UNI TED NATI ONS

The Millennium Development Goals Report
2008
Embargoed until 11 September 2008

UNITED NATIONS
This report is based on a master set of data that has been compiled by an Inter-Agency and Expert
Group on MDG Indicators led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United
Nations Secretariat, in response to the wishes of the General Assembly for periodic assessment
of progress towards the MDGs. The Group comprises representatives of the international
organizations whose activities include the preparation of one or more of the series of statistical
indicators that were identifed as appropriate for monitoring progress towards the MDGs, as
refected in the list below. A number of national statisticians and outside expert advisers also
contributed.
I NTERNATI ONAL LABOUR ORGANI ZATI ON
FOOD AND AGRI CULTURE ORGANI ZATI ON OF THE UNI TED NATI ONS
UNI TED NATI ONS EDUCATI ONAL, SCI ENTI FI C AND CULTURAL ORGANI ZATI ON
WORLD HEALTH ORGANI ZATI ON
THE WORLD BANK
I NTERNATI ONAL MONETARY FUND
I NTERNATI ONAL TELECOMMUNI CATI ON UNI ON
ECONOMI C COMMI SSI ON FOR AFRI CA
ECONOMI C COMMI SSI ON FOR EUROPE
ECONOMI C COMMI SSI ON FOR LATI N AMERI CA AND THE CARI BBEAN
ECONOMI C AND SOCI AL COMMI SSI ON FOR ASI A AND THE PACI FI C
ECONOMI C AND SOCI AL COMMI SSI ON FOR WESTERN ASI A
JOI NT UNI TED NATI ONS PROGRAMME ON HI V/ AI DS
UNI TED NATI ONS CHI LDREN’ S FUND
UNI TED NATI ONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
UNI TED NATI ONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN
UNI TED NATI ONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
UNI TED NATI ONS ENVI RONMENT PROGRAMME
UNI TED NATI ONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTI ON ON CLI MATE CHANGE
UNI TED NATI ONS HI GH COMMI SSI ONER FOR REFUGEES
UNI TED NATI ONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME
UNI TED NATI ONS POPULATI ON FUND
I NTER- PARLI AMENTARY UNI ON
ORGANI SATI ON FOR ECONOMI C CO- OPERATI ON AND DEVELOPMENT
WORLD TRADE ORGANI ZATI ON
The Millennium
Development Goals
Report 2008
UNI TED NATI ONS
NEW YORK, 2008

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Foreword
In adopting the Millennium Declaration in the
year 2000, the international community pledged
to “spare no effort to free our fellow men, women
and children from the abject and dehumanizing
conditions of extreme poverty.” We are now more
than halfway towards the target date – 2015 – by
which the Millennium Development Goals are to
be achieved.
The MDGs encapsulate the development aspira-
tions of the world as a whole. But they are not
only development objectives; they encompass uni-
versally accepted human values and rights such as
freedom from hunger, the right to basic education,
the right to health and a responsibility to future
generations. We have made important progress
towards all eight goals, but we are not on track
to fulfl our commitments. This report quantifes
the achievements that have been registered and
provides a measure of the tasks that remain.
These tasks have now become more challenging
because the largely benign development environ-
ment that has prevailed since the early years of this
decade, and that has contributed to the successes
to date, is now threatened. We face a global
economic slowdown and a food security crisis,
both of uncertain magnitude and duration. Global
warming has become more apparent. These devel-
opments will directly affect our efforts to reduce
poverty: the economic slowdown will diminish
the incomes of the poor; the food crisis will raise
the number of hungry people in the world and
push millions more into poverty; climate change
will have a disproportionate impact on the poor.
The need to address these concerns, pressing as
they are, must not be allowed to detract from our
long-term efforts to achieve the MDGs. On the
contrary, our strategy must be to keep the focus on
the MDGs as we confront these new challenges.
Some of the recent adverse developments refect a
failure to give these matters suffcient attention in
the past. The imminent threat of increased hunger
would have been lessened if recent decades had not
been marked by a lack of investment in agricultural
and rural development in developing countries.
Climate change would be a less immediate threat
if we had kept pace with commitments to sustain-
able development enunciated again and again over
the years. And the current global fnancial turmoil
reveals systemic weaknesses that we have known
about – and left inadequately addressed – for some
time now.
The current troubled climate poses a risk that some
advances in reducing poverty may unravel. There
could also be setbacks with regard to other MDGs.
Some gains, however, cannot be undone. A child
will forever beneft from the primary education he
or she might not otherwise have received. Many
individuals are alive today thanks to a measles vacci-
nation or antiretroviral therapy for AIDS. Millions
of tons of ozone-depleting substances have been
prevented from entering the atmosphere. External
debts have been written-off, freeing resources for
development. These and other examples provide
ample evidence of what can and has been achieved
with sound strategies backed by political will and
fnancial and technical support.
Looking ahead to 2015 and beyond, there is no
question that we can achieve the overarching goal:
we can put an end to poverty. In almost all in-
stances, experience has demonstrated the validity
of earlier agreements on the way forward; in other
words, we know what to do. But it requires an
unswerving, collective, long-term effort. Time has
been lost. We have wasted opportunities and face
additional challenges, making the task ahead more
diffcult. It is now our responsibility to make up lost
ground – and to put all countries, together, frmly on
track towards a more prosperous, sustainable and
equitable world.
Ban Ki-moon
Secretary-General, United Nations

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Overview
Addressing the multiple dimensions of
poverty

Taken together, the results achieved to date highlight, once again, the
multifaceted nature of poverty, the interactions of its various causes and
manifestations and the wide-ranging and mutually reinforcing nature of the
actions that have to be taken. The poor are not only those with the lowest
incomes but also those who are the most deprived of health, education and
other aspects of human well-being. Poor mothers are more likely to die
in childbirth; children of poor families are more likely to be malnourished
and are correspondingly more susceptible to an early death from childhood
diseases; poor children receive less education and some may receive
none at all; and gender imbalances are more pronounced among the poor,
excluding them from recognized development benefts and opportunities.
These characteristics, in turn, perpetuate income poverty. For the poor more
than others, incomes are likely to be adversely affected by confict, natural
disasters and economic fuctuations, as well as the recent increases in food
prices and the increasingly visible effects of global warming.
Overall, most poor people are caught in a vicious circle. Breaking this
circle requires an array of simultaneous actions: a single intervention is
unlikely to be suffcient. Governments should ensure that poverty reduction
is mainstreamed into all policies, ranging from national macroeconomic
strategy to local-level administrative actions. Particular attention should
be paid to the creation of additional opportunities for decent work. Public
investment and public institutions should endeavour to target the poor,
particularly in their expenditures on education, health and infrastructure.
Ensuring gender equality and empowering women in all respects – desirable
objectives in themselves – are required to combat poverty, hunger and
disease and to ensure sustainable development. The limited progress
in empowering women and achieving gender equality is a pervasive
shortcoming that extends beyond the goal itself. Relative neglect of, and de
facto bias against, women and girls continues to prevail in most countries.
As an indispensable starting point for women’s betterment in later life, all
countries that failed to achieve gender parity in primary and secondary
enrolment by the target year of 2005 should make a renewed effort to do so
as soon as possible. Improved support for women’s self-employment, and
rights to land and other assets, are key to countries’ economic development.
Above all, however, achieving gender equality requires that women have an
equal role with men in decision-making at all levels, from the home to the
pinnacles of economic and political power.
People living in rural areas are furthest from achieving several of the MDGs
in most regions. The rural population is suffering from the cumulative
neglect of agriculture over the years, but it is also disadvantaged because
progress towards several of the MDGs depends on government institutions,
services and support, such as schools, health facilities, agricultural
extension and physical infrastructure, as well as trade and interchange with
others. Such facilities are usually less readily available in rural areas, and
much of the rural population remains trapped in their own circle of poverty.
The emergence of a world food crisis has served to highlight, once again,
the need to give greater attention to developing the agricultural sector and
addressing the needs of the rural population.
The hardship of rural life is encouraging migration to towns and cities, with
the result that approximately half the world’s population is now living in
urban areas. This has, however, not necessarily resulted in either an escape
from poverty or better progress towards the MDGs. In 2005, for example,
slightly more than one third of the urban population in developing regions
lived in slum conditions, with the associated problems of inadequate water
and sanitation facilities, and lack of social infrastructure, including for
health and education.
Despite the global focus on the MDGs and the impressive results achieved
in some areas, the results to date show that, in most countries, there are
usually segments of society that do not share in the benefts without targeted
actions to reach them. The MDGs are universal: they are intended to
embrace not only all countries but also all people within each country.
Government and other actors should therefore pay special attention to any
and all at risk of being bypassed by the progress towards the MDGs.
Looking ahead to 2015
It is only in the past few years that MDG-related data for the period since
2000 have become available. Encouragingly, for many variables, the
data show accelerated progress since that date. This suggests that the
Millennium Declaration and related undertakings did make a difference to
development accomplishments. It equally implies that trends from 1990
to 2000 provide a poor basis from which to extrapolate outcomes in 2015.
But the data do not yet show the effects of the present deterioration in
global development prospects. Agreater effort will be required to achieve
the MDGs if the economic situation of the developing countries weakens
signifcantly. In such a case, the recently improved progress towards the
MDGs would also no longer be a good indicator of future prospects.
Most developing countries’ efforts to achieve the MDGs have benefted
from the improved economic growth and relatively low infation that
characterized much of the period since 2000. The immediate prospects are
for reduced global growth and higher infation. Both threaten continued
success in reducing income poverty and are likely to affect progress towards
other MDGs unless there is a commensurate response from all stakeholders.
Afrst component of this response is to ensure that the present course of
action is accelerated and expanded so that recent progress is sustained and
broadened. All stakeholders should renew their commitment to the wide
range of interrelated activities that are already contributing to progress
towards the MDGs around the world. Successful policies, programmes and
projects should be expanded wherever and whenever appropriate.
At the same time, national governments and the international community
need to respond to the lessons of experience and to adjust to changing
circumstances. Additional resources have to be mobilized by both the
developed and the developing countries to address longstanding and long-
term challenges pertaining to agriculture, rural development, infrastructure
and environmental sustainability, including climate change. The current
food crisis calls for special attention to be given to the potential escalation
in hunger and malnutrition.
This agenda will require a sustained and wide-ranging effort over a period
that extends until 2015 and beyond. The task is broad and complex, but the
progress achieved to date demonstrates that success is feasible with sound
strategies and the political will. The latter must, however, include a greater
fnancial commitment. Despite the potentially less favourable economic
conditions, the developed countries must honour their undertaking to
provide substantial increases in ODAand generally foster an international
environment more conducive to development.
* * * * *
All citizens of the world, especially the poor and the most vulnerable, have
a right to expect that their leaders will fulfl the commitments made in 2000.
This is possible if governments, together with civil society, the private
sector, the United Nations system and other international organizations,
commit to building on the momentum and tackling the challenges that are
evident from this Report.
Some of these successes have been achieved by means of targeted
interventions or programmes – such as the delivery of bed-nets, drugs and
vaccines, and mobile phones. For example, the production of insecticide-
treated mosquito nets rose from 30 million in 2004 to 95 million in 2007,
the number of people living with HIV in developing countries who received
antiretroviral treatment increased by almost 1 million in 2007, and there
were over 60 million new mobile telephone subscribers in Africa in 2006.
Achieving some other goals or targets, such as reducing maternal mortality,
will depend on country-wide systems of qualifed and adequately equipped
personnel and an effective institutional infrastructure. Building these
capacities requires strong political commitment and adequate funding over
a longer period before the effects become visible. To address these needs,
external assistance to MDG-oriented social sector activities has increased,
to some extent at the cost of building productive capacity and physical
infrastructure, including in agriculture. Increased attention to sectors
directly related to the MDGs has often produced results, but should occur
without depriving other important sectors of needed resources. Providing
all the assistance that is necessary will require delivery of the additional
offcial development assistance (ODA) that has been promised and cannot
be achieved by reallocating resources among different sectors.
Greater effort is required in other areas
Alongside the successes are an array of goals and targets that are likely
to be missed unless additional, strengthened or corrective action is taken
urgently:
• The proportion of people in sub-Saharan Africa living on less than $1
per day is unlikely to be reduced by the target of one-half;
• About one quarter of all children in developing countries are considered
to be underweight and are at risk of having a future blighted by the long-
term effects of undernourishment;
• Of the 113 countries that failed to achieve gender parity in both primary
and secondary school enrolment by the target date of 2005, only 18 are
likely to achieve the goal by 2015;
• Almost two thirds of employed women in the developing world are in
vulnerable jobs as own-account or unpaid family workers;
• In one third of developing countries, women account for less than 10 per
cent of parliamentarians;
• More than 500,000 prospective mothers in developing countries die
annually in childbirth or of complications from pregnancy;
• Some 2.5 billion people, almost half the developing world’s population,
live without improved sanitation;
• More than one third of the growing urban population in developing
countries live in slum conditions;
• Carbon dioxide emissions have continued to increase, despite the
international timetable for addressing the problem;
• Developed countries’ foreign aid expenditures declined for the second
consecutive year in 2007 and risk falling short of the commitments made
in 2005;
• International trade negotiations are years behind schedule and any
outcome seems likely to fall far short of the initial high hopes for a
development-oriented outcome.
The eight Millennium Development Goals have been adopted by the
international community as a framework for the development activities of
over 190 countries in ten regions; they have been articulated into over 20
targets and over 60 indicators. This Report summarizes progress towards
the goals in each of the regions. However, any such synthesis inevitably
masks the range and variety of development experiences in individual
countries since the goals were adopted.
Mid-point shows some key successes
The single most important success to date has been the unprecedented
breadth and depth of the commitment to the MDGs – a global collective
effort that is unsurpassed in 50 years of development experience. It is not
only governments of developing countries and the international community
that have adopted the MDGs as their framework for international
development cooperation, but also the private sector and, critically, civil
society in both developed and developing countries. Besides being
advocates for the MDGs, private foundations in the developed countries
have become an important source of funding for a wide range of activities
intended to achieve them. NGOs in developing countries are increasingly
engaged in undertaking these activities, as well as in monitoring the
outcomes.
This global collective effort is yielding results. Adding more recent data to
those contained in earlier Reports largely confrms the patterns identifed
previously. There has been sound progress in some MDG areas, even in
some of the more challenging regions, and a number of targets are expected
to be reached by their target dates, mostly 2015:
• The overarching goal of reducing absolute poverty by half is within
reach for the world as a whole;
• In all but two regions, primary school enrolment is at least 90 per
cent;
• The gender parity index in primary education is 95 per cent or higher in
six of the 10 regions, including the most populous ones;
• Deaths from measles fell from over 750,000 in 2000 to less than
250,000 in 2006, and about 80 per cent of children in developing
countries now receive a measles vaccine;
• The number of deaths from AIDS fell from 2.2 million in 2005 to 2.0
million in 2007, and the number of people newly infected declined from
3.0 million in 2001 to 2.7 million in 2007;
• Malaria prevention is expanding, with widespread increases in
insecticide-treated net use among children under fve in sub-Saharan
Africa: in 16 out of 20 countries, use has at least tripled since around
2000.
• The incidence of tuberculosis is expected to be halted and begin to
decline before the target date of 2015;
• Some 1.6 billion people have gained access to safe drinking water since
1990;
• The use of ozone-depleting substances has been almost eliminated and
this has contributed to the effort to reduce global warming;
• The share of developing countries’ export earnings devoted to servicing
external debt fell from 12.5 per cent in 2000 to 6.6 per cent in 2006,
allowing them to allocate more resources to reducing poverty;
• The private sector has increased the availability of some critical essential
drugs and rapidly spread mobile phone technology throughout the
developing world.
SHAZUKANG
Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
TARGET
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people whose income is less than $1 a day
Higher food prices may push 100 million people
deeper into poverty
New data, based on the latest estimates of the cost of living in developing
countries, may change our view of the scale and distribution of global
poverty (see box). But the continuing economic growth in all developing
regions suggests that the downward trend in poverty continued through
00. The goal of cutting in half the proportion of people in the developing
world living on less than $1 a day by 01 remains within reach. However,
this achievement will be due largely to extraordinary economic success in
most of Asia. In contrast, previous estimates suggest that little progress
was made in reducing extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In Western
Asia, poverty rates were relatively low but increasing. And the transition
economies of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and South-
Eastern Europe were still recovering from the rise in poverty in the early
1990s.
Since 00, one of the factors contributing to growth in many developing
countries, notably in sub-Saharan Africa but also in Western Asia and Latin
America, has been the increased prices of commodities, including oil. For
exporters, this has been a boon. But higher commodity prices, particularly
oil prices, have dampened growth in countries importing these products.
Many are among the poorest countries in the world.
The recent increases in the price of food have had a direct and adverse
effect on the poor. Poor people who do not produce their own food are
the most severely hurt because a larger proportion of their expenditure is
allocated to food. Higher food prices limit their ability to obtain not only
food but also other essential goods and services, including education and
health care. Most of the urban poor and the landless rural poor are in this
position. Poor farmers, on the other hand, can benefit from higher food
prices if they are able to produce more than they consume. But many lack
the resources to do so, in part because higher oil prices have raised the
cost of fertilizer. Overall, higher food prices are expected to push many
more people into absolute poverty, with estimates suggesting that the
increase will be as many as 100 million. Most of the increase will occur in
sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia, already the regions with the largest
numbers of people living in extreme poverty.
Goal 1
Eradicate
extreme
poverty
& hunger
New measures of poverty in
the world
Since 1990, extreme poverty in the developing
world has been measured by a standard
representing the poverty lines found among the
poorest countries of the world. Originally set at
$1 a day in 198 prices, the international poverty
line was subsequently revised to a $1.08 a day,
measured in terms of 199 purchasing power
parity (PPP).
A larger set of price surveys, conducted within
the International Comparison Programme, is now
available; this has allowed the comparison of
the purchasing power of many more countries.
Published in early 008, the results of this
comparison indicate a large revision to the
previous estimates of price levels and, therefore, in
the estimates of the real sizes of some economies
in the developing regions. The World Bank is
using the new estimates of PPP to revalue the
international poverty line and prepare new
estimates of poverty in low- and middle-income
economies.
The surveys found price levels in many developing
countries to be higher than previously estimated,
so that the real size of their economies is
correspondingly smaller than previously thought.
Equally, the higher prices mean that estimates of
both the number of people living in poverty and
poverty rates will increase for some regions. These
new measures are likely to change the assessment
of the extent and distribution of global poverty, but
the rate of decrease in poverty is expected to be
similar to, or faster than, previously estimated.
These improved and more comprehensive
estimates of poverty are a leading example of
the many important statistical developments of
recent years that will improve our understanding
of progress towards the Millennium Development
Goals.
Confict leaves many displaced and impoverished
Refugees under the responsibility of the United Nations, 1998-2007
(Millions)

