Ethyl Alcohol

Handbook

A Lyondell Company

ETHYL ALCOHOL HANDBOOK 6TH EDITION
Pure Ethyl Alcohol Specially Denatured Alcohol Alcohol Solvents Completely Denatured Alcohol

THE INFORMATION IN THIS BOOKLET IS, TO OUR BEST KNOWLEDGE, TRUE AND ACCURATE. HOWEVER, SINCE CONDITIONS OF USE ARE BEYOND OUR CONTROL, ALL RECOMMENDATIONS OR SUGGESTIONS ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT GUARANTEE OR RESPONSIBILITY ON OUR PART. WE DISLCAIM ALL LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN OR OTHERWISE. ALL RISKS OF SUCH USE ARE ASSUMED BY THE USER. FURTHERMORE, NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE CONSTRUCTED AS AN INDUCEMENT OR RECOMMENDATION TO USE ANY PROCESS OR TO MANUFACTURE OR USE ANY PRODUCT IN CONFLICT WITH EXISTING OR FUTURE PATENTS. © COPYRIGHT EQUISTAR CHEMICALS, LP 2003 www.industrialethanol.com

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This handbook presents a comprehensive review of the history, authorized uses, specifications, test methods, physical properties, and storage of industrial ethyl alcohol. U.S. government regulations governing the acquisition and use of industrial alcohol are subject to change and are, therefore, presented as a separate booklet, "Government Regulations," which is available from Equistar Chemicals, LP. This booklet is revised and reprinted by Equistar as regulatory changes make it necessary.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 14 Punctilious® Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Specially Denatured Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Alcohol Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Proprietary Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Filmex® Industrial Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Completely Denatured Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Ethyl Alcohol Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Analytical Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Storage and Maintenance of Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Health and Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

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Equistar Chemicals, LP, headquartered in Houston, Texas, is a joint venture between Lyondell Chemical Company (70.5% interest) and Millennium Chemicals Inc. (29.5% interest) and combines their olefins, polymers and oxygenated chemicals businesses. Equistar is one of the world’s largest producers of ethylene, propylene and polyethylene and a leading producer of ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, specialty polymers, wire and cable resins, and polyolefin powders. Equistar was formed in December 1997 and has 16 manufacturing sites located primarily along the U.S. Gulf Coast and in the Midwest. Lyondell Chemical Company, headquartered in Houston, is a leading producer of propylene oxide (PO), toluene diisocyanate (TDI), propylene glycol (PG), butanediol (BDO) and propylene glycol ether (PGE); styrene monomer and MTBE. Through its 58.75% interest in LYONDELL-CITGO Refining LP, Lyondell is one of the largest refiners in the United States, principally processing extra heavy Venezuelan crude oil to produce gasoline, low sulfur diesel and jet fuel.

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. . The Law and Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . The Sources of Industrial Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . Equistar Chemicals. . . The Equistar Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Industrial Alcohol Applications . . .INTRODUCTION Alcohol: Myths and Realities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Punctilious Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 14 14 15 15 15 15 6 . . . Uses of Industrial Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermentation of Agricultural Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anhydrous Alcohol by Molecular Sieve Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LP and Industrial Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services of Equistar Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industrial Alcohol Available From Equistar Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure Ethyl Alcohol . . Denatured Alcohol . Flow Chart: Synthesis of Ethyl Alcohol from Ethylene . . . What Is Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . Synthesis From Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LP Direct Hydration Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wine was believed to be made in China before 2000 B. much has happened because of it. The "yl" suffix is derived from the Greek word "hyle" and was employed first by Justus von Liebig and Frederick Wohler in the sense of "stuff" or "material" similar to Paracelsus’ "essence. and in ancient Egyptian carvings picturing the manufacture of wine by fermentation. Alkohol or "the fine powder" referred usually to a finely powdered antimony sulfide used in cosmetics to darken the eyelids. It is assumed that ethyl alcohol was first separated by distillation around the 11th century in the wine districts of Italy. and by whom alcohol came into existence. Its structural formula was established by Sir Edward Frankland later in the 19th century. he wrote of ‘alcool vini’. ethyl alcohol must have been one of the earliest organic compounds to be investigated. ETHYL ALCOHOL Probably because of its being the essence of wine and the intoxicating ingredient in many beverages whose production involved a fermentation process. ferrum alcoholisatum was finely powdered iron. Each culture has its own myths about the discovery and significance of this potent liquid. or kohol meaning a very fine powder. The Bible holds wine in high esteem. referring to bread and wine as staples of the diet." ETHYL ALCOHOL TODAY Ethyl alcohol. the separation of ethyl alcohol from wine was apparently unknown to Arabian alchemists. and Paracelsus defined it in the 16th century as the most subtle part of anything. It was in this sense. it was not until 1796 that Johann Tobias Lowitz first prepared it free of water. Who discovered it. The historical references to alcohol do not appear until 60 or 70 centuries ago in the Hebrew script. however.C. Gradually the word came to mean "essence". Its composition was determined in 1808 by Théodore de Sassure although Lavoisier had established its qualitative formula even earlier. 7 . But. the pursuit of the fermented product of the juice of grapes may have changed the nomadic pattern of early man to a settled one. since several years are required to produce a vineyard. the most subtle part of wine. suggesting that wine is a gift of God. is a vital industrial material from which other manufacturers make their finished products. Despite the Arabic origin of the word alcohol. Thus. It was not until the 19th century that the term alcohol came to be used generally for wine spirits. are lost in antiquity as is the discovery of fire and the invention of the wheel. Some contend it started the first community life.Alcohol: Myths and Realities Ethyl alcohol has probably been used by human beings as a beverage for at least 300 centuries. FROM KUHL TO ALKOHOL The generally accepted derivation of the word "alcohol" is from the Arabic kuhl. Although ethyl alcohol had been known for a considerable time in a crude state in wines and beer. For example. and including wine as a measure of hospitality and of value as a medicine and an anesthetic. but never of ‘alcool’ alone. one of the oldest organic chemicals known. and how the discovery came about. on Babylonian tablets. the limiting term ethyl refers to the fact that this particular alcohol can be converted to ether. The earliest known description of the concentration of ethyl alcohol by distillation of wine occurs in a Latin manuscript of the 12th century. In the naming of ethyl alcohol.

and the concept of denaturing was established. It is used in processing vaccines and is essential to the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics. detergents. for centuries. explosives. manufacturers were directed to add an impure methyl alcohol to the ethyl alcohol they produced. only beginning to consider the need for tax-free industrial alcohol. first to see the smoke and hear the hum of the Industrial Revolution. ethyl alcohol is one of the most important chemicals available to industry and is involved in the manufacture of many of the significant products of the second half of the 20th century. Germany relaxed its regulations. Fire a rifle. ethyl alcohol is involved in the manufacture of adhesives. While ethyl alcohol has been around since antiquity. In this way "methylated spirits" became a material of growing significance in the chemistry of manufacturing. into alcoholic beverages. paints. the principle of taxing and regulating alcoholic beverages was applied to all forms of ethyl alcohol. Until the middle of the 19th century. Print a book. regardless of its ultimate use. inks. Eat a meal. was also first to recognize the industrial significance of ethyl alcohol. For alcohol. might have been diverted. authorized the use of tax-free alcohol for manufacturing purposes. thinners. and numerous over-the-counter preparations. Stroke the satinsmoothness of a graceful racing sloop. although destined for industry. textiles. Set your hair. therefore. liniments and antiseptics. vinegar and other products almost too numerous to mention. In those countries where no special legislation had permitted the use of tax-free alcohol for industrial purposes. tinctures. Buy a tire. plastics. Its solvent power is particularly useful for the extraction of medicinals from plant and animal tissues and for compounding tonics. hand creams. France permitted its use under a special tax. most of the countries of Europe had facilitated the use of industrial ethyl alcohol. was a beverage of luxury. 8 . Realizing that this vital commodity had to be made economically viable for use in its emerging industries. As an industrial raw material. and to prevent the diversion of industrial alcohol into beverages. syrups. Watch the contrail of a jet thread the sky with its wisp of white. The United States was just emerging as an industrial power and was. Its consumption had. Take a pill. By the turn of the century. in 1872. The Netherlands legalized the use of denatured alcohol in 1865. LIBERATING INFLUENCE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION England. The Law and Ethyl Alcohol LIMITING EFFECTS OF TAXATION While ethyl alcohol has always played a major role in productive communities. no government was willing to jeopardize this income by eliminating the tax on pure alcohol which. toiletries. and in 1879.Completely aside from its use in beverages. Until the pressing needs of industry precipitated changes in the law. To enjoy this privilege. Paint a house. England. Treat a cut. which is usually our first point of reference when we think about alcohol. taxfree. in the view of the law. Applications for denatured ethyl alcohol grew as the laws governing its use were liberalized. its use has been traditionally disciplined by custom and legislation. scientists today are still discovering new and important uses for it. a heavy burden of taxation was placed on every gallon of ethyl alcohol produced. Ethyl alcohol is involved. in 1855. chemicals. provided a rich source of tax income.

including the 1997 addition of a molecular sieve. Ethylene arrives at the plant from Equistar’s Morris. investigating the importance of ethyl alcohol. From the time of the passage of the Tax-free Alcohol Act. replacing the original plant built on the Tuscola site in 1953." This was the first of a series of reports and deliberations that led to the enactment of the Tax-free Industrial and Denatured Alcohol Act of 1906." The committee acknowledged that "there is scarcely a manufacturer in the country who does not use alcohol in the production of goods to a greater or lesser extent. Today in the United States. New Jersey DSP-NJ-158 Tuscola. a joint venture of Lyondell Chemical Company." provided the alcohol was denatured and rendered unsuitable for use as a beverage. reported its uses in industry as both "legitimate and necessary. THE ROLE OF EQUISTAR CHEMICALS The legacy of Equistar Chemicals. undenatured ethyl alcohol was also relieved of the restrictive tax burden if its application to scientific purposes could be guaranteed by the users. U. IL facility via a dedicated pipeline.TAX-FREE ALCOHOL IN THE UNITED STATES In 1897. LP Equistar Chemicals. Pure. Department of Justice. The plant has been subject to multiple improvements over the years. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). which is used to produce anhydrous (200 proof) product. The ethylene is used at Tuscola for the synthesis of 190 proof and 200 proof ethyl alcohol and purified ethyl ether. all Equistar industrial alcohol is made from ethylene via direct hydration. LP.S.S. Industrial Alcohol Company. When incorporated in 1906 as the U. and its predecessor companies in industrial alcohol stretches back to the beginning of the twentieth century via the U. light and power. PRODUCTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL AT TUSCOLA. The government assigned identification numbers for these facilities are: Newark. Services of Equistar Chemicals. a joint committee of Congress. procurement and use of pure ethyl alcohol and denatured alcohol are issued by the Bureau of Alcohol. ILLINOIS Today at the Tuscola plant. This law removed the tax on alcohol intended "for use in the arts and industries and for fuel. Equistar and its predecessor companies has been acknowledged as a leader in major constructive developments in this field. USI was the first company formed to manufacture industrial ethyl alcohol after the passage of the Tax-free Alcohol Act.S. LP operates ethyl alcohol denaturing facilities in the following key industrial centers in the Northeast and Midwest United States. Illinois DSP-IL-95 9 . official regulations governing production. strict controls were imposed upon the distribution of pure industrial alcohol to prevent its illegal use in beverages. The current ethanol production facility was commissioned in 1972. In addition. Industrial Chemical Company (USI).

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America affirm continued compliance to the highest standards and regulations. Sugar and sugar-containing materials such as molasses are more directly converted to alcohol by yeast. Industrial ethyl alcohol is ethyl alcohol produced and sold for other than beverage or fuel purposes. located in Tuscola. production techniques have used agricultural materials as the raw material for ethyl alcohol. This sugar is then typically converted by yeast to alcohol and carbon dioxide. The experience and knowledge of Lyondell trained personnel is available for suggesting proper formulas and for assistance when filing the necessary government regulatory forms. IL. SYNTHESIS FROM NATURAL GAS Lyondell’s ethyl alcohol production plant. produces industrial alcohol made from ethylene. Such starch-containing food products as corn. Periodic inspection by authorized representatives of these agencies as well as representatives of such groups as the Kashruth Division. cologne spirits and ethyl hydrate. H H H H — — H — — H — — H—C —C — H H — C — C — OH — H — H ETHANE ETHYL ALCOHOL It is also known as alcohol. FERMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS Historically. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). though most of this material finds its end use as a motor fuel oxygenate or extender. wheat and potatoes are converted by enzymes to sugar. Today large quantities of ethyl alcohol are produced by the fermentation process. This relationship is clearly demonstrated by the structural formulas for the two compounds. which are used for food and fuel as well as chemicals.Lyondell’s alcohol facilities are registered with such governmental agencies as the Bureau of Alcohol. rice. We urge you to call for help with any problems you have relating to industrial ethyl alcohol. 10 . The varied quality of feedstocks and the sharp fluctuations in both the availability and price of these agricultural products. ethyl alcohol is the common name for the hydroxyl derivative of the hydrocarbon ethane. The Chemical Abstract Registry Number (CAS) for pure ethanol is 64-17-5. have caused some disruption of prices and supply in the fermentation based market. The Sources of Industrial Ethyl Alcohol The two principal raw materials from which ethyl alcohol may be produced are agricultural products ("grain") and ethylene derived from natural gas or petroleum. What Is Ethyl Alcohol Chemically. The more familiar International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry name is ethanol.

stripped of the water it originally contained. so the purified ethanol passes out the end of the sieve bed. In addition to concentrating the alcohol. The dilute alcohol removed from the bottom of this tower is fed to yet another rectifier. LP utilizes a Molecular Sieve Dehydration Unit (MSDU) to produce anhydrous alcohol. The alcohol stream is then hydrogenated to convert unsaturated impurities into a form in which they may be more readily removed. The alcohol obtained from this very thorough purification process is Punctilious ethyl alcohol at 190 proof.THE EQUISTAR DIRECT HYDRATION PROCESS Equistar’s ethyl alcohol is commercially prepared from ethylene by the direct reaction of extremely pure water with ethylene gas. after various quality checks. The primary chemical reaction for this process occurs when water vapor and ethylene are combined at elevated pressure and temperature and are passed over the surface of a catalyst support impregnated with phosphoric acid. chemical and commercial applications. The main reaction yields a dilute crude alcohol. or dehydration to anhydrous (200 proof) ethyl alcohol. Impurities present at the parts per million levels are removed by an extractive distillation." The MSDU performs the adsorption with dual alternating molecular sieve vessels filled with desiccant in combination with strictly controlled pressure and temperature cycles. ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL BY MOLECULAR SIEVE DISTILLATION Equistar Chemicals. Punctilious anhydrous alcohol is the result. A final tower distills off the last of any possible remaining foreign odor. the rectification of the alcohol provides a means of removing various heavy oils from the alcohol. heated to reaction temperature and brought into intimate contact with the catalyst. This process — the direct hydration process — is generally considered to be environmentally and technically the best commercial method for obtaining a consistently high quality alcohol product. H H H H — — H — — H — — ∆ > C —– C + HOH — H —– – C – C — OH — H — H > Ethylene + Water — Ethyl Alcohol High purity ethylene at elevated pressure is mixed with controlled amounts of pure water. Water is removed by the process of "adsorption. is removed by distillation and refined further in an adjacent purification facility into the purity grades used for various pharmaceutical. This alcohol is then separated from unreacted ethylene. where the alcohol is increased to at least 95 volume percent (190 proof). which. Ethyl ether. is ready for shipping. The unreacted ethylene is recycled and the alcohol is concentrated and purified through a series of distillation towers. The impurities are removed from the distillation tower. The ethanol molecules are too large to fit into the selectively sized pores. 11 . Water molecules. The purpose of the MSDU is to remove essentially all of the water from the 190 proof alcohol that cannot be separated by rectification. are selectively adsorbed into the desiccant pores as the mixture of ethanol/water vapors passes through the sieve beds. is ready for denaturing or shipment. a co-product of the ethylene hydration. which are smaller than ethanol molecules. In this purification step. water and steam are added to the high proof alcohol. denaturing. and after various quality checks.

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This is accomplished by a dedicated team of operators.) Proprietary solvents are highly denatured alcohol formulations. Taxfree alcohol is available for various defined academic. Special "S" solvents are custom compounded solvents. the Food Chemicals Codex. all working together to supply the consistently high quality Punctilious ethyl alcohol our customers have come to expect from us. PURE ALCOHOL is available to authorized users in two basic forms: tax-paid alcohol may be obtained by paying a federal tax. the user may be entitled to a drawback. LP produces pure ethyl alcohol meeting its own high quality standards. technicians. LP Industrial alcohol is available from Equistar with various degrees of governmental control and taxation. which are defined by standard specifications. Equistar recognizes the occasional need for pure or denatured alcohol to exceed quality requirements. When used for the production of various defined products. which have been registered with the ATF for specific customers. The facility receiving the SDA must have an SDA permit from the ATF. Equistar Chemicals. Industrial Alcohol Available From Equistar Chemicals.S. imposes more stringent quality control checks in areas where experience has shown the need for these controls. A tax-free permit from the ATF is required. Use of SDA is defined by the formula (denaturants) and is available for specifically defined applications to authorized users. the American Chemical Society. 14 . Alcohol users with unusual or individual quality requirements are invited and encouraged to submit their specifications to Equistar for consideration. SPECIALLY DENATURED ALCOHOL (SDA) is a moderately denatured material.Punctilious Ethyl Alcohol Equistar Chemicals. which is available in many formulations. the National Formulary. chemists. They are available in the following basic classes: (No permits are required for the following types. recognizing the quality requirements of our customers. which is available with minimum government regulation for sale and use for any lawful purpose in authorized formulations. COMPLETELY DENATURED ALCOHOL is a very highly denatured alcohol. Filmex is the Equistar trademark name for special industrial solvent. Special industrial solvents are defined formulations in bulk or drums for authorized industrial users. as well as the requirements of the U. medical. The detection and control of foreign substances in alcohol is very important because ethyl alcohol is used in the manufacture of such life sustaining products as pharmaceuticals and food products. as well as various other government-recognized specifications. SOLVENTS are highly denatured formulations of ethyl alcohol. They are available in several authorized formulations and may be sold in bulk quantities or drums quantities to any person. engineers and sales representatives. LP prides itself in its ability to produce and supply pure and denatured alcohol meeting the most demanding quality requirements. Pharmacopeia. STRINGENT QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS Equistar. or refund for a portion of this tax. The use of alcohol in cosmetics also requires alcohol of the highest quality. scientific and governmental uses.

tincture of iodine) are formulated with Equistar SDAs. DENATURED ALCOHOL Specially denatured alcohol is the largest. Nevertheless. creams. and purity make pure ethyl alcohol the reagent of choice for numerous clinical and laboratory applications. insect repellants. hormones. Hospitals and research laboratories depend on its purity and versatility as a reagent and a solvent. They are also broadly used as processing solvents in the preparation of antibiotics. TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL APPLICATIONS Acetic acid • Adhesives and binders • Animal feed supplements • Antibiotics • Antifreeze • Antiseptic solutions • Bath preparations • Bay rum • Brake fluids • Candy glazes • Chemicals • Cleaning solutions • Coatings • Colognes • Cutting oils • Dentifrices • Deodorants • Detergents • Detonators • Disinfectants • Drugs and medicinal chemicals • Duplicating fluids • Dyes • External pharmaceuticals • Fluids • Food products • Fungicides • Hair and scalp preparations • Incense • Inks • Insecticides • Iodine solutions • Laboratory reagents • Lacquer thinners • Liniments • Lotions and skin creams • Mouthwashes • Perfumes • Petroleum products • Photoengraving dyes and solutions • Photographic chemicals • Photographic film and emulsion • Plastics • Polishes • Preserving solutions • Refrigeration • Rotogravure dyes and solutions • Rubber • Rubbing alcohol compounds • Scientific instruments • Shampoo • Shellac • Soaps • Soldering flux • Solvents and thinners • Stains • Sterilizing solutions • Theater sprays • Transparent sheetings • Vaccines • Vinegar • Vitamins • Witch hazel • Wood stains These are just some of the hundreds of products made with industrial ethyl alcohol. which are commonly used for many soft drinks are obtained by using pure alcohol. LP is a leading supplier of SDAs to the quality conscious industries who require denatured alcohol of the highest purity for a consistently superior product. food products and flavorings could not be readily produced without it. Vinegar is extensively produced from specially denatured alcohol. soaps and bath preparations and waterless hand washing lotions. Personal Care Products include deodorants. solvent power. 15 .g. Disinfectant properties. Pharmaceutical Products for external application. Many medicines. Equistar Chemicals. hair and scalp preparations. Household product applications in which SDAs are used include aerosol insecticides. Fragrance Products manufacturers formulate perfumes and colognes from Equistar SDAs. most widely used type of alcohol. vaccines and vitamins. Pure alcohol is used for numerous pharmaceutical syrups and elixirs. pills. room deodorants and fungicides. which is found in virtually any kitchen. They are also used in the manufacture of numerous personal care items. detergents and soaps. The flavoring extracts. such as rubbing alcohol compounds and various antiseptic solutions (e. as is the familiar vanilla extract. lotions. A stable raw material cost and an assured high quality supply offer several advantages to the vinegar producers who use Equistar SDA as their raw material.Uses of Industrial Alcohol PURE ETHYL ALCOHOL Only a very small percentage of all of the ethyl alcohol produced for industrial purposes is sold as pure ethyl alcohol. mouthwashes. pure alcohol makes significant contributions to industry and science.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . .PURE ETHYL ALCOHOL Specifications .20 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Typical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Shipping Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8090 Pass Pass Pass 5 minutes Pass Pass Pass 0. or for authorized users it may be obtained tax-free.8094 STM 101 USP USP USP USP USP USP USP USP USP Range Min.9ml of . as 200 Proof Wt% 100 Target Specific Gravity @ 60/60˚ F 68/68˚ F 77/77˚ F Water wt% Identification A Identification B Acidity Non-Volatile Residue Water Insoluble Substances Aldehydes and Foreign Organics Amyl Alcohol & Carbonizables Substances Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol Methanol UV Absorbance 0. A century of experience in making and selling the highest quality alcohol assures our customers of the benefits of quick delivery.8128 0. Equistar Product Specifications Formulation Product:Ethyl Alcohol 200 Proof Pure USP Ethyl Alcohol.7876 0.1 STM 101 STM 155a USP USP USP USP USP USP USP USP USP USP Range Min.Pure ethyl alcohol is supplied in both the 190 proof and 200 proof (anhydrous) form. and experienced assistance with regulatory and technical questions.8158 0.8156 0. Equistar’s pure alcohol meets the requirements of the USP and other industry accepted specifications. Test Method Equistar Product Specifications Formulation Product: Ethyl Alcohol 190 Proof Pure USP Ethyl Alcohol.7905 0.7910 0. as 200 Proof Water Wt% 92. Test Method 0.7937 0.58 Target Specific Gravity @ 60/60˚ F 68/68˚ F 77/77˚ F Identification A Identification B Acidity Non-Volatile Residue Water Insoluble Substances Aldehydes and Foreign Organics Amyl Alcohol & Carbonizables Substances Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol Methanol 0.42 7.7942 0.8092 Pass Pass Pass >5 minutes Pass Pass Pass 0.8126 0. It is available on a tax-paid basis.9ml of . Range Max.8124 0.7871 Pass Pass Pass >5 minutes Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass 0.02N 1mg/40ml 19 .816 0.02N 1mg/40ml Pass 5 minutes Pass Pass Pass Pass 0. Range Max. certainty of supply.

