Point A and label -1. Now. draw an arc (blue dashed) toward Point C equal to 3-1 (4 units). draw lines from Point A and from Point 3 to the intersection of arcs B & C or Point D. 3. Now draw an arc (blue) using Points A & B and equal to the distance from Point A to Point F.

This radius can be marked on the opposite side of the circle Point P and then copied at Points M & N. Now draw straight lines (blue) from A to C. P & N. D to F. E to D.Inscribe a regular pentagon within a given circle - Given Center Lines AB & CD. J & P. F to B and B to A to complete the hexagon. draw a circle of any radius and bisect the radial center line from the center of the circle to the edge of the circle to find the the mid-point I using TWO equal (red) Arcs EF& HG and a (red) perpendicular line from EH to FG. The distance between Points M & N should be the same as the distances between Points J & L. . C to E. draw TWO Arcs (red) at Points A & D that intersect the Circle at Points C & B and E & F. Next draw an Arc (blue) from Point J where the vertical center line CD intersects the circle to Point K on center line AB with a radius from Point I to Point J. Construct a regular hexagon within a given circle - Given two Center Lines and a Circle of any diameter. Next draw an Arc (green) from Point K on the horizontal center line AB to the circle Point L with a radius from Point J to Point K. L & M.

Draw TWO additional equal Arcs (red) between Points B & C. draw a Line (blue) to Point B. 2. draw a Circle (green) with the center at the intersection of the TWO (blue) lines and the radius equal to the distance to A. B or C. using a scale or a compass mark of the desired number of equal parts (red & violet) (8 in this example). . Next draw TWO straight lines (blue) through the intersections of the arcs. Line AB is now divided into 8 equal parts. begin by drawing a Line (red) from Point A at ANY angle at ANY length. From the last Point 8. Next mark points or dots at the 1.Divide a line into a number of equal parts - Given a Line AB of any length. Next. Construct a circle through three points - Given THREE random points A. Finally. select a radius greater than the half of the distance between Points A & B and draw TWO equal intersecting Arcs (red). place a scale with the zero (0) mark on Line AB and the 5 unit mark on Line CD. • Divide a space between two parallel lines into an odd or even number of equal spaces - Given TWO parallel lines AB & CD at ANY distance apart. Now. 3 and 4 unit marks and draw lines (blue) parallel to AB & CD at each point or dot. & C. using TWO triangles draw additional lines (green) parallel to Line 8B at each of the remaining Points 7 thru 1. B. ALL Points should be on the (green) circle.

THEN bisect line BC (red) using TWO Arcs (blue) and a strainght line GF (green). draw a line (red) connecting the end of Line Ab at point B and the end of Line CD at point C. bisect each half of Line BC using Arcs KL & IJ as well as Arcs MN & OP and draw additional Lines (blue) at the points of intersection. B & C. The Point H of intersection of the TWO (green) lines is the center of the circle. draw TWO straight line (red) that intersect the circumference of the circle at Points A. Next. Next bisect line AB (red) using TWO Arcs (blue) and a strainght line DE (green). The points of intersection between the (Green) Lines and the 2nd & 3rd (Blue) lines are the center points for the Arcs (violet) that begin at Points B & c and meet at the midpoint of Line BC. Next bisect Line BC (red) using two equal arcs (red) EF and GH.connects two parallel lines with a curve that changes direction Given two parallel lines AB and CD.Find the center of a circle - Given a Circle of any diameter. . Now. draw perpendicular lines (green) at Points B & C. Then draw a straight line (blue) through the intersections of the arcs to find the midpoint of Line BC. • Create an ogee curve .

. profile. The five (5) types of geometric tolerances are form. The four (4) characteristics of "Form" are straightness. orientation.Create arc tangent to two straight line - Create arc tangent to two arcs - Technical Drawing Program GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING & TOLERANCING The following terms and conditions are based on the ANSI Y14.5M . Example: The top and bottom surfaces of a part are drawn are as two horizontal lines. location and runout. given one height dimension. The surfaces of the actual part may or may not be parallel but may still be usable if given a geometric dimensional tolerance. and assumed to be parallel.R1988 Standard and should serve as guides to good geometric dimensioning and tolerancing techniques: • • • Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing clarifies the dimensioning of parts in relation to their assumed geometry. circularity and cylindricity. flatness. function and relationship to other parts.