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Conflict continues to displace people from their homes and drive them into
poverty. One indication of the impact of conflict is the number of refugees
worldwide, which has increased significantly over the last few years,
primarily because of the conflict in Iraq. More than million people are
currently displaced by conflict or persecution, both within and outside the
borders of their own countries. Of these, 1 million are refugees, including
11. million who fall under the responsibility of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and . million who are under the
aegis of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
in the Near East. In addition, more than million people have been
uprooted by violence or persecution but remain within the borders of their
own countries.
Southern and Western Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the largest
populations of refugees. In Lebanon and Jordan, refugees constitute 10 per
cent or more of the population. In Iraq and Somalia, one in 10 is internally
displaced. What these numbers fail to convey is the extent to which conflict
gives rise to poverty among people who have no direct involvement in the
dispute.
8
UNITED NATIONS
9
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
TARGET
Achieve full and productive
employment and decent work for all,
including women and young people
Full employment remains a distant
possibility
Proportion of working-age population that is
employed, 2007 (Percentage)
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Poverty reduction cannot be accomplished without
full and productive employment and decent work for
all. The proportion of working-age population that
is employed is a good indicator of the ability of an
economy to provide jobs. Nevertheless, there is no
optimal employment-to-population ratio. Developed countries have lower
ratios than developing countries because their higher productivity and
incomes mean that fewer workers are required to meet the needs of the
entire population. On the other hand, the very high ratios in sub-Saharan
Africa indicate that a large number of poor people have to work to subsist,
regardless of the quality of the job.
Analysis of these ratios and comparisons between groups allow for the
identification of levels and trends that have an impact on poverty and
deficits in decent work. Between per cent and per cent of the
working age population is employed in most regions. The two exceptions
are Northern Africa and Western Asia, partly because the employment-
to-population ratio for women is less than per cent (more than 0
percentage points below the ratio for men). For women to remain outside
the labour force is often not a choice. More women in these regions would
opt to work if it were socially acceptable, if more jobs were created for
women and if institutions were in place to help them combine work and
family responsibilities.
In Eastern Asia, there is a striking difference in employment-to-population
ratios of youth and the rest of the population. While escaping the high
youth unemployment of other regions, Eastern Asia’s young people are
working rather than investing for the future through education.
Low-paying jobs leave one in fve
developing country workers mired
in poverty
Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) a
day, 1997 and 2007 (Percentage)
0 20 40 60
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Northern Aírica
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For millions in the world today, jobs provide little relief
from poverty because their pay is so low. Employed
persons living in a household where each member
earns less than $1 a day are considered the ‘working
poor’. In sub-Saharan Africa, over half the workers fall
into this category.
The number of working poor is unlikely to be reduced without increases in
productivity. Over the past 10 years, productivity has risen by at least
per cent annually in Southern Asia, Eastern Asia and the Commonwealth of
Independent States. As a result, there were fewer working poor in all three
regions. In contrast, the generally low and volatile changes in productivity
in sub-Saharan Africa have limited the decline in working poverty in that
region.
Half the world’s workforce toil in unstable,
insecure jobs
Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total
employment, 2007, women and men (Percentage)
Southern Asia
Sub-Saharan Aírica
Oceania
South-£astern Asia
£astern Asia
Latin America & the Caribbean
ClS, Asia
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Northern Aírica
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10
UNITED NATIONS
11
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Remunerative employment alone is not the answer
to poverty. Jobs must also provide a certain degree
of security. Half the world’s workers could descend
abruptly into poverty if they suddenly lose their job
and have no means of covering their expenses, either
through their own resources or public support. The
proportion of the global workforce that earned a living
through vulnerable employment has decreased slowly,
from per cent in 199 to 0 per cent in 00. And
almost 1. billion workers remain in unstable, insecure
jobs. Vulnerable employment is highest in sub-Saharan
Africa, where it accounts for three quarters of all jobs;
but it is also high in Oceania, Southern Asia, South-
Eastern Asia and Eastern Asia. For the most part,
women in developing regions are more likely than
men to be in vulnerable employment situations. The
difference is 10 percentage points or more in Southern
Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, Northern Africa and
Western Asia.
TARGET
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people who suffer from hunger
Progress in reducing hunger is now being eroded by the worldwide
increase in food prices. Escalating prices are being driven partly by supply
disruptions, but mostly by rising demand due to changing diets, economic
growth, an expanding world population, urbanization, use of food crops
for biofuel, and inappropriate agricultural policies, including subsidies in
developed countries.
The poor are most affected by increasing food prices. At the extreme are
those who are too poor to buy sufficient food when prices rise and who will
fall victim to severe hunger and malnutrition.
There is no quick fix for the underlying cause of the food crisis, but
urgent interventions are needed to address immediate food shortages
for the countless people facing hunger and malnutrition. The High-Level
Conference on World Food Security, held in Rome in June 008, identified a
number of concrete steps to mitigate hunger. The most urgent is to increase
emergency food aid and to assist poor people in obtaining the maximum
yield from the next season’s crops.
Rising food prices threaten limited gains in
alleviating child malnutrition
Proportion of children under age five who are underweight, 1990 and 2006
(Percentage)
0 20 40 60
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The proportion of children under five who are
undernourished declined from per cent in 1990
to per cent in 00. However, by 00, the
number of children in developing countries who were
underweight still exceeded 10 million. To the extent
that undernourishment among children of this age
is broadly representative of the extent of hunger in
the population as a whole, progress is insufficient to
achieve the MDG target. Worse, the global situation
will be exacerbated by higher food prices.
Eastern Asia, notably China, was successful in more
than halving the proportion of underweight children
between 1990 and 00. In contrast, and despite
improvements since 1990, almost 0 per cent of children are underweight
in Southern Asia. This region alone accounts for more than half the world’s
undernourished children. The majority of countries making the least
progress in reducing child malnutrition are in sub-Saharan Africa.
Overall, gender differences do not seem to be significant in underweight
prevalence among children under five, even in Southern Asia, where earlier
data indicated that girls were more likely than boys to be underweight.
The rural-urban divide is a greater factor in determining malnutrition. On
average, children living in rural areas in the developing world are twice
as likely to be underweight as children living in urban areas. In Eastern
Asia, where undernutrition has declined overall and is now lower than the
average in most other developing regions, children in rural areas are almost
five times as likely to be underweight as children in urban areas.
1
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 2
Achieve
universal
primary
education
TARGET
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys
and girls alike, will be able to complete a full
course of primary schooling
Political will, coupled with targeted investments,
have yielded widespread progress in primary
school enrolment
Total net enrolment ratio in primary education*, 1990/1991, 1999/2000
and 2005/2006 (Percentage)
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00
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Western Asia
Southern Asia
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*Number of pupils of the theoretical school-age group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or
secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.
In almost all regions, the net enrolment ratio in 00
exceeded 90 per cent, and many countries were
close to achieving universal primary enrolment. The
number of children of primary school age who were
out of school fell from 10 million in 1999 to million
in 00, despite an overall increase in the number of
children in this age group. These successes underscore
that much can be accomplished with the political
will of governments and with adequate support from
development partners.
In sub-Saharan Africa, however, the net enrolment
ratio has only recently reached 1 per cent, even after
a significant jump in enrolment that began in 000.
Around 8 million children of primary school age in
this region are still out of school. In Southern Asia, the
enrolment ratio has climbed to 90 per cent, yet more
than 18 million children of primary school age are not
enrolled.
Poverty’s grip keeps children out of
school
Primary school net attendance ratio in the developing
regions, by place of residence and household wealth,
2000/2006 (Percentage)