T.0011 0.000 gal.00062 ºC ºF ºC ºF 21 69 17 62 6.O.3 172. Water Solubility ºC ºF 190 PROOF 78. in lbs. varies 54 gal.56ºC) 60ºF.610 Shipping Information CONTAINERS Tank Cars Tank Trucks Drums SHIPPING REGULATIONS.0011 0.Typical Properties Units Boiling Point Coefficient of Expansion Per ºC Per ºF Flash Point ASTM D-1310 (Tag Open Cup) ASTM D-56 (Tag Closed Cup) Weight per gallon at (15.794 soluble in all proportions 200 Proof (Anhydrous) 78. 190 PROOF 30. D.000 gal.9 0.3 172. varies 54 gal. 200 Proof (Anhydrous) 30. 20 .00062 18 65 14 57 6.9 0. Pure ethyl alcohol is a flammable liquid and must be shipped under item 49 CFR regulation.

SDA & Alcohol Solvents .

. 38-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-B . Denaturants . 44 22 . . . . . Government Authorized Commercially Important Specially Denatured Alcohol Formulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-A . . SDA No. . . . . . . . 3-C . . . . 29 . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . SDA No. . . . . and Shipping Information . . . . . .S. U. . . 39-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . 23-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denaturant Hazards . . . . . . 23-H . . . . . . 40-B . . . . SDA No. . 3-A . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . 37 37 38 38 38 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 * A word about SDA 38-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SPECIALLY DENATURED ALCOHOL Introduction . . 40-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternate Denaturants . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government Authorized Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohol Products and Processes for Which SDA Use Is Authorized . . . . . . . . . 12-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 27 28 SDA No. . . . . . . . Denaturant Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . 40 . . 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 36 36 36 SDA No. U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications. . . . . . . . 13-A . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . 25 . . SDA No. . . SDA No. . 25-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . 36 . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . Government Authorized Denaturants for Specially Denatured Alcohol and Completely Denatured Alcohol . . . U. 38-F . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . SDA No. . . . . SDA No. . . . 28-A . . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . SDA No. . . . . . . . . . . 39-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-A . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . SDA No.

Equistar however. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). the actual weight per gallon and resultant volume of commercial material sometimes differs slightly from the ATF defined values. chemists. Denaturants DENATURANT QUALITY To supply the consistent high quality specially denatured alcohol Equistar customers require and expect takes an extra effort by the Equistar team of purchasing agents. Code of Federal Regulations. Equistar Chemicals. The weight per gallon and resultant volume data of the various specially denatured alcohols given in this book are typically in accordance with information defined in Part 212 of Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations. Tobacco and Firearms. denaturants of the highest quality are required to prepare consistently high quality specially denatured alcohol. shipments will be made using the Equistar Chemicals. Nomenclature While the basic nomenclature of the various SDA formulations is defined in Part 212 of Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations. as significant alternate formulations are approved. ATF regulations authorize the use of specific formulas which have very limited commercial use. The availability of these formulations can be determined by contacting your Equistar sales representative or our customer service center. which have been defined in Title 27. As a result. 90% of all the ethyl alcohol produced for industrial purposes in the United States is denatured. Part 212 of Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations. or combination of denaturants is authorized. in the arts and industries specified for each formula given in this section. after obtaining a U. These are so indicated where applicable. In most instances these requirements specify the use of a denaturant meeting the quality standards of the United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary. The basic quality specifications for all authorized denaturants are defined by the Bureau of Alcohol.Introduction Specially denatured alcohol (SDA) is alcohol that has been denatured so that it can be used. has defined additional quality specifications for numerous denaturants.S. 23 . LP can. Typically. which have more than one possible denaturing option. supply most authorized denatured alcohol formulas. depending upon the availability of the specified denaturants. LP determined properties. Government permit and a bond. The code numbers for the given uses must be used when making reports on ATF forms. However. The coded uses are those listed by the Bureau of Alcohol. While pure Punctilious alcohol is in all of our specially denatured alcohol formulations. Several defined formulations with limited historical usage are not discussed in detail in this publication. users of formulas. Specially denatured alcohol is the most important commercial form of industrial ethyl alcohol. technicians. Equistar Chemicals. should be careful to specify the denaturants desired. production engineers and distribution personnel. LP uses a supplemental nomenclature for many individual formulas where more than one denaturant. SDA products are offered in the 190 proof and anhydrous (200 proof) formulations.

Adherence to these rigid denaturant specifications and the continued quality consciousness of our production and distribution personnel help affirm that the shipments will pass the most rigorous quality checks and the user receives specially denatured alcohol of the highest quality. which have been accepted by the ATF.g. A typical sample is 1 pint or quart. etc. iodine. 24 . When an SDA user can show that no presently authorized denaturant or combination of denaturants can be used in the manufacture of a particular product an application may be submitted to the ATF director. assay methods and duplicate 8-ounce samples of the denaturant for examination. DENATURANT HAZARDS Denaturants are generally recognized as substances having odorous and/or obnoxious attributes. There are numerous alternate denaturants used mainly for SDA 29 and SDA 38-B.) and denatured alcohol products containing these denaturants. SDA Samples Equistar can supply samples of our products to potential customers. present significant potential health problems if they are improperly handled. Equistar will consider using special customer supplied authorized denaturants. but not for industrial uses. ALTERNATE DENATURANTS Substitute and alternate denaturants may be authorized by the ATF director. methanol. which prevent the use of the denatured alcohol for beverage purposes. In such cases the applicant shall furnish the director with specifications. requesting permission to use another substance having denaturing properties satisfactory to the director. chloroform. Equistar urges extreme care be exercised when handling any potentially hazardous material. Under certain circumstances. Several authorized denaturants (e. Consult the MSDS prior to use.

38-B. 12-A. ethyl (miscellaneous) Ether. 2-C. 23-A. 36. 40-C 1. 27-B. 39-B. 3-A. 13-A. 3-C.P. 32. 6-B 1. 39. 3-C. 29.2-B. 40-C 1. 3-A. 23-A. 40-A. 3-A. 39-D. 6-B. 3-C. 2-B. 39-B. 30. 30. 32 1. 37. 23-A. or N. 39-B. 3-B. 23-A. 29 1. miscellaneous (processing) Duplicating fluids Dyes and intermediates Dyes and intermediates (processing) Dye solutions. 39-C. 2-B. 27-B. 12-A. 40. 38-B.3-A. Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohol —27 CFR 212. 3-C. 3-C.F. U. 39-B. 28-A 1. 38-D 23-A. 17. 13-A. 40-A. 32 1. 3-A. 40-B. 39-B. 3-C. 40-C 1. 23-A. 12-A. 27-A. 19. 40-B. 39-B. 3-C. 29. 3-C. 3-C. 12-A.3-A. 45 1. 2-C. 17. U. 36 1.32 1. 23-H. 40-C 1. 39-B. etc Esters.F. 19.2-B. industrial Collodions. airplane and supplementary Fuels. 2-B. 40. or N.2-B. 12-A.2-B. 23-A. 23-A. 28-A 1. 40-A. 32 1. 33.P. 25. 38-F 1. 30. 38-B. 32 1. 35-A 1. or N.2-B. 13-A. 22. 35-A 3-B. 23-A 1. 3-C. 6-B. 40. 23-A.P. 23-A. 13-A.) External pharmaceuticals. 28-A 1.2-B. 29. industrial Detonators Disinfectants Drugs and medicinal chemicals Drugs. 29 29.3-A. 29. 3-C. 25-A. 37. 29.2-B. 23-H. 3-C. 23-F.105 25 . 12-A. 23-A. miscellaneous Alkaloids (processing) Animal feed supplement Antibiotics (processing) Antifreeze. 35-A 35-A 1. 39-B. 3-C. 40. 3-A. 23-A. proprietary Antiseptic. 30 1. 23-A. 30 1. 37. 40-C 23-A. 23-H. 40-B.2-B. 20.3-A.3-A. 40-B. 35-A 1 46 23-A. 30 1. 23-A. 3-C. 40-A. 3-A. 37. 30.C. 40. 38-B. 39-B. 32 38-B.3-A. 30.USES OF SPECIALLY DENATURED ALCOHOL* PRODUCT OR PROCESS Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Adhesives and binders Aldehydes. 3-C. Washington.3-A. 2-B. miscellaneous Embalming fluids. 27-A. 36 1. 12-A. 32. 40. 13-A. 36. 39-B. 3-A. 30 1. 38-B. 3-C 23-A. 40-A. 38-B. 3-B. 36. miscellaneous Food products. miscellaneous Fuels. 12-A. 3-A. 30. 2-B. 3-A. 33. 3-C. 32 1. 551 512 036 552 344 910 343 760 220 244 142 112 410 345 720 015 011 311 034 579 450 016 034 241 122 341 730 315 131 114 450 440 574 410 575 349 485 540 351 482 420 523 561 562 521 530 522 571 572 033 210 249 750 332 630 612 611 620 613 410 342 111 342 FORMULAS AUTHORIZED 1. 3-C.2-B.S.3-A. miscellaneous Ethyl acetate Ethylamines Ethyl chloride Ethylene dibromide Ethylene gas Explosives External pharmaceuticals (not U. 27-A. 23-A. 32 1.3-A. 23-A. 40-A. 38-B. 39-C.P. 3-A. 3-C 1. 3-C. 23-A. 35-A.2-B. 29. 13-A. 13-A. 39.3-A. 30 1. 30 1. 36 1. 27-B. miscellaneous (U. 3-C. 3-A.3-A. 40-B. 38-F. 40-A. 28-A 1. 13-A. 40-B.F. 38-C. 3-A. miscellaneous Blood and blood products (processing) Brake fluids Candy glazes Cellulose coatings Cellulose compounds (dehydration) Cellulose intermediates Chemicals (miscellaneous) Cleaning solutions Coatings. 40-B. 23-H. 3-C.3-A. 3-C. 2-B. 40-B. 38-B. 3-A. 32 1. 23-H. 38-B. 37. 32 13-A. 3-A.A. 40-C 1. 30.S. 29. 40-C 23-A. 30 1. 23-A. 3-C. 3-C.S. 35-A 1. 23-H. 39-C. 38-B 1. 12-A. 29. automobile and supplementary Fuels.3-A. rocket and jet Fungicides Glandular products (processing) Hair and scalp preparations Hormones (processing) CODE NO.3-A. proprietary heating Fuels.2-B. 38-B 1. 3-A. 23-A. 3-A. 39. 3-C. 12-A. 32. 3-A. 39-A. miscellaneous (processing) Fuel uses. 23-H.3-A. 3-C. 2-C. 13-A. 37.) Fluid uses. 38-B. 30. 3-A. 3-C. 2-B. 30 1. 23-A. miscellaneous Dentifrices Deodorants (body) Detergents. 32. 40-C 1. 39-A. 3-C. ethyl Ethers. 40-A.E Colognes Crude drugs (processing) Cutting oils Dehydration products.3-A. 37. 13-A. 3-B. 3-C. 35-A 1. 40-C 1. 13-A. 40. 40-A. 13-A. Tobacco and Firearms. 17.2-B. 3-B. 3-C. 35. 32. 30. 32. 3-A. 2-C. 40. 32. 35-A * Other products or processes may be authorized by the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol. 40-B.2-B. 39-D. 27-A. 3-C. 12-A 1. 28-A 1. 2-C. 36. 27-B. household Detergents. 40. 40-C 1. 27. 29. 6-B. 2-B. 12-A. 23-A. 19. 17. 3-A. 3-C. 3-C. bathing solution (restricted) Antiseptic solutions. 3-C 1. 23-A 1. 40.3-A. 23-A. 12-A. 29. 30. Bath preparations Bay rum Biocides.S. 30. 13-A. 30. 30. 3-A.2-B. 37. 23-F. 3-C. 30. 29. 40A. 3-C 31-A. 40-C 1. 40-B. 13-A. 2-C.3-A. 35-A 1.2-B. 40. 40-B. or N. 2-B. 23-A. 35-A. 23-A. 3-C. 40. 3-C. D. miscellaneous Collodions. 39-B. 3-A. 39-C.

3-C 1. 3-A. 2-C. 12-A. 40-A. 13-A. 40-A. 23-A.13-A. Tobacco and Firearms. 3-B. 23-A. 3-C.P. 2-B. 39-A. 3-C. 39-B. 38-B. 3-A. or N. 38-F 2-B. 40-B. 3-A. 30. 35-A 26 *Other products or processes may be authorized by the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol. 30 1. 3-A. Washington. 12-A. 3-C. 3-C. 22. 3-C.S. 3-A. 29 1. 3-C. 3-C. 40. 39-B. 3-A. 3-C. 30 38-B. 22. 23-A 1. 27-B. 30 1. 12-A. industrial Soaps. 23-A. 30. 3-A. 40-B. miscellaneous Solvents. 3-C. 39-C. anhydrous (restricted) Sodium hydrosulfite (dehydration) Soldering flux Solutions. 38-B. 23-A. 39. 31-A. 12-A. 40. 30.S. 3-A. 3-C. 23-A. 30. 2-B. 39-B. 2-B. 40-A. 29. 39-B. 3-C. 40-C 1. 38-B. 23-A. 27-B. 40-C 1. and N. 40-B. 37. synthetic Room deodorants Rosin (processing) Rotogravure dyes and solutions Rubber (latex) (processing) Rubber. 23-A. 2-B. 3-C. 12-A. 38-B 23-A. 13-A. 42. 36. 13-A. 30. 3-A. 40-C 1. 3-A. non-cellulose (including resins) Polishes Preserving solutions Product development and pilot plant (own use only) Proprietary solvents Refrigerating uses Resin coatings. 13-A. 23-A 1. 31-A. 38-B. 13-A.F. 3-A. 30. 38-B. 3-C. 32. 13-A. 3-C. 42. 40-B. D. 23-A. 29. 13-A. 2-B. 39-B. 3-A. 30. 27-A. 3-A. 32 1. 44 All formulas 1. 40-C 25. 30 1. 35-A 1. 3-A. 30 1. 40-B. 40. 39-C. 40-C 1. 30 3-A. 3-C. 3-C. 3-C 1. 30. 2-B.12-A. 23-A. 3-C. 38-B. face. 39-C. tinctures) Laboratory reagents (for sale) Laboratory uses (own uses only) Lacquer thinners Liniments (U. 39-B. 23-A 27. 3-C. 3-C. 3-B. 22. 3-C. 2-B. 2-B. 3-A. 3-C. 12-A. 40-C 1. 23-H. 2-C. 3-C. 23-A. 23-A. cellulose Plastics. 3-A 1. 32 1. 3-A. 36. 3-C. 3-C. 3-C. 3-C. 3-A. 470 052 410 230 811 810 042 243 113 344 358 359 132 576 331 352 121 320 481 353 031 349 021 022 051 430 812 041 740 014 012 590 470 354 481 355 580 220 710 141 013 440 142 524 312 035 485 042 043 053 430 470 460 122 032 900 343 511 342 573 342 FORMULAS AUTHORIZED 3-A. 3-C 1. 3-C. 30. 30 1. 39-A. 35-A 18. 23-H. 3-A. 38-B. 3-A. 23-A. 39-B. 3-A. 2-B. 40-C 1. 23-A. 3-C. 30. 2-B. 3-C 1. 30. 32 1. 30 1. 40-A. synthetic Rubbing alcohol Scientific instruments Shampoos Shellac coatings Soaps. 35-A 37. 3-C 1. 2-B. 38-B 1. 30. 37. 39-C.P. 13-A. 23-A. 35-A 1. 30. 3-A. 39-C. 38-D. 23-A. 3-A. and hand) Medicinal chemicals (processing) Miscellaneous chemicals (processing) Miscellaneous products (processing) Mouthwashes Organo-silicone products Pectin (processing) Perfume materials (processing) Perfumes and perfume tinctures Petroleum products Photoengraving dyes and solutions Photographic chemicals (processing) Photographic film and emulsions Pill and tablet manufacture Plastics. 23-A. 30. 38-B. 40. 2-B. 13-A. 3-C 29. 3-A. 3-C. 3-A. 2-C. 35-A 3-A. 40-A. 3-C. synthetic Resins. 44 3-A. 23-A. 30 1. 40-B. 30. 37. 40. natural Resin coatings. 3-A. 3-A. 3-C.3-A. 3-C. 38-B. 3-A. 3-A. 13-A.) Lotions and creams (body. 40-B. 25-A 3-A. 13-A. 2-B. 2-B. 40. 32. 23-A. 23-A. 35-A 1. 35-A 1. 3-C. 32. 23-A. 2-B. 30 1. 23-A 1. 12-A. 13-A. 13-A. 37. 12-A. 30 1. special (restricted sale) Stains (wood) Sterilizing solutions Theater sprays Tobacco sprays and flavors Toilet waters Transparent sheetings Unclassified uses Vaccine (processing) Vinegar Vitamins (processing) Xanthates Yeast (processing) CODE NO. 27-B. 33 1. 32. 12-A 1. 35-A 1. 39. 3-C. 39-C. 2-B. 23-A. 12-A. 40. 22. 2-B. 40-B. 13-A. 38-B. 40-A. 32. 3-A.C. 3-A. 3-C. 3-C. 40. 39-B. 40-C 1. 38-C.105 . miscellaneous Solvents and thinners. 39. 12-A. 3-C. 40-A. 37. Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohol —27 CFR 212. 37. 3-A. 32. 17. 35-A. 3-A. 13-A. 40-B. 17. 13-A. 13-A. 22. toilet Sodium ethylate. 30. 17. 30. 3-C. 13-A. 40-C 4 38-B. 40-C 2-B 1. 30 3-A. 3-A. 40-A. 19. 3-A. 32 23-H 1. 32.PRODUCT OR PROCESS Incense Inks Insecticides Iodine solutions (including U. 40. 40-A. 39-C. 30 1. 30. 39-B. 3-A. 30 1.F. 37. 3-A.

F. terpeneless Spike lavender oil.P.F. 40-C SDA 27. N. N. N. fluid extract of.F. U. U. Spearmint oil. USED IN CDA 18. SDA 28-A SDA 33 SDA 31-A SDA 27-B SDA 38-B CDA 18.S. 38-B.P. N. Formaldehyde solution.P. Caustic soda. U.S.P. 27-A.F.S.F.S.P.F. 38-B SDA 37. 40.S. U. N. U. 25-A SDA 3-C CDA 18. Guaiacol. natural Storax. Spearmint oil. 35-A SDA 13-A. XI Bone oil (Dipple’s oil) Boric acid.F. 39 SDA 38-B SDA 45 SDA 31-A SDA 25. XI Shellac (refined) Soap.F. 30 SDA 4 DENATURANT Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl normal-butyl ketone Methyl Salicylate.P. 39-D SDA 38-B SDA 2-B.P. 25-A.S. Phenol. Pine oil.P. SDA 28-A SDA 38-F SDA 25.DENATURANTS AUTHORIZED FOR COMPLETELY DENATURED ALCOHOL (CDA) AND SPECIALLY DENATURED ALCOHOL (SDA) DENATURANT Acetaldehyde Acetone. N. N. bitter. 46 SDA 42 SDA 42 SDA 42 SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 3-B SDA 38-F SDA 25. 38-F SDA 39-A SDA 39-A SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 27-A.F. 38-F SDA 38-B SDA 2-B. U.F. Sodium iodide. Xll Nicotine solution Nitropropane. N. SDA 1 SDA 38-B SDA 38-B. U. 38-D.F. Sodium. N. N.F.F. 19. 23-H CDA 18. U. Diethyl phthalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl ether Eucalyptol. 38-C. hard. U. N.F. Resorcin. 20 SDA 27-B. Unleaded Gentian violet. U.F.F. N. 3-A. Anethole.S.P. 23-H CDA 18 SDA 38-B SDA 36 SDA 36 SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 23-F.S. U.P.P. N. Green soap. U. U.F. 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 1. 35. Isopropyl alcohol Kerosene Kerosene (deodorized) Lavender oil. Rosemary oil.P. 42 SDA 6-B CDA 18 SDA 39 SDA 40 SDA 39-A SDA 39-A.F.X Quinine bisulfate. XII Thymol.P. U.S. natural Clove oil N. Primary Denaturants Authorized for Denatured Spirits--Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations 212. Pyridine bases Pyronate Quassia. 38-B. N.P. 19. 39-D SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 40-A SDA 42 SDA 38-B SDA 37. mixed isomers of Peppermint oil. 38-B SDA 17 SDA 38-F SDA 40 SDA 40 SDA 44 SDA 39. U.S. Brucine alkaloid Brucine sulfate.F. SDA 28-A CDA 18.F. Potassium iodide.F. 12-A SDA 23-F. U. Anise oil.F. 39-B. N. N. Tolu balsam.P.F. U.P. Benzaldehyde. N. XIII Chloroform Chlorothymol. Glycerin (Glycerol). XI Quinine sulfate. 20. Thyme oil. Phenyl salicylate (salol).P. N. 32 SDA 37. N. 38-B SDA 36 SDA 38-B SDA 20 SDA 38-B. 38-C.F.P. liquid Cedar leaf oil. XI Vinegar Zinc chloride. SDA 1.110 27 .S. Polysorbate 80. 25-A SDA 2-C SDA 39.S. Menthol.F.F.F.S. Toluene Turpentine oil. U. XI Methyl alcohol Methylene blue. SDA 1 SDA 38-B. 2-C. volatile (allyl isothiocyanate).S. Bay oil (myrcia oil).S. aqueous Ammonia solutions. N. 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 38-B SDA 22.F. N. U. Pine tar. Coal tar.P. 19.F. Acetaldol Almond oil. 39-C SDA 29. X Heptane Hydrochloric acid. Sassafras oil. 39-D SDA 39-A SDA 39-D SDA 23-F SDA 27.F. 19. XII Rubber hydrocarbon solvent Safrole Salicylic acid. N. U.S. metallic Sodium salicylate. U. N. N. SDA 2-B. dwarf. 20 CDA 18. U.P. IX Phenyl mercuric nitrate. 19. 19. 38-D CDA 18.S.P. N. red. 39-A.F. XI Eugenol. Gasoline Gasoline. 20. Phenyl mercuric benzoate Phenyl mercudc chlodde.S.P. IX Cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde). Denatonium benzoate. N. U. 40-A.F. strong.S. iX n-Butyl alcohol tert-Butyl alcohol USED IN SDA 29 SDA 23-A. N.P.S.F.S. N.F. N.F. X Ammonia. 19. Cinchonidine Cinchonidine sulfate.F Benzene Bergamot oil.S. 46 SDA 38-B SDA 4 CDA 18. N. N. N. 2-C.P. 40-B. N. 28-A SDA 38-B SDA 23-F. XI Quinine dihydrochloride.S.S. IX Cinnamon oil (cassia oil). Eucalyptus oil.S. N. 40-B SDA 39-B. 19. N.F.P. VII Quassin Quinine. N. U.F. 38-F SDA 42 SDA 1. Mercuric iodide. Iodine. 38-B CDA 18. 2-C.F. U. Mustard oil.S. 19. 19.P. N. Sucrose octa-acetate Thimerosal. 12-A SDA 38-B SDA 18 SDA 38-F Camphor. 38-B. Citronella oil. U. XI Pine needle oil. N.