The two (2) characteristics of "Runout" are circular and total. perpendicularity and parallelism. least material condition. • • "Modifiers" are used to clarify the of status of the material when a tolerance is applied. The three (3) characteristics of "Location" are true position. The three (3) characteristivcs of "Orientation" are angularity. concentricity and symmetry. regardless of feature size and projected tolerance zone. There are four (4) types of "Modifiers": maximum material condition. .• • • • The two (2) characteristics of "Profile" are profile of a line and profile of a surface.

"Datums" are labeled with a rectangle .75" long that contains a letter preceeded by a dash (-) and followed by a dash (-). NOTE: The American National Standard. "Datums" are attached to edges and surfaces by extension lines and to features by a leader.375" high and long enough to include a Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Symbol. ANSI Y14. It must be remembered that . • • • "Datums" are edges.5M. a total tolerance value and a datum letter. "Feature Control Frames" are are attached to edges and surfaces by extension lines and to features by a leader.• • A "Feature Control Frame" is drawn as a rectangle . surfaces or features that are considered accurate for locating other features or surfaces.375" high by . for the "Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Engineering Drawings and Related Documentation Practices" should be adhered to for uniformity and acceptance by other concerns.

not subject to change or modification under special conditions or requirements of a particular industry. Civil scales. are used for machine parts. such as 1"=10' or 1"=50'. a 30 /60° triangle. • A track drafting machine replaces four of the basic drafting tools: t-square. a small bow compass and a dividers. • A Computer Aided Design (CAD) System has two major parts: hardware and software. Mechanical scales. This tool allowed the drafter. STUDY GUIDE . See Realistic Views of Combination Scale. etc.5° intervals. architectural.) and are expressed in decimal inches. • Civil engineers scales equate inches to feet. nor any practice. A ruler can only measure in full size units like inches. The hardware consists of a central processing unit (CPU). Compass leads are sharpened to a bevel point using a sandpaper pad or compass file. tools. The t-square is used for drawing horizontal lines only. toys. colored and shaded for a realistic view. a floppy disk drive. The compasses are used for drawing arcs and circles. Computer Aided Design software is three dimensional (3D) and is used to create a solid model of an object that can be rotated. a digitizer (mouse). a combination scale. there must always be a reason which can be completely justified. whereas the scale can be used to layout measurements at full size or at reduced sizes. When there is a variation of any rule. a 45° triangle. a keyboard. The protractor is used to measure or layout angles at . See handout for description of hardware components. architect and engineer to work with fewer tools and create larger more precise drawings. small bow compass for circles under 3" in diameter and large bow compass for circles over 3" in diameter. a CD drive. dams and housing developments. designer. a monitor. yards or miles (1"=50. Architectural scale. The scale should not be used to draw lines. triangles. are used for highways. such as 1/4"=1" (quarter size) or 1/2"=1" (half size). The combination scale is triangular in shape and includes mechanical. MicroStation can be used for both 2D and 3D . a large bow compass.TOOLS • A basic set of drawing tools includes a t-square. • Drafting scales can be classified into four types: mechanical.0' or 1"=50 yds. The combination scale is different than the normal ruler. civil and combination. The 45° and 30 /60° triangles are placed on the t-square to draw vertical and angled lines.there are no absolutely hard and fast rules. The dividers is used to transfer a measurement from one location to another without remeasuring. • Mechanical scales equate inches to inches (1/2"=1" and 1/4"=1") and can be expressed in fractional or decimal units. civil and sometimes metric scales. feet. • Metric scales equate meters to parts of a meter (1:100 or 1:50) and are expressed in millimeters. The two triangles can be combined to draw angles at 15° intervals. The software consists of the programs (MicroStation and ArchiCAD) used to draw or design objects. a protractor. an internal hard drive and a printer or plotter. Computer Aided Drawing software is two dimensional (2D) and is used for creating detail drawings. • Architectural scales equate inches to feet (1/4"=1'-0" or 1/8"=1'-0") and are expressed in feet and fractional inch units. such as 1/4"=1'-0" (1/48 size) or 1/8"=1'-0" (1/96 size) are used for houses and buildings. yard or mile units. architectural. protractor and scales.