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Reaching poorer, more socially marginalized children
who normally have less access to basic education is a
major challenge. Survey data from 0 countries show
that, in of them, attendance is higher in urban than
in rural areas. But being poor is the more determinant
factor. Surveys in sub-Saharan countries indicate that
children from the poorest households are least likely to
attend school, regardless of whether they live in urban
or rural areas. Ensuring that the most vulnerable and
marginalized children are enrolled and remain in school
requires targeted programmes and interventions aimed
at poor households and that seek to eliminate gender
disparities.
Amidst many deprivations, refugee children
are often denied educational opportunities
Children affected by conflict or political unrest – those who most
need structure and a semblance of normality in their lives – are more
likely to be deprived of an adequate education. According to the UN
High Commissioner for Refugees, more than 1. million school-age
refugee children live in developing countries, most of them in urban
areas or camps. Data for 11 refugee camps in countries show
that full primary school enrolment has been achieved in only out of
10 camps, and that at least 1 in refugee children is not part of the
formal education system. In 1 out of 8 of the camps with inadequate
primary school opportunities, less than half of all primary school-
age children are enrolled. Girls are at particular risk of dropping out
before completing their primary education, often because they lack
a safe, quality learning environment, or because of poverty and early
marriage. In camps where enrolment rates are 0 per cent or higher,
the enrolment gap ratio between girls and boys has narrowed slightly:
the number of girls enrolled per 100 boys increased from 89 in 00 to
91 in 00.
1
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
The quality of education is as
important as enrolment
Children of secondary school age by educational
status, 2006 (Percentage)
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Achieving universal primary education means more
than full enrolment. It also encompasses quality
education, meaning that all children who attend school
regularly learn basic literacy and numeracy skills and
complete primary school on time. In sub-Saharan
Africa, for instance, substantially more children of
secondary school age attend primary rather than
secondary school. Progress is being made, however.
The proportion of children in developing countries
who have completed primary education rose from 9
per cent in 1999 to 8 per cent in 00. Ensuring that
all primary school students complete their education
in a timely manner will not only benefit the individual
students; it will also reduce the number of over-age
children in the primary education system. This, in turn,
will free resources for future primary school enrollees
and reduce the challenge of achieving the goal.
For children to reach their full potential and countries to develop, the
gains made in universal primary education must be replicated at the
secondary level. At present, per cent of children of the appropriate age
in developing countries attend secondary school. In Oceania, almost two
thirds of children of secondary school age are out of school. In sub-Saharan
Africa, only a quarter of children of secondary school age are in secondary
school.
1
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 3
Promote
gender
equality and
empower
women
TARGET
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of
education no later than 2015
Girls still wait for equal primary school access in
some regions
Girls’ primary school enrolment in relation to boys’, 1990/1991, 1999/2000
and 2005/2006 (Girls per 100 boys)
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00 ¹20
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Western Asia
Southern Asia
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School doors have swung open for girls in nearly all
regions as many countries have successfully promoted
girls’ education as part of their efforts to boost overall
enrolment. Girls’ primary enrolment increased more
than boys’ in all developing regions between 000
and 00. As a result, two out of three countries have
achieved gender parity at the primary level. Despite
impressive gains, girls account for per cent of the
out-of-school population.
As part of its success in raising the total primary
enrolment rate, Southern Asia has made the most
progress in gender parity since 000. Sub-Saharan
Africa, Western Asia and Northern Africa have
also made strides in reducing gender disparity. At
the same time, Oceania has taken a step back with
a slight deterioration in gender parity in primary
school enrolment. Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa and
Western Asia have the largest gender gaps in primary
enrolment.
In Western and Central Africa, where high repetition
and low retention rates are common, girls in particular
fail to enrol in and stay in school. Drought, food
shortages, armed conflict, poverty, lack of birth
registration, child labour, and HIV and AIDS contribute
to low school enrolment and high dropout rates for
both boys and girls in those subregions, but prove to be
especially devastating for girls.
Gender parity in primary school bodes well for
girls’ continued educational progress
Girls’ secondary school enrolment in relation to boys’, 1990/1991,
1999/2000 and 2005/2006 (Girls per 100 boys)
¹ 99¹
2000
2006
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00 ¹20
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Western Asia*
*Data are not available for 1991.
Where gender gaps in primary education have closed, girls generally
continue on to secondary school, whereas some boys join the labour force.
The secondary enrolment rate for girls surpasses that of boys in three
regions. Boys’ under-achievement is a particular concern in Latin America
and the Caribbean. In contrast, where girls’ primary education enrolment
lags behind boys’, the gender gap widens in secondary and tertiary
education.
18
UNITED NATIONS
19
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Targeted action is needed to help
girls from poor, rural areas stay in
school
Primary school net attendance ratio of boys and girls,
in the developing regions, by place of residence and
households wealth, 2000/2006 (Percentage)
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In developing countries, primary school attendance of
girls and boys is nearly equal in the richest households
and in urban areas. However, girls in rural areas
and from the poorest households require targeted
interventions to encourage them to enrol in and stay in
school. Satellite schools in remote areas, eliminating
school fees, providing school meals, constructing
separate sanitation facilities, ensuring a safe school
environment and promoting later marriage have
boosted girls’ attendance in school.
Job opportunities open up, but women often
remain trapped in insecure, low-paid positions
Employees in non-agricultural wage employment who are women, 1990
and 2006 (Percentage)
0 ¹0 20 30 40 50 60
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2006
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Women have more income-earning opportunities than ever before. Overall,
women occupy almost 0 per cent of all paid jobs outside agriculture,
compared to per cent in 1990. But almost two thirds of women in the
developing world work in vulnerable jobs as own-account and unpaid
family workers. In Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, this type of work
accounts for more than 80 per cent of all jobs for women.
Women are also disproportionately represented in part-time, seasonal
and short-term informal jobs and therefore are deprived of job security
and benefits. Occupations continue to be gender-specific, and female-
dominated positions tend to be characterized by inferior status, lower
pay and poorer working conditions. Although well-educated women have
advanced and the share of women managers is increasing, most women
remain in low-status, less valued jobs and face greater barriers to higher-
level positions. As a result, women have greater difficulty translating their
labour into paid work and their paid work into higher, more secure incomes.
Even in the government sector, where women often enjoy equal job security
and benefits, they are more likely to work in local rather than central
government. In an attempt to redress these inequities,
development partners have focused on gender equality
and empowerment. In 00-00, for example, one
sixth of bilateral aid was allocated to sectors for the
purpose of improving women’s status.
Women slowly gain ground in
political decision-making, but
progress is erratic and marked by
regional differences
Proportion of seats held by women in single or lower
houses of national parliaments, 1990, 2000 and 2008
(Percentage)
Oceania
Western Asia
ClS, £urope*
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2000
2008
0 5 ¹0 ¹5 20 25
* Data for 1990 are not available.
In January 008, the global proportion of parliamentary seats held by
women reached a high of nearly 18 per cent. However, the proportion
continues to ebb and flow and the global average conceals national and
regional differences. Women hold at least 0 per cent of the seats in five
parliaments: Rwanda leads the way at 8.8 per cent, followed by Sweden
( per cent), Cuba (. per cent), Finland (1. per cent) and Argentina
(0 per cent). Women occupy at least 0 per cent of parliamentary seats
in 0 countries, although none in Asia. No women were included in the
00 parliamentary renewals in the Federated States of Micronesia,
Nauru, Oman and Qatar, and women constitute less than 10 per cent of the
members of parliament in one third of all countries.
Nordic parliaments continue to outshine other countries with more than
1 per cent female representation on average. Latin America and the
Caribbean increased female representation, with women holding
per cent of seats. The increase in recent years of female parliamentary
representatives in sub-Saharan Africa was largely sustained in the
00 elections. Oceania is the only region where women’s participation
stagnated.
The uneven representation of women in national parliaments is not
by chance. Women are elected in greater proportional representation
in electoral systems that include quotas. Quotas are key supportive
mechanisms and can be implemented with additional measures, such as
the active promotion of women candidates by political parties and the
provision of training in electoral campaigning and fundraising. In some
countries, female candidates are supported by a vibrant civil society
movement. Underpinning all efforts is the political will of leaders to
promote women’s access to parliaments.
Despite greater parliamentary participation, women are largely absent from
the highest levels of governance. In January 008, women accounted for
of the 10 elected heads of state and 8 of the 19 heads of governments
of United Nations Member States. Overall, only 1 per cent of the world’s
ministerial positions were held by women. Within this total, 1 countries
had no women at all in cabinet positions, although women held at least
0 per cent of the ministerial posts in countries – mostly in Europe and
Africa.
Women’s representation in other arenas is also important. Women account,
on average, for half of those in refugee camps, but their participation in
camp decision-making processes remains low. Data from more than 80
camps show that equal participation has been achieved in only about two of
five camps. More recent data, however, from 00 and 00, indicate that
women’s political participation in refugee camps is increasing.
0
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 4
Reduce child
mortality
TARGET
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the
under-five mortality rate
Despite progress, deaths of under fve children
remain unacceptably high
Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births, 1990, 2000 and 2006
0 50 ¹00 ¹50 200
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¹990
2000
2006
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In 00, for the first time since mortality data have
been gathered, annual deaths among children under
five dipped below 10 million. Nevertheless, the death of
millions of children from preventable causes each year
is unacceptable. A child born in a developing country
is over 1 times more likely to die within the first five
years of life than a child born in an industrialized
country. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for about half the
deaths of children under five in the developing world.
Between 1990 and 00, about countries – the large
majority in sub-Saharan Africa – made no progress in
reducing childhood deaths. In Eastern Asia and Latin
America and the Caribbean, child mortality rates are
approximately four times higher than in developed
regions. Disparities persist in all regions: mortality rates
are higher for children from rural and poor families and
whose mothers lack a basic education.
The leading causes of childhood deaths – pneumonia,
diarrhoea, malaria and measles – are easily prevented
through simple improvements in basic health services
and proven interventions, such as oral rehydration
therapy, insecticide-treated mosquito nets and
vaccinations. Pneumonia kills more children than
any other disease, yet in developing countries the
proportion of children under five with suspected
pneumonia who are taken to appropriate health-care
providers remains low.
Thirty-seven per cent of under-five deaths occur in the
first month of life, and improved neonatal and maternal
care could save countless newborns. Undernutrition is
estimated to be an underlying cause in more than one
third of all deaths in children under five.
Vaccinations have slashed deaths from measles
Proportion of children 12-23 months old who received at least one dose of
measles vaccine, 1990, 2000 and 2006 (Percentage)
&!
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2000
2006
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UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Measles, a major cause of child mortality, can be
effectively prevented with a relatively inexpensive
vaccine and subsequent booster that provide safe,
lifelong protection. The combination of improved
routine vaccinations and second-dose coverage has
reduced global deaths from measles by more than two
thirds since 1990, surpassing the initial target to halve
deaths due to measles by 00. Worldwide measles
deaths – mostly children under five – plummeted by 8
per cent, from ,000 in 000 to ,000 in 00. In
sub-Saharan Africa, measles deaths fell by more than
91 per cent.
A single-dose campaign is not sufficient to
protect a community from measles. Consequently,
complementary programmes (routine delivery services
in countries with high first-dose coverage) or periodic
campaigns (every three to four years in countries with
low first-dose coverage) are necessary for universal
immunity. In 1990, the countries that accounted
for 9 per cent of measles deaths had low first-dose
vaccine coverage and no second-dose opportunity.
By 00, a second-dose protocol was implemented
in of the high-risk countries through national
campaigns. More than 00 million children have
received a ‘second opportunity’ booster vaccination
since 1990.
In 00, about 80 per cent of the world’s children
received routine measles vaccinations. While this jump
in coverage is impressive, additional efforts will be
required to ensure that every child is immunized and to
achieve the goal of reducing measles mortality by 90
per cent by 010.

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 5
Improve
maternal
health
TARGET
Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015,
the maternal mortality ratio
The high risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth
continues unabated in sub-Saharan Africa and
Southern Asia
Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, 2005
LowMMk (less than ¹00)
Very high MMk (550or more)
Moderate MMk (¹00-299) High MMk (300-549)
Data not available
Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high across much of the
developing world. In 00, more than 00,000 women died during
pregnancy, childbirth or in the six weeks after delivery. Ninety-nine per cent
of these deaths occurred in the developing regions, with sub-Saharan Africa
and Southern Asia accounting for 8 per cent of them. In sub-Saharan
Africa, a woman’s risk of dying from treatable or preventable complications
of pregnancy and childbirth over the course of her lifetime is 1 in ,
compared to 1 in ,00 in the developed regions.
Little progress has been made in
saving mothers’ lives
Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, 1990 and
2005
0 200 400 600 800 ¹000
¹990
2005
20¹5 target
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At the global level, maternal mortality decreased by
less than 1 per cent per year between 1990 and 00
– far below the . per cent annual improvement
needed to reach the target. Northern Africa, Latin
America and the Caribbean and South-Eastern Asia
managed to reduce their maternal mortality ratios by
about one third during this period, though progress
in these regions was insufficient to meet the target.
In sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest
level of maternal mortality, progress was negligible.
Accelerated improvements in all dimensions of
reproductive health care, culminating in but not limited
to better obstetric care, are required in all regions to
achieve the goal.
Skilled health workers at delivery are key to
improving outcomes
Proportion of deliveries attended by skilled health care personnel, around
1990 and around 2006 (Percentage)
around 2006
around ¹990
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00
Southern Asia
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Western Asia
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* Includes only deliveries in health-care institutions.
A skilled health worker (doctor, nurse or midwife) at delivery is critical
to reducing maternal deaths. In 00, nearly 1 per cent of births in the
developing world were attended by skilled health personnel, up from less
than half in 1990. Coverage, however, remains low in Southern Asia (0
per cent) and sub-Saharan Africa ( per cent) – the two regions with the
greatest number of maternal deaths. Assistance by appropriately trained
health personnel, with proper equipment and referral options in case of
complications, must be standard practice during deliveries if there is to be a
noteworthy drop in maternal deaths.

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Antenatal care is on the rise
everywhere
Proportion of women (15-49 years old) attended
at least once during pregnancy by skilled health
personnel, around 1990 and around 2005
(Percentage)
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00
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around 2005
Antenatal care is an essential safety net for healthy
motherhood and childbirth, where the well-being of
both the prospective mother and her offspring can
be monitored. The proportion of pregnant women in
the developing world who had at least one antenatal
care visit increased from slightly more than half at
the beginning of the 1990s to almost three fourths
a decade later. While that is an improvement, the
World Health Organization and UNICEF recommend a
minimum of four antenatal care visits. In Africa, only
per cent of women met the UNICEF-WHO norm.
TARGET
Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive
health
Adolescent fertility is declining slowly
Births to women 15-19 years old, 1990, 2000 and 2005 (Number of births
per thousand women)
¹990
2000
2005
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Adolescent pregnancy contributes to the cycle of
maternal deaths and childhood mortality. Very early
motherhood not only increases the risk of dying
in childbirth, it also jeopardizes the well-being of
surviving mothers and their children. Young mothers
frequently miss out on education and socio-economic
opportunities. A child born to an adolescent mother
is at greater risk of dying in infancy or childhood and
is likely to be deprived of the known benefits passed
down from educated mothers to their children.
Reducing adolescent fertility contributes directly and
indirectly to achieving the maternal health and other
goals.
In almost all developing regions, adolescent fertility
fell between 1990 and 000, then largely stagnated
or increased marginally between 000 and 00.
Adolescent fertility is especially high in sub-Saharan
Africa, where fertility remains high among all women
of childbearing age. Total fertility has declined
substantially over the past two decades in many
countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and
South-Eastern Asia, yet adolescent fertility has fallen
little and remains over 0 births per 1,000 women in
these two regions. The increased availability of family
planning has been a major factor in reducing total
fertility rates in these regions, but the demand for
contraception by adolescent married women is not met
as readily as it is for older women. This has made it
difficult to reduce adolescent fertility, increasing young
mothers’ exposure to the risk of maternal mortality.
An unmet need for family planning undermines
achievement of several other goals
Proportion of married women aged 15-49 years with unmet need for family
planning, 1995 and 2005 (Percentage)
0 5 ¹0 ¹5 20 25 30
!%
Sub-Saharan Aírica
Transition countries oí South-£astern £urope
Southern Asia
ClS*
Western Asia
Latin America & the Caribbean
Northern Aírica
!#
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¹995
2005
* Latest available data refer to a year around 000.
Note: No data are available for Eastern Asia.
The unmet need for family planning – the gap between women’s
stated desires to delay or avoid having children and their actual use of
contraception – has declined in most countries that have discernible trends.
However, in sub-Saharan Africa, nearly one in four married women has an
unmet need for family planning, and the rise in contraceptive use has, on
average, barely kept pace with the growing desire to delay or limit births.
This contributes to the continuing high fertility rate in that region and has
undermined related goals, such as reducing child mortality, hunger and
malnutrition, and increasing primary education enrolment.
In all regions, this unmet need is highest among the poorest households.
This is most pronounced in Latin America and the Caribbean, where per
cent of the poorest households have an unmet need for family planning
compared to 1 per cent of the wealthiest households. In sub-Saharan
Africa, unmet need is high – over 0 per cent – even among the wealthiest
households.
Unmet need for family planning is also especially high among young
women, many of whom want to delay their pregnancies. Close spacing of
births raises the risks to their life and health.
Once a woman has had the children she desires, not being able to use
contraception results in unwanted pregnancies and births. This increases
the risk of maternal death and makes it harder for families to afford
schooling and health care for all their children.
8
UNITED NATIONS
9
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 6
Combat
HIV/AIDS,
malaria
& other
diseases
TARGET
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
spread of HIV/AIDS
Despite small victories, AIDS continues to take a
terrible toll, especially in sub-Saharan Africa
HIV prevalence in adults aged 15-49 years in developing regions and in
sub-Saharan Africa (Percentage) and number of AIDS deaths in sub-
Saharan Africa (Millions), 1990-2007
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
¹.0
¹.2
¹.4
¹.6
¹.8
2.0
¹990 ¹99¹ ¹992 ¹993 ¹994 ¹995 ¹996 ¹997 ¹998 ¹999 2000 200¹ 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Annual number oí AlDS deaths in sub-Saharan Aírica
HlV prevalence in sub-Saharan Aírica
HlV prevalence in developing regions (excluding
sub-Saharan Aírica)
D
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(m
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Every day, nearly ,00 people become infected with HIV and ,00 die
from AIDS, mostly due to a lack of HIV prevention and treatment services.
Despite these staggering numbers, some encouraging developments have
sparked small victories in the battle against AIDS.
Thanks to improvements in prevention programmes, the number of people
newly infected with HIV declined from million in 001 to . million in
00. And with the expansion of antiretroviral treatment services, the
number of people who die from AIDS has started to decline, from .
million in 00 to .0 million in 00. However, largely because newly
infected people survive longer, the number of people living with HIV rose
from an estimated 9. million in 001 to million in 00. The vast
majority of those living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa.
In almost every region, women
represent a growing share of people
living with HIV
Proportion of adults aged 15 years and over living
with HIV who are women, 1990, 2000 and 2007
(Percentage)
0 ¹0 20 30 40 50 60 70
Sub-Saharan Aírica
Western Asia
Oceania
Southern Asia
¹990
2000
2007
Latin America & the Caribbean
South-£astern Asia
ClS, £urope*
Northern Aírica
£astern Asia
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* Data for 1990 are not available
An estimated 1. million women and 1. million men
aged 1 years and over were living with HIV worldwide
in 00, compared with 1.1 million and 1.8 million,
respectively, in 001. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 0
per cent of adults living with HIV in 00 were women.
Prevention programmes are yielding results
Sample data and national surveys suggest that HIV prevention has been
successful, particularly in reducing risky sexual behavior. HIV prevalence
among 1- to -year-old pregnant women is believed to accurately reflect
overall developments in the epidemic because their infections are likely to
be recently acquired and mortality and antiretroviral treatment have less
influence on the data. Since 000-001, HIV prevalence among young
women attending antenatal clinics has declined in 1 of 1 most-affected
countries.
In 19 of the high-prevalence countries, the proportion of women and men
aged 1 to 19 who became sexually active before their fifteenth birthday
fell between 1990 and 00 in seven countries and increased in two. Over
the same period, the proportion of women and men aged 1 to who had
more than one partner in the previous 1 months decreased in 10 countries,
remained unchanged in one, increased among women in two countries and
among men in one. Finally, the rate of condom use among men aged 1 to
who had more than one partner in the previous 1 months increased in
1 countries and climbed among young women in eight.
Antiretroviral drugs are adding years to peoples’
lives, but the need for treatment still outpaces the
available supply
Proportion of population living with HIV in need of treatment who are
receiving antiretroviral therapy, 2006 and 2007 (Percentage)
0 ¹0 20 30 40 50 60 70
Latin America & the Caribbean
South-£astern Asia
Oceania
Northern Aírica
Sub-Saharan Aírica
£astern Asia
Southern Asia
ClS
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0
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
The number of people living with HIV who received
antiretroviral therapy increased by about 90,000
in 00. But with . million new infections that
year alone, the need for treatment far outpaces the
availability of antiretroviral drugs. By the end of 00,
only million of the estimated 9. million people in
need of AIDS treatment in developing countries were
receiving the drugs. The proportion receiving treatment
in Eastern Asia, Southern Asia and the Commonwealth
of Independent States was far lower than in sub-
Saharan Africa. Still, because of the magnitude of its
AIDS crisis, some million people in sub-Saharan
Africa were denied antiretroviral therapy. Despite
limited availability, the use of antiretroviral drugs in
developing countries has resulted in an estimated gain
of . million years of life since 00, including
million in sub-Saharan Africa alone.
Proportion of population living with HIV in need of
treatment who are receiving antiretroviral therapy,
Africa, 2007 (Percentage)
Coverage (%)
75 - ¹00
50 - 75
25 - 50
¹0 - 25
Less than ¹0