avdp.12 3.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 1-1 To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Methyl Alcohol. 0. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Methyl Alcohol Isopropyl Alcohol Denatonium Benzoate Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Rubber Hydrocarbon Solvent Toluene Water Coefficient of expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F.7944 0. 2./vol. N.7944 0.4 92. oz.0006 14 58 18 65 6. Min.7926 0.7902 0. gallons 4 1/8 SDA 1-2 4 — 1 — — SDA 2B-2 (1) — — — 0.606(2) 95.7895 0.0006 12 53 22 71 6.96 — — — 0.7905 0. Because of very limited use.611 Comments: 1.612 190.76 — 0.29 0.8122 0. LP.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity. 0.7934 0.788 190. grams/100 ml Color.2 99.0006 15 59 16 60 (2) 6. Min.42 — 7.0025 10 0.7936 0.0011 0. gallons Denatonium Benzoate. Determined by Equistar Chemicals.8156 0. gallons Isopropyl Alcohol.8144 0.5 88. 0.22 0.8111 0.0010 0. there are several approved formulas that are not discussed in this book.8124 0.03 — — — — 0.001 — — — — 0.0006 13 56 13 55 6.0025 10 0.10 190º Max.8078 — — — — Anhydrous Max.8090 0.86 — 0.0025 0.56 — — — — 0. 0. Min. This formula must be used in a closed end continuous system unless it is shown that it is not practical to do so.8156 0.14 3.0006 13 56 23 73 6.8142 0.7868 0.0010 0.788 199.8144 0.0025 — 10 — — — Typical 0.8113 0.10 0.8088 0.22 3.10 190º Max. LP sales office.7879 0.788 200. Pt-Co Water Content.94 — — 7. 28 .44 — — 0.F. per 27 CFR 212.0010 0.8124 0.8090 0.7868 0.82 — — 0.5 — — — — FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15.7912 0. Min.95 3.001 — — — 7.0006 11 52 16 60 (2) 6.0025 — 10 — — — Typical TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.4 88.7862 0. 0.7912 0.7902 0.0025 10 0.0025 — 0.55 0.72 — — 0.0025 — 0.0010 0.0025 — 10 — — — Typical 199.8113 0. Min. Min.9 0.7934 0. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.0011 0. gallons Toluene. gallons Rubber Hydrocarbon Solvent.8154 0.9 96. vol. Methyl Isobutyl Ketone.7871 0.0025 0. % Odor 190º Max.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums 190.56º C/15. 0.7879 0.8076 — — — — Anhydrous Max. Specific information may be obtained by contacting Equistar Chemicals.0025 0.0025 — 0.8078 — — — — Anhydrous Max.

0025 — 0.8156 0.8088 — — — — Anhydrous Max.0011 0.8120 0.5 SDA 3-A 5 — — — — SDA 3-C — 5 — — — Test Method 190º Max.0025 0.0025 10 0.S.8109 0.0025 — 0.7931 0.7905 0.8074 — — — — Anhydrous Max.4 88. 0.0006 16 60 18 65 6.7910 0.53 7.9 91.8144 0.0011 0.65 — — — — — 7.0006 — ASTM D-56 13 56 18 65 6.8166 0.78 — — — — — — 0.8 99.74 — — — — — 0.0025 — 10 — — Typical 0.0025 10 0.8100 0.0010 0.10 ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic I.45 — — — — — 0.7936 0. 0.15 — 4.7912 0.7942 0.93 — — — — — 0.26 — 4.0010 0. 0.0025 0.12 4.0025 10 0.0 95. 0.613 190.7871 0.54 0. Min.8124 0.785 199.0006 13 55 16 60 6.7902 0. Gauging Manual 0.0006 16 61 21 69 (2) 6.0025 — 0.0006 14 57 19 66 (2) 6.8090 0.609 190.7934 0.0025 — 10 — — — Typical 0.8113 0.7876 0.797 199.7865 — 0.7882 0.6 88.7946 0.8134 0.8140 0.7915 0.9 95.8078 — — — — Anhydrous Max.0011 0.8122 0.0010 0. 0.10 190º Max.SDA 2B-3 (1) — — — — 0.0025 — 10 — — Typical 189.22 4.7879 0.8154 0.7869 — 0. 0. Min. Min.10 190º Max.23 0.608 ASTM D-1310 29 . Min.62 — — — — 7.8152 0.0006 17 62 20 68 6. Min.55 — 0.7944 0.0025 0. Min.8086 0.784 200.7900 0.23 0.R.

8189 0. Min.0006 11 52 18 65 (1) 6.0025 0.0011 0.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity.7907 — — — — 0.7921 0.815 198.80 5.7940 0.0025 10 — Anhydrous Max.8123 0.0025 10 0. per 27 CFR 212. vol.0011 0.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums Comments: 1. gallons 5 — FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15./vol.20 — — 0. Determined by Equistar Chemicals. grams/100 ml Color.8077 0.7 87. Min. Pt-Co Water Content. 188. 0.7986 0. gallons Ethyl Ether.0006 9 49 16 60 (1) 6.56º C/15.8157 0.7972 0.0025 0. 0.74 5. % Odor 190º Max.19 0.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 12A-3 To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Toluene. LP. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Toluene Ethyl Ether Water Coefficient of expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F.644 30 .8146 0.8111 — — — — 0.07 7.7955 0.10 Typical TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.3 94. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.

0011 0.R.2 85.0025 10 — Anhydrous Max.8022 — — — — 0.8068 0.SDA 13-A — 10 Test Method 190º Max.0006 -16 4 -12 10 6.07 — 7.S.0006 -14 6 -12 10 6.8034 0.15 — 0. Gauging Manual 193.0025 0. Min.8056 0.81 8.92 7.0012 0. Min.10 ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic >200 91. 0.7883 0.01 0.7816 — — — — Typical 0.0025 10 0. 0.7863 0.740 31 .7851 0.0025 0.572 ASTM D-56 ASTM D-1310 I.7828 0.7895 0.8100 0.8087 0.

53 8.10 FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15.0011 0. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter. per 27 CFR 212. % Odor 0.8078 — — — — Maximum 0.7918 0.8265 0.24 — 7.8282 0.8144 0.56º C/15. vol.0025 10 — SDA 23-A — 8 — Anhydrous Maximum Minimum 0.8251 0.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 20 (1) To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Chloroform.0025 0.621 32 . gallons Methyl Isobutyl Ketone.8113 0.0025 10 0.03 0.0006 13 56 13 55 6.F.7 91.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity. Pt-Co Water Content.47 — — — 0.7 92.10 Typical 183.8156 0.0025 0.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums Comments: 1.788 0.0011 0.8090 0.7949 0.0006 6 43 10 50 6.. Available in anhydrous formulation only.8233 0.0006 6 43 10 50 6. grams/100 ml Color.0025 10 0./vol. N.8199 — — — — 0.8124 0.7908 0.73 — 7.4 85.57 — 7.0050 0. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Chloroform Acetone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Water Coefficient of Expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F. gallons Acetone.886 No No 190º Minimum 0.7874 — — — — Typical 199.0011 0.7939 0.7884 0. 190. gallons 5 — — Anhydrous Maximum Minimum 0.43 — — TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.8216 0.

5 190º Minimum 0.6 84.35 6.29 — 7.8140 0.S.33 1.8109 0.38 — 0.8120 0. Gauging Manual Organoleptic ASTM D-56 ASTM D-1310 33 .93 0.0011 0.617 I.0006 6 43 10 50 6.6 91.8074 — — — — Maximum 0.7942 0.14 1.785 199.0025 0.0011 0.8086 0.0025 0.7886 0.10 Test Method ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Typical 190.SDA 23-H — 8 1.7920 0.8152 0.0025 10 0.0006 2 36 2 35 6.7876 — — — — 0.7952 0.7910 0.R.0025 10 — Anhydrous Maximum Minimum 0.58 — 7.

% Odor 0. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Iodine Potassium Iodide Sodium Iodide Water Coefficient of Expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F. Pt-Co Water Content.0006 16 60 18 65 7.8521 0.P. No No No No 50 gallon..8460 0..8490 0. pounds 20 15 — — 190º Minimum Maximum Minimum SDA 25-2 (1) 20 — 15 — 190º Maximum FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15. pounds Potassium Iodide.8523 0./vol. vol.1 87.0010 0.S.10 — 7.S.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums Comments: 1.084 0.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 25-1 (1) To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Iodine.90 2.0006 16 60 18 65 7. U.56º C/15.80 2.8459 — — — — Deep Red-Brown — — Typical 168.90 2.20 0.. pounds Sodium Iodide.S.P. polyethylene returnable drums only 34 .8494 0. pounds Water. grams/100 ml Color.8456 — — — — Deep Red-Brown — — Typical 169.0010 0.8429 0.P.8491 0. U.20 0. per 27 CFR 212.80 — 2. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.8492 0.10 7.083 TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.8463 0. These SDAs typically supplied only in the 190º formulation.8426 0.9 87. U.

09 2.8533 0.8500 — — — — Deep Red-Brown — — Typical 166.8471 0.11 0.1 86.74 — 2.8539 0.117 No No No No 50 gallon.8535 0.8510 0.8571 0.11 0. polyethylene returnable drums only 35 .7 86.8541 0.0010 0.SDA 25A-1 (1) 20 15 — 15 190º Minimum Maximum SDA 25A-2 (1) 20 — 15 15 190º Minimum Maximum 0.06 — 9.0010 0.8504 0.06 9.8476 0.74 2.0006 16 60 18 65 7.0006 16 60 18 65 7.8564 0.8506 — — — — Deep Red-Brown — — Typical 165.09 2.119 0.

7933 0.8160 0.0025 10 0.621(3) 0.8172 0.89 — 6.8080 0./vol.6 91.801(3) 0.56º C/15.0025 0. provided the proposed denaturant be not less than 6.7923 0.5 98. This SDA typically supplied only in the anhydrous formulation. is but one of many which is of commercial importance.0011 0.90 0. Other denaturants may be approved by the ATF director. LP.87 — — — — 0. grams/100 ml Color.8105 0. 3.13 0. or 1 gallon of liquid to 100 gallons alcohol.8094 — — — — 0.7857 — — — — Typical >200 99.8101 0.7944 0. This formula is restricted to processes in which the alcohol loses its identity by being converted to other chemicals.7922 0.8140 0. % Odor 190º Anhydrous Anhydrous 190º Maximum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Minimum Maximum Minimum 0.8128 0. Determined by Equistar Chemicals.0010 0. 2.0025 0.7889 0.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums Comments: 1.10 0.603 189. per 27 CFR 212.0025 0. gallons Ethyl Acetate.0006 7 45 10 50 6.7891 0. typically used for vinegar manufacture.8 pounds of solid.0006 15 59 21 69 6.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity.49 0. vol.7954 0.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 28-A (1) To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Gasoline.8146 0.0006 17 62 16 60 6. 36 . This formulation.87 — 1.21 — — 8.0011 0.41 — 1. gallons Methyl Alcohol.0010 0.8132 0.8115 0. gallons 1 — — — SDA 29-3 (2) — 1 — — SDA 30 — — 10 — FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15.7912 0. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.0006 16 60 18 65 6.8066 — — — — Typical 191.0 84.13 — — — 0.0025 10 — TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.7879 — — — — Typical 199.10 — — 7.0025 10 20 0.0025 10 — 0.0025 0. gallons Ethyl Ether.785 0.7901 0. Pt-Co Water Content. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Ethyl Acetate Methyl Alcohol Ethyl Ether Water Coefficient of Expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F.7867 0.

38 4.7942 0.7855 0.0025 — 10 — — Typical >200 95.7879 0.617 0.8103 0.8130 — 0.7923 0.7845 0.59 0.8068 — 0.0025 0.28 0.7868 — — — — Typical 199.0025 — 10 — — Typical 188.0011 0.7911 0.649 191.8119 — — — — 0.10 ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic I.593 7.8164 0.5 88.0025 0.73 0.7879 0.SDA 30 — — 10 — SDA 32 — — — 5 SDA 35-A — 4.0025 10 0.0006 13 53 13 55 6.0006 ASTM D-56 10 50 ASTM D-1310 17 62 6.8196 0.0011 0.0011 0.0006 14 58 21 70 6.8091 0.26 4.8153 0.24 0.8122 0.7944 0.12 4.826 0.7912 0.7902 0. Gauging Manual 37 .13 7.2 95.0025 0.03 0.0011 0.8185 0.0025 — 0.7934 0.769 4.25 — — Test Method Anhydrous Anhydrous 190º 190º Anhydrous Maximum Minimum Minimum Maximum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum 0.0025 10 0.7989 0.7974 0.62 0.8056 — — — — 0.7957 0.24 0.50 198.0025 — 0.0006 -9 15 -9 15 6.0006 -4 25 -4 25 6.7909 0.R.20 0.8134 0.9 90.88 9.7889 0.20 0.7921 0.3 88.0011 0.S.0025 10 0.

38-B.8108 0.2) To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Ammonia.F. aqueous.8130 0.S. Pt-Co Water Content.46 0. grams/100 ml Color.40 0.63 0.64 0.S.622 & Comments: 1.P.S.0011 0. liquid grade containing 73 percent sodium hydroxide by weight to 100 gallons alcohol. U. 17.F. or 12.804 6.5 pounds of caustic soda..51 0.0006 1.P.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 36 (1. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.4 91.P.S.0010 0.0006 15 59 20 68 6.27 0. 38 . 4.8174 0.47 0. pounds SDA 37 (1) TYPICAL SDA 38-B 3 — — — — 190º Minimum 0.S.8189 0.51 also authorizes the use of 7 pounds of boric acid U.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums 189.9 89.8142 Minimum 0. pounds Chlorothymol.56º C/15./vol.. 2. avdp.51 9.8142 0.5 91. % Odor 200º See page 44. per 27 CFR 212. Alternate denaturants include: 3 gallons of strong ammonia solution. ounce Boric Acid.0006 13 57 21 70 6.0006 6. liquid grade. 3. gallons Eucalyptol. FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15.8176 0. ounce Menthol..837 Denaturant 1.49 0. containing 50 percent sodium hydroxide by weight.P. TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition. 27 to 30 percent by weight.0030 N/A Typical 189.8097 — — — — 45 30 20 — — 190º Maximum 0.0025 10 — Maximum 0.8123 Alkaline — — — Typical 187.(4) U. and a total of 3 pounds of any two or more denaturing materials listed under Formula No. N.45 7.08 199.0 pounds of caustic soda..91 0.8207 0.3 98.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity. The use of Polysorbate 80 is an authorized replacement for boric acid. 27 CFR 212.18 — — 7. fluid ounces Thymol N. This SDA typically supplied only in the 190º proof formulation.. U. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Ammonia Eucalyptol Thymol Menthol Boric Acid Chlorothymol Water Coefficient of Expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F.8162 0. avdp.794 20 — 190º Denaturant 10 lbs.0010 0.8157 0.0010 0. vol.P. U.

8140 10 — ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic I. 6 11/3 190º Minimum 0.19 7.8162 0.8206 0.0006 16 61 19 66 6. Gauging Manual N/A N/A ASTM D-56 ASTM D-1310 (depending on denaturants) = resin lined containers 39 .8194 0.SDA 38-F (1.8 91.87 0.19 0.R. 11/3 lbs.S.828 & Maximum 0.8174 0.19 0.3) Test Method — — 11/3 lbs.09 0.47 0.0010 0.8127 — — Typical 187.

25 3.12 0.8122 0. Max. gallons tert-Butyl Alcohol. grams/100 ml Color. 40 .7972 — 0.8164 0.8006 0. pounds Denatonium Benzoate.7914 0.0011 0. wt/wt% as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.47 3.8028 0.41 0.0010 0.10 TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.7964 0. 190º Min. 190º Min. Anhydrous Min.8228 0. Determined by Equistar Chemicals.12 — — — — — 0.5 1/8 SDA 39-C 1 — — — — — SDA 40-1 — 1/8 — — — — 190º Min. Max.8161 0..857 196.F.0010 0.0050 N/A N/A — 20 — 20 — — — 0.8162 — 0.6 98. This formula shall be used only in the manufacturers of products which will be packaged in pressurized containers in which the liquid contents are in intimate contact with the propellant and from which the contents are not easily removable in liquid form. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Diethyl Phthalate tert-Butyl Alcohol Brucine Alkaloid Brucine Sulfate Sucrose Octaacetate Denatonium Benzoate Water Coefficient of Expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag closed cup ºC ºF Tag open cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon @ 60º F.47 0. Max.8155 — — — 0. Pt-Co Water Content.7979 0.9 99.61 1.0 96. avdp ounces Brucine Sulfate N.0025 0. per 27 CFR 212.57 0. Sucrose Octaacetate.F. 2.AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 39-B To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Diethyl Phthalate.7997 0.5 91.7899 0.020 10 0.7963 0. Max.39 — — — — — — 0.8172 0.0010 0.0050 — N/A N/A 10 10 — 0.0025 — 0.31 0.8038 0.8238 0.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums 190.32 0.0006 16 60 18 65 6.30 — 0.7868 0.0006 13 55 16 60 6.0006 16 61 18 65 6.7912 0.8154 0.677 0.0006 14 58 18 65 6.17 1.8149 0.0006 13 55 16 60 6.0011 0.10 Typical 186.8132 0.12 0. IX.0 89.7879 0.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity.8126 0. N.611 Comments: 1. FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15. Max.020 — 10 — — — Typical 0.36 — — — — — 7.12 — — — — 7. Min. 11/2 — — — Anhydrous Max.56º C/15.87 — 0.819 198.8192 0.8182 0.014 — — — 7.8196 0.7902 0. gallons Brucine Alkaloid.0 92. avdp ozs.0006 13 56 16 60 6. avdp ounces 2. Anhydrous Min. LP.642 0.7932 0. vol.7934 0.0050 188.8098 0.0050 0.0011 0.8207 0.014 — — — — 0.8088 — — — — 0. % Odor 0.7944 0.10 — — Typical 0./vol.7948 0.795 199.

8128 0.794 199.S.7898 0.788 200. Min.7 92.8154 0.87 — — — — — 0.0025 0.12 — — — 0.7912 0. Max.8148 0.13 — 2.7912 0.R. Gauging Manual 190.31 — 0.611(1) 189.0 92.8126 0.8094 0.0050 — 0.0006 — 0.8120 0. Anhydrous Max.0006 13 55 16 60 6.0011 0.7879 0.18 — 0.8164 0.88 — 0.15 — 7.7908 0.12 — — — 0.0006 13 56 16 60 6.12 — — 0.57 0.8098 0.2 89.0050 — 0.16 — 10 — — — Typical 0.0025 0.79 — — — — 7.014 — — — 0.0006 13 56 16 60 6.7949 0.7902 0.10 — 0.0025 10 0. Anhydrous Max.8088 — — — — 0. Max.7874 0.8152 0.0025 — 10 — — — Typical 0.7918 0.10 ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic I.020 — 10 — — — Typical 0. 190º Min.7908 0. Anhydrous Min.020 — 10 — 0.7884 0.0006 7.8164 0.0010 0.9 99.7879 0.10 0.0006 17 62 18 65 6.0011 0. Max.7829 0.9 99.8086 0. — — — 1/16 Max.0010 0.0006 16 60 18 65 6. Min.7939 0.10 — 0. 190º Min.8116 0.798 199.8082 — — — — 0.7868 0.37 0.8104 0.57 0.8098 0.0025 — 0.15 — 0. Max.SDA 40-2 — 1/8 SDA 40-A — 1/8 SDA 40-B — 1/8 SDA 40-C (2) — 3 — — — — Test Method — 11/2 — — 190º Min.8170 0.0025 10 0.0010 0. 0.0006 17 62 18 65 6.7939 0.7 99.0011 0.0006 12 53 17 62 6. — — 1 — Anhydrous Max. 190º Min.7874 0.7944 0.014 — — 7.12 — 0.87 0.7934 0.795(1) 199.16 — 10 — 0.7868 0.8138 0.609 ASTM D-56 ASTM D-1310 41 .12 — 0.8132 0.0006 16 61 18 65 6.0025 — 0.610 190.8132 0.73 — 0.8160 0.84 — 2.1 97.0025 — 10 — — — Typical 0.0025 — 0.8158 0. Min.30 — 0.8192 0.12 0.0010 0.7902 0.613 190.7934 0.7864 0.0011 0.55 0.7944 0.8122 0.0025 — 0.0 92.

AUTHORIZED COMPOSITION: SDA 45 To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Refined Shellac.8838 0. per 27 CFR 212. wt/wt % Ethyl Alcohol Shellac Water Coefficient of Expansion: Per 1º C Per 1º F Flash Point: Tag Closed Cup ºC ºF Tag Open Cup ºC ºF Pounds per gallon.0009 0.56º C/15. Pt-Co Water Content.11 30.22 — 0.8868 0.78 31. % Odor 0.0 68.115 Shipping containers Tank cars Tank trucks Drums 127./vol.0005 12 53 21 70 7.26 0.0005 11 52 18 65 7.0 64.8875 0.9071 0.0009 0.8905 0.9012 N/A N/A N/A N/A Anhydrous Maximum Minimum 0. @ 60º F.9043 0.56º C (60º F/60º F) @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity.63 5.9036 0. vol.9008 0.8844 FORMULATION: SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 15.403 42 .8806 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.545 No No 50 gallon open head drums 141. grams/100 ml Color. pounds 300 190º Minimum Maximum 0. as acetic acid Non-volatile matter.8977 Typical TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition.