. Bond papers in white and light colors are used for sketching and lettering sheets. See "Alphabet of Lines" for examples of lines. index. . "6B" is very soft.0 mm) and are used to create inked drawings on vellum or mylar. A small lead pointer is needed to sharpen 2 mm leads. For additional information: http://www.9" x 12" "B" size . Architectural drawing sheets: "A" size . • A Lettering Guide is used to create uniformly spaced guidelines for freehand lettering. "9H" is very hard. The most commonly used pencils are "H". Polyester film or "mylar" is used for original drawings using ink or a plastic lead pencil. Drafting media is available in two groups of five sizes and designated by the letters A. See CAD handouts for menus and command explanations.12" x 18" "C" size . The "2H" lead should be used to draw (MEDIUM) "hidden" lines and "leaders". Tracing paper or "vellum" is used to copy an original drawing by hand using pencil or ink. tracing. .5 mm leads. Index papers in "manila" and light colors are used for pencil drawings. "4H" and "6H". The hardness of the lead provides contrasting lines based on their importance.8.caddprimer. Presentation paper or illustration board is used to make pictorial drawings by hand that will be colored and shaded for display purposes. A lead holder is needed for 2mm or a fineline lead holder for . C. The "diazo" process uses light and ammonia fumes to create a copy. "2H". "extension" and "phantom" lines.5 mm leads are graded according to their softness or hardness.com • Drawing media can be classified into six types: bond. dividor sheets and cover pages. Sepia paper is used to make intermediate transparent copies that can be drawn on and copied again using the "diazo" process.36" x 48" • Wooden drafting pencils and 2mm or . The "4H" lead should be used to draw (THIN) "center".35. The "6H" lead should be used to draw "guide lines" and "construction" lines.11" x 17" "C" size . The "H" lead should be used to draw (THICK)"visible" and "cutting-plane" lines. and multiple copies using xerographic "Engineering" copiers. • Technical inking pens are available in five sizes (.18" x 24" "D" size .75 & 1. Vellum actually contains cloth fibers.5. for computer print outs using printers and plotters.25.17" x 22" "D" size .views.24" x 36" "E" size .34" x 44". copy and presentation. "dimension".5" x 11" "B" size . Engineering drawing sheets: "A" size . D and E. polyester film. Reproduction "copy" paper or "diazo" paper is used to make multiple copies of vellum or mylar drawings using a "Diazo Whiteprint" copier. .22" x 34" "E" size . ArchiCAD is a 3D product that can generate 2D drawings. B.

A T-square is used to align a piece of paper to a drawing surface. Study the Views carefully and then move to the bottom of this page to see a Multiview Drawing that includes Auxiliary Views. The two trinagles can be combined to draw lines at intervals of 15 degrees. A 45 degree Triangle and a 30-60 degree Triangle are used with a t-square to draw lines vertical and angled (30.• • • • • An Erasing Shield is used to protect portions of a drawing when erasures of small portions are necessary. Drafting Templates are used to draw standard shapes from circles to hexagons to ellipses to architectural symbols. to draw horizontal lines. An Adjustable Triangle is used with a t-square to draw angled lines at 1 degree intervals. 45 or 60 degree) lines. AUXILIARY VIEWS & TERMINOLOGY The Isometric Views shown below are of a Single Object from Four Directions. . and to support triangles for drawing vertical and angled lines.