Planning for children orphaned by AIDS is
increasing, but tangible support is slow in
coming
Initially, governments and the international community failed to respond
adequately to the grave challenges faced by children affected by AIDS, but
this is changing. Several countries are making progress in providing orphans
and vulnerable children with a minimum package of services, including
education, health care, social welfare and protection. By the end of 00,
specific national plans of action for children orphaned by AIDS and other
vulnerable children had been developed by countries, including 1 in
sub-Saharan Africa. Ten more countries – nine in sub-Saharan Africa – had
such national plans in process.
Many countries are also integrating policies for children affected by AIDS
into national development plans, overall plans of action for children and
policy plans of ministries such as those for education and health. Among
19 countries with data, the proportion of households with orphans and
vulnerable children receiving external support ranged from 1 per cent
in Sierra Leone to 1 per cent in Swaziland, with a median of 9 per cent.
Coverage remains low, even in countries with high HIV prevalence.
TARGET
Have halted by 2015 and begun to
reverse the incidence of malaria and
other major diseases
Despite tremendous progress, use
of insecticide-treated mosquito nets
falls short of global targets
Proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-
treated bed nets in selected countries, around 2000
and 2006 (Percentage)
0 ¹5 30 45 60
around 2000
around 2006
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The number of insecticide-treated mosquito nets produced worldwide
jumped from 0 million in 00 to 9 million in 00. Coupled with
increased resources, this has led to a rapid rise in the number of mosquito
nets procured and distributed within countries. For example, UNICEF
increased its procurement from million in 00 to nearly 0 million
in 00, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
increased its distribution from 1. million in 00 to 18 million in 00.
As a result, all sub-Saharan African countries for which there are trend data
showed increases in insecticide-treated net use among children under five;
1 of these 0 countries have at least tripled their coverage since around
000. Despite this progress, overall insecticide-treated net use falls short
of global targets.
New malaria treatment strategies are effective,
but underutilized
Number of doses of artemisinin-based combination therapies procured
worldwide, 2003-2006 (Millions)

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There has been less progress in treating malaria than in preventing it.
Although treatment among febrile children is moderately high across sub-
Saharan Africa, few countries have expanded coverage since 000 and
most patients often receive less effective medicines. In a subset of sub-
Saharan African countries, covering nearly half the region’s population and
where data allowed an assessment of progress over time, the proportion
of children with a fever who received antimalarial medicines dropped from
1 per cent in 000 to per cent in 00. Moreover, treatment with the
more effective, but more expensive, artemisinin-based combination therapy
(ACT) was per cent or less between 00 and 00 in a subset of 1
countries (Zambia was the exception, with its ACT coverage climbing to 1
per cent). Funding and procurement of ACT has increased markedly since
00, and nearly all sub-Saharan African countries have rapidly shifted
their national drug policies to promote it.
Evidence suggests that the large-scale expansion of prevention programmes
and improved access to more effective antimalarial drugs can substantially
reduce malaria cases and deaths. In Viet Nam, the number of malaria cases
declined dramatically after implementation of control measures became
a national priority in 1991, including increased distribution of insecticide-
treated nets, household spraying and use of antimalarial medicines. In
Eritrea, more than a million mosquito nets were distributed between
000 and 00, and by 00 about 80 per cent of households living in
areas at high risk for malaria owned a net. As a result, recorded malaria
cases and deaths plummeted by more than 0 per cent between 000

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
and 00. In a closely monitored district in Zanzibar,
cases and admissions to hospitals fell by 0 per cent
and the crude under- mortality rate declined by 0
per cent between 00 and 00 after ACT began to
be provided free in all public health facilities. In South
Africa, following a rise in malaria in the 1990s due to
increasing drug and insecticide resistance, documented
cases and deaths fell by 80 per cent between 000
and 00 after the introduction of ACT and improved
mosquito control (including spraying with DDT).
Large increases in funding and attention to malaria
have accelerated malaria control activities in many
countries, although many more still fall short of global
goals. In addition, new and more effective interventions
(such as long-lasting insecticidal nets) have been
developed, and production and distribution of key
commodities have improved. Countries have also been
quicker to adopt more successful strategies that would
have been out of reach if less funding were available
(such as promoting ACT use). These developments
suggest that even greater strides may be made in the
fight against malaria in the coming years.
Progress towards tuberculosis targets is mixed
Number of new tuberculosis cases per 100,000 population (excluding
people who are HIV-positive), 1990, 2004 and 2006
¹990
2004
2006
Sub-Saharan Aírica
South-£astern Asia
Oceania
Southern Asia
ClS
£astern Asia
Transition countries oí South-£astern £urope
Latin America & the Caribbean
Northern Aírica
Western Asia
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0 50 ¹00 ¹50 200 250 300 350
In 00, there were an estimated 1. million deaths
due to tuberculosis and 1. million people infected
with the disease, including approximately 9. million
new cases. This was an increase from 00 and
is attributed mainly to population growth. In the
developing regions, the number of new tuberculosis
cases per 100,000 population (incidence rate) peaked
in 00, then fell by 0. per cent between 00
and 00. If these trends are sustained globally, the
incidence of tuberculosis should be halted and reversed
well before 01.
Success in eradicating tuberculosis rests on early
detection of new cases and effective treatment.
Between 00 and 00, however, progress in
detection slowed: the detection rate increased only
marginally to 1 per cent, short of the per cent
benchmark for 00 contained in the ‘Stop TB
Partnership’ Global Plan and the ultimate target of 0
per cent.
Africa, China and India collectively account for more
than two thirds of undetected tuberculosis cases.
Progress stalled in improving the detection rate in
China and India in 00. The detection rate in Africa
– per cent in 00 – is furthest from the target.
Halving the tuberculosis prevalence rate by 2015
is unlikely
Number of tuberculosis cases per 100,000 population (excluding people
who are HIV-positive), 1990, 2000 and 2006
¹990
2000
2006
Sub-Saharan Aírica
Oceania
Southern Asia
South-£astern Asia
£astern Asia
ClS
Transition countries oí South-£astern £urope
Latin America & the Caribbean
Western Asia
Northern Aírica
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0 ¹00 200 300 400 500 600 700

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
The success rate for the treatment of tuberculosis
under the ‘DOTS’ (Directly Observed Treatment Short-
course) programme was 8. per cent in 00, the
highest since reliable monitoring began and just short
of the 8 per cent target. DOTS programmes, which
involve the appropriate diagnosis and registration of
each tuberculosis patient followed by standardized
multi-drug treatment, are helping to mitigate the
relative impact of the disease.
The prevalence rate for tuberculosis – the number of
existing cases per 100,000 people – and the death rate
from the disease are falling faster than its incidence.
Between 00 and 00, the global prevalence rate,
including among those who are HIV-positive, fell by .8
per cent to 19 per 100,000 people, compared with the
01 target of 1. The corresponding death rate fell by
. per cent to per 100,000 people, against a target
of 1.
Despite its success, DOTS has not yet had the impact
on worldwide transmission and incidence needed to
achieve the ‘Stop TB Partnership’ targets of halving
the world’s 1990 prevalence and death rates by
01. If trends for the past five years continue, sub-
Saharan Africa and countries of the Commonwealth
of Independent States will fall short of both targets,
compromising any chance of reaching the global
benchmark. If these objectives are to be met, regions
lagging behind will have to improve both the extent and
timeliness of the diagnosis of active tuberculosis and
increase the rate of successful treatment.

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 7
Ensure
environmental
sustainability
TARGET
Integrate the principles of sustainable
development into country policies and programmes
and reverse the loss of environmental resources
Immediate action is needed to contain rising
greenhouse gas emissions
Emissions of carbon dioxide, 1990, 2000 and 2005 (Billions of metric
tons)
0 2 4 6 8 ¹0 ¹2 ¹4
£astern Asia
ClS
Southern Asia
Latin America & the Caribbean
¹990
2000
2005
Western Asia
South-£astern Asia
Sub-Saharan Aírica
Northern Aírica
Oceania
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In 00, the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change made
it abundantly clear that the climate is warming and
“most of the observed increase in globally averaged
temperatures since the mid-0th century is very
likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic
greenhouse gas.” Carbon dioxide (CO

) released by the
burning of fossil fuels accounts for more than half of
the global greenhouse gas emissions responsible for
climate change.
Carbon dioxide emissions reached 8 billion metric
tons in 00 and continued upward, resulting in
increased atmospheric concentrations of CO

. Globally,
emissions increased by 0 per cent from 1990 to 00,
with annual growth from 000 to 00 greater than
in the preceding decade. From 1990 to 00, changes
in emissions ranged from a 8 per cent decline in
countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
to an 8 per cent increase in South-Eastern Asia. Per
capita emissions remain the highest in the developed
regions, about 1 metric tons of CO

per person per
year, compared with about metric tons in developing
regions and 0.8 metric tons in sub-Saharan Africa.
Emissions per unit of economic output fell by more
than 0 per cent in the developed regions, while they
increased by per cent in South-Eastern Asia and by
per cent in Northern Africa.
While no area can escape the adverse impact of
climate change, the Arctic, small islands, mega deltas in
Asia and Africa, and the African region overall seem to
be especially vulnerable because of their high exposure
to the effects of climate change, their populations’
limited capacity to adapt to the consequences, or both.
Developed countries that are parties to the Kyoto
Protocol have agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas
emissions by at least per cent from their 1990 levels
by 01. At the 00 United Nations Climate Change
Conference in Bali, countries began new negotiations
under the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change that are to be completed by the end
of 009. The negotiations covered both mitigating
and adapting to climate change – two facets that
must be addressed simultaneously and urgently. An
infusion of financial resources and investment, as
well as technology development and transfer (sharing
expertise and technology among nations and regions),
were recognized as key issues.
Severing the link between energy use and greenhouse
gas emissions will require more efficient technologies
for the supply and use of energy and a transition to
cleaner and renewable energy sources. In response
to the growing demand for energy worldwide, large
investments in energy projects are expected over
the coming years. It is important to act now. The
investments made today will determine the pattern of
greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come.
Success in limiting ozone-depleting substances is
also helping to mitigate climate change
Consumption of all ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 1986-2006 (Thousands of metric tons of
ozone-depleting potential)
0
200
400
600
800
¹,000
¹,200
¹986 ¹989 ¹992 ¹995 ¹998 200¹ 2004 2006
Developed regions - All ODSs consumption
Developing regions - All ODSs consumption
Developed regions - CFC consumption
Developing regions - CFC consumption
The Montreal Protocol has resulted in the phasing out of over 9 per cent
of all ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). This quantitative success in
the protection of the ozone layer has also achieved important climate
benefits because many ozone depleting substances controlled under the
Protocol are also potent greenhouse gases. It is estimated that, without the
worldwide effort to protect the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect of global
ODS emissions would have equalled carbon dioxide emissions, currently
the greenhouse gas contributing most significantly to climate change.
In September 00, the 0th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol,
governments acknowledged the dual benefit to both ozone protection and
climate change by agreeing to advance by up to 10 years the final phase-
out date for hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), currently the most widely
used ozone-depleting substance. They also agreed to provide sufficient and
stable funding to developing countries to achieve the accelerated phase out.
8
UNITED NATIONS
9
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
TARGET
Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving,
by 2010, a significant reduction in the
rate of loss
Marine areas and land conservation
need greater attention
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected,
1990, 2000 and 2007 (Percentage)
0 2 4 6 8 ¹0 ¹2 ¹4 ¹6 ¹8 20
¹990
2000
2007
Northern Aírica
Southern Asia
South-£astern Asia
Oceania
Sub-Saharan Aírica
£astern Asia
Western Asia
Latin America & the Caribbean
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In response to the loss of global biodiversity, the international community
has encouraged land and marine protection. As a result, about 1 million
square kilometres of land and sea (out to 1 nautical miles) were put under
protection by 00. Despite their importance to the sustainability of fish
stocks and coastal livelihoods, only 0. per cent of the world’s oceans
– about million square kilometres – were protected. Moreover, protection
alone is insufficient: all protected areas must also be managed effectively
for conservation.
Deforestation slows and more forests are
designated for biodiversity conservation