S.R. Gauging Manual ASTM D-56 ASTM D-1310 43 .Test Method ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic I.

P. U. XIII Chlorothymol.F. U.F.S. Phenyl salicylate (Salol). N.P. Menthol. N. XII Pine needle oil. N.F. U. XII Peppermint oil.S. U. Thyme oil.P. Coal tar. N. IX Cinnamon oil (Cassia oil).P. U. U. Cedar leaf oil.P. N. dwarf. natural Clove oil. Equistar will work with prospective users of SDA 38-B to assist in the development of specifications and test methods. Bitter almond oil.F.P. Phenol. N. N. volatile (allyl isothiocyanate). U. N.S. U. XII Thymol. XI Pine oil.P.S. Turpentine oil. N.F. Mustard oil.P. XI Benzaldehyde.F.F. Tolu balsam. U.F. XII Cinnamic Aldehyde. Citronella oil.F.A Word About SDA 38-B… The properties of SDA 38-B are as diverse as are the denaturants used in this formula and the products formulated with it. Anise oil. N. Bergamot oil.S.S.F. N. The authorized denaturants include: Anethole. Eucalyptol. U.F.F. 44 .P.S. N. Lavender oil.F. N. N.F. U.S. N. XI Because of the virtually infinite number of authorized denaturants and denaturant combinations. Eugenol.. U. only a typical set of properties for SDA 38-B have been listed on page 38. N.F.S. N. U. XII Eucalyptus oil. U. Rosemary oil. Guaiacol.S. of the oils and substances listed below are to be added to 100 gallons of alcohol.P.P.P.P. XII Safrole Sassafras oil. terpeneless Spike lavender oil.P.F.S. N. Spearmint oil. natural Storax. N. X Camphor. The authorized composition of SDA 38-B requires that 10 pounds of any one.S. XI Spearmint oil.S. N.S.F. or a total of 10 pounds of two or more.S. U.F. Bay oil (myrcia off). Methyl Salicylate.F.F.P.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ALCOHOL SOLVENTS Introduction . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latex Coagulants . Shellac . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Specialties . . . . . . . .. . . . Regulations . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . Authorized Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Specifications and Typical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 54 . Authorized Composition . . . . . . . . . . . Uses: . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 46 Proprietary Solvents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Shipping Information . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Specifications and Typical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Printing . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . Authorized Composition . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Shipping Information . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Uses: . . . . . . 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Shipping Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 47 48 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 52 Filmex Special Industrial Solvents . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical and Drug Processing . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . S-Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications and Typical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Introduction . . . . . . . . Chemical Specialties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completely Denatured Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

which have been approved by the ATF for the uses noted under the descriptions of the products. Authorized Composition The primary component of proprietary solvent is specially denatured alcohol. Proprietary solvents are non-corrosive.Introduction Equistar proprietary solvents. gallons Denatonium Benzoate. PROPRIETARY SOLVENTS Introduction Proprietary solvents are manufactured in several ATF approved formulations. gallons Proprietary Solvent 100 1 0. There are two options for SDA 1. The products described in this section are authorized formulations. burn with a clean flame. gallons Methyl Alcohol. payment of tax. These are supplied to meet the industrial users’ various requirements. Regulations Detailed regulations pertaining to the use of proprietary solvents and Filmex special industrial solvents can be found in the "Government Regulations" booklet available from your Equistar sales representative. Equistar manufactures proprietary solvent prepared with SDA 1-1 (Bitrex option). Methyl Isobutyl Ketone. gallons Ethyl Acetate.F. Filmex special industrial solvents. A redistilled version of some of these formulations is available for solvent applications. Close quality control of ingredients make Equistar proprietary solvents conform to narrow specification limits. av. Uses other than those listed in 27 CFR must be approved by the ATF. These are used to prepare the anhydrous or 190 proof formulations of proprietary solvent. The following SDA I Formulas are used extensively: Authorized Composition Ethyl Alcohol. N.87 1 46 . or posting of bond. oz. PROPRIETARY SOLVENTS: Equistar offers the following proprietary solvents in both 190 and 200 proof formulations. Formula 1. and SDA 1-2 (MIBK option). Authorized Composition SDA 1-1. and completely denatured alcohol can be purchased by industrial users without securing an ATF permit. and have a mild. gallons Rubber Hydrocarbon Solvent. non-residual odor. gallons -1 (Bitrex Option) 100 4 1/8 — -2 (MIBK Option) 100 4 — 1 In the formulation of SDA 1. gallons Methyl Isobutyl Ketone. the required denaturants are added to 100 gallons of anhydrous or 190 proof ethyl alcohol.

Drums and pails must bear the D.) as a flammable liquid.O. Photography — both negatives and paper prints can be dried in a few minutes using proprietary solvent as a final rinse. brilliant gloss without streaking.T. loading and handling must be followed. The mild odor and superior solvent action of proprietary solvent makes it especially suitable for these purposes.Uses Latex coagulants — proprietary solvent is an important raw material in the latex coagulant and rubber goods industry. red label for flammable liquids. Proprietary solvent can also be used to furnish the ethyl group in chemical manufacturing where the presence of its denaturants is not objectionable. all other regulations regarding labeling.O. and its relatively high evaporation rate. and when shipped. Shellac — cutting and thinning shellac—because of its solvent power. Anhydrous proprietary solvent is used as a reaction medium for many chemical processes in which the presence of water is detrimental. Fuel conditioner — a gallon of anhydrous proprietary solvent for every 20 gallons of gasoline will prevent clogged lines due to freezing as a result of water condensation. Proprietary solvent is classified by Department of Transportation (D. 47 . it has good drying qualities and can be used with advantage for a prime coat on floors. and gives a clean.T. and its mild. approved containers.T. and other items. Fuel oil conditioner — water and sludge in the bottom of fuel oil tanks may be removed by pouring a gallon or two of anhydrous proprietary solvent into a nearly empty tank. flammable liquid placard. It must be packaged in D. inoffensive odor.O.O. Chemical manufacture — proprietary solvent is useful in certain purifying and recrystallizing operations. The usual 4-lb cut of shellac (4 pounds shellac to 1 gallon proprietary solvent or denatured alcohol) should be thinned with additional proprietary solvent to obtain the correct working consistency. proprietary solvent is accepted as the ideal shellac solvent and thinner. in tank trucks.T. Tank trucks and tank cars must bear the D. The anhydrous formulation has blending features especially adaptable to the manufacture of spirit varnishes.000 gallon capacity. make it a preferred latex coagulant solvent for latex coagulants. and in drums. Proprietary solvent is ideal for cleaning ferrotype plates. Shellac cut with Equistar proprietary solvent gives a smooth film of high gloss and good color. Chemical specialties — industrial formulators of chemical specialties have found Equistar’s proprietary solvent to be well suited for numerous specialty applications such as: In window cleaning compounds — proprietary solvent is a valuable aid for removing grease and grime. The low moisture content of the anhydrous formulation. Shipping Information Deliveries of Equistar proprietary solvent can be made in tank cars of 30.000 gallon and 20. cabinetwork. furniture.

81 4. wt.8148 0.8102 — — — — Maximum 0./wt.7911 0.005 0. wt.0006 0.005 0.8146 0./wt.7935 0.91 0.59 — — 0.90 0.81 6 42 9 49 6. Pt-Co Water Content.7967 0.005 0.0011 0.0006 10 50 12 53 6. wt.F.52 0.81 11 52 16 60 6.8133 0.81 4.47 6.8136 0./wt.3 83.0025 15 — PROPRIETARY SOLVENT I-2 190 Proof Formulation Minimum 0. % Rubber Hydrocarbon Solvent.83 4.8111 0.8168 0. wt.20 Anhydrous Formulation Minimum 0. lbs @ 60º F 198.64 9 48 11 52 6.0025 15 0.2 84./vol.001 198. % Methyl Alcohol.001 189.SPECIFICATIONS AND TYPICAL PROPERTIES PROPRIETARY SOLVENT I-1 190 Proof Formulation SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 60º F/60º F @ 20º C/20º C @ 25º C/25º C Acidity.0011 0.7935 0. % Ethyl Acetate. grams/100 ml Color. wt.7902 — — — — Maximum 0. vol.58 — 0./wt.0006 0./wt.64 48 ./wt.0010 0.47 3. wt. non-residual Maximum 0.20 mild. % Odor Minimum 0.8179 0.89 0.6 90. % Water.7976 0.0010 0.83 4.47 6.7902 — — — — mild.84 — TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Apparent Proof @ 60º F Composition at 60º F Ethyl Alcohol. wt.94 3. % Coefficient of Expansion: per 1º C per 1º F Flash Point: Tag Closed Cup ºC ºF Tag Open Cup ºC ºF Weight per gallon. wt. % Methyl Isobutyl Ketone./wt.7967 0.7911 0.8113 0.0025 15 — Anhydrous Formulation Minimum 0.6 90.7945 0. % as acetic acid Non-volatile Matter.8166 0.0025 15 0.61 0.65 — 0. % Denatonium Benzoate N. non-residual 189.7976 0.06 3.7945 0.0006 0.56 — 0./wt.8177 0.25 3.8100 — — — — Maximum 0.005 0.

S.61 49 .56 3.7932 0.85 0.001 190.8182 0.0011 0.7900 0.8 86.R.0025 15 0.0011 0.0010 0.005 0.20 Anhydrous Formulation Minimum 0.7910 0.87 0. non-residual 0.98 0.0006 0.78 ASTM D-56 9 48 ASTM D-1310 11 51 6.94 7.96 — — I.8105 0.0006 0.09 0.8082 0.8070 — — — — Maximum 0.0 93.20 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic 200. non-residual 190.7276 0.46 3.0010 0.005 0.7910 0.94 7.78 7 45 10 50 6.8070 — — — — Maximum 0.0025 15 — PROPRIETARY SOLVENT III-2 190 Proof Formulation Minimum 0.8105 0.96 — 0.7866 — — — — Maximum 0.71 1.72 3.8148 0.001 200.02 — mild.83 0.7866 — — — — Maximum 0.83 0.7932 0.61 10 50 14 57 6.8148 0.8 85.005 0.0025 15 — Anhydrous Formulation Minimum 0.8136 0.0025 15 0.8136 0.85 0.66 0.8116 0.75 0.91 0.005 0.0 92.PROPRIETARY SOLVENT III-1 190 Proof Formulation Minimum 0.52 3.8116 0.0006 10 50 15 59 6.0006 0.7900 0.7942 0.62 1.7942 0. Gauging Manual Test Method ASTM D-891 mild.96 0.7876 0.

50 .

and when shipped. all other regulations regarding labeling.000-gallon and 20. improve dye penetration and acceptance. Because of the high alcohol content of most formulations and the absence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons.O.000-gallon capacity. — in the rotogravure process it is especially suitable in producing sharp.T. loading and handling must be followed. in tank trucks and drums.O.) as a flammable liquid. and type. It must be packaged in D.O. It is considered a denatured alcohol solvent and its D. approved containers. unlike proprietary solvents. — formulating and thinning inks. flammable liquid placard. special industrial solvent is desired. plates. Shipping Information Deliveries of Filmex can be made in tank cars of 30. No permits are required for the use of Filmex solvents. — to clean rubber rollers.O. PRINTING Filmex is often used in printing operations. Each of the six is available in both 190 proof and anhydrous formulations.FILMEX® SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS Introduction Filmex is our trade name for special industrial solvent manufactured according to ATF regulations.T. in the formulation of lacquers and for numerous other applications where a high quality.T. red label for flammable liquids. Tank trucks. Drums must bear the D. CHEMICAL AND DRUG PROCESSING Filmex has applications where the use of SDA is not required. Filmex is used to promote fabric adhesion. Filmex is used in other critical arts where the clarity of solvent solution is extremely important. Uses Filmex is used in applications where some of the required denaturants present in proprietary solvents have an adverse effect on the intended use. the softening of rubber and various polymers is minimized when these materials are exposed to Filmex. CHEMICAL SPECIALTIES Photographic film is rapidly and cleanly dried with Filmex.S. and to soften various fibers. Its uses include employment as a reaction and extraction solvent.T. Filmex. This material is prepared by adding 5 gallons of methyl alcohol to 100 gallons of anhydrous or 190 proof ethyl alcohol.O.distinct etchings. nomenclature is alcohol N. It is also used as a latex coagulant solvent. will not cloud when diluted with water. 51 .T. tank cars and box trailers (either truckloads or less than truckloads) must bear the D. Filmex is classified by the Department of Transportation (D. Authorized Composition Filmex special industrial solvents are formulated using SDA formula 3-A.O. TEXTILES In the fabric and textile industry. Government regulations also permit special industrial solvents to be prepared using SDA 3-C but these formulations are not discussed in this handbook.

. infinite. .90 — 5.0006 81. ..0011 0. ...91 — — 199. .. ...80 13.. . . . 6.7944 0.30 85.76 0. .81 8.. . infinite. .0025 10 0.......8120 — — — — 0. Tag Open Cup.. . . .77 6.29 9.. . . .48 0. .8 0. .79 4.59 8.0025 0. max) Color (APHA) Water.62 4. .8132 0.77 6..6 0.0025 10 0..77 . . . . .0006 85.34 — 0.. 52 .20 — 0.0006 81.38 0.30 — 0..90 — — ºC ºF ºC ºF 17 61 19 66 14 57 18 65 16 60 19 66 12 54 17 61 17 61 19 66 14 57 18 65 6.. .0025 0.61 6. .. . .91 — — 199.. .51 0..0011 0. .52 4.4 0. ..0011 0..7936 — 0....78 8.53 191.53 191.0 0.0025 0.61 4.01 0.. .0006 85.0025 — 10 — — mild and non-residual 0... . .0011 0.79 4.. .30 — 0.7942 0.58 13....97 0..89 — 6. . .20 8. . wt. . infinite. .9 0... .89 — 6.0006 85. .. . . 6.61 .54 8.20 Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 0.30 85...01 0..8136 0. . .SPECIFICATIONS AND TYPICAL PROPERTIES FILMEX A-1 190 Proof Formulation Authorized Formulation (Units are gallons) SDA 3-A Isopropyl Alcohol Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Methyl Alcohol Ethyl Acetate 100 10 1 — — FILMEX A-2 190 Proof Formulation 100 — 1 10 — FILMEX B Anhydrous Formulation 100 — 1 10 — Anhydrous Formulation 100 10 1 — — 190 Proof Formulation 100 5 1 5 — Anhydrous Formulation 100 5 1 5 — SPECIFICATIONS: Specific Gravity @ 60º/60º F Acidity....90 — — 79. . . .8124 — — — — 0.0025 — 10 — — — mild and non-residual 0..31 8. . .0011 0.30 85.3 0.0025 10 0. . . .0025 — 10 — — — mild and non-residual TYPICAL PROPERTIES: Composition at 60º F —Ethyl Alcohol.89 — 6. .90 — 5..20 Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 0.91 — — 200.50 0..7934 — 0.81 4. .. as acetic (max.0011 0.. absolute basis —Methyl Alcohol —Isopropyl Alcohol —Methyl Isobutyl Ketone —Ethyl Acetate —Water Apparent proof @ 60º F Coefficient of expansion—per 1º C per 1º F Flash Point: Tag Closed Cup.. . .. Weight per gallon @ 60º F (lbs) Water Solubility % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume 79.56 13. .0025 0..0025 0.02 — 0. .61 .7932 — 0. . . . .80 4. .8126 — — — — 0.0025 0.90 — — 79.8138 0.53 191. . as %) Non-violatile matter (gm/100 ml. . . . vol/vol % Odor Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 0. .0006 81.29 9.75 13..83 4...90 — 5. .7946 0.

. 6. .0025 — 10 — — — mild and non-residual — 0. infinite.0006 90.8120 — — — — 0. .95 4. .85 — 6. .. . .0025 0.0025 10 0.52 — 0.58 0.08 82..8 0.20 Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 0..20 Test Method ASTM D-891 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic 0.25 FILMEX D-2 190 Proof Formulation 100 — 1 15 — 190 Proof Formulation 100 15 1 — — Anhydrous Formulation 100 15 1 — — Anhydrous Formulation 100 — 1 15 — Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 0.95 4. . 6.49 4.86 — — I.. . ..7946 0..0010 0.. .04 — 0.52 — 0. .0011 0.20 Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 0. .. .13 4.0006 78.04 — 0.0025 0. .0006 85.6 0... ..0011 0.93 0.65 .. .0025 0. .. ..8187 0. .. ... .. .7989 0...25 FILMEX D-1 Anhydrous Formulation 100 — 1 — 4.. . ...0006 78.86 — — 76.04 — 76.8175 — — — — 0.28 4..84 188.76 . . .95 4..58 — 198..0025 0.87 — — 200.8 0..81 6..0011 0.8112 — — — — 0.36 4. . ..0025 10 0. .11 12.21 16.77 . . . ..85 — 6.05 17. .11 12.04 5. ..0006 82. .. .. .02 17. . .10 17..87 — — 199... .59 89. . infinite.7979 — 0.0006 82.. .. . .95 4.. .0025 10 0. . . ..61 6. .0025 — 10 — — — mild and non-residual % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume % By Weight % By Volume 83.10 4.08 — 0. ..47 6. .0 0...8124 0.88 0.0011 0.02 4. Gauging Manual 13 56 18 65 11 52 15 59 17 61 21 70 14 58 18 65 16 60 21 70 13 56 17 63 ASTM D-56 ASTM D-1310 6. . .40 — 0.08 82.86 — 5. . .. .7936 — 0. . infinite.95 4.26 192.FILMEX C 190 Proof Formulation 100 — 1 — 4. .25 191.. .93 0. ..12 12. .8132 0.61 6.0025 0. .S. 53 .03 12. . .1 0... .0025 — 10 — — mild and non-residual 0.52 — 0.. . . ...69 — 0.86 — 5. . . .. .0011 0.7939 0.1 0... .7929 — 0.93 4.0025 0.R. .

obtaining a permit or payment of tax. Regulations Completely denatured alcohol may be handled. The resultant articles. CDA can be marketed and used with a minimum number of restrictions. have been added to render it entirely unfit for human consumption. dealers. COMPLETELY DENATURED ALCOHOL Introduction Completely denatured alcohol (CDA) is ethyl alcohol to which certain denaturants prescribed by the Bureau of Alcohol. duplicating and printing fluids. These blends are prepared from various government approved formulas with other defined solvents. Kerosene. Of the three CDA formulas authorized. or Deodorized Kerosene. it is not as suitable as a proprietary solvent for many manufacturing processes. provided proper application and formula approval is obtained by the reprocessor from the ATF director. as the one more suitable for the majority of uses. Because of this. be reprocessed into printing ink for sale. Equistar invites you to discuss your special solvent requirements with a representative from the Equistar sales office nearest you.S-SOLVENTS Introduction Equistar can provide government-approved. we recommend and supply CDA 19. detergents. gallon Gasoline. denatured with the gasoline option. Uses CDA is used in fuels. special solvent blends for specific authorized uses. by manufacturers. and brake fluids. Authorized Composition CDA 19 Ethyl Alcohol. contain specially denatured alcohol and may not be sold for other solvent use or be reprocessed into products for sales. the manufacture of cleaning fluids. such as printing inks. however. Since CDA is denatured with crude or partially refined products. Tobacco and Firearms. for legitimate purposes. gallon Methyl Isobutyl Ketone. thinners. by weight. CDA should not be used where odor may be a critical consideration. Duplicating and printing fluids containing 1 percent or more of a glycol ether and 10 percent or more. gallon 100 4 1 54 . proprietary antifreeze solutions. of methyl alcohol may. and the general public without filing a bond. lacquers.

O.9 ANHYDROUS 200. Shipping Information CDA is classified by the Department of Transportation (D. Tank trucks and tank cars must bear the D. It must be packaged in D.8089 0. all other regulations regarding labeling.20 TEST METHOD ASTM D-851 ASTM D-1613 ASTM D-1209 ASTM D-1353 ASTM D-1364 Organoleptic Typical.8094 0.0006 ASTM D-1310 12 54 19 67 6. and when shipped.3 0.7851 — — — — 0.7917 0.) as a flammable liquid.O.R.7947 0. (20. red label for flammable liquids. approved containers. 55 .7915 0./vol.005 — ANYDROUS FORMULATION Minimum Maximum 0.T. @ 60º F 190.CDA 19 Specifications 190 PROOF FORMULATION Maximum Minimum Specific Gravity @60ºF/60ºF @20ºC/20ºC @25ºC/25ºC Acidity.T.0011 0. loading and handling must be followed.000 gallon minimum) tank trucks.7881 0.005 15 0.005 15 0.71 ASTM D-56 Equistar supplies industrial users of CDA in tank cars. wt/wt % as Acetic Acid Color: Pt-Co Non-volatile matter: grams/100 ml Water Content: Vol.O. % Odor 0.8059 — — — — 0.005 0. Drums must bear the D./Vol.S. Characteristic Typical Properties 190 PROOF Apparent Proof @ 60º F Ethyl Alcohol Content.8156 0. Characteristic Typical.O. and drums. Gauging Manual 90.% Absolute basis Coefficient of Expansion: per 1º C per 1º F Flash Point Tag Closed Cup ºC ºF Tag Open Cup ºC ºF Weight per gallon. lbs.T.0011 0. flammable liquid placard.2 TEST METHOD I. vol.5 0.0006 95.7885 0.78 12 53 17 62 6.8126 0.8124 0.T.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . Weight % and Specific Gravity in Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Enthalpy of Ethanol-Water Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Viscosity of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures . . . 68 Index of Refraction of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 60°F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Surface Tension of Pure Ethanol at Various Temperatures . . . 59 Freezing Points of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Tables: Conversion Table: Weight and Volume Percent of Ethyl Alcohol in Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Flash Point of Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Heat of Solution of Ethyl Alcohol in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Temperature Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Vapor Pressure of Ethyl Alcohol . . . . 65 Latent Heat of Vaporization of Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Density of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures . . . 69 Volumetric Equivalents . 63 Specific Heat of Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parts by Volume of Water and Alcohol. . . . . . . . . 66 Enthalpy of Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures Corresponding Values for Proof. . . 61 Boiling Point of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-75 Calculating the Amount of Water Required to Reduce Alcohol Proof Resultant Volume When Ethyl Alcohol and Water are Mixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ETHYL ALCOHOL PROPERTIES Physical and Thermodynamic Properties. . . . . . 66 Heat Capacity of Ethyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures .

52 x 105 4. Ethanol-Air Flash Point Tag Open Cup Tag Closed Cup -1 -1 5 5 1 4 4 1 1 1 2 2 7 1 1 1 3 1.55 µ x 10 esu 18 REFERENCE 1 3 3 2 2 1. Autoignition Temperature Boiling Point at 760 mm Hg Bulk Modulus of Elasticity @ 68ºF ºC ºF ºC ºF Kmpsi 46.35 x 10-9 3.1 927.6 0.3 243.750 psi 0.PHYSICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Units Molecular Weight CAS Registry No.350 psi 7.0 1575 2870 18 65 14 57 ohm cm volume % volume % ºC ºF ºC ºF ºC ºF 8 8 5 5 5 5 59 .16 x 105 7 Coefficient of Expansion per ºC per ºF Critical Density Critical Pressure Critical Temperature Density @15ºC @20ºC @25ºC Density @60ºF Dielectric Constant @25ºC Dipole Moment.1 469.75 x 105 2.3 19.700 psi 14.29 172.700-22.276 63.79360 0.050-29.78509 49.0011 0.400 psi 29.400-36.00 x 105 3.36 x 105 3.07 000064175 423 793 78.66 1.350-14.050 psi 22.3 24.78937 0.0006 gm/cm3 atmospheres psia ºC ºF gm/cm3 gm/cm3 gm/cm3 lb/ft3 0.92 15-7. Liquid @20ºC Electrical Conductivity @ 25ºC Explosive Limits in Air Lower Upper Flame Temperature.

2nd Edition. M..3594 1.3614 1. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (1979) 4. Vol.B. 3rd Edition. 50.) volume of vapor/million volumes. 1292.9 204.3 nµ Refractive Index @ 760 mm and 20ºC 25ºC 30ºC Solubility in Water Specific Gravity @ 60ºF/60ºF Specific Heat @ 0ºC Surface Tension Thermal Conductivity @ 20ºC Threshold Limit Value cal/gm 20ºC 30ºC dynes/cm dynes/cm Kcal/mole ºC ºF cal/ ºC /mole Kcal/mole Kcal/mole cal/gm cal/gm Verdet's Constant (r) nD nD nD -40.29ºC Heat of Combustion Heat of Formation.7 24.ft. F.W. and Bunger.Units Free Energy of Formation. 6. and Souders.S. Mellan.3575 miscible in all proportions 0. Wilhoit.10 326. Ely E. and Zwolinski.. John A. Noyes Data Corporation (1977) 5..0107 1. Wiley-Interscience (1970) 2.32 21.. U. John Wiley and Sons (1975) 8. Organic Solvents.” American Chemical Society and American Institute of Physics (1973) 3. “Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Aliphatic Alcohols. N.991 REFERENCE 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 7 2 2 2 4 7 1 1 4 6 3 1 1 BTU/(hr)(sq. Eshback. Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals.1 -173. Bell. contaminated air @ 25ºC and 760 mm Hg Air = 1 centipoises centipoises Vapor Density Viscosity @25ºC @30ºC References 1.)(ºF/ft. ∆Fº @ 25 Freezing Point Heat Capacity (Liquid) @ 78.59 1. Burnside P. William B.J... R.48 0. Industrial Solvents Handbook. Ibert.86 -64. Irving. Liquid ∆H @ 25ºC Heat of Fusion @ Freezing Point Heat of Vaporization @ Boiling Point Magneto-optic Rotation @ 20ºC and 589.105 1000 1.C.078 0.7937 0. TLV’s Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment with Intended Changes for 1979. Riddick.4 33.548 22. O. Industrial Chemicals Co. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Number 12.2 -114. 1960 60 . p. and Dickey. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (1979) 7. 5th Ed. Sax. B. Journal of the Optical Society of America.P.3 +0.. 3rd Edition.

2 26.Ibert Mellan.8 39.41 .5 93.8 11.28. ºF Freezing Point.5% by weight 80 90 100 -160 -180 Ethyl Alcohol.9 .6 -12.6 .5 18.5 4. ‘Industrial Solvents Handbook. % by Weight 61 ..23.1 68 75 80 83.2 -14 -16 -18.3 22.80 -100 -118 -115 -110.7 29.9 20 Ethyl Alcohol % by wt.8 17.5 40 50 60 70 -80 -100 -120 -140 Eutectic at -118ºC. 2.9 10 Freezing Point.’ 2nd Ed.70 . ºC .60 .33. ºC -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -120 0 Ethyl Alcohol % by wt. Noyes Data Corporation (1977) FREEZING POINTS OF ETHYL ALCOHOL-WATER MIXTURES Ethyl Alcohol.3 13. % by Volume at 60ºF 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 20 0 -20 -40 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 Temperature.1 24.3 56.4 -10.7 -9.1 -8. ºC -1 -2 -3 -5 -6.5 89.8 6.7 .50 .8 20.5 96 100 30 -60 Temperature.0 46. 93. 33.

CENTIPOISE 10 8 6 4 0ºC 5ºC 10ºC 15ºC 2 30ºC 40ºC 50ºC 60ºC 75ºC 81ºC 1 .8 . Illinois. LP. 59. 14 (1918).6 .1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 WEIGHT % ETHANOL 62 . Equistar Chemicals.4 . VISCOSITY OF ETHYL ALCOHOL-WATER MIXTURES 100 80 60 40 20 VISCOSITY.National Bureau of Standards Bulletin.2 . Tuscola.

% ETHANOL 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 99 93 88 82 77 71 66 CLOSED CUP OPE P N CU TEMP ºC 140 60 54 49 43 38 32 27 21 16 10 TEMP ºF 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 VOLUME % ETHANOL 63 . CENTIPOISE 40 30 60 wg ht % 20 50 wg ht 50 % 70 wg ht % 80 w 10 ght % 90 wght % 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 TEMPERATURE ºF FLASH POINT OF AQUEOUS ETHYL ALCOHOL SOLUTIONS ºC and ºF VS VOL.VISCOSITY OF ETHYL ALCOHOL–WATER MIXTURES (Alcohol % by Weight in Water) 32ºF 41ºF 50ºF 68ºF 86ºF 109ºF 122ºF 140ºF 167ºF 170ºF 0ºC 5 10 15 30 40 50 60 75 80 70 60 VISCOSITY.

’ 2nd Edition. ‘Industrial Solvents. Reinhold Publishing Corp.’ 2nd Edition. Reinhold Publishing Corp. (1950) SPECIFIC HEAT OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF ETHANOL 102 94 SPECIFIC HEAT CM/GM 86 78 70 62 41ºC 23ºC 3ºC 54 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % ETHANOL BY WEIGHT Ibert Mellan.Ibert Mellan. (1950) SURFACE TENSION OF PURE ETHANOL AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES 24 20 SURFACE TENSION (DYNES/CM) 16 12 8 4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 TEMPERATURE ºC 64 . ‘Industrial Solvents.

Noyes Data Corporation (1977) HEAT OF SOLUTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL IN WATER 100 90 80 42.1 1020 1864 2346 0.9 562. Zwolinski. CAL/MOLE Data from International Critical Tables BTU/lb mole = 1.0 60.9 141.’ American Chemical Society and American Institute of Physics (1973) VAPOR PRESSURE OF ETHYL ALCOHOL 1000 VAPOR PRESSURE mm Hg 200 100 10 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 TEMP ºC 65 .1 159.J.9 39.49 17.69 1.0 101.0 155.0 725.9 1082 1490 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 HEAT OF SOLUTION.9 1297 2355 2996 10. “Industrial Solvents Handbook” 2nd Ed.3ºC 0ºC MOLE % WATER IN MIXTURE 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 Mole % Water Heat of Solution cal/mole at 0ºC 17. Wilhoit & B.9 82.7 226.9 298.1 288.8 cal/g mole R.1ºC 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 21.51 5.5 360.Ibert Mellan.0 42.0 196. ‘Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Aliphatic Alcohols.1 592.9 454.1 97.0 22..1ºC 17.3ºC 42.C.

J.60 0. CP (CALORIES/GM) 0. ‘Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Aliphatic Alcohols.10 1.’ American Chemical Society and American Institute of Physics (1973) LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL 0 20 40 60 HEAT OF VAPORIZATION (CALORIES/GM) 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 Temp ºC Data from International Critical Tables HEAT CAPACITY OF ETHYL ALCOHOL AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES 1. Wilhoit & B.40 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 120 150 Temp ºC 66 .50 0.70 0.R.00 0.C.80 0. Zwolinski.90 HEAT CAPACITY.

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68 .

104 28.961 13.355 1.35 63.245 48.479 8.658 53.410 81.317 12.01 68.795 1.469 19.830 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 21.210 30.440 16.127 22.524 26.144 84.283 47.381 100.798 65.690 68. Bureau of Standards Circular No.167 51.849 28.441 63.622 41.016 76.676 20.50 83.423 93.233 79.269 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 % Alcohol By Weight 43.’ 2nd Ed.117 76.768 67.259 18.768 19.678 89.662 81.804 5.181 37.393 13.081 23.523 71.008 91.386 100.102 71.732 67.11 24.242 47.36152 408 471 535 591 630 651 574 316 30 ETHYL ALCOHOL.464 90.382 27.517 93.33 17.459 86.526 74.555 32.982 94.285 22.612 15.35075 162 250 443 654 883 .778 39.047 17.325 61.820 24.328 48.002 6.879 35.Ibert Mellan.374 45.636 85.408 85.00 6.786 14.194 3.323 38.455 72. % BY VOLUME 40 50 60 70 ETHYL ALCOHOL % BY WEIGHT 70 80 90 80 90 100 1. ND Data from International Critical Tables CONVERSION TABLE: WEIGHT AND VOLUME PERCENT OF ETHYL ALCOHOL IN ETHYL ALCOHOL-WATER MIXTURES % Alcohol By Volume at 60ºF 1.09 59. Noyes Data Corporation (1977) INDEX OF REFRACTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL-WATER MIXTURES AT 60ºF 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 Ethyl Alcohol % by wt.257 2.672 79.350 1.275 87.441 80.269 17.697 40.443 % % Alcohol Alcohol % By By to be Volume at 60ºF Converted Weight 31.025 92.000 Values from Tables 5 and 6.588 65.365 INDEX OF REFRACTION.808 57.165 56.862 9.032 29.047 8.345 1.150 36.375 73.254 35.865 38.147 53.780 56.422 7.851 95.719 33.050 45.138 12.967 83.766 92.943 11.234 72.039 78.674 66.100 17.787 97.837 63.510 3.98 46.998 4.551 42.407 96.254 93.000 % to be Converted 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 % Alcohol By Weight 68.712 9.240 91.121 82.971 29.315 96.842 30.050 36.459 39.759 99.34105 581 787 919 .00 11.154 52.214 49.459 98.428 44.083 87.820 64.686 75.487 % Alcohol % By to be Volume at 60ºF Converted 58.880 22.544 80.364 34.545 51.241 59.379 62.652 91.06 26.407 49.480 50.955 37.388 % to be Converted 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 % Alcohol By Weight 0.234 8.242 28.670 25.360 1.982 70.033 36.593 2.612 6.21 26.82 39.820 98.211 75.832 16. 19 69 .897 83.870 % Alcohol By Volume at 60ºF 82.854 61.103 96.852 60.208 58.511 64.679 10.700 95.56 20.758 5.35 22.169 12.335 100 1.844 59.613 14.973 23.933 18.32 72.117 98.768 66.746 55.989 88.184 57.716 41.478 33.590 40.472 25.909 77.243 7.146 54.00 Index of Refraction at 60ºF 1.278 24.149 46.605 52.858 77.187 50.717 31.497 11. ‘Industrial Solvents Handbook.850 62. 0.310 89.326 46.641 69.00 56.604 20.392 3.63 91.596 32.944 44.299 74.794 78.87 33.586 70.332 1.805 84.279 60.09 100.662 26.152 55.885 88.705 54.689 86.340 1.832 42.380 73.80 29.33336 721 .

102 .000 30. SPECIFIC GRAVITY at 60º/60ºF (15.500 1.9978 .600 104. PROOF degrees at 60ºF 0 1 2 3 4 5 PARTS BY VOLUME* OF WATER 100.045 .900 9.088 .109 .140 .9978 .063 .086 .000 108.078 . weight % alcohol and specific gravity in air. 385.500 200 Proof 0.000 10.40 0. 207.000 60.094 .56ºC) at 68º/68ºF (20º/20ºC) at 77º/77ºF (25º/25ºC) 1.0 1.500 .750 1.023 .425 1.008 .125 .19 1.12 97. 1892 2839 3785 Wine Gallons 0.S.000 1. by legal definition.218 .250 .117 .062 .134 .0 0.5 WEIGHT % ETHYL ALCOHOL 0.047 . parts by volume of water and alcohol.015 .078 . 355.5 1.9963 1.059 . 59. Ethyl alcohol proof. The parts by volume of ethyl alcohol are the same as percent by volume of ethyl alcohol used to determine proof for tax purposes. 237.047 . 946. 473.094 .9970 . 177.031 .039 . 89. 148.06 98.9985 .074 .0000 . 266.9978 .000 110. 414.119 .179 .0 2.59 1.031 .250 .016 .9992 .172 .S.00 99.016 .238 .5 2.9970 .000 Corresponding values for proof. gallon) Milliliters 30.0000 .156 .0000 .000 190 Proof 0.VOLUMETRIC EQUIVALENTS The following table will be helpful in the preparation of reports showing disposition of 190 proof and anhydrous (200 proof) tax-free and specially denatured alcohol.000 5.203 .9985 .194 .950 1. 118.149 .000 102.070 .187 .56º/15.500 57.055 . 70 .9992 .164 . is twice the percent by volume.103 .99 55.9970 .234 .000 54.000 ETHYL–ALCOHOL WATER MIXTURES U.9992 .58 98.9963 1. Proof Gallons Fluid Ounces 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 (1 pint) 32 (1 quart) 64 (2 quarts) 96 128 (1 U.224 .00 0.9963 *The parts by volume of water and the parts by volume of ethyl alcohol do not add to unity (100) at any one proof reading because of the shrinkage in volume which occurs when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed.209 . 325. 296.500 2.9985 . 444.53 99.109 .475 .125 .80 1.030 .65 ETHYL ALCOHOL 0.

9721 * The parts by volume of water and the parts by volume of ethyl alcohol do not add to unity (100) at any one proof reading because of the shrinkage in volume which occurs when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed.9806 . Ethyl alcohol proof.24 95. PROOF degrees at 60ºF 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 PARTS BY VOLUME* OF WATER 97.93 ETHYL ALCOHOL 3.9928 .0 4.20 14.55 87.03 15.U.9844 .9817 .56ºC) at 68º/68ºF (20º/20ºC) at 77º/77ºF (25º/25ºC) .9840 .09 10.9829 .00 4.9733 .5 12.9790 .9856 .40 4.16 81.9750 .5 10.27 89.0 15. is twice the percent by volume.9928 .21 5.85 94.0 9.9794 .19 3.9744 .0 18.9894 .31 94.5 16.0 WEIGHT % ETHYL ALCOHOL 2.10 17.32 11.65 86.0 11.9739 .9935 .9866 .09 91.39 2.00 87. 71 .63 91.9864 .9983 .68 10.9816 .9942 .9927 .93 93.5 21.9934 .9870 .9914 .27 9.0 13.0 7.9949 .9814 .61 82.9757 .9907 .78 95.9956 .05 8.06 82.9810 .27 16.9878 .46 8.5 18.9832 .9948 .61 6.79 3.45 88.93 SPECIFIC GRAVITY at 60º/60ºF (15.9784 .0 19.44 15.36 88.72 90.9797 .0 14.86 9.5 9.9789 .0 17.9763 .9942 .9921 .0 12.9888 .85 84.0 3.85 16.5 22.9826 .9769 .9921 .73 12.9956 .95 83.9956 .9837 .9774 .10 86.9800 .5 14.50 83.80 5.9914 .9784 .46 93.9889 .55 12.9801 .9860 .9846 .60 4.64 8.5 7.9869 .0 8.9744 .9767 .9838 .9890 .S.9756 .9820 .71 96.5 8.91 11.42 6.9921 .9935 .9941 .9915 .55 92.14 12.9884 .27 80.9805 .9821 .9779 .81 89.5 5.02 6.9778 .56º/15.37 13.23 7.9863 .9796 .18 90.9876 .9835 .82 80.79 14.39 93.5 15.90 88. by legal definition.9850 .9826 .5 4.30 84.0 5.20 85.9764 .9790 .9902 .9739 .9736 .0 6.9949 .9812 .9731 .9908 .0 16.9832 .5 6.9848 .9901 .9741 .40 83.9784 .5 19.9854 .9727 .0 20.52 17.75 85.50 10.9747 .96 13.9754 .9858 .01 92.9908 .9823 .9902 .61 15.9773 .9768 .18 96.5 20. The parts by volume of ethyl alcohol are the same as percent by volume of ethyl alcohol used to determine proof for tax purposes.5 11.9749 .9761 .5 17.0 21.9875 .83 7.68 17.9843 .9808 .9852 .9759 .0 10.9895 .72 81.9896 .9872 .38 79.9802 .5 13.9882 .9773 .9752 .9779 .

5 30.9697 .9581 .9659 .0 31.9668 .9565 .81 27.84 30.79 76.72 72.08 73.9533 .9680 .9604 .9681 .9691 .9661 .9529 .0 40.9692 .0 27.9567 .9648 .5 32.0 26.9544 .9576 .5 34.99 ETHYL ALCOHOL 22.31 64.9559 .9703 .82 24.9622 .9471 .48 79.9599 .9606 .0 32.97 23.58 78.03 78.81 34.9692 .92 33.9629 .44 74.0 33. 72 .9713 .9609 .19 66.44 20.9629 .9703 .9525 .0 39.71 22.04 32.0 41.5 36.34 75.9664 .59 68.9509 .9642 .5 31.9595 .90 63.10 25.0 34.19 19.66 67.28 21.9593 .9679 .37 63.9697 .9670 .9724 .9698 . PROOF degrees at 60ºF 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 PARTS BY VOLUME* OF WATER 79.9497 .60 20.9562 .9638 .55 22.9635 .9662 .9686 .9456 .9493 .84 64.9579 .5 33.9574 .5 39.12 67.26 71.9687 .10 28.9715 .24 27.9537 .24 24.51 69.9635 .9602 .42 62.9714 .0 28.U.9725 .9613 .9555 .9654 .9729 .9557 .25 34.5 41.72 66.9590 . The parts by volume of ethyl alcohol are the same as percent by volume of ethyl alcohol used to determine proof for tax purposes.9552 .9653 .9667 .67 28.77 19.72 31.9616 .9641 .14 77.41 29.98 74.9586 .9464 .9548 .47 61.9527 .9647 .24 76.5 35.17 72.9535 .9704 .9720 .5 38.13 22.9644 .9505 .9597 .9517 .9708 .9521 .35 18.05 68.02 20.89 75.53 74.16 31.9708 .9584 .36 33.70 SPECIFIC GRAVITY at 60º/60ºF (15.9610 .9710 .5 29.9650 . by legal definition.60 32.35 70.9496 .0 24.9488 . Ethyl alcohol proof. is twice the percent by volume.25 65.28 30.9513 .0 36.9447 The parts by volume of water and the parts by volume of ethyl alcohol do not add to unity (100) at any one proof reading because of the shrinkage in volume which occurs when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed.9542 .54 28.69 77.9626 .9572 .86 21.9676 .9473 .0 37.9489 .9550 .9619 .5 WEIGHT % ETHYL ALCOHOL 18.97 29.52 25.9616 .5 23.9718 .56ºC) at 68º/68ºF (20º/20ºC) at 77º/77ºF (25º/25ºC) .9734 .S.48 32.0 25.9479 .81 71.9501 .5 26.9504 .5 40.9512 .13 66.89 70.9540 .95 62.5 24.0 38.95 26.5 27.0 23.9656 .56º/15.97 69.0 35.9673 .9519 .0 30.9481 .9686 .9674 .9588 .5 37.9623 .5 28.9632 .67 25.78 65.5 25.0 29.40 23.62 73.38 26.9570 .

0 57.9417 .0 43.9419 .9164 .9235 .9469 .75 51.19 49.0 51.15 35.62 41.86 38.74 52.09 41.9412 .9217 .9228 .24 45.9266 .9083 .15 51.17 56.14 57.9319 .9446 .5 44.9385 .68 56.9371 .76 48.9193 . Ethyl alcohol proof.9220 .5 50.9256 .9053 * The parts by volume of water and the parts by volume of ethyl alcohol do not add to unity (100) at any one proof reading because of the shrinkage in volume which occurs when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed.19 55.15 52.9439 .9437 .9443 .9116 .S.59 59.9403 .9182 .80 46.9122 .0 52.90 44.9272 .22 43.9309 .0 55.72 44.65 53.26 48.9402 .9139 .0 50.9199 .9252 .9394 .65 52.25 51.5 45.0 60.9144 .9460 .9426 .9279 .24 47.9289 .68 50.9210 .9477 .56º/15.21 54.0 42.70 49.9328 .9364 .32 38.9248 .9276 .9302 .70 55.24 52.9175 .9225 .9342 .9366 .9094 .5 56.9286 .73 53.9374 .9296 .9258 .9421 .17 50.25 50.9306 .16 40.9380 .9238 .9357 .43 43.9188 .9452 .78 39.9326 .08 59.56ºC) at 68º/68ºF (20º/20ºC) at 77º/77ºF (25º/25ºC) .9332 .5 59.9269 .5 47.5 53.49 42.9156 .28 46.0 48.9131 .0 WEIGHT % ETHYL ALCOHOL 35.96 37.9299 .9485 .76 49.9076 .9355 .66 57.9336 .5 49.26 49.9454 .9111 .9185 .5 58.9064 .5 51.0 49.5 57.5 61.69 ETHYL ALCOHOL 42.5 48.85 45.9408 .55 42.9207 .9345 .9352 .21 48.5 43.75 50.0 45. PROOF degrees at 60ºF 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 PARTS BY VOLUME* OF WATER 61.9196 .9428 .02 42.9262 .22 53.41 37.9204 .5 60.9282 .9245 .9150 .9142 .9087 .75 47.9166 .71 43.9316 .9128 .9105 .9109 .9171 .9463 .50 36.0 54.9348 .9322 . The parts by volume of ethyl alcohol are the same as percent by volume of ethyl alcohol used to determine proof for tax purposes.9133 .9338 .9376 .9434 .11 58.9430 .9214 .25 46.0 46.70 40.9312 .9292 .0 53.0 47.9120 .56 60.5 54.9098 .20 42.63 58.9361 .73 48.0 58.25 47.9177 .9292 .0 44.0 59.9153 .75 46.37 44.15 SPECIFIC GRAVITY at 60º/60ºF (15. is twice the percent by volume.96 43.33 45.5 46.76 47.52 61.9383 .5 52.U.74 45.60 36.05 36.23 44.9161 .24 39.0 56. 73 .5 55.66 51. by legal definition.9410 .9230 .9399 .04 60.72 54.9241 .9389 .