OBLIQUE SURFACES are at some angle to ALL sides of the object. understandable views of objects with only a pencil and a piece of paper is extremely important to being successful as an engineer.SURFACES NORMAL SURFACES are either vertical or horizontal planes that are parallel to the the six principal planes of projection or normal views. designer. Technical Drawing Program SKETCHING TECHNIQUES The ability to create fast. . INCLINED SURFACES are sloping upward or downward at some angle to the horizontal plane of projection or top view. back or side views. architect. ANGLED SURFACES are vertical surfaces that are at some angle to the front.

circles and ellipses. Practicing these techniques will help you develop skill in the creation of lines. arcs and ellipses. The procedures shown below describe the movement of your hand for the sketching of lines. manufacturer or craftsman. circles and ellipses. arcs. ellipses. and views of objects.builder. angular lines. circles. circular lines. . vertical lines. All objects are composed of lines: horizontal lines. Very light construction lines should be used when doing arcs.

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If the "Unidirectional System" of dimensioning is used.25 or . . When all of the dimension values are expressed in inches. 7. 8.Technical Drawing Program DIMENSIONING RULES & COMMON PRACTICES The following rules and common practices are based on ANSI Y14. When it is necessary to place a dimension within a sectioned area. The first dimension line is spaced a minimum of 3/8" or 10 mm from the view and 1/4" or 6 mm for additional dimensions.1988 and should serve as guides to good dimensioning techniques: 1. one of the smaller distances is not dimensioned unless it is needed for reference. use fractional or decimal inches: 1 1/4 or 1. When making a machine or product drawing. use decimal inches: 1.875. use feet only: 1. and then it should be indicated by placing ( ) brackets around the value. use feet and inches: 6'-0 or 10'6. When making a furniture drawing. 6. 10. On circular end parts the center-to-center dimension is given instead of an overall dimension. finished surfaces or datums where necessary. use the coordinate method of dimensioning from one corner of the circuit board. 9. . When making an electronic circuit layout. 17. use decimal inches or millimeters: 1.25 or 25. For values less than 1 mm. 4. 13. 15.75. the inch symbol (") is omitted. If the "Aligned System" of dimensioning is used. 5. leave a blank space for the number. 2. place a zero in front of the decimal point. all horizontal dimensions are read from the bottom edge of the paper and all vertical dimensions are read from the right-hand edge of the paper. all dimensions are read from the bottom edge of the paper. 19.25 or 31. For decimal values of less than 1 inch. When the Metric system is used for a drawing. 11.59'. 12.75' or 250. Overall dimensions are placed outside the smaller dimensions. When making architectural and structural drawings. 18. When making civil engineering drawing. Dimensions are given from center lines. 14. This system is used extensively on mechanical and related engineering drawings. Never use a center line or a line of the view as a dimension line. When making a sheet metal drawing. 16. Extension lines are started about 1/16" or 1 mm from the object and extend beyond the last dimension line about 1/8" or 2 mm. 3. With the overall dimension given.5M . Dimensions not required for manufacturing a part should be omitted. the values are expressed in millimeters and the (mm) is omitted. This system is commonly used on architectural and civil engineering drawings. omit the zero in front of the decimal point: eg.25. The same dimension is not repeated on multiview drawings.