Proportion of total forest area by designated function, 2005 (Percentage)
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Deforestation continues to pose serious challenges, even though the net
loss of forest area is slowing down. Because of a rise in forest planting,
landscape restoration and the natural expansion of forests, deforestation
of about 1 million hectares per year resulted in an estimated net decline
of . million hectares of forest area per year over the period 000-00,
compared to 8.9 million hectares annually in the previous decade.
Forests play a crucial role in mitigating climate change. They also conserve
biodiversity, soil and water resources and, when managed sustainably, can
strengthen local and national economies and promote the well-being of
present and future generations. The total forest area designated primarily
for biodiversity conservation has increased by an estimated 9 million
hectares, or almost one third, since 1990, and now accounts for over one
tenth of the total forest area. In addition to these protected forests, the
conservation of forest ecosystems and the flora and fauna in other forested
areas is also increasing. The percentage of forest designated for protection
of soil and water resources has also increased – from 8 per cent in 1990 to 9
per cent in 00, which is equivalent to an increase of more than 0 million
hectares since 1990.
The number of species threatened
with extinction is rising rapidly
Proportion of all species expected to remain extant
in the near future in the absence of additional
conservation action, 1998-2008 (IUCN Red List Index
values for all bird species)
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Trends in extinction risks can be measured by the
International Union for Conservation of Nature Red
List Index, which shows the net balance between
genuine improvements in the status of species (as
measured by changes in their categories on the IUCN
Red List), such as those resulting from successful
conservation, and deteriorations in their status, such
as a declining population size. The index does not
include changes due to a revised taxonomy or improved
knowledge. The index for birds shows that they are
least threatened in Northern Africa and Western
Asia, and most threatened in Oceania, where island
species are often susceptible to invasive species that
humans have deliberately or inadvertently introduced.
Sharp deteriorations in the status of birds in South-
Eastern Asia recently have been driven by the rapid
deforestation of the region’s Sundaic lowlands.
At present, data are most comprehensive for birds,
which are a useful, though imperfect indicator of trends
in other forms of biodiversity. Several other classes of
organisms, such as mammals, amphibians, cycads and
conifers have been found to be even more threatened
than birds.
Fish stocks require improved fsheries
management to reduce depletion
Status of exploited fish stocks, 1978-2004 (Percentage)
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The proportion of overexploited and depleted stocks in marine capture
fisheries has increased slightly over the past 0 years, while the proportion
of underexploited and moderately exploited stocks has decreased. Total
catches have been maintained at roughly the same level through the use
of new resources, but this may become increasingly difficult. Major efforts
to improve fisheries management are needed to improve the productive
capacity of exploited stocks. Management action is also required to
mitigate the impact of fisheries on aquatic ecosystems. These concerns can
be addressed through the adoption of a holistic, participatory ecosystem
approach to fisheries management. A number of initiatives have taken hold
in this direction, such as reducing total allowable catches of commercial
species, reducing bycatch of vulnerable species (for example, seabirds and
sea turtles), and establishing marine protected areas. However, reducing
fishing capacity remains a key objective of global fisheries management.
0
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Almost half of the world’s
population face a scarcity of water
Surface water and ground water withdrawal as
percentage of total actual renewable water resources
(around 2000)
No data < ¹0 ¹0 - 25 25 - 50 50 - 75 >75 %
Water use has grown at more than twice the rate of
the population for the past century. Although there
is not yet a global water shortage, about .8 billion
people, representing more than 0 per cent of the
world’s population, live in river basins with some form
of water scarcity. More than 1. billion of them live
under conditions of physical water scarcity, which
occurs when more than per cent of the river flows
are withdrawn. Northern Africa and Western Asia are
seriously compromised, as are some regions within
large countries such as China and India. Symptoms
include environmental degradation and competition
for water. Another 1. billion people live in areas of
economic water scarcity, where human, institutional
and financial capital limit access to water, even though
water in nature is available locally to meet human
demands. These conditions are prevalent in much of
Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Symptoms
include lack of or underdeveloped water infrastructure,
high vulnerability to short- and long-term drought, and
difficult access to reliable water supplies, especially for
rural people.
TARGET
Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population
without sustainable access to safe drinking water
and basic sanitation
More people are using improved sanitation
facilities, but meeting the target will require a
redoubling of efforts
Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility, 1990, 2000
and 2006 (Percentage)
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00
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Since 1990, the number of people in developing regions
using improved sanitation facilities has increased by 1.1
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and Eastern Asia. Nevertheless, in order to meet the
target, the number of people using improved sanitation
facilities must increase by about 1. billion in the
next seven years, substantially more than the growth
achieved since 1990. Some . billion people remain
without improved sanitation – more than one billion in
Asia and another half billion in sub-Saharan Africa. In
00, there were countries where less than half the
population used an improved sanitation facility; three-
quarters of those countries were in sub-Saharan Africa.
Roughly half the world’s population now live in rural
areas. Nevertheless, rural dwellers represent more than
0 per cent of the people without improved sanitation.
In urban areas, improvements in sanitation have failed
to keep pace with population growth. In 1 countries
in sub-Saharan Africa, only 1 per cent of the poorest
quintile of the population have access to improved
sanitation, compared to 9 per cent of the population
in the richest quintile.
In developing regions, nearly one in four uses no
form of sanitation
Proportion of population by sanitation practices, 1990 and 2006
(Percentage)
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Almost a quarter of the developing world’s population live without any form
of sanitation. An additional 1 per cent use sanitation facilities that do not
ensure hygienic separation of human waste from human contact. Open
defecation jeopardizes an entire community, not just those who practise
it, because of an increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases, cholera, worm
infestations, hepatitis and related diseases.
While open defecation is declining in all regions, it continues to be practised
by almost half the population in Southern Asia and more than a quarter of
those living in sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 1. billion people worldwide who
practise open defecation, more than one billion live in rural areas.

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Though access to improved
drinking water has expanded,
nearly one billion people do
without
Proportion of population using an improved drinking
water source, 1990, 2000 and 2006 (Percentage)
0 20 40 60 80 ¹00
Oceania*
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Southern Asia
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Since 1990, 1. billion people have gained access to safe water. At this
rate, the world is expected to meet the drinking water target, which would
require that 89 per cent of the population of developing regions use
improved sources of drinking water by 01. Still, nearly one billion people
today lack safe sources of drinking water.
Progress has been most pronounced in Eastern Asia, where over 00
million people have gained access to improved drinking water sources and
coverage has grown by 0 per cent since 1990. Less progress has taken
place in sub-Saharan Africa, which now accounts for more than a third of
those without improved drinking water supplies and requires a jumpstart to
meet the target.
In 00, an improved drinking water source was available to 9 per cent
of the urban population in developing regions, but only 8 per cent of rural
inhabitants. Some million rural people lived without access to improved
drinking water, compared to 1 million urban residents. The same disparity
applies to piped drinking water, with only 0 per cent of piped drinking-
water connections in rural households.
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water
Member of the household usually collecting water, 2005/2006
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Women are more than twice as likely as men to collect water, while children
usually collect water in 11 per cent of households. More girls than boys fetch
water.
TARGET
By 2020, to have achieved a significant
improvement in the lives of at least 100
million slum dwellers
Simple, low-cost interventions could
signifcantly improve the lives of
many slum dwellers
Urban households living in slum conditions and with
one shelter deprivation, 2005 (Percentage)
Urban households living in slums
Urban households with one shelter deprivation
37
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Western
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The lack of improved sanitation and water facilities
are two of the four defining characteristics of urban
slums. The others are durable housing and sufficient
living area. In 00, slightly more than one third of the
urban population in developing regions lived in slum
conditions; in sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion was
over 0 per cent.

In sub-Saharan Africa, half of the slum households
suffered from two or more shelter deprivations, lacking
a combination of access to improved water, improved
sanitation, durable housing or sufficient living area. In
this region, improvement in the lives of slum dwellers
will require large investments.
In many countries in Northern Africa, Asia and Latin America, the vast
majority of slum households suffer from only one shelter deprivation.
Northern Africa not only has the lowest slum concentration, but nine out of
10 slum households lack only improved sanitation or sufficient living area.
The homes of nearly three quarters of slum households in Asia also have
only one slum characteristic, usually either insufficient living area or non-
durable housing. Even in sub-Saharan Africa, there are slum households
that lack just one service, often improved sanitation. Simple, low-cost
interventions to correct these specific deficiencies would go a long way
towards improving the lives of many slums dwellers.

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
Goal 8
Develop a
global
partnership for
development
Development aid falls for the second year,
jeopardizing commitments for 2010
Official development assistance from OECD-DAC countries, 1990-2007
(Billions of constant 2006 United States dollars)
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At current exchange rates, official development assistance (ODA)
continued to drop from an all time high of $10.1 billion in 00, to $10.
billion in 00 and $10. billion in 00. This is mainly the result of a
decline in debt relief grants. Adjusting for changes in prices and exchange
rates, aid disbursements fell by 8. per cent in 00 compared to 00.
Excluding debt relief grants, net aid rose by . per cent in constant dollars.
At the 00 United Nations World Summit and related meetings,
developed countries pledged to increase aid from $80 billion in 00
to $10 billion in 010 at 00 prices. While the majority of these
commitments remain in force, a few countries have announced new targets
– some involving increased aid flows and others suggesting reductions.
With debt relief grants unlikely to return to 00 or 00 levels, bilateral
aid and contributions to multilateral development institutions will need to
increase rapidly over the next three years if developed countries are to meet
their commitments for 010. Even a sudden escalation of aid flows will
not compensate for the failure to provide the continuous and predictable
build-up in official development assistance that was implicit in their 00
commitments.
Non-governmental organizations, the private sector and a number of
developing countries are becoming increasingly significant sources of
development assistance. Special purpose funds – such as the Global Fund to
Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria – have become important channels for
some of these resources.
TARGET
Address the special needs of the
least developed countries, landlocked
countries and small island developing
states
Development assistance will have to
increase substantially to double aid
to Africa by 2010

Net official development assistance from OECD-DAC
countries as a proportion of donors’ gross national
income, 1990-2007 (Percentage)
0.00
0.05
0.¹0
0.¹5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
¹990 ¹992 ¹994 ¹996 2004 2002 2000 ¹998 2006 2007
(Preliminary)
Total ODA
ODA to LDCs
Total aid remains well below the United Nations
target of 0. per cent of the gross national income
(GNI) of the members of the Development Assistance
Committee of the OECD. Denmark, Luxembourg,
the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden were the only
countries to reach or exceed this target in 00. For the
developed countries as a group, official development
assistance fell to 0.8 per cent of their combined gross
national income in 00.
The least developed countries (LDCs) receive about
a third of all aid. Since 000, official development
assistance to these countries has grown faster than
developed countries’ gross national income, but still
misses the target of 0.1-0.0 per cent of GNI by 010
included in the Brussels Programme of Action for the
Least Developed Countries.
At their 00 Gleneagles summit, the Group
of 8 industrialized nations predicted that their
commitments, along with those of other donors, would
double official development assistance to Africa by
010. Excluding the substantial debt relief to the region,
notably for Nigeria, preliminary data show that bilateral
official development assistance to Africa rose by 9
per cent in real terms in 00. Despite this increase,
an even more rapid rise in aid to Africa is necessary to
reach the Gleneagles projection for 010.
TARGET
Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable,
non-discriminatory trading and financial system
Market access for most developing countries is
little improved
Proportion of developed country imports from developing countries,
excluding arms and oil, admitted free of duty and developed countries’
average tariffs on imports of key products from developing countries,
2000-2006 (Percentage)

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countries (LDCs), excluding arms and oil, admitted free of duty and
developed countries’ average tariffs on imports of key products from the
least developed countries (LDCs), 2000-2006 (Percentage)

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There has been little progress recently in reducing the barriers to exports
from developing countries to developed countries. The 00 World Trade
Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing liberalized trade in
those sectors, benefiting some developing and least developed countries
while hurting others, including several least developed countries in Africa
and upper-middle-income countries in Eastern Asia. In December 00,

UNITED NATIONS

THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
the developed country members of the World Trade
Organization vowed that, by 008, they would make
at least 9 per cent of their tariff lines duty-free and
quota-free for imports originating from least developed
countries.
Although several unilateral agreements that benefit
developing countries have been extended or converted
into regional or bilateral trade agreements, no major
new initiatives favour developing countries as a group.
Excluding arms and oil, the proportion of developing
countries’ exports that have duty-free access to
developed countries’ markets has remained largely
unchanged since 00; it even fell slightly in the case
of least developed countries. Preferential duty-free
market access and low rates of average applied tariffs
on various labour-intensive products, such as some
agricultural goods, textiles and clothing, have had a
positive impact on LDCs. However, the proliferation
of preferential trading schemes between developed
countries and non-LDC developing countries is eroding
the margin of preference that LDC exports receive in
developed markets.
Domestic agricultural subsidies by
rich countries overshadow money
spent on development aid
Official development assistance from OECD-DAC
countries and agricultural support in OECD countries,
2000, 2004 and 2006 (Billions of United States
dollars)
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The global food crisis is partly the result of domestic
agricultural subsidies and tariff protection by developed
countries, which for many years have discouraged
agricultural production in developing countries.
Developed countries’ total support to their own
domestic agricultural sectors grew by some $ billion
between 000 and 00, before being cut by $1
billion in 00. Nevertheless, at $ billion, such expenditures remained
more than three times higher than the official development assistance of
developed countries. The support provided by developed countries to their
own agricultural sector has continued at a time when developing countries
have been encouraged to end all public support to their agriculture. This
acts as a disincentive to agricultural production in developing regions and
undermines official development assistance’s broad objective of supporting
development.
Trade-related assistance needs to be increased
Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD-DAC donors to
basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe
water and sanitation) and trade-related technical assistance and capacity-
building, 2001-2006 (Percentage)
0
5
¹0
¹5
20
25
To basic social services
To trade-related technical assistance/capacity-building
200¹ 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
To accelerate their development through enhancing production and
trading capacities, developing countries need technical and other forms of
assistance such as the development of infrastructure. This is particularly
true for the least developed countries.
Many donor countries have paid more attention to the sectors addressed
by the Millennium Development Goals, but less so to technical cooperation
to boost production and trade. Technical cooperation for building trade
capacity, for example, fell from . per cent to . per cent of total aid
between 00 and 00. Providing assistance in pursuit of the Millennium
Development Goals will require delivery of the additional ODA that has
been promised, and cannot be achieved by reallocating resources among
different sectors.
TARGET
Deal comprehensively with developing
countries’ debt
Developing countries are
shouldering less debt
External debt service payments as proportion of export
revenues, 1990-2006 (Percentage)
0
5
¹0
¹5
20
25
30
¹990 ¹992 ¹994 ¹996 ¹998 2000 2002 2004 2006
Heavily indebted poor countries (HlPC)
Developing regions
By the end of June 008, of 1 eligible countries had
qualified for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor
Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Of these countries,
had reached their ‘completion point’, meaning that all
the conditions for debt relief had been fulfilled and that
relief becomes irrevocable. Together, these countries
had received committed debt relief of $8. billion
in 00 present-value terms. Post-completion-point
countries also received additional assistance of $1.
billion under the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative
(MDRI), further reducing their debt service. Meanwhile,
the value of exports of low-income economies has
increased by more than per cent since 00, giving
them more resources with which to service their
diminished debt. For the average developing country,
the burden of servicing external debt fell from almost
1 per cent of export earnings in 000 to per cent in
00. It is expected to fall further in 00, creating a
more favourable environment for investment.
TARGET
In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies,
provide access to affordable essential drugs in
developing countries
Poor availability and high prices are barriers to
access to essential drugs in developing countries
Pharmaceutical companies, ranging from multinationals to generic
manufacturers to national distributors, are critical in ensuring that people
have access to affordable drugs. For their part, governments need to
define national goals and objectives for the pharmaceutical sector and to
identify strategies to meet them. Most developing countries have a National
Medicines Policy, but more than half of these policies have not been revised
in the past five years and need updating. Nearly all developing countries
also have a published Essential Medicines List – a government-approved
list of medicines that are intended to be available within the public health
system at all times, in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage forms,
with assured quality, and at a price the individual and the community can
afford. However, in most developing countries the availability of medicines
at public health facilities, where they are usually provided at a low cost or
free-of-charge, is often very poor. This is due to a combination of factors
such as inadequate funding, lack of incentives for maintaining stocks,
inability to forecast accurately, and inefficiencies in procurement, supply
and distribution. International health funds, such as the Global Fund to
Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, have become important channels
for improving the procurement and distribution of HIV, tuberculosis and
malaria medicines to public health facilities.