8606 .01 24.8558 * The parts by volume of water and the parts by volume of ethyl alcohol do not add to unity (100) at any one proof reading because of the shrinkage in volume which occurs when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed.0 64.40 22.53 74.5 64.65 40.8823 .85 61.8882 .8674 .8861 . Ethyl alcohol proof.8899 .0 74.8862 .8918 .67 66.5 67.80 60.8836 .8966 .8745 .8664 .8741 .8678 .8709 .8728 .5 71.8722 .5 77.9042 .59 65.67 56.5 74.9030 .43 32.80 72.8886 .8774 .8622 .14 39.95 73.21 57.8874 .8831 .0 63.91 32.66 27.8875 .8856 .60 26.8620 .8771 .99 34.33 ETHYL ALCOHOL 61. 74 .67 71.8996 .32 60.5 75.8819 .62 39.8715 .66 55.8869 .8797 .5 70.9077 .0 76.9048 .05 36.8848 .22 66.8984 .0 69.5 80.8948 .60 38.29 29.65 54.5 63.56ºC) at 68º/68ºF (20º/20ºC) at 77º/77ºF (25º/25ºC) .08 37.8780 .9041 .8669 .8894 .8642 .57 37.76 59.0 80.5 79.0 62. is twice the percent by volume.5 76.24 58.8688 .0 79.9054 .02 35.8761 .8954 .86 31.8960 .5 78.38 31.8850 .0 73.38 61.8647 .8978 .8936 . by legal definition.18 56.87 68.8793 .8691 .8787 .47 23.8806 .8682 .5 68.24 28.13 26.8911 . PROOF degrees at 60ºF 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 PARTS BY VOLUME* OF WATER 42.9018 .8592 .8702 .8696 .9037 .76 29.32 67.5 66.19 27.8758 .82 30.87 22.8983 .0 72.8655 .8705 .43 68.9007 .8971 .8924 .8923 .8906 .9025 .S.9014 .98 69.16 55.8936 .8754 .5 69.8633 .8959 .18 41.0 70.5 62.44 62.51 64.05 64.8748 .8942 .9006 .U.0 77.9019 .8844 .77 67.67 41.0 67.56º/15.0 66. The parts by volume of ethyl alcohol are the same as percent by volume of ethyl alcohol used to determine proof for tax purposes.8732 .8930 .8838 .8825 .0 68.8650 .07 25.9060 .9100 .8948 .8912 .8990 .8812 .38 72.0 75.95 33.8735 .5 65.0 65.72 58.8636 .0 78.11 38.70 57.8767 .8718 .8810 .34 30.8572 .9002 .98 63.8995 .54 36.9088 .13 65.9065 .8661 .50 34.71 28.8628 .0 71.91 62.8586 .47 33.94 23.54 70.9071 .54 25.8899 .5 73.8972 .8800 .8600 .5 WEIGHT % ETHYL ALCOHOL 53.8887 .11 SPECIFIC GRAVITY at 60º/60ºF (15.15 54.23 71.8784 .5 72.16 40.10 70.9031 .8614 .28 59.

8220 .8045 .8203 .8149 .8287 .8428 .59 4.69 86.23 78.8520 .8237 .37 10.8491 .8087 .S.8335 .S. Ethyl alcohol proof.55 18.32 96.8098 .7896 .61 13.8608 .05 85.8522 .8398 .0 99.8010 .65 88.72 92.U. 75 .29 .8385 .0 96.66 81.8594 . U.0 WEIGHT % ETHYL ALCOHOL 74.94 7.8580 .5 82.7987 . The parts by volume of ethyl alcohol are the same as percent by volume of ethyl alcohol used to determine proof for tax purposes.0 94.8385 . 1975.8478 .8319 .8401 .8052 .41 85.8183 .8011 .17 2.8367 .8337 .8303 .7968 .56ºC) at 68º/68ºF (20º/20ºC) at 77º/77ºF (25º/25ºC) .8446 . Government Printing Office.26 20.8219 .46 16.8432 .8353 .7921 .65 .52 7.0 91.10 18.64 19. 19 (Washington: U.8072 .0 98.5 96.S.84 79.8447 .0 90.8506 .39 3.5 89.8400 .8336 .8196 .7962 .8320 .04 77.52 83.5 94.8577 .8353 .003.0 81.5 90.80 10.82 97. STANDARD DENSITY AND VOLUMETRIC TABLES.7905 .27 75. 8.0 89.0 86.8254 .7990 .00 ETHYL ALCOHOL 81.34 86.09 8.65 90. & 18.8237 .8158 .0 84.S.93 11.8530 .8185 .42 93. * The parts by volume of water and the parts by volume of ethyl alcohol do not add to unity (100) at any one proof reading because of the shrinkage in volume which occurs when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed.01 17.5 91.5 92.16 13.8351 .8033 .8549 .8002 .93 1.8164 .72 14.8201 .18 19.8111 .77 6.0 82.58 95.8544 .8461 .0 85.8566 .8472 .05 80. Twelfth Edition.38 99.8271 .8305 .8487 .02 91.8215 . GAUGING MANUAL EMBRACING INSTRUCTIONS AND TABLES FOR DETERMINING THE QUANTITY OF DISTILLED SPIRITS BY PROOF AND WEIGHT (Washington: U.56º/15.45 77.0 93.8443 .8130 .5 95. Government Printing Office.24 9.36 6.99 4.31 88.28 81.07 96.72 20.8254 . Department of Commerce.8024 .8501 .8146 .78 3.34 91.0 88.67 9.7955 .86 76.8462 .8369 .8416 .14 93.14 83.8056 .8138 .64 78.8066 .8286 .8251 .8271 .05 12.99 87.44 80.5 93.55 1.S.8118 .0 83.8268 .69 75.85 94.7978 .5 100. OFFICIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS.7944 .82 15.00 SPECIFIC GRAVITY at 60º/60ºF (15.5 86.8493 . Specific Gravity at 20º/20ºC and 25º/25ºC from Table 52. PROOF degrees at 60ºF 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 PARTS BY VOLUME* OF WATER 21.8563 .92 16. 1970).8303 .8077 .8516 .5 98.8369 .19 100.5 88.90 82.5 85.8431 .5 87.8537 .8508 . 9.18 5.8535 .27 14.0 92.8321 .98 89.8167 .37 15.49 11.8288 . by legal definition. Treasury Department.8476 .0 97.80 21. CIRCULAR OF THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS NO.8382 .8032 . is twice the percent by volume.7871 U.8178 .78 84.8092 .8552 .7936 .7930 .8413 .60 98.5 99.5 83.8458 .8107 .8233 .8416 .5 84. 1924) pp.0 95.5 97.8126 .0 87.

27 100.0 50.0 90.18 gal of water. ML. will produce a resultant mixture with a total volume less than the sum of the component parts if measured at the same temperature.0 98.0 30.0 50. 76 .0 100.0 40. 77 that 190 proof alcohol contains 95 parts by volume of pure alcohol and 6.) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 VOLUMES OF ETHYL ALCOHOL AT 60ºF BEFORE MIXING (GAL.) A calculation of the water required to reduce proof is demonstrated by the following typical example.0 20.0 80. Ibert Mellan.CALCULATING THE AMOUNT OF WATER REQUIRED TO REDUCE ALCOHOL PROOF A volume of alcohol at a defined temperature.62 97. contains 95 gal of pure alcohol and 6.0 10.’ 2nd Edition. Example. when mixed with an equal volume of water at the same temperature. ETC.46 96.34 96. Every 100 gal of 190 proof alcohol.0 30.37 96.0 60.) 98 97 96 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 VOLUMES OF WATER AT 60ºF BEFORE MIXING (GAL.27 98. When making aqueous volumetric blends of alcohol this "shrinkage" of resultant volume must be considered. ML. ML.18 parts by volume of water.0 100. ‘Industrial Solvents Handbook. therefore.0 70.0 Volume Ethyl Resultant Alcohol Volume 100.0 10.0 40.0 20. ETC.27 97. It can be seen from the table on p.26 99. ETC.0 80.0 90. Noyes Data Corporation (1977) RESULTANT VOLUME WHEN ETHYL ALCOHOL AND WATER ARE MIXED 100 Volume Water 0.0 70.00 99 RESULTANT VOLUME AT 60ºF (GAL. How much water must be added to 50 gal of 190 proof ethyl alcohol to make it 180 proof? Alcohol at 190 proof.0 60.0 0.78 96.

4 66.67 -201. it can be determined that 180 proof alcohol contains 90 parts pure alcohol and 11.93) = 1133.0000 5.2 59.44 -78.2222 2.78 -162. so it must be adjusted into a 90/11.22 -106.6 64.4 48.33 -67.8889 4.6 55.2 50. ‘Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals.00 -9.7778 Temp 1 2 3 4 5 ºF 1.4445 5.89 Temp 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ºF 42.56 -40.11 -10.W.00 -184.11 Temp -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 ºF ºC -95.6 5.16 INTERPOLATION DIFFERENCES ºC 0.89 123. The ratio of alcohol to water at the finish of dilution (180 proof) is: 90 11.78 -17.33 -117.56 -140.2 9.0 ºC -14. so: 90 = 95 11. 6.59 gal of water in the 180 proof alcohol after dilution.33 -167.22 -56.44 -13.67 -151.11 -145.93 parts water.35 / 90 c = 12.33 -7.89 -8.44 -3.67 -16.44 -178.67 -11.11 -15.78 -7.11 -195.00 -34.6 46.56 -15.56 -190.8 12.00 -84. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION ºF = (ºC x 9/5) + 32 = (ºC + 40) x 9/5 – 40 ºC = (ºF – 32) x 5/9 = (ºF + 40) x 5/9 – 40 ºR = ºF + 459. Answer.1111 1. called c.4 7.22 -11. To do this the amount of water at the finish of dilution.35 c = 1133.56 -90.41 gal on the basis of a 50-gal batch instead of 100 gal. 6. Soudens.00 -134.44 -28.4 16. must be determined.2 68.’ 3rd Edition.89 -13.35 -17.6667 2. Put the 6.89 -23.8 35.93 ratio to make it 180 proof. Put the 190 proof alcohol on the same basis as 180 proof alcohol.00 Temp -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 ºF -220 -202 -184 -166 -148 -130 -121 -94 -76 -58 -40 -22 -4 14 32 33.78 -62.8 71.8 62.4 39.0 69.89 -73.22 -156.67 -51.41 x 50 = 3.3334 3.67 -6.8 3.4 57.11 -5.4 75.Alcohol at 180 proof.2 41. Eshbach & M.89 -173.0 ºC 3.8 53.44 -128. –6.78 -112.5556 1.93 c Solving for c 90c = (95) (11.56 -5.56 -10.0 51.6 37.44 -8.41 gal of water to add to 100 gal of 190 proof alcohol to make it 180 proof.8 44.00 -4.22 -16. Using the same table.0 ºC -206. it contains 95 gal of pure alcohol.93 Before 100 gal of 190 proof alcohol is diluted.5556 Temp 6 7 8 9 10 ºF 10.2 18.18 gal of water in the 190 proof alcohol before dilution.67 -101.0 -454 -436 -418 -400 -382 -364 -346 -328 -310 -292 -274 -256 -238 O. John Wiley and Sons (1975) 77 .11 -45.6 14.2 77.33 -12.6 73.0 60.22 -6.2 gal of water to add to 50 gal 190 proof alcohol to 100 make it 180 proof.69 ºK = ºC + 273.78 -12.

6 871.7 982.78 3.1 926.4 165.67 82.67 22.0 132.78 28.00 25.6 199.6 208.4 192.2 95.00 65.0 150.00 5.2 167.2 212.44 25.67 37.56 0 0.2 185.33 33.2 149.56 16.66 232.8 161.0 186.11 126.0 87.44 160.4 201.6 100.78 23.0 123.44 5.33 48.33 13.22 137.22 7.4 102.0 141.6 91.44 260.6 428 446 464 482 500 518 536 554 572 590 608 626 644 662 ºC 182.8 116.2 158.33 3.22 37.33 248.11 36.22 32.44 210.00 35.2 537.67 32.0 204.6 136.11 16.6 154.4 111.00 115.4 210.77 243.78 13.89 19.33 -2.44 15.4 138.8 206.2 86.22 22.11 176. John Wiley and Sons (1975) 78 .22 187.33 8.56 31.4 93.8 152.6 118.89 54.4 156.56 121.22 17.6 163.ºC -3.2 104.7 482.11 21.2 122.89 Temp 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 ºF 78.4 174.6 190.2 194.8 134.6 127.6 371.56 1.44 30.2 1038 1093 1149 1204 1260 1316 1371 1427 1482 1538 1593 1649 1704 1760 1816 1871 1927 1982 2038 2093 2149 2205 Temp 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 ºF 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896 914 932 1112 1292 1472 1652 1832 2012 2192 2372 2552 2732 2912 3092 3272 3452 3632 3812 3992 4172 4352 4532 4712 4892 5072 5252 5432 5612 5792 5972 6152 6332 6512 6692 6872 7052 7232 O.56 26.8 125.33 198.11 31.0 159.56 11.0 177.4 147.33 23.2 176.44 60.78 43.11 -0.8 107.89 154.78 193.78 18.8 188.22 12.8 179.4 183.00 215.11 26.67 -1. Eshbach & M.33 148.4 129.89 14.2 131.8 143.00 104.89 29.00 15.4 120.44 10.22 2.33 18.44 110.67 7.00 10.78 -2.89 9.33 28.0 ºC 24.6 145.67 Temp 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 ºF 168.22 27.0 195.2 140.0 96.88 254.0 105.11 1.’ 3rd Edition.2 203.11 11.8 593.22 87.78 8.W.89 34.11 76. Soudens.9 704.4 84.89 204.67 27.55 221.6 82.0 230 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 413.3 648.56 21.00 30.44 20.78 143.00 165.56 36.8 98.22 237.4 760.11 226.56 6.8 89.67 12.67 2.00 315.11 6.6 181. ‘Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals.89 4.00 20.8 80.67 17.6 172.33 100.8 170.0 815.22 -1.78 33.0 114.2 113.44 35.8 197.1 426.6 109.56 71.67 132.78 93.56 171.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Convention is not responsible for any inaccuracy of quotation or for any false or misleading implication that may arise from separation of excerpts from the original context or by obsolescence resulting from publication of superseding editions and their supplements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Specifications . . . 82 Food Chemicals Codex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Pure Alcohol Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 *United States Pharmacopeia . . . . . . . 83 Federal and Military Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ANALYTICAL TEST METHODS Introduction . . . . . . . 80 American Chemistry Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 *The use of portions of the text of USP 26-NF 21 is by permission of the USP Convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The individual requirements of these specifications are listed below: United States Pharmacopeia* U. then slowly (over a period of 3 minutes) add 2 ml of 0. test procedures are used for quality definition. indicating between 92. Add phenolphthalein test solution.S.3% and 93.812 and 0. the odor of iodoform develops. The test procedures used to evaluate 190 proof U.0 N sodium hydroxide. Cool the contents to approximately 15ºC and 80 .1 g of sodium nitroferricyanide and 0. and dry at 105ºC for 1 hour: the weight of the residue does not exceed 1 mg.1 N iodine. Rockville. the American Chemical Society ‘Reagent Chemicals’ and U.90 ml of 0. industry recognized.25 g of piperazine in 5 ml of water: an intense blue color is produced on the filter paper.020 N sodium hydroxide is required for neutralization. or between 94.. Inc. Specific Gravity —Between 0. *The United States Pharmacopeia. Standard. MD 20852 Packaging and Storage—Preserve in tight containers. B: To 5 ml of a solution (1 in 10) add 1 ml of 1. in a glass-stoppered flask. Ethyl Alcohol) Alcohol contains not less than 92. Identification— A: Mix 5 drops in a small beaker with 1 ml of potassium permanganate solution (1 in 100) and 5 drops of 2 N sulfuric acid. of C2H5OH. at 15.S. Various other industry recognized specifications such as the Food Chemical Codex. and cover the beaker immediately with a filter paper moistened with a solution recently prepared by dissolving 0. 1260 Twinbrook Parkway.020 N sodium hydroxide to a pink color that persists for 30 seconds: not more than 0. then rinsed with water and finally with the alcohol to be tested. Acidity —To 50 ml.56ºC. United States Pharmacopeia Convention. and titrate with 0.8 percent by weight corresponding to not less than 94.816 at 15. add 50 ml of recently boiled water.S. Alcohol (Ethanol.56ºC. government specifications may also be used to define the quality of Equistar pure Punctilious alcohol. and a yellow precipitate is formed within 30 minutes.3 percent and not more than 93.8% by weight. the color becoming paler after a few minutes.P. remote from fire. Water-Insoluble Substances—Dilute the sample with an equal volume of water: the mixture is clear and remains clear for 30 minutes after cooling to 10ºC. of C2H5OH. Aldehydes and Other Foreign Organic Substances—Place 20 ml in a glass-stoppered cylinder that has been thoroughly cleaned with hydrochloric acid. proprietary solvents and completely denatured alcohol.P. and dehydrated alcohol are found in the current edition of the Pharmacopeia of the United States. Pure Alcohol Specifications Our pure ethanol meets the requirements of the current US Pharmacopeia.0% by volume. Nonvolatile Residue—Evaporate 40 ml in a tared dish on a water bath. Equistar defines specifications for specially denatured alcohol.9 percent and not more than 96.0 percent by volume.Introduction The primary analytical test procedures for the quality evaluation of ethyl alcohol are defined by the specifications under which the alcohol is sold.9% and 96.

add 1 drop of the dilute phosphoric acid. Specific Gravity <841>: not more than 0. allow to stand for 10 minutes. 80 µg of acetone and 5. If a brown color remains. Mix at once by inverting the stoppered cylinder. and 1 drop of potassium permanganate solution (1 in 20). until the permanganate color is discharged.S. indicating not less than 99. by weight.56º.0 ml of each solution add 3 ml of hydrochloric acid: any pink color produced in the test solution is not more intense than that in the control.5 N sodium hydroxide. B: To 5 ml of a solution (1 in 200) add 1 ml of 1.020 N sodium hydroxide to a pink color that persists for 30 seconds: not more than 0.0 ml of a saturated solution of sodium phosphate.1 g of sodium nitroferrieyanide and 0. Acidity —To 50 ml. then slowly (over a period of 3 minutes) add 2 ml of 0. dropwise. Mix. Carbonizable Substances.10 N potassium permanganate. and a yellow precipitate is formed within 30 minutes. and dry at 105º for 1 hour: the weight of the residue does not exceed 1 mg. add 50 ml of recently boiled water. noting the exact time of addition. and titrate with 0. Prepare a control by mixing 1. the color becoming paler after a few minutes.2 percent. To each solution add 1 ml of furfural solution (1 in 100). and cover the beaker immediately with a filter paper moistened with a solution recently prepared by dissolving 0. and allow it to stand at 15ºC for 5 minutes: The pink color does not entirely disappear. 3. etc. 1 drop of dilute phosphoric acid (1 in 20). any violet color should not exceed that produced by . until the surface of the dish is barely moist: no red or brown color is produced immediately upon the addition of a few drops of sulfuric acid.—Allow 25 ml to evaporate spontaneously from a porcelain dish. Dehydrated Alcohol (Ethanol. Packaging and Storage —Preserve in tight containers. and 3. in a glass-stoppered flask.0 ml of water. Identitication— A: Mix 5 drops in a small beaker with 1 ml of potassium permanganate solution (1 in 100) and 5 drops of 2 N sulfuric acid. then to 1.0 ml add 1. without washing. Amyl Alcohol and Nonvolatile.add. of C2H5OH.0 ml of 2. Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol —To 1. and add sodium metabisulfite solution (1 in 20).25 g of piperazine in 5 ml of water: an intense blue color is produced on the filter paper.0 ml of water. Add 3. 81 . and heat on a water bath at 60ºC for 10 minutes.1 N iodine: the odor of iodoform develops. carefully protected from dust. 0.0 ml of the saturated solution of sodium phosphate. 1.90 ml of 0. Ethyl Alcohol) Dehydrated Alcohol contains not less than 99.5 N sodium hydroxide. Warm the mixture to 45º to 50ºC and allow to stand until the permanganate color is discharged.56º.0 ml of 2.10 ml of 0.04 mg of methanol in 1 ml of water. through a sintered-glass filter. Nonvolatile Residue—Evaporate 40 ml in a tared dish on a water bath. Add phenolphthalein TS.5 percent. treated in the same way as the sample. remote from fire.0 N sodium hydroxide.2% of C2H5OH by weight.020 N sodium hydroxide is required for neutralization. corresponding to not less than 99. and filter. allow to stand for 1 minute. To the colorless solution add 5 ml of freshly prepared chromotropic acid test solution. at 15.0 ml of a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. Methanol—To 1 drop add 1 drop of water. by means of a carefully cleaned pipet. by volume.7962 at 15.P. U.

National Academy of Science. and add. and allow it to stand at 15º for 5 minutes: the pink color does not entirely disappear. Amyl Alcohol and Nonvolatile. Ultraviolet Absorbance—Record the ultraviolet absorption spectrum between 340 nm and 235 nm in a 1 cm cell.10 N potassium permanganate. Cool the contents to approximately 15º. and 0. dropwise. Ethanol) 82 . until the surface of the dish is barely moist: no red or brown color is produced immediately upon the addition of a few drops of sulfuric acid. without washing.08 at 240 nm. Aldehydes and Other Foreign Organic Substances—Place 20 ml in a glass-stoppered cylinder that has been thoroughly cleaned with hydrochloric acid. and allow to stand for 10 minutes. then rinsed with water and finally with the dehydrated alcohol to be tested. upon request: AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (ACS) Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) (ACS) Ethyl Alcohol.0 ml of each solution add 3 ml of hydrochloric acid: any pink color produced in the test solution is not more intense than that in the control. The absorbance is not more than 0.C. F. allow to stand for 1 minute. To the colorless solution add 5 ml of freshly prepared chromotropic acid TS. 3 ml of 2. Washington. then to 1. by means of a carefully cleaned pipet. D. and 1 drop of potassium permanganate solution (1 in 20). and add sodium metabisulfite solution (1 in 20).02 between 270 nm and 340 nm. and 80 µg of acetone in 9 ml. and heat on a water bath at 60º for 10 minutes: no violet color appears.5 N sodium hydroxide. Add 3 ml of 2. and 3 ml of a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. Mix at once by inverting the stoppered cylinder. In addition to the above specifications. Warm the mixture to 45º to 50º. and allow to stand until the permanganate color is discharged.5 N sodium hydroxide. with water in a matched cell in the reference beam. 1 ml of a saturated solution of sodium phosphate. Absolute) FOOD CHEMICALS CODEX* *Food Chemicals Codex. we will supply alcohol meeting the following specifications. 0. add 1 drop of the same dilute phosphoric acid.C.10 ml of 0.0 ml add 1 ml of water. noting accurately the time of addition. Mix.C. Carbonizable Substances—Allow 25 ml to evaporate spontaneously from a porcelain dish. until the permanganate color is discharged. Absolute (Ethanol. If a brown color remains.Water-insoluble Substances —Dilute it with an equal volume of water: the mixture is clear and remains clear for 30 minutes after cooling to 10º. and filter. through a sintered-glass filter. Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol—To 1. Ethyl Alcohol (Alcohol. To each solution add 1 ml of furfural solution (1 in 100). and the curve drawn through these points is smooth. carefully protected from dust. Prepare a control containing 1 ml of the saturated solution of sodium phosphate. Methanol —To 1 drop add 1 drop of water. 1 drop of dilute phosphoric acid (1 in 20).