32.5" or 400 mm minimum) between views for the dimensins. The number of dimensions must be sufficent complete for size. A Ø symbol is used before the value and add a leader.125R. Arcs of equal size such as "Fillets and Rounds" can be given in a note: eg. 23. ANSI Y14. Always give the diameter of a hole.5M. Arrowheads should be drawn using the open style and must be dark to indicate the beginning and end of a distance. 30. but dark and should contrast noticeably with visible lines of the drawing. The dimension value is placed at a break in the dimension line on engineering drawings. State each dimension clearly so the intent can be interpreted in only one way. Architectural dimension lines are solid with the value placed above the dimension line. 24. 27. calculating nor assuming of distances is necessary. ALL FILLETS & ROUNDS = . Slashes at a 45 angle or in some cases dots are used as arrowheads on architectural drawings. 38. form and location of features so that no scaling of the drawing. Dimensions are generally not placed inside the view outlines. Avoid crowding by providing adequate space (1. 21. 31. When there is a variation of any rule. . 33. It must be remembered that there are no absolutely hard and fast rules. Place dimensions on the view that shows the most detailed contour of a part or feature. there must always be a reason which can be completely justified. 25. Never have a dimension line as a continuation of a line of a view. 34. Avoid dimensioning to hidden lines. 22. nor any practice. Overall length and width on a floor plan are repeated on opposite sides of the building as a convinence for the builder. Leaders are drawn at an angle between 15 and 75 degrees from horizontal or vertical center lines and should point to the center of an arc or circle. Dimension and extension lines should be thin. not the radius. for the "Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Engineering Drawings and Related Documentation Practices" should be adhered to for uniformity and acceptance by other concerns. 40. Always give the diameter of a cylindrical shape as a normal dimension and include the Ø symbol with the value. 29. NOTE: The American National Standard. Show dimensions between points. 35. 26. not subject to change or modification under special conditions or requirements of a particular industry. 36. lines or surfaces which have a necessary and specific relationship to each other.20. Place dimensions between views when ever possible. Always give the radius of an arc using a leader. 41. 37. Take time to plan the location of dimension lines. 28. 39. Never have a dimension line where it is crossed by a line or another dimension line. An "R" should be placed after the value. Extension lines are placed so they do not cross dimension lines.

VectorWorks “SHS” Dimension Screen How to xxFile xxxxDimensions xxxxxxCustom xxxxxxxxNew xxxxxxxxxxEdit create Preference “Give “Custome Document a Dimension” Preferences name” Technology Technical Drawing Program Education Department .

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Single unit widths: 22" to 46" with heights: 36" to 76". See DESCRIPTIONS below drawing for alternate sizes. . Single unit widths: 36" to 60" with heights: 22" to 60". Single frame widths: 17" to 36" with heights: 24" to 72". Sliding windows consist of two frames per unit that slide back and forth horizontally. Hopper windows consist of one frame per unit that swings inward from the bottom of the frame.Window and Door Symbols for Floor Plan Sketches The symbols shown below represent the common types of windows and doors used on floor plan sketches. Single frame widths: 24" to 72" with heights: 17" to 40". 4. Combination unit widths: 34" to 144" depending on the number of frames and size of the frames. 5 and 6 frame combination units can be fixed in place. Single frame widths: 24" to 72" with heights: 17" to 40". Awning windows can be placed below picture windows. Combination unit widths: 24" to 144" depending on the number of frames and size of the frames. Awning windows consist of one to four frames per unit stacked vertically that swing outward from the top of the frame. WINDOWS Double hung windows consist of two frames per unit that slide up and down. Combination unit widths: 44" to 138" depending on the number of frames and size of the frames. Sizes will vary from company to company. Casement windows consist of one to six frames per unit attached horizontally that swing outward using a crank. The center frames on 3. Hopper windows can be placed below picture windows.