In all regions, availability is better in the private sector, but can still be
poor. Surveys in about 0 developing countries indicate that availability of
selected drugs was only per cent in the public sector and per cent in
the private sector. In a sample of six countries in Eastern, South-Eastern and
Southern Asia, availability in the private sector was only per cent.
Some pharmaceutical manufacturers have lowered their prices to public
health systems in developing countries to accord with the purchasing
power of governments and households. However, the poor availability of
medicines in the public sector often forces patients to purchase medicines
in the private sector where prices are still higher. Even generic medicines
acquired in the private sector are often several times their international
reference price, and the prices of originator brand medicines are generally
much higher. In the developing countries for which data are available,
lowest-priced generic medicines in the private sector cost over six times
international reference prices. Some countries have attempted to make
private sector mark-ups transparent, while others have regulated them.
Generic drugs offer an alternative to higher priced original and brand-
named medicines. Options to promote the use of generics include allowing
pharmacists to dispense a generic product in place of the originator brand
listed on the prescription. Less than three quarters of developing countries
have generic substitution policies. Other strategies for increasing the
use of generic medicines include preferential registration procedures,
encouraging price competition, and increasing the confidence of physicians,
pharmacists, and patients in the quality of generic medicines.
8
UNITED NATIONS
9
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
TARGET
In cooperation with the private
sector, make available the benefits
of new technologies, especially
information and communications
Mobile phones are expanding
communications in developing
countries
Number of telephone subscriptions and Internet
connections per 100 population, world, 1990-2006

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The number of fixed and mobile telephone subscribers
jumped from 0 million in 1990 to over billion by the
end of 00. Mobile phone use soared, with more than
00 million subscribers added since 00, bringing
the total to more than . billion by the end of 00.
Growth has been strongest in regions with few fixed
telephone lines. In Africa, over 0 million new mobile
subscribers were added in 00, and almost every
country now has more mobile than fixed telephone
subscribers. With around 00 million subscribers by
the end of 00, per cent of Africa’s population
had a mobile phone, compared to per cent with
fixed telephone lines and per cent who are Internet
users. With technological developments and the
deployment of wireless broadband technologies, there
are new opportunities to close the communications gap
between developing and developed countries.
Internet use is increasing rapidly, but the poorest
regions lag behind
Number of Internet users per 100 population, 2000 and 2006
0 ¹0 20 30 40 50 60 70
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Providing Internet connectivity to the developing world will help realize
goals for health, education, employment and poverty reduction. By the end
of 00, 1. billion people were connected to the Internet – just over 18 per
cent of the world’s population. But the digital divide is still wide.
In developed countries, 8 per cent of the population were using the
Internet in 00, compared to 11 per cent in developing countries and
only 1 per cent in the least developed countries. Broadband access, which
has spurred Internet use in developed countries, has been slow to expand
in many developing regions. By 00, most countries in sub-Saharan
Africa had not yet commercially deployed broadband services and,
where available, broadband remained inaccessible to the majority of the
population because of its high cost.
0
UNITED NATIONS
1
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008
A note to the reader
Measuring progress towards the MDGs
In the United Nations Millennium Declaration of September 2000,
leaders from 189 nations embraced a vision for a world in which
developed and developing countries would work in partnership for
the betterment of all, particularly the most disadvantaged. To provide
a framework by which progress could be measured, this vision was
transformed into eight Millennium Development Goals, 18 targets and
48 indicators. In 2007, this monitoring framework was revised to include
four new targets agreed to by member states at the 2005 World Summit;
additional indicators to track progress towards the new targets were also
identifed.
This report presents an assessment of progress, based on data available
as of June 2008 on all offcial MDG indicators, including the new
ones introduced. The aggregate fgures in the report provide an
overall assessment of regional progress under the eight goals and are a
convenient way to track advances over time. However, the situation in
individual countries within a given region may vary signifcantly from
the regional fgures. The baseline for the assessment is 1990, but data for
2000 are also presented, whenever possible, to provide a more detailed
picture of progress since the Declaration was signed.
The basis for this analysis
This analysis is based on regional and subregional fgures compiled by
the United Nations Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators.
In general, the fgures are weighted averages of country data, using the
population of reference as a weight. To ensure comparability across
countries and regions, the data are those used by international agencies
within their area of expertise (see inside front cover for a list of the
contributing organizations). For each indicator, individual agencies were
designated to be the offcial providers of data and to take the lead in
developing methodologies for data collection and analysis.
Data are typically drawn from offcial statistics provided by governments
to the international agencies responsible for the indicator. This is done
through periodic data collection from ministries and national statistical
offces around the globe.
To fll in frequent data gaps, many of the indicators are supplemented by
or derived exclusively from data collected through surveys sponsored
and carried out by international agencies. These include many of the
health indicators, which are compiled, for the most part, from Multiple
Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys.
In some cases, countries may have more recent data that have not yet
become available to the relevant specialized agency. In other cases,
countries do not produce the data required to compile the indicator,
and the responsible international agencies estimate the missing values.
Finally, even when countries produce the necessary data, adjustments are
often needed to ensure international comparability. Data in international
sources therefore often differ from those available within countries.
The United Nations Statistics Division maintains the offcial website of
the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators and its database
– accessible at mdgs.un.org. In an effort to improve transparency, the
country data series in the database are given colour codes to indicate
whether the fgures are estimated or provided by national agencies; they
are also accompanied by metadata with a complete explanation of how
the indicators are produced and of the methodologies used for regional
aggregates.
Discrepancies across sources and gaps in national data have raised
concerns in the statistical community. Numerous interventions have
recently been launched to reconcile national and international monitoring
and to resolve the differences in methods and defnitions used by
different agencies within countries and in international agencies. Work is
under way in countries to improve the availability of the necessary data,
the coordination of national statistical systems and the mechanisms for
reporting to international statistical agencies.
Building stronger statistical systems
These efforts to measure, monitor and report on progress towards
the MDGs have highlighted the need to improve most developing
countries’ capacity to produce, analyse and disseminate data. Since
periodic assessment of the MDGs began over fve years ago, a number
of initiatives have been launched in this direction. The 2004 Marrakech
Action Plan for Statistics, adopted by aid recipients and donor
stakeholders at the Second International Roundtable on Managing for
Development Results, was a major step towards assisting developing
countries in strengthening their statistical capacity. The Inter-Agency
and Expert Group on MDG Indicators is also addressing statistical
capacity-building: together with international agencies, donors and
representatives from national statistical offces, the Group is identifying
national priorities and making recommendations for improvements in the
delivery and coordination of statistical assistance to countries. In 2006,
the United Nations Economic and Social Council endorsed a resolution
adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission, comprised of
representatives of national statistical services, highlighting the urgent
need to build statistical capacity in countries where resources are limited.
Building such capacity will require increased and better coordinated
fnancial and technical support from the international community.
Achieving success will depend on country ownership and government
commitment to spur the institutional changes needed to ensure the
sustainability of capacity-building initiatives.
Regional groupings
This report presents data on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals
for the world as a whole and for various country groupings. These are classified as
‘developing’ regions, the transition economies of the Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS) in Asia and Europe, and the ‘developed’ regions.
1
The developing regions
are further broken down into the subregions shown on the map above. These regional
groupings are based on United Nations geographical divisions, with some modifications
necessary to create, to the extent possible, groups of countries for which a meaningful
analysis can be carried out. A complete list of countries included in each region and
subregion is available at mdgs.un.org.
1 Since there is no established convention for the designation of ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries or areas in the United
Nations system, this distinction is made for the purposes of statistical analysis only.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in the present publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part
of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.
Developed regions
Countries of the Commonwealth
of Independent States (CIS)
Northern Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
South-Eastern Asia
Oceania
Eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Latin America & the Caribbean
1
General Assembly resolution 0/1, 00 World Summit Outcome.

The new MDG monitoring framework is available at http://mdgs.un.org

Given the time lag between collecting data and analysing them, few indicators have data for
the current year or 00.

UNITED NATIONS
For more information:
Visit the UN Statistics Division Millennium
Development Goals website at
mdgs.un.org
Visit the UN MillenniumDevelopment Goals
website at
www.un.org/millenniumgoals
Visit the UN MillenniumCampaign Office
website at
www.millenniumcampaign.org
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Copyright © United Nations, 2008
All rights reserved.
“The Millennium Development Goals can
be achieved if immediate steps are taken to
implement existing commitments. Reaching our
goals for development around the world is not
only vital to building better, healthier and decent
lives for millions of people, it is also essential to
building enduring global peace and security.
Ours is the generation that can achieve the
development goals and free our fellow men,
women and children from the abject and
dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty.”
– Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization, 2007
Published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
(DESA) - August 2008
SALES NUMBER: E.08.I.18
I S B N 9 2 - 1 - 1 0 1 1 7 3 - 9

UNITED NATIONS

This report is based on a master set of data that has been compiled by an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, in response to the wishes of the General Assembly for periodic assessment of progress towards the MDGs. The Group comprises representatives of the international organizations whose activities include the preparation of one or more of the series of statistical indicators that were identified as appropriate for monitoring progress towards the MDGs, as reflected in the list below. A number of national statisticians and outside expert advisers also contributed.

I N T E R N AT I O N A L L A B O U R O R G A N I Z ATION F O O D A N D AG R I C U LT U R E O R G A N I Z ATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS U N I T E D N AT I O N S E DU CAT I O N A L , S C IENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION WO R L D H E A LT H O R G A N I Z AT I O N T H E WO R L D B A N K I N T E R N AT I O N A L M O N E TA RY F U N D I N T E R N AT I O N A L T E L E C O M M U N I CATION UNION E C O N O M I C C O M M I S S I O N F O R A F R I CA E C O N O M I C C O M M I S S I O N F O R E U RO PE E C O N O M I C C O M M I S S I O N F O R L AT I N AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I A L C O M M I S S I ON FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I A L C O M M I S S I ON FOR WESTERN ASIA J O I N T U N I T E D N AT I O N S P RO G R A M ME ON HIV/AIDS U N I T E D N AT I O N S C H I L D R E N ’ S F U N D U N I T E D N AT I O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT U N I T E D N AT I O N S D E V E L O P M E N T F U ND FOR WOMEN U N I T E D N AT I O N S D E V E L O P M E N T P ROGRAMME U N I T E D N AT I O N S E N V I RO N M E N T P ROGRAMME U N I T E D N AT I O N S F R A M E WO R K C O N VENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE U N I T E D N AT I O N S H I G H C O M M I S S I O NER FOR REFUGEES U N I T E D N AT I O N S H U M A N S E T T L E M ENTS PROGRAMME U N I T E D N AT I O N S P O P U L AT I O N F U N D I N T E R- PA R L I A M E N TA RY U N I O N O R G A N I SAT I O N F O R E C O N O M I C C O -OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT WO R L D T R A D E O R G A N I Z AT I O N

The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008

U N I T E D N AT I O N S

N E W YO R K ,

2008 

There could also be setbacks with regard to other MDGs. Global warming has become more apparent. pressing as they are. is now threatened. freeing resources for development. the right to health and a responsibility to future generations. Some of the recent adverse developments reflect a failure to give these matters sufficient attention in the past. But it requires an unswerving. These developments will directly affect our efforts to reduce poverty: the economic slowdown will diminish the incomes of the poor. and that has contributed to the successes to date. The imminent threat of increased hunger would have been lessened if recent decades had not been marked by a lack of investment in agricultural and rural development in developing countries. together.” We are now more than halfway towards the target date – 2015 – by which the Millennium Development Goals are to be achieved. It is now our responsibility to make up lost ground – and to put all countries. experience has demonstrated the validity of earlier agreements on the way forward. both of uncertain magnitude and duration. in other words. the food crisis will raise the number of hungry people in the world and push millions more into poverty. long-term effort. These tasks have now become more challenging because the largely benign development environment that has prevailed since the early years of this decade. there is no question that we can achieve the overarching goal: we can put an end to poverty. Many individuals are alive today thanks to a measles vaccination or antiretroviral therapy for AIDS. cannot be undone. Time has been lost. We have made important progress towards all eight goals. they encompass universally accepted human values and rights such as freedom from hunger. the right to basic education. firmly on track towards a more prosperous. These and other examples provide ample evidence of what can and has been achieved with sound strategies backed by political will and financial and technical support. but we are not on track to fulfil our commitments. collective. we know what to do.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Foreword In adopting the Millennium Declaration in the year 2000. But they are not only development objectives. however. Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General. This report quantifies the achievements that have been registered and provides a measure of the tasks that remain. the international community pledged to “spare no effort to free our fellow men. In almost all instances. Climate change would be a less immediate threat if we had kept pace with commitments to sustainable development enunciated again and again over the years. sustainable and equitable world. On the contrary. our strategy must be to keep the focus on the MDGs as we confront these new challenges. United Nations   . We face a global economic slowdown and a food security crisis. must not be allowed to detract from our long-term efforts to achieve the MDGs. Looking ahead to 2015 and beyond. The MDGs encapsulate the development aspirations of the world as a whole. We have wasted opportunities and face additional challenges. Some gains. women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty. climate change will have a disproportionate impact on the poor. External debts have been written-off. The current troubled climate poses a risk that some advances in reducing poverty may unravel. The need to address these concerns. Millions of tons of ozone-depleting substances have been prevented from entering the atmosphere. making the task ahead more difficult. A child will forever benefit from the primary education he or she might not otherwise have received. And the current global financial turmoil reveals systemic weaknesses that we have known about – and left inadequately addressed – for some time now.