F. 200º 83 . 200º SDA-40. —USP 190º —Denatured —Proprietary Solvents —Special Industrial Solvents EQUISTAR PRODUCT Pure Ethyl Alcohol 200º (ACS) 190º (ACS) Pure Ethyl Alcohol 200º (NF) 190º (USP) Any Specially Denatured Alcohol Proprietary Solvents Filmex Formulas Military Specifications MIL-E-463B CLASSIFICATION Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 EQUISTAR PRODUCT Pure 190º SDA-2B. N. 190º SDA-3A.FEDERAL AND MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS Federal contractors and various governmental agencies often specify industrial alcohol by defining a federal or military specification. 200º Filmex C. The more common of these specifications are listed in terms of the generally recognized industry standard. Federal Specification 0-E-00760 C GRADES AND CLASSES Grade I Class A Class B Grade II Class A Class B Grade III Grade IV Grade V —ACS Grade —Absolute —190º —Pharmaceutical Grade —Dehydrated. 190º SDA-2B.

84 .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gauging Well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Above Ground Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hoses . . . . . . . Tank Cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fill Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access Manway . . 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 92 93 94 94 95 95 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE OF QUALITY Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulatory Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sampling and Gauging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample Port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance of Quality . . . . . . Stand Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vent and Flame Arrestor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Conservation Vent or Flame Arrestor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helpful Storage Hints . . . . . . . . . . Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tank Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tank Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tank Inlet and Suction Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermometer Well . . . . . . . . Tank Aperture Requirements . . . . . . .

Most of these formulations can be stored in mild steel tanks and handled in equipment having iron or brass parts. state. Steel is adequate for most purposes. These require special handling and storage. highly acidic denaturants or certain essential oils. local and municipal laws. 87 . Alkaline Copper and copper alloys should be avoided. Comply with the requirements of the insurance carrier. corrosive halogens. Materials of Construction Character of Denaturant Acidic Typical Denturants Cassia oil Cinnamic aldehyde Methyl salicylate Phenol Phenyl salicylate Sodium salicylate Aqueous ammonia Caustic soda Typical Container Resin coated steel is generally adequate. Stainless steel (300 series) has also been used. cinnamic aldehyde. special industrial solvents. proprietary solvents. regulations. Some of the major exceptions are SDA formulations containing alkaline denaturants. Polyethylene-lined steel containers are typically used. are traditionally packaged in resin-coated containers. and fire codes. Comply with the applicable requirements of federal." and other commonly used SDA 38-B denaturants (e. such as polyethylene is typically used to prevent container corrosion for formulations containing this type of denaturant.Introduction Pure ethyl alcohol. A container lining. Halogen Iodine Mercuric iodide Potassium iodide Sodium iodide Alcohols Ethers Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Ketones Esters Organic Solvents Regulatory Concerns An industrial user of alcohol should consider the following points before installation of any bulk storage. completely denatured alcohol and specially denatured alcohol formulations are flammable liquids. however stainless steel and resin coated steel have been used for specific applications. Comply with the requirements of the ATF. The following guide may be useful in selection of the proper construction material. Mild steel is adequate for most applications. and is reactive to brass and other copper containing metals.g. cassia oil and sodium salicylate). Some of the formulations prepared with "essential oils. which contains aqueous ammonia or caustic soda. SDA 25 and SDA 25-A contain iodine and sodium or potassium iodide. Representative of these formulas is SDA 36. The formulations using these denaturants are traditionally supplied in drum quantities. Corrosion and stability studies are recommended if there is any doubt regarding the suitability of the material of construction for an alcohol handling and storage system.

Whichever is used. Stand Pipe—a stand pipe discharge line placed several inches above the opening of the inlet should be considered. therefore. a platform with stairs or a ladder from the ground should be provided to the top of the tank. Grounding—all alcohol storage tanks should be electrically bonded and grounded to prevent accumulation of static electricity. Painting—the outside of the storage tank is commonly covered with a light-colored paint to reflect the sun’s heat and to maintain the lowest possible tank shell temperature. local fire and electrical code enforcement agencies. since they look neat. afford the necessary protection. to facilitate inspection and cleaning. the tank should be located as near as possible to the incoming tank car or tank truck approach and should also be as close as practical to the alcohol use facility. is adequate for most applications.TANKS Alcohol storage tank size is determined by mode of delivery (tank truck or tank car) and by the expected weekly or monthly alcohol requirements. A bottom outlet expedites this occasional cleaning. the tank should be built on a firm foundation to assure structural stability. as previously indicated. Access —for aboveground tanks. This distance should be established when tank installation is considered. Concrete dikes seem most desirable. There are numerous suppliers of prefabricated and custom-built tanks. ATF regulations permit the marks for underground tanks to be placed at a convenient and suitable location. Location Above ground tanks—Insurance carriers and fire codes at most locations require that tanks be separated from buildings by a defined distance. It is common practice to build a dike around alcohol storage tanks. Fill Line—Tanks should use submerged fill lines to minimize emissions. Cleaning—tank washing is typically required only if a new material is to be stored in the tank. NFPA 30) and insurance representatives should be consulted to determine the acceptable safe distance and specific tank location. Access to the top of the tank is required in order to measure the liquid volume if no other liquid level indicator is used. Ideally. codes (e. for tank entry. Local inquiry will generally find a suitable supplier who can be helpful with specific requirements. and require least space and upkeep. This is necessary to comply with various good manufacturing practices and ATF requirements. All tanks should avoid splash filling due to the potential build-up of static electricity. This distance is dependent upon such factors as type of tank. capacity and use. capacity and maximum anticipated internal tank pressure. This dike typically should contain about 150% of the capacity of the largest enclosed tank. Mild steel.g. A good practice is to have capacity at least 50 percent greater than the delivering unit. Alcohol is flammable. A sidewall manway should also be provided near the bottom of the tank. An alternative is a mounded dirt dike. It should be noted that each storage tank of SDA must be marked to show its serial number. 88 .

Welding and flanged piping connections are recommended. a relief valve or by-pass should be used to relieve possible excessive line pressure which would develop by inadvertent closure of a discharge valve. self-priming centrifugal pumps or positive displacement pumps should be used. For alcohol storage. however. pump capacity and manufacturing requirements. For long term above ground storage. HOSES Transfer hoses fabricated from polypropylene are suitable for handling alcohol. While block valves with steel or modular iron and metal internal parts are generally used adjacent to above ground storage tanks.I. PIPING Schedule 40 is typically used for most bulk alcohol grades and formulations.Vent and Flame Arrestor—a properly designed air vent is necessary on all alcohol storage tanks to allow for normal breathing with temperature changes. Inc. could be considered to prevent absorption of atmospheric moisture into anhydrous alcohol. PUMPS The type of pump selected for alcohol transfer depends upon several factors. Alcohol being a flammable liquid requires that all motors and controls should meet the National Electrical Code requirements for Class 1. Tank vents and openings must be designed to exclude rain and snow. a positive displacement pump is used. The pipe size should be consistent with good engineering practice and should be dictated by pipe length. Where the available head pressure is sufficient. Teflon®* envelope type gaskets are preferred gasket material. If. for protection in the event of fire. centrifugal pumps with mechanical seals are commonly used. brass gate valves with metal to metal seats or iron or bronze ball valves with Teflon® seats are often used in other locations. a desiccant containing drier. mounted in the vent. Transfer lines should be bonded and electrically grounded. VALVES In general. and to handle surges of air during unloading. 89 . If insufficient net positive suction head is present. any standard type of valve is satisfactory for most alcohol use. a flame arrestor is required. Group D locations. Particular attention should be given to any gasketed flanges in the pipeline. Any hose used for alcohol should contain an internal bond to assure a completely grounded transfer system. *Teflon® is a registered trademark of E.. Copper wire should be used to jump around these flanges to maintain the integrity of the grounding system. duPont de Nemours & Co.

should be designed to allow for total tank drainage. SAMPLING PORT. It is equipped with flanges that can be bolted tight. if dictated by local conditions. 18 THERMOMETER WELL A 2-inch flanged nipple should be installed in the side of the tank just above the manual gauge counter. only one opening in the tank would be needed. which should be present in either case. A vapor conservation type vent should be considered. One of the most common type of tank gauge is the floatsteel tape type affixed to the tank. 6 ACCESS MANWAY Installation of an 18-inch manhole is suggested in the side of the tank. gauging. The temperature will be used to determine the alcohol volume. an inlet can be placed in the dome of the tank with a vented (small part at the top end) down pipe which extends to within several inches of the bottom of the tank. Another position for the manhole is on top of the tank. however. accurately setting the tank gauge and for inspection of the tank. inspection opening is merely a 6-inch nipple welded onto the top of the tank. corrected to 60°F. The suction line can be tied-in several different ways. The tank. Vent lines of all flammable liquid storage tanks should be equipped with approved flame arrestors. 3 90 . Gauges of this type have been used to meet the ATF tank gauge requirements. with the bottom of this access port about 3 feet above the bottom of the tank. If desired. The opening provides a means of obtaining samples. If the pump is to be used for both tank filling and transfer. Typical Tank Opening Size in Inches 3 GAUGING WELL. ETC. as required by ATF regulations. tank openings of the indicated size have proven satisfactory: VENT.Tank Aperture Requirements To accommodate the listed aperture requirements. 2 TANK INLET AND SUCTION OPENINGS A number of variations can be made on the inlet and suction openings to the tank. VAPOR CONSERVATION VENT OR FLAME ARRESTOR A vent is necessary for any tank. This could be located at the bottom of the tank and would be identical to a 3-inch suction line. The sampling. This is to be used for obtaining the average temperature of the alcohol in the tank.

be equipped for locking in such a manner as to control unauthorized access to the alcohol. may be obtained. it is essential. while basically a simple procedure. a second sample may be obtained from the vessel’s bottom discharge line.TANK CALIBRATION It is essential that the alcohol storage tank be properly calibrated so that periodic inventory measurements. The container should be properly labeled as soon as the sample is drawn. Sampling of drums and bottles of alcohol is best done with either a metal thief or a glass tube. polyvinyl chloride. to remove dust. If desired. However. The sampling equipment should first be rinsed with a small quantity of the material to be sampled. etc. rust and other contaminants. dirt.. but not before making a minimum purge of the line. lint. Recognizing that an analysis can be only as good as the sample upon which the analysis is performed. used for the storage of specially denatured or tax-free alcohol. the ATF requires that tanks must be accurately calibrated and certified by a reputable engineering concern. is one in which it is very easy to introduce error. Before sampling. that strict attention to detail and cleanliness be observed. SAMPLING AND GAUGING Sampling. 91 . wax or soft resin-coated caps should not be used. Maintenance of Quality The maintenance of alcohol quality involves three general efforts. A good practice is to rinse even a new container with a small quantity of the material to be sampled. Using a fresh container eliminates the possibility of contaminating the sample with the residue of something else. The tank supplier generally will have measurement charts. which are required by ATF regulations etc. which should be an integral part of any alcohol user’s good manufacturing practices: Incoming shipments of ethyl alcohol should be accurately gauged and sampled to verify volume and quality. aluminum foil is recommended. For alcohol. the area around the sampling point should be cleaned of any dust. All storage vessels. as in all laboratory-oriented procedures. Accurate and detailed records conforming to present guidelines for good manufacturing practice and ATF requirements should be kept. The ATF also requires that each stationary tank. Polyethylene. The sample container should have a proper cap with a liner compatible with the material to be sampled. as they are often attacked by alcoholic products. Then an "all-level" representative sample may be taken through the top opening of the vessel. containers and equipment should be kept in repair and scrupulously cleaned before receiving a new material. Sample containers should not be re-used. Each step should be recorded from receipt and quality control examination to final use of the alcohol. which can be used for this purpose.

which greatly simplify the procedure. Every tank truck is calibrated by a competent independent company whose business is the calibration of tanks. Each truck carries certified calibration charts showing the capacity of each compartment at various liquid levels. This is the apparent volume. Gauging of alcohol will vary depending on the type of shipping container. It is a good practice to determine the temperature at approximately the top.Some tanks have sampling cocks. Instructions for gauging contents of tank trucks. since their greater volumes vary more widely due to temperature effects. the truck must be stationary and located on level ground. (3) It is necessary to know the coefficient of expansion of the contained material. the sample should be taken from all levels to assure homogeneity. This coefficient can be found under the typical property section of this book for the specific product being gauged. Sample cocks should be flushed before the sample is taken. mud. The pure alcohol. If scales are unavailable the option below may be utilized for gauging the contents of a tank truck. the quantity of material in a tank truck should be determined by volumetric measurements. Tuscola and Newark DSPs. This is easily accomplished with a weighted bottle which fills slowly as it descends. Where the tank has a top manway. and then take the average of the three readings. We welcome any questions that pertain to our loading and weighing of our products. load trucks of material with the bill of ladings reflecting NET weight of the material in the trailer. or a thermometer which is enclosed in a container. snow. and the gasoline load it is carrying. special denatured alcohol." then calculate the volume from the calibration chart. Gauging of trucks and tank cars is more complicated. The trailer may be loaded by metering into it and denaturants metered into the container. 92 . (2) Determine the average temperature of the liquid in the compartment. All the trailers are then weighed on certified scales thus providing a check with our meters and the volume that ultimately is in the trailer. Filmex. ethers and proprietary solvents all have particular weights per gallon of liquid. As the weight of a tank truck is influenced by varying quantities of ice. middle and bottom of the tank by the use of a cup thermometer. While the quantity of material received in a tank truck may be measured either by weight or by volume. we have found that the volume of liquid in a tank truck can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. To get an accurate gauge. TANK TRUCKS Our Equistar facilities. Measuring volume—The following data must be obtained to measure the volume of liquid in a tank truck: (1) Determine the liquid level in the compartment by measuring above or below the "full marker. At other times the trailer may be loaded from a mix tank directly using an outage as described below. Standard dimension drums are conveniently gauged with a clean steel tape.

.. alcohol received in tank cars is measured by volume...... Apparent volume.... (Note: tables for tank cars will be supplied......6500 x (80º – 60º) x 0..................0006 per ºF Calculation. making the measurement in either case from the top of the tank car—lower side of metal—to the surface of the liquid...... The capacity of the car as stenciled on the shell.573 lb *The pounds per gallon of SDA 3-A is given on page 29 and defined in Part 212. The first two are known factors.... Measuring Volume—Before measuring the apparent volume of the tank car.. If the weight is desired......6500 – 78 = 6422 gal Weight – (corrected volume) (wt per gal* at 60°F) = 6422 x 6............. The apparent volume plus (or minus) the temperature correction (in gallons) gives the net gallons at the standard temperature... it may be determined by multiplying the corrected gallons by the weight per gallon of the truck contents at the standard temperature.... If the liquid is up in the dome........ Code of Federal Regulations....... A loaded tank car cannot be weighed with an accuracy better than plus or minus 500 pounds on railroad track scales.......Temperature correction—The apparent volume in gallons must now be corrected to the standard 60ºF temperature obtained from the measurement and the referenced calibration chart used for ethyl alcohol and denatured alcohol formulas. add the result obtained to the apparent volume... while the last two must be determined by actual measurement...115.... Equistar Chemicals.. contribute to this lack of accuracy........... LP)." The result will be the "apparent volume" which must be corrected to standard temperature...... Various other elements......." If the liquid is below the shell.. 3.. Example Using SDA 3-A Apparent Volume (determined by measurement and truck calibration chart) ..................... 4..... Determine: 1.... For temperatures below the standard (volume contracted)...... Determine the distance in inches of the liquid surface below or above the tank shell.. subtract gallonage from the "stenciled capacity...... etc...785 = 43.80ºF SDA 3-A Coefficient of Expansion............ TANK CARS Instructions for gauging contents of tank cars As with tank trucks.............. subtract the result from the apparent volume... possible in-transit changes of running gear........ This value may be found in the typical property section of this book for the product to be gauged. Temperature of liquid.. For temperature above the standard (volume expanded)... 2. LP uses and recommends the following gauging method................ add the gallonage to the "stenciled capacity............ Obtain from "tank outage" tables the gallons corresponding to this measurement.0. rain water or snow deposited on the car........... Note: this is the number of gallons the car will hold with the shell exactly full and no liquid in the dome at standard temperature...... by Equistar Chemicals................. 93 ........0006 = 78 gal Corrected Volume at 60°F . Multiply the number of degrees above or below the standard temperature by the coefficient of expansion and then multiply this product by the apparent volume.......6500 gal Average Temperature ........ it should be located on a level track............. The coefficient of expansion of the contained liquid....... on request.

............................. subtract from the apparent volume..... Code of Federal Regulations EQUIPMENT CLEANLINESS Maintenance of a high quality alcohol requires that a properly maintained transfer and storage system be thoroughly cleaned before putting it into service.................................. Nitrogen is recommended to minimize the potential safety hazard imposed by flammable mixtures of alcohol vapors and air...Temperature Correction—The standard temperature for ethyl alcohol is 60ºF.......... The average of the readings may be considered the true temperature.. Since the temperatures of the alcohol at different levels in the tank car often vary more than 10º....... The "apparent volume" plus (or minus) the temperature correction (in gallons) gives the net gallons at the standard temperature.............................. For temperatures below the standard volume contracted.. Do not shift from one formulation to another without a thorough cleaning. and this product by the apparent volume originally determined..763 gallons Average temperature ....................... properly...............611 = ......... the true temperature. Cleaning Procedure The following procedure is suggested: Drain the tank and introduce nitrogen at a point to force all remaining liquid from the tank and associated line.............................. multiplying the number of degrees above or below the standard temperature by the coefficient of expansion.. 94 ............012 lb *The pounds per gallon of SDA 40 anhydrous is given on page 40 and defined in Part 212... The recommended method is to use a cup thermometer and take temperature readings of samples obtained at approximately every thousand-gallon level throughout the depth of the car........ Using this temperature....43ºF SDA 40 Anhydrous coefficient of expansion ............................. New tanks....................... Example Using SDA 40 Anhydrous in GATX 98244 Tank car stenciled capacity ...................... and those that have held other formulations or products............... Purge with either nitrogen or air until dry...134............................. calculate the correction................ per gal.....20829 gallons Gauge measurement .. must be scrupulously cleaned. Personal entry into any tank must never be made until the absence of explosive vapors and the presence of an adequate air supply is assured.......0006 = 205 gal Corrected volume at 60ºF 20066 + 205 = .. though longer periods may be required for large tanks. Steam clean through the top manway......................83/4" outage Outage ..........115..0006 per ºF Calculation (20829 – 763) x (60º – 43º) x 0..... The weight can be determined by multiplying the gallons by the unit weight per gallon............................ care must be exercised to determine.. Emptying and cleaning is not necessary if the tank already contains the same alcohol formula as the new shipment.... while for temperature above the standard volume expanded.......... Steaming should last at least a half-hour................0..... Rinse the tank with water through the top manway and drain through the bottom outlet......................* at 60ºF) = 20271 x 6...20...271 gal Weight = (corrected volume) x (wt............. add the result obtained to the apparent gallon........................

3. reduce any ignition sources. d) Quantity ordered is within your storage capacity and ATF permit requirements. truck. Obtain approval for the use of ethyl alcohol products from the Bureau of Alcohol. The user must certify the receipt of SDA shipments and must account. railcar. b) The trailer should be positioned as close to unloading as possible. 4. c) Proper container is ordered. 2. fittings. a) Check that it is the correct unloading point. compartment trailer. rear. 1. direct the carrier to correct receiving location. In addition to the ATF records mentioned above. tools. b) Always verify the formulation and proof with the CSR (Customer Service Rep). However.Records Users of industrial alcohol are required to maintain specific records for examination by ATF inspectors and to periodically submit a User’s Report of Denatured Alcohol to the ATF. time of day or night that deliveries are expected etc. and possibly goggles or air masks) check MSDS. Helpful Storage Hints Some helpful hints for the efficient storage of alcohol. b) Proper labeling of the lines and tank are assets in seeing that the unloading is safe and not contaminated. proper hose and fittings are available at receiving point. Upon receipt of load: a) Compare bill of lading with the purchase order for correct amount and formulation of product. b) Take a sample and gauge contents of the container (if applicable) otherwise scale the trailer for weight on a certified scale. 95 . and for such internal business controls and other purposes deemed necessary. be sure: a) Proper formulation (denaturants) and proof are specified. or extra hoses. When ordering alcohol. a) Remember these are flammable liquid products. to the ATF. or center unloading trailer. f) Clean. 5. records should be maintained for compliance with good manufacturing practice. ensure grounding of the trailer to unloading line or equipment. and depending on the business of the user. NO SMOKING during offloading or transferring of products. open flames. e) Adequate time is given to Equistar to assure on-time delivery. validate with the carrier the proper unloading hose/tank to be used. Exercise continuous safety precautions during unloading operations. g) Any customer requirements should be explained to the CSR so that the delivery is made with the right equipment needed in the offloading process. After it is determined that the material is as ordered. additional information may be obtained from Equistar or your ATF Regional Regulatory Administrator. safety glasses. exposed electrical wiring etc. Tobacco and Firearms. Use proper PPE (gloves. for inventory gains or losses. The details of these requirements are beyond the scope of this book. or drum etc.

Is a feed/bleed system being utilized when necessary to protect tank? Make sure operator/or unloader KNOWS how to shutdown transfer in case of an emergency. weigh the empty trailer if necessary to verify the net weight of the product delivered. g) Check trailer valves are closed. f) When transfer is complete. e) Once transferring has been initiated. Check volume in the tank to confirm the amount unloaded with the bill of lading. d) Check the gauge on the receiving tank to verify that it will hold the volume in the trailer. verify that the trailer is empty. 96 .c) Check again for proper hookup to correct lines. close all valves before disconnecting and remove ground strap from trailer. check all hoses and fittings for leaks. manway closed. placards in place.