Sliding units (2 doors) fit openings 60" and 72" wide. 72". Pocket doors are 30". Double doors may swing into a room but outward if used on a closet. Sidelites from 10" to 14" in width can be added to one or both sides of an exterior door to provide light and a view when exterior doors contain no windows. 64". 80". 80" in height. 80 " or 96" in height. Sliding Patio doors are 30". and 1 3/8" in thickness. DOORS Exterior doors are 36". 42". Two or four doors form a unit for overall widths of 60". 80" or 83". Double closet doors are 18". 96" or 108". 18" or 24" in width. or 96" in height and 1 3/4" in thickness. Double or "French" doors (NOT SHOWN) are 18". 80" or 83". 72". Single units (2 doors) fit openings 24". Two doors form a unit that is hinged at the sides with knobs or handles in the center. Double hung or casement windows can be combined with picture windows. and 1 1/4" or 1 1/2" in thickness. and 1 3/4" or 2" in thickness. or 96" in height and 1 3/4" in thickness. Garage doors (NOT SHOWN) are 96". 96". and 96". Two doors form a unit that is hinged at the center and slide open on a track at the top of the door frame. 30" or 36" in width. Overhead garage doors consist of four or five panels hinged along the length that follow tracks as raised vertically from the floor. 84" or 96" in height. or 48" in width. or 48" in width. 34". Double units (4 doors) fit openings 48". 24". 80" in height. and 1 1/4" or 1 3/8" in thickness. Two doors form a unit that is hinged at the sides with knobs or handles in the center. Widths: 74" to 164" Heights: 38" to 74" Projection: 6" to 27". French doors typically swing toward the outside of a structure. 32". 80" or 84" in height. 72". or 36" in width. Two doors form a unit that slide in front of each other on a track at the top of the door frame. Hinged Patio doors (NOT SHOWN) are 30". and 1 1/4" or 1 3/8" in thickness. or 189". 80" in height. Widths: 64" to 112" Heights: 38" to 74" Projection: 14" to 19". Two or three doors form a unit for overall widths of 60". 141". 24". and 1 3/8" in thickness. 34". and 1 1/4" or 1 3/8" in thickness. 117". 80 " or 96" in height. or 36" in width. 84" or 96" in height. 36" and 48" wide.Picture windows consist of one frame that is fixed in place and does not open. Widths: 36" to 72" Heights: 36" to 72" Bay windows (NOT SHOWN) project outward from the exterior wall of a house and consist of a picture window with two double hung or casement windows per unit at 30° or 45° to the wall. or 36" in width. Double closet doors must swing into a room. A pocket door must have an amount of open wall space equal to the width to slide into the thickness of the wall on a track mounted above the door. Interior doors are 30". and 1 3/8" (interior) or 1 3/4" (exterior) in thickness. 30" or 36" in width. 108" or 192" in width. Bow windows (NOT SHOWN) project outward on a curve from the exterior wall of a house and contain all casement units . Sliding closet doors are 30" or 36" in width. 32". 32". 36". NOTE: 28" wide doors may be used in powder rooms. FASTENERS Exterior Thread Terms . Bifold closet doors are 12".

Interior Thread Terms .Note: Typical thread angle is 60 degrees.

Discuss all ideas with other designers. engineers. architects. sheet metal workers. provides the basic course outline for the Introduction to Technical Drawing or Technical Drawing for Designers and Drafters. technicians. electronic technicians. detailers and illustrators to prepare a set of plans and specifications that guide machinists. and safety. painters and many other skilled workers in the completion of their work. 4. 6. 2. inspect parts for accuracy. and assemble the parts to make a working prototype or scale model. Check assembly of parts and test the operation of the prototype for accuracy. engineers. Prepare a design layout drawing to scale from the final solution sketch. The "Design Process" as described above is incorporated in all of the Technical Drawing courses in the Technical Drawing Program at Stevenson High School. reliability. Revise detail and assembly drawings if necessary and prepare technical illustrations for manuals and brochures. [Updated: 2/11/99] . Think of possible solutions to the problem and make freehand. supervisors and managers. 7.Technology Education Department Introduction to Technical Drawing DESIGN PROCESS The "Design Process" is a systematic procedure used in industry to change ideas into useable products for consumers or other manufacturers. multiview and/or pictorial sketches of all ideas for solving the problem. and is used to solve a variety of problems from simple to complex products. This procedure is used by designers. 9. Return to Information Sheet 3 Entire contents Copyright ©1998. casting and molding operators. analyze and research the problem to obtain a complete description of the project. All rights reserved. 10. drafters. Revise and combine ideas after discussions into a "final" solution sketch: 5. Prepare scale detail and assembly drawings of all parts and sub-assemblies. Prepare complete specifications and a materials list of all parts: 8. The number of phases and/or steps in the process will vary from company to company or textbook to textbook but should include the following: 1. welders. 3. Identify. Make individual parts.

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