For the poor more than others. The task is broad and complex. • Some 2. • The gender parity index in primary education is 95 per cent or higher in six of the 10 regions. Addressing the multiple dimensions of poverty Taken together. women account for less than 10 per cent of parliamentarians. • Carbon dioxide emissions have continued to increase. Governments should ensure that poverty reduction is mainstreamed into all policies. the recently improved progress towards the MDGs would also no longer be a good indicator of future prospects. but the progress achieved to date demonstrates that success is feasible with sound strategies and the political will. health and infrastructure. This agenda will require a sustained and wide-ranging effort over a period that extends until 2015 and beyond. the multifaceted nature of poverty. ranging from national macroeconomic strategy to local-level administrative actions.5 per cent in 2000 to 6. the production of insecticidetreated mosquito nets rose from 30 million in 2004 to 95 million in 2007. once again. A first component of this response is to ensure that the present course of action is accelerated and expanded so that recent progress is sustained and broadened. Achieving some other goals or targets. The MDGs are universal: they are intended to embrace not only all countries but also all people within each country. particularly in their expenditures on education. all countries that failed to achieve gender parity in primary and secondary enrolment by the target year of 2005 should make a renewed effort to do so as soon as possible. the private sector. use has at least tripled since around 2000. and lack of social infrastructure. private foundations in the developed countries have become an important source of funding for a wide range of activities intended to achieve them. NGOs in developing countries are increasingly engaged in undertaking these activities. critically. Encouragingly. People living in rural areas are furthest from achieving several of the MDGs in most regions. once again. • Malaria prevention is expanding. hunger and disease and to ensure sustainable development. there are usually segments of society that do not share in the benefits without targeted actions to reach them. Successful policies. A greater effort will be required to achieve the MDGs if the economic situation of the developing countries weakens significantly. Most developing countries’ efforts to achieve the MDGs have benefited from the improved economic growth and relatively low inflation that characterized much of the period since 2000.000 prospective mothers in developing countries die annually in childbirth or of complications from pregnancy. Government and other actors should therefore pay special attention to any and all at risk of being bypassed by the progress towards the MDGs. The emergence of a world food crisis has served to highlight. For example. any such synthesis inevitably masks the range and variety of development experiences in individual countries since the goals were adopted. the data show accelerated progress since that date. But the data do not yet show the effects of the present deterioration in global development prospects.000 in 2000 to less than 250. incomes are likely to be adversely affected by conflict. have a right to expect that their leaders will fulfil the commitments made in 2000.000 in 2006. to some extent at the cost of building productive capacity and physical infrastructure. most poor people are caught in a vicious circle. The hardship of rural life is encouraging migration to towns and cities. Building these capacities requires strong political commitment and adequate funding over a longer period before the effects become visible. civil society in both developed and developing countries. It is not only governments of developing countries and the international community that have adopted the MDGs as their framework for international development cooperation. the interactions of its various causes and manifestations and the wide-ranging and mutually reinforcing nature of the actions that have to be taken. • In all but two regions. • Deaths from measles fell from over 750. Above all. The current food crisis calls for special attention to be given to the potential escalation in hunger and malnutrition. Particular attention should be paid to the creation of additional opportunities for decent work. however. including for health and education. with widespread increases in insecticide-treated net use among children under five in sub-Saharan Africa: in 16 out of 20 countries. with the associated problems of inadequate water and sanitation facilities. the results to date show that. despite the international timetable for addressing the problem. At the same time. and the number of people newly infected declined from 3. • More than 500. Improved support for women’s self-employment. achieving gender equality requires that women have an equal role with men in decision-making at all levels. SHA ZUKANG Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs   . It equally implies that trends from 1990 to 2000 provide a poor basis from which to extrapolate outcomes in 2015. Providing all the assistance that is necessary will require delivery of the additional official development assistance (ODA) that has been promised and cannot be achieved by reallocating resources among different sectors. women and girls continues to prevail in most countries. To address these needs. but also the private sector and.5 billion people. All stakeholders should renew their commitment to the wide range of interrelated activities that are already contributing to progress towards the MDGs around the world. The poor are not only those with the lowest incomes but also those who are the most deprived of health. • The share of developing countries’ export earnings devoted to servicing external debt fell from 12. will depend on country-wide systems of qualified and adequately equipped personnel and an effective institutional infrastructure.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Overview The eight Millennium Development Goals have been adopted by the international community as a framework for the development activities of over 190 countries in ten regions. including the most populous ones. but it is also disadvantaged because progress towards several of the MDGs depends on government institutions. allowing them to allocate more resources to reducing poverty. with the result that approximately half the world’s population is now living in urban areas. As an indispensable starting point for women’s betterment in later life. perpetuate income poverty.0 million in 2001 to 2. for example. This Report summarizes progress towards the goals in each of the regions. children of poor families are more likely to be malnourished and are correspondingly more susceptible to an early death from childhood diseases. together with civil society. Relative neglect of. • Almost two thirds of employed women in the developing world are in vulnerable jobs as own-account or unpaid family workers. and rights to land and other assets. and a number of targets are expected to be reached by their target dates. • About one quarter of all children in developing countries are considered to be underweight and are at risk of having a future blighted by the longterm effects of undernourishment. • The use of ozone-depleting substances has been almost eliminated and this has contributed to the effort to reduce global warming. • The incidence of tuberculosis is expected to be halted and begin to decline before the target date of 2015. drugs and vaccines. These characteristics. Additional resources have to be mobilized by both the developed and the developing countries to address longstanding and longterm challenges pertaining to agriculture. rural development. Public investment and public institutions should endeavour to target the poor.6 per cent in 2006. programmes and projects should be expanded wherever and whenever appropriate. agricultural extension and physical infrastructure. they have been articulated into over 20 targets and over 60 indicators. However. Some of these successes have been achieved by means of targeted interventions or programmes – such as the delivery of bed-nets. include a greater financial commitment. This suggests that the Millennium Declaration and related undertakings did make a difference to development accomplishments. however. only 18 are likely to achieve the goal by 2015. Mid-point shows some key successes The single most important success to date has been the unprecedented breadth and depth of the commitment to the MDGs – a global collective effort that is unsurpassed in 50 years of development experience. excluding them from recognized development benefits and opportunities. as well as in monitoring the outcomes. Overall. Such facilities are usually less readily available in rural areas. not necessarily resulted in either an escape from poverty or better progress towards the MDGs. Despite the global focus on the MDGs and the impressive results achieved in some areas. in most countries. Breaking this circle requires an array of simultaneous actions: a single intervention is unlikely to be sufficient. in turn. including in agriculture. • More than one third of the growing urban population in developing countries live in slum conditions. commit to building on the momentum and tackling the challenges that are evident from this Report. Looking ahead to 2015 It is only in the past few years that MDG-related data for the period since 2000 have become available. • The number of deaths from AIDS fell from 2. especially the poor and the most vulnerable. such as schools.0 million in 2007.6 billion people have gained access to safe drinking water since 1990. external assistance to MDG-oriented social sector activities has increased. • Of the 113 countries that failed to achieve gender parity in both primary and secondary school enrolment by the target date of 2005. • In one third of developing countries. Besides being advocates for the MDGs.7 million in 2007. Ensuring gender equality and empowering women in all respects – desirable objectives in themselves – are required to combat poverty.2 million in 2005 to 2. services and support. This global collective effort is yielding results. • International trade negotiations are years behind schedule and any outcome seems likely to fall far short of the initial high hopes for a development-oriented outcome. from the home to the pinnacles of economic and political power. Poor mothers are more likely to die in childbirth. infrastructure and environmental sustainability. live without improved sanitation. the United Nations system and other international organizations. The immediate prospects are for reduced global growth and higher inflation. as well as the recent increases in food prices and the increasingly visible effects of global warming. but should occur without depriving other important sectors of needed resources. Both threaten continued success in reducing income poverty and are likely to affect progress towards other MDGs unless there is a commensurate response from all stakeholders. The latter must. primary school enrolment is at least 90 per cent. national governments and the international community need to respond to the lessons of experience and to adjust to changing circumstances. and there were over 60 million new mobile telephone subscribers in Africa in 2006. This is possible if governments. The rural population is suffering from the cumulative neglect of agriculture over the years. strengthened or corrective action is taken urgently: • The proportion of people in sub-Saharan Africa living on less than $1 per day is unlikely to be reduced by the target of one-half. health facilities. the developed countries must honour their undertaking to provide substantial increases in ODA and generally foster an international environment more conducive to development. slightly more than one third of the urban population in developing regions lived in slum conditions. There has been sound progress in some MDG areas. and de facto bias against. such as reducing maternal mortality. ***** All citizens of the world. In such a case. The limited progress in empowering women and achieving gender equality is a pervasive shortcoming that extends beyond the goal itself. Despite the potentially less favourable economic conditions. as well as trade and interchange with others. In 2005. the results achieved to date highlight. and gender imbalances are more pronounced among the poor. mostly 2015: • The overarching goal of reducing absolute poverty by half is within reach for the world as a whole. and about 80 per cent of children in developing countries now receive a measles vaccine. the need to give greater attention to developing the agricultural sector and addressing the needs of the rural population. including climate change. education and other aspects of human well-being. poor children receive less education and some may receive none at all. even in some of the more challenging regions. • Some 1. • The private sector has increased the availability of some critical essential drugs and rapidly spread mobile phone technology throughout the developing world. Adding more recent data to those contained in earlier Reports largely confirms the patterns identified previously. for many variables. however. the number of people living with HIV in developing countries who received antiretroviral treatment increased by almost 1 million in 2007. This has. are key to countries’ economic development. and mobile phones. and much of the rural population remains trapped in their own circle of poverty. Greater effort is required in other areas Alongside the successes are an array of goals and targets that are likely to be missed unless additional. • Developed countries’ foreign aid expenditures declined for the second consecutive year in 2007 and risk falling short of the commitments made in 2005. Increased attention to sectors directly related to the MDGs has often produced results. natural disasters and economic fluctuations. almost half the developing world’s population.

Most of the increase will occur in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Most of the urban poor and the landless rural poor are in this position. 1 million are refugees. These improved and more comprehensive estimates of poverty are a leading example of the many important statistical developments of recent years that will improve our understanding of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals.and middle-income economies. with estimates suggesting that the increase will be as many as 100 million. Poor farmers. may change our view of the scale and distribution of global poverty (see box). Refugees under the responsibility of the United Nations. extreme poverty in the developing world has been measured by a standard representing the poverty lines found among the poorest countries of the world. Originally set at $1 a day in 198 prices. A larger set of price surveys. What these numbers fail to convey is the extent to which conflict gives rise to poverty among people who have no direct involvement in the dispute. has been the increased prices of commodities. 1998-2007 (Millions) Halve. which has increased significantly over the last few years. this achievement will be due largely to extraordinary economic success in most of Asia. notably in sub-Saharan Africa but also in Western Asia and Latin America. The World Bank is using the new estimates of PPP to revalue the international poverty line and prepare new estimates of poverty in low. the international poverty line was subsequently revised to a $1. million who fall under the responsibility of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and . therefore. based on the latest estimates of the cost of living in developing countries. the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day Higher food prices may push 100 million people deeper into poverty New data. including 11. the results of this comparison indicate a large revision to the previous estimates of price levels and. In Western Asia. in part because higher oil prices have raised the cost of fertilizer. The recent increases in the price of food have had a direct and adverse effect on the poor. primarily because of the conflict in Iraq. More than  million people are currently displaced by conflict or persecution. poverty rates were relatively low but increasing. These new measures are likely to change the assessment of the extent and distribution of global poverty. Many are among the poorest countries in the world. Poor people who do not produce their own food are the most severely hurt because a larger proportion of their expenditure is allocated to food. One indication of the impact of conflict is the number of refugees worldwide. more than  million people have been uprooted by violence or persecution but remain within the borders of their own countries. refugees constitute 10 per cent or more of the population. including education and health care. For exporters. measured in terms of 199 purchasing power parity (PPP). this has allowed the comparison of the purchasing power of many more countries. million who are under the aegis of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. Equally. Of these. so that the real size of their economies is correspondingly smaller than previously thought. Conflict continues to displace people from their homes and drive them into poverty. Higher food prices limit their ability to obtain not only food but also other essential goods and services.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger TARGET Conflict leaves many displaced and impoverished New measures of poverty in the world Since 1990. But many lack the resources to do so.   . But the continuing economic growth in all developing regions suggests that the downward trend in poverty continued through 00. this has been a boon. In contrast. The surveys found price levels in many developing countries to be higher than previously estimated. on the other hand. is now available. in the estimates of the real sizes of some economies in the developing regions. one in 10 is internally displaced. previously estimated. the higher prices mean that estimates of both the number of people living in poverty and poverty rates will increase for some regions. However. In Iraq and Somalia. Overall. both within and outside the borders of their own countries. Since 00. previous estimates suggest that little progress was made in reducing extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.08 a day. have dampened growth in countries importing these products. Southern and Western Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the largest populations of refugees. In Lebanon and Jordan. particularly oil prices. Published in early 008. between 1990 and 2015. conducted within the International Comparison Programme. including oil. one of the factors contributing to growth in many developing countries. can benefit from higher food prices if they are able to produce more than they consume. And the transition economies of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and SouthEastern Europe were still recovering from the rise in poverty in the early 1990s. or faster than. The goal of cutting in half the proportion of people in the developing world living on less than $1 a day by 01 remains within reach. already the regions with the largest numbers of people living in extreme poverty. but the rate of decrease in poverty is expected to be similar to. higher food prices are expected to push many more people into absolute poverty. But higher commodity prices. In addition.

Low-paying jobs leave one in five developing country workers mired in poverty Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) a day. 1997 and 2007 (Percentage) The number of working poor is unlikely to be reduced without increases in productivity. productivity has risen by at least  per cent annually in Southern Asia. For women to remain outside the labour force is often not a choice. Eastern Asia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. over half the workers fall into this category. On the other hand. there is a striking difference in employment-to-population ratios of youth and the rest of the population. Employed persons living in a household where each member earns less than $1 a day are considered the ‘working poor’. including women and young people optimal employment-to-population ratio. insecure jobs Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment. In sub-Saharan Africa. 8 9 . In contrast. women and men (Percentage) Poverty reduction cannot be accomplished without full and productive employment and decent work for all. Full employment remains a distant possibility Proportion of working-age population that is employed. Analysis of these ratios and comparisons between groups allow for the identification of levels and trends that have an impact on poverty and deficits in decent work. More women in these regions would opt to work if it were socially acceptable. if more jobs were created for women and if institutions were in place to help them combine work and family responsibilities. While escaping the high youth unemployment of other regions. Nevertheless. Over the past 10 years. As a result. 2007 (Percentage) Half the world’s workforce toil in unstable. the very high ratios in sub-Saharan Africa indicate that a large number of poor people have to work to subsist. jobs provide little relief from poverty because their pay is so low. partly because the employmentto-population ratio for women is less than  per cent (more than 0 percentage points below the ratio for men).UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 TA RG E T Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all. 2007. The two exceptions are Northern Africa and Western Asia. there is no For millions in the world today. Developed countries have lower ratios than developing countries because their higher productivity and incomes mean that fewer workers are required to meet the needs of the entire population. the generally low and volatile changes in productivity in sub-Saharan Africa have limited the decline in working poverty in that region. The proportion of working-age population that is employed is a good indicator of the ability of an economy to provide jobs. there were fewer working poor in all three regions. Between  per cent and  per cent of the working age population is employed in most regions. In Eastern Asia. regardless of the quality of the job. Eastern Asia’s young people are working rather than investing for the future through education.

However. Vulnerable employment is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Oceania. where it accounts for three quarters of all jobs. where undernutrition has declined overall and is now lower than the average in most other developing regions. Eastern Asia. but urgent interventions are needed to address immediate food shortages for the countless people facing hunger and malnutrition. The High-Level Conference on World Food Security. The poor are most affected by increasing food prices. between 1990 and 2015. The majority of countries making the least progress in reducing child malnutrition are in sub-Saharan Africa. held in Rome in June 008.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Remunerative employment alone is not the answer to poverty. TARGET Halve. SouthEastern Asia and Eastern Asia. Worse. sub-Saharan Africa. And almost 1. was successful in more than halving the proportion of underweight children between 1990 and 00. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Progress in reducing hunger is now being eroded by the worldwide increase in food prices. The proportion of the global workforce that earned a living through vulnerable employment has decreased slowly. To the extent that undernourishment among children of this age is broadly representative of the extent of hunger in the population as a whole. The most urgent is to increase emergency food aid and to assist poor people in obtaining the maximum yield from the next season’s crops. For the most part. 1990 and 2006 (Percentage) 10 11 . gender differences do not seem to be significant in underweight prevalence among children under five. and despite improvements since 1990. and inappropriate agricultural policies. women in developing regions are more likely than men to be in vulnerable employment situations. use of food crops for biofuel. including subsidies in developed countries. by 00. Rising food prices threaten limited gains in alleviating child malnutrition Proportion of children under age five who are underweight. either through their own resources or public support. billion workers remain in unstable. the global situation will be exacerbated by higher food prices. urbanization. This region alone accounts for more than half the world’s undernourished children. Southern Asia. identified a number of concrete steps to mitigate hunger. economic growth. Escalating prices are being driven partly by supply disruptions. but it is also high in Oceania. insecure jobs. Northern Africa and Western Asia. There is no quick fix for the underlying cause of the food crisis. notably China. the number of children in developing countries who were underweight still exceeded 10 million. On average. progress is insufficient to achieve the MDG target. Jobs must also provide a certain degree of security. children in rural areas are almost five times as likely to be underweight as children in urban areas. even in Southern Asia. children living in rural areas in the developing world are twice as likely to be underweight as children living in urban areas. where earlier data indicated that girls were more likely than boys to be underweight. The proportion of children under five who are undernourished declined from  per cent in 1990 to  per cent in 00. from  per cent in 199 to 0 per cent in 00. almost 0 per cent of children are underweight in Southern Asia. Half the world’s workers could descend abruptly into poverty if they suddenly lose their job and have no means of covering their expenses. an expanding world population. At the extreme are those who are too poor to buy sufficient food when prices rise and who will fall victim to severe hunger and malnutrition. In contrast. but mostly by rising demand due to changing diets. The rural-urban divide is a greater factor in determining malnutrition. The difference is 10 percentage points or more in Southern Asia. Overall. In Eastern Asia.

refugee children are often denied educational opportunities Children affected by conflict or political unrest – those who most need structure and a semblance of normality in their lives – are more likely to be deprived of an adequate education. 2000/2006 (Percentage) Reaching poorer. the net enrolment ratio in 00 exceeded 90 per cent. and many countries were close to achieving universal primary enrolment. more than 1. more socially marginalized children who normally have less access to basic education is a major challenge. regardless of whether they live in urban or rural areas. by 2015. however. yet more than 18 million children of primary school age are not enrolled. *Number of pupils of the theoretical school-age group for primary education. even after a significant jump in enrolment that began in 000. often because they lack a safe. In Southern Asia. despite an overall increase in the number of children in this age group. Data for 11 refugee camps in  countries show that full primary school enrolment has been achieved in only  out of 10 camps. boys and girls alike. Survey data from 0 countries show that. enrolled either in primary or secondary education. children everywhere. In 1 out of 8 of the camps with inadequate primary school opportunities. expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. and that at least 1 in  refugee children is not part of the formal education system. Around 8 million children of primary school age in this region are still out of school. million school-age refugee children live in developing countries. According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. have yielded widespread progress in primary school enrolment Total net enrolment ratio in primary education*. less than half of all primary schoolage children are enrolled. Ensuring that the most vulnerable and marginalized children are enrolled and remain in school requires targeted programmes and interventions aimed at poor households and that seek to eliminate gender disparities. 1999/2000 and 2005/2006 (Percentage) In almost all regions. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Political will. the enrolment gap ratio between girls and boys has narrowed slightly: the number of girls enrolled per 100 boys increased from 89 in 00 to 91 in 00.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education TARGET Ensure that. quality learning environment. the net enrolment ratio has only recently reached 1 per cent. 1990/1991. most of them in urban areas or camps. The number of children of primary school age who were out of school fell from 10 million in 1999 to  million in 00. or because of poverty and early marriage. Girls are at particular risk of dropping out before completing their primary education. In camps where enrolment rates are 0 per cent or higher. attendance is higher in urban than in rural areas. These successes underscore that much can be accomplished with the political will of governments and with adequate support from development partners. by place of residence and household wealth. in  of them. Surveys in sub-Saharan countries indicate that children from the poorest households are least likely to attend school. the enrolment ratio has climbed to 90 per cent. In sub-Saharan Africa. Amidst many deprivations. Poverty’s grip keeps children out of school Primary school net attendance ratio in the developing regions. coupled with targeted investments. But being poor is the more determinant factor. 1 1 .