97 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Respiratory Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Toxic Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Workplace Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Acute Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HEALTH AND SAFETY INFORMATION First Aid . . . . . . . . 102 Dermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Flammable Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Animal Studies . . 100 Spill Cleanup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Human Experience . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Chronic Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Fire-Fighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Tank Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Health Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Work Practice Controls . . . . 102 Human Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Engineering Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Chronic Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Control of Occupational Exposures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Animal Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Acute Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Odor Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Exposure Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Eye: Thoroughly flush the eyes with large amounts of clean low-pressure water for at least 15 minutes. as defined by Article 501 of the National Electric Code (and NFPA 30).3% and 19%. Additionally. Ingestion: If victim is conscious and able to swallow. Call a physician. Never give anything by mouth if victim is unconscious or having convulsions. remove victim to fresh air immediately. or if breathing is difficult. special care must be used when working with it to insure that all sources of ignition such as heat. wherever the possibility of the accumulation of flammable vapor mixtures of ethyl alcohol exists. immediately flush affected area with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. an auto-ignition temperature of 793ºF (423ºC). Unless they are specifically exempted. 99 .7 psia). induce vomiting and repeat until vomit is clear. move victim to fresh air. respectively. In particular. At atmospheric pressure (14. get medical attention.1 Ethyl alcohol has a Tag Closed Cup flash-point of approximately 55ºF (13ºC). If not breathing. If inhaled. all operations in which ethyl alcohol is used should conform to these standards.. give mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration.First Aid If swallowed and patient is conscious. by volume in air. sparks and flames have been eliminated from the workplace. Safety Considerations FLAMMABLE NATURE Ethyl alcohol is an OSHA/NFPA Class 1B flammable liquid. seek medical attention. Inhalation: If symptoms are experienced. Oxygen may be administered by trained personnel only. FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION REFER TO THE EMERGENCY OVERVIEW IN SECTION 3 OF THE MSDS FOR THE SPECIFIC PRODUCT IN QUESTION. If irritation persists. adequate exhaust ventilation should be provided. Specific guidelines governing the storage and handling of ethyl alcohol are contained in NFPA 30. Seek medical attention if discomfort persists. CALL A PHYSICIAN OR POISON CONTROL CENTER IMMEDIATELY (800-222-1222).2 STORAGE AND HANDLING Because ethyl alcohol is flammable. as defined by the National Fire Protection Association’s Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (NFPA 30). all electrical wiring and electrical equipment potentially in contact with flammable vapor mixtures of ethyl alcohol must be suitable for Class 1 operations. have victim drink water to dilute. If irritation persists. ethyl alcohol has a boiling point of 173ºF (78ºC). occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. In case of contact with eyes or skin. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Skin: Immediately flush affected area with plenty of water while removing contaminated clothing. Induce vomiting only if advised by a physician or Poison Control Center. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. and lower and upper flammability limits of 3. Remove and wash clothing before re-use.

Purging the tank with air may result in the formation of a flammable gas mixture within the tank during the purging operation. In the case of an empty tank that previously had contained ethyl alcohol. A tank or any other confined space in which the oxygen content of the atmosphere is or could be immediately hazardous to life or health should not be entered unless the individual is wearing either (1) a NIOSH-approved positive pressure self-contained respirator. with an auxiliary pressure-demand self-contained air supply. Eye protective devices. The spill should be contained. Drums and other containers used for dispensing ethyl alcohol should be equipped with self-closing valves. TANK ENTRY BEFORE ENTERING ANY EMPTY TANK REVIEW THE REQUIREMENTS OF OSHA 1910.000 ppm (See Health Considerations. Use water spray or alcohol resistant foams to reduce and control vapors. non-flammable. When ethyl alcohol is being transferred between electrically conductive containers. basements or other confined areas) and treated in accordance with applicable local. All ignition sources within the area should be eliminated. Precautions should be taken to ensure that workers entering tanks previously containing ethyl alcohol are not overexposed. Any spill material which cannot be collected in this manner should be absorbed using an appropriate absorbent or flushed with water to a suitable containment basin (prevent entry into sewer systems. Purging the tank with an inert gas may result in the atmosphere in the tank being oxygen deficient subsequent to purging. it is recommended that the tank be purged with steam or water. such as chemical safety goggles. 100 . SPILL CLEANUP In the event of an ethyl alcohol spill. The inlet fill pipe on ethyl alcohol storage tanks should discharge near the bottom of the tank and should be designed to minimize liquid turbulence and the creation of flammable vapor within the tank. it should be collected in liquid-tight containers and disposed of in accordance with applicable waste disposal regulations. gloves. boots and respirators. state and federal wastewater regulations. including impervious suits.Properly constructed and marked safety containers should be used when transporting or storing small quantities of ethyl alcohol. should be used when necessary. All personnel participating in the cleanup operations should be provided adequate personal protective equipment. The tank should be isolated to prevent materials from accidentally entering the tank. the affected area should be evacuated as soon as possible. Workplace Exposure). and contains sufficient oxygen to maintain life. State and Local authorities may need to be notified in accordance with applicable regulations and amounts of material involved in the spill. Special care must be taken to insure that no possible ignition sources exist in the vapor space of an ethyl alcohol storage tank. pressuredemand type. if possible pump into a closed container. Before any work is to be performed within a confined space that previously contained ethyl alcohol. Federal. the containers should be grounded and electrically bonded. QUANTITY LIMITS OR OTHER REQUIREMENTS. If absorbent is used.146 CONFINED SPACES AND 1910.147 LOCK OUT TAG OUT / ISOLATION OF ENERGY SOURCES. care should be taken to insure that a flammable vapor mixture does not exist. or (2) a NIOSH-approved combination supplied-air respirator. A qualified safety specialist should determine that the atmosphere in the tank is non-toxic. The OSHA standard for worker exposure to ethyl alcohol is 1. LOCAL FIRE CODES SHOULD ALWAYS BE CONSULTED FOR ADDITIONAL STORAGE REGULATIONS.

the average air concentration to which an employee can be exposed should not exceed 1. continued exposure to alcohol vapor is characterized by loss of odor perception at these concentrations. 101 . For large fires. When following this procedure. large amounts of water can be effective as an extinguishing agent when fighting ethyl alcohol fires. but have a tendency to spread large spill fires. or they may experience direct skin contact. Alcohols burn with a pale blue flame that is often hard to see in normal lighting conditions.FIRE-FIGHTING Ethanol vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distances to a source of ignition and flashback.000 ppm to 9. The OSHA standard for ethyl alcohol is 1.000 parts of ethyl alcohol vapor per million parts of air (ppm). all available evidence indicates that most workers can be repeatedly exposed to this level without adverse health effects. nozzles or water curtains. the odor is reportedly very intense. The inhalation of excessive quantities of ethyl alcohol vapors can lead to health problems. Tests of this nature are generally conducted by professional industrial hygienists. through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). evaluation and control of occupational health hazards. care should be taken to ensure that the fire is not spread by the inadvertent overflowing of vessels containing ethyl alcohol. always fight alcohol fires from the maximum possible distance and/or with unmanned monitors. where they may be exposed to it by breathing the vapors. due to olfactory fatigue. provided this exposure is compensated by an equivalent level below 1. Ethyl alcohol’s odor threshold is reportedly in the range of 10 ppm6 to 350 ppm7. The average concentration to which a worker is exposed during the same workday must be 1.000 ppm.000 ppm. and should not be used with them). However.000 ppm. Because of this fact. Ethyl alcohol fires should be extinguished by using dry chemical. Although individual susceptibilities may cause a small percentage of individuals to experience discomfort when exposed to ethyl alcohol concentrations at or below 1.000 ppm.4 Under most circumstances the human body can eliminate ethyl alcohol at the same rate that it is absorbed. This means that over an eight-hour workday. It can be applied in the form of a spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to keep fireexposed material and containers in the area adjacent to the fire cool.3 Health Considerations WORKPLACE EXPOSURE Many individuals work with ethyl alcohol in industrial settings. Short-term worker exposure may exceed 1.000 ppm. the federal government. "alcohol" foam or carbon dioxide extinguishers (these are suitable for small fires. ODOR THRESHOLD The vapors of ethyl alcohol can be detected at concentrations significantly less than the OSHA standard.5 EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS The actual concentration of ethyl alcohol to which an individual is exposed can be determined by measuring the alcohol concentration in the ambient air that the individual breathes. has established a limit on the amount of ethyl alcohol vapors to which an individual may be exposed over a workshift. At 6. who are trained in the recognition.000 ppm or less.

TOXIC EFFECTS
Acute Inhalation Human Experience —The effects of short-term inhalation exposures to ethyl alcohol on the health of individuals have been studied extensively. In one such study,5 human volunteers were exposed to ethyl alcohol vapor concentrations of between approximately 5,000 ppm and 10,000 ppm for periods of up to six hours. The individuals involved reported that the alcohol exposure caused coughing and irritation of the eyes and nose. Once the individuals were removed from the ethyl alcohol environment, the symptoms were reported to have disappeared within a few minutes. Volunteers could not tolerate being exposed to vapor concentrations of approximately 20,000 ppm for even a short period. In evaluating the results of their study, the investigators calculated that the breathing rate required for a 150-pound man exposed to an ethyl alcohol vapor concentration of 1,000 ppm to become overexposed to the alcohol vapors would have to be much higher than the breathing rate normally required for hard physical labor. Other studies involving human inhalation exposures to ethyl alcohol are referenced for the interested reader. 7,8 It should be noted that at least one case of fatal intoxication following ethyl alcohol vapor inhalation has been reported.9 Animal Testing—Several studies10 using laboratory animals to determine lethal vapor concentrations have been reported. The results of these studies are summarized in the following table.

LETHAL CONCENTRATION VALUES FOR ETHYL ALCOHOL
Species Mice Rats Rats Guinea Pigs Concentration 30,000 ppm 10,000-12,500 ppm 45,000 ppm 45,000 ppm Time Until Death Not Specified 21 hours 4.5 hours 10.75 hours

Chronic Inhalation Human Experience—There appear to be very few published reports 7,10,11,12 addressing the effects of long-term human inhalation exposure to ethyl alcohol vapors. It has been reported that an individual can develop a tolerance to repeated exposures to ethyl alcohol vapor. This tolerance is demonstrated by a slight decrease in severity and a delayed onset of overt symptoms such as headache and drowsiness.7 Asthma patients inhaling an ethanol mist reportedly do not show ethyl alcohol toxicity.11 Animal Studies—Limited animal testing has been conducted to determine subchronic and chronic inhalation health effects.7, 13 Dermal Acute Effects—Short-term, non-repeated contact with ethyl alcohol may cause eye irritation and mild skin irritation. Ethyl alcohol also dehydrates the skin.9 Acute ethyl alcohol intoxication by dermal exposure is unusual, but it has been reported.10,14 Chronic Effects —Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in some individuals repeatedly exposed to ethyl alcohol.15 As with other contact allergens, there is an initial sensitization period, after which further skin contact may result in redness or blistering.

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CONTROL OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES
There are several methods which can be used to reduce industrial exposures to ethyl alcohol. In general, these methods include engineering controls, work practice controls and respiratory protection. Engineering Controls—Wherever possible, industrial processes should be designed to prevent the release of ethyl alcohol vapors into the workplace. Where this is not possible, mechanical ventilation should be used to control and to remove the ethyl alcohol vapors from the work environment. If possible, local exhaust ventilation should be used to collect and exhaust the ethyl alcohol vapors at the point of contaminant generation. If the process or operation prohibits the use of local exhaust, then it may be necessary to ventilate the entire workplace. Work Practice Controls —Workers can prevent unnecessary exposures to ethyl alcohol by following good work practices. These include the regular use of protective clothing (gloves, aprons, coveralls, etc.) to prevent skin contact. They may also be used when storing and transferring ethyl alcohol in closed containers, and the operation of all process equipment in such a manner as to avoid accidental or unnecessary releases of ethyl alcohol vapors into the workplace. Respiratory Protection—If the airborne concentrations of ethyl alcohol which exist in the workplace cannot be reduced to acceptable levels, workers should be protected through the use of respiratory equipment. Care must be taken in choosing and using a respirator. All aspects of any respiratory protection program should be thoroughly reviewed and approved by a competent safety or health professional.

References
1. National Fire Codes, Vol. 2, (1980). 2. Sax, N. Irving (ed.), Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 5th ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York (1979). 3. Meidl, J., Flammable Hazardous Materials, Glencoe Press, Beverly Hills, California (1970). 4. TLV’s-Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment with Intended Changes for 1979. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, P.O. Box 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201 (1979). 5. Lester, D. and Greenberg, L., "The Inhalation of Ethyl Alcohol by Man," Quart. J. Studies Alc. 12:167-178 (1951). 6. Leonardos, G., Kendall, D. and Barnard, N., "Odor Threshold Determinations of 53 Odorant Chemicals," J. Air Pollution Control Association 19(2): 91 (1969). 7. Treon, J., "Alcohols," in Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Patty, F. (ed.), 2nd revised ed., Vol. II—Toxicology, Chapter XXXIV, pp. 1422-1433 (1963). 8. Henderson, Y. and Hazzard, H., Noxious Gases, Reinhold Publishing Co., New York (1943). 9. Goodman, L. and Gilman, A., The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Macmillan Publishers, New York (1975). 10. Browning, E., Toxicity of Industrial Organic Solvents, Chemical Publishing Co., New York (1953). 11. Couri, D. and Nachtman, J. P., Toxicology of Alcohols, Ketones and Esters-Inhalation. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, 15: 112-123 (1977). 12. Cornish, H. H., "Solvents and Vapors," in Toxicology, The Basic Science of Poisons, Casarett, L. J. and Doull, J. (eds.), Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York (1975).

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13. Coon, R. A. et. al., "Animal Inhalation Studies on Ammonia, Ethylene Glycol, Formaldehyde, Dimethylamine and Ethanolv," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 16:646-655 (1970). 14. Gosselin, R. E. et. al., Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, 4th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1976). 15. Stotts, J. and Ely, W., "Induction of Human Skin Sensitization to Ethanol," Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 69:219-222 (1977).

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643-649. CRC Press." Vol. pp 385-405. Washington D. pp 1-15. B. pp 95-115.. New York. 3rd Edition. 1977 "Generation and Control of Static Electricity. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 1970 Wilhoit. National Fire Codes. Vol. 681-923. and Ditsler. Industrial Solvents Handbook. 659-893. 106 . C.. New York. pp 322-323. 5th Edition. 1975 Sax. Proprietary Solvents. 517-537. P. 1973 Safety Anon. "How to Hold Alcohol Quality. 855-876. Their Chemistry. 3. D. 90-91. 1968 Riddick.C. 15. Organic Solvents. 725. John A.C. pp 218-219. pp 34-37. 3. 1978 Gallant.. and Zwolinski. Manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions. 1973. 545-554. Vol. 1968 Mellan. N. Washington D. 807-1016. Vol. 1979 Thorne. 30. 1975. Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons. "Dehydration of Aqueous Ethanol Mixtures by Extractive Distillation. 1976 Storage Alsmeyer E. pp 61-72." Advances in Chemistry Series No. 1.C. American Petroleum Institute. Vol. and Bugner William B.Opdyke. Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks. Tokyo. Properties and Manufacture. Lehigh University. C. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Pennsylvania. 1974. Noyes Data Corporation. pp I-55 to I-66. 11. E. National Printing Ink Research Institute Raw Materials Data Book. 103-117. L. 443-481.. "The Dilution of Flammable Polar Solvents by Water for Safe Disposal. National Fire Protection Association. 12.. Alcohols. John A. 1972 Physical Properties Fetsko. R. Cleveland. 2. American Chemical Society.. Massachusetts. 1977/78 Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual for Handling and Disposal with Toxicity and Hazard Data. API Standard 2000. 1974 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code No. Irving.. 14. 2nd Ed. Vol. pp 181-187. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Massachusetts. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. Ibert. Inc. Jacqueline M. National Paint and Coatings Association. pp 307-338.. 72-78. 449-457. Vol. pp 491M-18. Vol. Washington. 2nd Edition. p. 115.. Boston. National Fire Protection Association. L." Technical Division Scientific Circular 803. pp 70. D. Extractive and Azeotropic Distillation. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. The American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics. 1975 Bretherick. 1977 Monick.. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Aliphatic Alcohols.. and Cranmer. Bethlehem. Ohio. New York. Reinhold Book Corporation. Gulf Publishing Company. pp 611-638 Distillation Black C. J.601-633. 19.. F. 703-736. 10111081. Boston. WileyInterscience. D. pp 146-147.. 1976. Robert W. Houston. 1973. J.. pp 321-322. The International Technical Information Institute. C. pp 91-122." Drug & Cosmetic Industry. 5th Edition.. R. 13.

J. I. Public Health Bulletin No. Shellac—Its Origin and Applications.. November. Edward.. National Fire Codes. Irving. 54-56 The American Medical Association. II. H. 16th Edition. R. 2nd Edition. Public Health Service. Pergamon Press. New York. "Pharmaceutical Necessities. and Doull.C. 229-230. 1975 Hicks. and Swinyard. 1975 Maling. 1980 Bandelin. Lowenthal. pp 239-248. 1977 deNavarre. Massachusetts.. pp 1254-1256. 1970 Plunkett." Hydrocarbon Processing. Pennsylvania. pp 163-164. Ewart A.. Vol. E. Inc. Cranmer." Washington D. 1976 von Oettingen.. AMA Drug Evaluations." Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 1961 Osol. National Fire Protection Association. Toxicology. A. 1968 U. Arthur.. 118. 1018.. 1943 Uses Alsmeyer. 92.. C.S.. Vol. N. Louis J. John. Acton. Florida. Lea and Febiger. New York. pp 509-511. Vol. Continental Press. 4th Edition. Maison G. 1980 Lawrence. Mack Publishing Co. Sterilization and Preservation. C. Chapter 15. Chemical Publishing Co.. Massachusetts. The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics. 1970 Static Electricity No." Cosmetics and Toiletries.. 240. pp 59-64. "The Alipatic Alcohols: Their Toxicity and Potential Dangers in Relation to Their Chemical Constitution and Their Fate in Metabolism. Werner. F.. J. Vol. pp 35-37. Alcohols and Derivatives. Editor. New York 107 . U." Aerosol Age. Disinfectants. F. Chapter 11.. Chemical Publishing Co. 14. M. p. Antiseptics. 1038. "Antibacterial and Preservative Properties of Alcohols. Vinegar Newsletter. pp 209-212. Industrial Chemicals Co.. pp 277-299. Publishing Sciences Group Inc. New York. Easton. 1977 Toxicity Casarett. II.S. R. and Murray. C. Vol. Handbook of Industrial Toxicology. and Block.. Boston. IV. "Toxicology of Single Doses of Ethyl Alcohol.. S. E. "Alcohol: Myths and Realities. pp 1035. p. Philadelphia. W. 281. 70. Disinfection. Macmillan Publishing Co. New York.Heitner. Fungicides and Chemical and Physical Sterilization. "A Critical Look at API RP 521. 77. pp 30-33." Vol. New York. pp 4-8. S.

LP which has received extra attention during manufacturing. and Firearms. Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA)—Ethyl alcohol which has been denatured according to completely denatured alcohol formulas prescribed by federal (BATF) regulations. Industrial Alcohol—Ethyl alcohol produced and sold for other than beverage purposes. specially denatured alcohol and as proprietary solvent blends. Apparent Proof—the equivalent of proof for ethyl alcohol solutions containing ingredients other than water. grain alcohol. Punctilious Ethyl Alcohol—High quality alcohol produced by Equistar Chemicals.GLOSSARY Anhydrous Formulas—Formulas with this designation are made with pure ethyl alcohol 200 proof (100% ethanol) anhydrous. and shipment. Tax-paid Alcohol—Pure ethyl alcohol that has been released from federal bond by payment of the federal excise tax at $13.7939 at 60º F as unity. Tobacco. Proprietary Solvent—A solvent. Proof gallons are calculated by multiplying the wine (standard liquid) gallons of ethyl alcohol by its proof and dividing it by 100.9 proof gallons. All purchasers outside of the government must obtain permits. Proof Gallons—One proof gallon is a gallon that contains 50 percent by volume of ethyl alcohol having a specific gravity of 0. but its use is regulated closely and the denaturing formulas are specified by law. Wine Gallon—A United States gallon of liquid measure equivalent to the volume of 231 cubic inches. It is sold by Equistar Chemicals. Denaturant—An ATF approved material added to ethyl alcohol to make it non-potable. testing. Drawback—A tax refund given when tax-paid alcohol is used to produce approved products unfit for beverage purposes. fermentation alcohol. Ethyl Alcohol—The common name for the hydroxyl derivative of the hydrocarbon ethane which is also known as ethanol.50 per proof gallon. or the alcoholic equivalent thereof. 108 www. It cannot be used in foods or beverages. Dehydrated Alcohol—Ethyl alcohol of the highest proof obtainable (200º proof).com 2460-V8-0704 . storage. adapted for specific uses. Tax-free Alcohol—Pure ethyl alcohol withdrawn free of tax for government. post bonds and exert controls upon storage and use of tax-free alcohol. Specially Denatured Alcohol (SDA)—Ethyl alcohol in which the denaturants allow its use in a great number of applications. Proof—The ethyl alcohol content of a liquid at 60º F stated as twice the percent of ethyl alcohol by volume. One wine gallon of 190 proof ethyl alcohol is equal to 1. completely denatured alcohol.industrialethanol. LP in the form of pure ethyl alcohol. for science or for humanitarian reasons. cologne spirits and spirits of wine. It is sold free of federal tax. which contains more than 25 per cent ethyl alcohol by volume and which is manufactured from specially denatured alcohol according to a formula approved by the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol.

true and accurate. express warranty or implied warranty concerning the suitability of these materials for use in implantation in the human body or in contact with internal body tissues or fluids. An MSDS is automatically distributed upon purchase/order execution. express or implied. and are not an inducement to use any process or product in conflict with any patent. Equistar makes no representation.Lyondell Chemical Company 1221 McKinney Street. 2460-V9-0605 . More detailed safety and disposal information on our products is contained in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). All uses of Equistar products and any written or oral information. since the particular uses and the actual conditions of use of our products are beyond our control. You may request an advance or replacement copy by calling our MSDS Hotline at (800) 700 . Equistar materials are not designed or manufactured for use in implantation in the human body or in contact with internal body fluids or tissues. All users of our products are urged to retain and use the MSDS. Texas 77252-2583 The information in this document is. to our knowledge.0946. Suite 1600 P. suggestions or technical advice from Equistar are without warranty. Howerver. establishing satisfactory performance of our products for the inteneded applicatoins is the customer’s sole responsibility. promise. Box 2483 Houston.O.

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