Achieving universal primary education means more than full enrolment. This. Ensuring that all primary school students complete their education in a timely manner will not only benefit the individual students. for instance. It also encompasses quality education.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 The quality of education is as important as enrolment Children of secondary school age by educational status. 2006 (Percentage) For children to reach their full potential and countries to develop. will free resources for future primary school enrollees and reduce the challenge of achieving the goal. Progress is being made. almost two thirds of children of secondary school age are out of school. it will also reduce the number of over-age children in the primary education system. At present. substantially more children of secondary school age attend primary rather than secondary school.  per cent of children of the appropriate age in developing countries attend secondary school. In sub-Saharan Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of children in developing countries who have completed primary education rose from 9 per cent in 1999 to 8 per cent in 00. In Oceania. in turn. 1 1 . however. only a quarter of children of secondary school age are in secondary school. meaning that all children who attend school regularly learn basic literacy and numeracy skills and complete primary school on time. the gains made in universal primary education must be replicated at the secondary level.

food shortages. At the same time. 1999/2000 and 2005/2006 (Girls per 100 boys) *Data are not available for 1991. Western Asia and Northern Africa have also made strides in reducing gender disparity. where high repetition and low retention rates are common. whereas some boys join the labour force. Drought. Girls’ primary enrolment increased more than boys’ in all developing regions between 000 and 00.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women TARGET Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. 1990/1991. but prove to be especially devastating for girls. Oceania. As part of its success in raising the total primary enrolment rate. preferably by 2005. Sub-Saharan Africa. and HIV and AIDS contribute to low school enrolment and high dropout rates for both boys and girls in those subregions. girls in particular fail to enrol in and stay in school. 1999/2000 and 2005/2006 (Girls per 100 boys) School doors have swung open for girls in nearly all regions as many countries have successfully promoted girls’ education as part of their efforts to boost overall enrolment. Southern Asia has made the most progress in gender parity since 000. two out of three countries have achieved gender parity at the primary level. girls account for  per cent of the out-of-school population. armed conflict. The secondary enrolment rate for girls surpasses that of boys in three regions. In contrast. In Western and Central Africa. poverty. Despite impressive gains. Oceania has taken a step back with a slight deterioration in gender parity in primary school enrolment. where girls’ primary education enrolment lags behind boys’. Where gender gaps in primary education have closed. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Girls still wait for equal primary school access in some regions Girls’ primary school enrolment in relation to boys’. 1990/1991. As a result. Gender parity in primary school bodes well for girls’ continued educational progress Girls’ secondary school enrolment in relation to boys’. girls generally continue on to secondary school. sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia have the largest gender gaps in primary enrolment. 1 1 . child labour. the gender gap widens in secondary and tertiary education. lack of birth registration. Boys’ under-achievement is a particular concern in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Occupations continue to be gender-specific. they are more likely to work in local rather than central * Data for 1990 are not available. for half of those in refugee camps. 2000 and 2008 (Percentage) In January 008. but progress is erratic and marked by regional differences Proportion of seats held by women in single or lower houses of national parliaments. Overall. followed by Sweden ( per cent). less valued jobs and face greater barriers to higherlevel positions. such as the active promotion of women candidates by political parties and the provision of training in electoral campaigning and fundraising. only 1 per cent of the world’s ministerial positions were held by women. In January 008. compared to  per cent in 1990. 1990 and 2006 (Percentage) government. Women occupy at least 0 per cent of parliamentary seats in 0 countries. the proportion continues to ebb and flow and the global average conceals national and regional differences. Women account. in the developing regions. most women remain in low-status. girls in rural areas and from the poorest households require targeted interventions to encourage them to enrol in and stay in school. this type of work accounts for more than 80 per cent of all jobs for women. women have greater difficulty translating their labour into paid work and their paid work into higher. but women often remain trapped in insecure. more secure incomes. by place of residence and households wealth. female candidates are supported by a vibrant civil society movement. But almost two thirds of women in the developing world work in vulnerable jobs as own-account and unpaid family workers. However. although none in Asia. where women often enjoy equal job security and benefits. constructing separate sanitation facilities. In an attempt to redress these inequities. Nordic parliaments continue to outshine other countries with more than 1 per cent female representation on average. Women are elected in greater proportional representation in electoral systems that include quotas. eliminating school fees. Quotas are key supportive mechanisms and can be implemented with additional measures. from 00 and 00. with women holding  per cent of seats. 1 countries had no women at all in cabinet positions. indicate that women’s political participation in refugee camps is increasing. Latin America and the Caribbean increased female representation. Data from more than 80 camps show that equal participation has been achieved in only about two of five camps. one sixth of bilateral aid was allocated to sectors for the purpose of improving women’s status. Women’s representation in other arenas is also important. In Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Finland (1. lower pay and poorer working conditions. on average. Women are also disproportionately represented in part-time. However. but their participation in camp decision-making processes remains low. however. and women constitute less than 10 per cent of the members of parliament in one third of all countries. Nauru. 2000/2006 (Percentage) Job opportunities open up. 1990. women are largely absent from the highest levels of governance. low-paid positions Employees in non-agricultural wage employment who are women. Despite greater parliamentary participation. Overall. ensuring a safe school environment and promoting later marriage have boosted girls’ attendance in school. More recent data. As a result. seasonal and short-term informal jobs and therefore are deprived of job security and benefits. although women held at least 0 per cent of the ministerial posts in  countries – mostly in Europe and Africa. Underpinning all efforts is the political will of leaders to promote women’s access to parliaments. providing school meals. Oceania is the only region where women’s participation stagnated. for example.8 per cent. rural areas stay in school Primary school net attendance ratio of boys and girls. In 00-00. per cent). women accounted for  of the 10 elected heads of state and 8 of the 19 heads of governments of United Nations Member States. Although well-educated women have advanced and the share of women managers is increasing. primary school attendance of girls and boys is nearly equal in the richest households and in urban areas. Women have more income-earning opportunities than ever before. Women hold at least 0 per cent of the seats in five parliaments: Rwanda leads the way at 8. the global proportion of parliamentary seats held by women reached a high of nearly 18 per cent. In some countries. No women were included in the 00 parliamentary renewals in the Federated States of Micronesia. Women slowly gain ground in political decision-making. women occupy almost 0 per cent of all paid jobs outside agriculture. Oman and Qatar. The increase in recent years of female parliamentary representatives in sub-Saharan Africa was largely sustained in the 00 elections. and femaledominated positions tend to be characterized by inferior status. development partners have focused on gender equality and empowerment. Even in the government sector. The uneven representation of women in national parliaments is not by chance. Within this total. per cent) and Argentina (0 per cent).UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Targeted action is needed to help girls from poor. Satellite schools in remote areas. In developing countries. 18 19 . Cuba (.

Vaccinations have slashed deaths from measles Proportion of children 12-23 months old who received at least one dose of measles vaccine. annual deaths among children under five dipped below 10 million. such as oral rehydration therapy. Pneumonia kills more children than any other disease. for the first time since mortality data have been gathered. 2000 and 2006 (Percentage) 0 1 . deaths of under five children remain unacceptably high Under-five mortality rate per 1. In Eastern Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. and improved neonatal and maternal care could save countless newborns. Nevertheless. yet in developing countries the proportion of children under five with suspected pneumonia who are taken to appropriate health-care providers remains low. insecticide-treated mosquito nets and vaccinations. Thirty-seven per cent of under-five deaths occur in the first month of life. Undernutrition is estimated to be an underlying cause in more than one third of all deaths in children under five. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for about half the deaths of children under five in the developing world. Disparities persist in all regions: mortality rates are higher for children from rural and poor families and whose mothers lack a basic education. 1990. diarrhoea. the under-five mortality rate Despite progress. Between 1990 and 00. 1990. 2000 and 2006 In 00. The leading causes of childhood deaths – pneumonia. child mortality rates are approximately four times higher than in developed regions. the death of millions of children from preventable causes each year is unacceptable.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 4 Reduce child mortality TARGET Reduce by two thirds.000 live births. A child born in a developing country is over 1 times more likely to die within the first five years of life than a child born in an industrialized country. malaria and measles – are easily prevented through simple improvements in basic health services and proven interventions. between 1990 and 2015. about  countries – the large majority in sub-Saharan Africa – made no progress in reducing childhood deaths.

the  countries that accounted for 9 per cent of measles deaths had low first-dose vaccine coverage and no second-dose opportunity.   . A single-dose campaign is not sufficient to protect a community from measles.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Measles. In sub-Saharan Africa. additional efforts will be required to ensure that every child is immunized and to achieve the goal of reducing measles mortality by 90 per cent by 010. The combination of improved routine vaccinations and second-dose coverage has reduced global deaths from measles by more than two thirds since 1990. a second-dose protocol was implemented in  of the  high-risk countries through national campaigns. While this jump in coverage is impressive. More than 00 million children have received a ‘second opportunity’ booster vaccination since 1990. In 00. complementary programmes (routine delivery services in countries with high first-dose coverage) or periodic campaigns (every three to four years in countries with low first-dose coverage) are necessary for universal immunity. from . measles deaths fell by more than 91 per cent. By 00. can be effectively prevented with a relatively inexpensive vaccine and subsequent booster that provide safe. Consequently. In 1990. Worldwide measles deaths – mostly children under five – plummeted by 8 per cent. about 80 per cent of the world’s children received routine measles vaccinations.000 in 000 to . a major cause of child mortality. lifelong protection. surpassing the initial target to halve deaths due to measles by 00.000 in 00.

nurse or midwife) at delivery is critical to reducing maternal deaths. with proper equipment and referral options in case of complications. In sub-Saharan Africa. the maternal mortality ratio Little progress has been made in saving mothers’ lives Maternal deaths per 100.000 live births. * Includes only deliveries in health-care institutions.00 in the developed regions. per cent annual improvement needed to reach the target. more than 00. Accelerated improvements in all dimensions of reproductive health care. a woman’s risk of dying from treatable or preventable complications of pregnancy and childbirth over the course of her lifetime is 1 in . In sub-Saharan Africa. maternal mortality decreased by less than 1 per cent per year between 1990 and 00 – far below the . around 1990 and around 2006 (Percentage) The high risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth continues unabated in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia Maternal deaths per 100. Coverage. progress was negligible. 1990 and 2005 Skilled health workers at delivery are key to improving outcomes Proportion of deliveries attended by skilled health care personnel. though progress in these regions was insufficient to meet the target. between 1990 and 2015. childbirth or in the six weeks after delivery.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 5 Improve maternal health TARGET Reduce by three quarters. Ninety-nine per cent of these deaths occurred in the developing regions. Northern Africa. the region with the highest level of maternal mortality. Latin America and the Caribbean and South-Eastern Asia managed to reduce their maternal mortality ratios by about one third during this period.   . however. culminating in but not limited to better obstetric care.000 live births. A skilled health worker (doctor. In 00. must be standard practice during deliveries if there is to be a noteworthy drop in maternal deaths. with sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia accounting for 8 per cent of them.000 women died during pregnancy. nearly 1 per cent of births in the developing world were attended by skilled health personnel. compared to 1 in . At the global level. remains low in Southern Asia (0 per cent) and sub-Saharan Africa ( per cent) – the two regions with the greatest number of maternal deaths. In 00. are required in all regions to achieve the goal. 2005 Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high across much of the developing world. Assistance by appropriately trained health personnel. up from less than half in 1990.

Adolescent fertility is especially high in sub-Saharan Africa. many of whom want to delay their pregnancies. Antenatal care is an essential safety net for healthy motherhood and childbirth. increasing young mothers’ exposure to the risk of maternal mortality. This increases the risk of maternal death and makes it harder for families to afford schooling and health care for all their children. it also jeopardizes the well-being of surviving mothers and their children. In Africa. hunger and malnutrition.   . where fertility remains high among all women of childbearing age. but the demand for contraception by adolescent married women is not met as readily as it is for older women. nearly one in four married women has an unmet need for family planning. This is most pronounced in Latin America and the Caribbean. The proportion of pregnant women in the developing world who had at least one antenatal care visit increased from slightly more than half at the beginning of the 1990s to almost three fourths a decade later. In sub-Saharan Africa. where  per cent of the poorest households have an unmet need for family planning compared to 1 per cent of the wealthiest households.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Antenatal care is on the rise everywhere Proportion of women (15-49 years old) attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel. This contributes to the continuing high fertility rate in that region and has undermined related goals. where the well-being of both the prospective mother and her offspring can be monitored. Reducing adolescent fertility contributes directly and indirectly to achieving the maternal health and other goals. yet adolescent fertility has fallen little and remains over 0 births per 1. The increased availability of family planning has been a major factor in reducing total fertility rates in these regions. 2000 and 2005 (Number of births per thousand women) Adolescent pregnancy contributes to the cycle of maternal deaths and childhood mortality. Note: No data are available for Eastern Asia. The unmet need for family planning – the gap between women’s stated desires to delay or avoid having children and their actual use of contraception – has declined in most countries that have discernible trends. and the rise in contraceptive use has. 1990. such as reducing child mortality. Unmet need for family planning is also especially high among young women. this unmet need is highest among the poorest households. only  per cent of women met the UNICEF-WHO norm. unmet need is high – over 0 per cent – even among the wealthiest households. on average. around 1990 and around 2005 (Percentage) TARGET Achieve. In almost all developing regions. barely kept pace with the growing desire to delay or limit births. universal access to reproductive health Adolescent fertility is declining slowly Births to women 15-19 years old. by 2015. 1995 and 2005 (Percentage) * Latest available data refer to a year around 000. Very early motherhood not only increases the risk of dying in childbirth. However. in sub-Saharan Africa.000 women in these two regions. Young mothers frequently miss out on education and socio-economic opportunities. and increasing primary education enrolment. adolescent fertility fell between 1990 and 000. Close spacing of births raises the risks to their life and health. then largely stagnated or increased marginally between 000 and 00. While that is an improvement. This has made it difficult to reduce adolescent fertility. Total fertility has declined substantially over the past two decades in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and South-Eastern Asia. the World Health Organization and UNICEF recommend a minimum of four antenatal care visits. In all regions. An unmet need for family planning undermines achievement of several other goals Proportion of married women aged 15-49 years with unmet need for family planning. Once a woman has had the children she desires. A child born to an adolescent mother is at greater risk of dying in infancy or childhood and is likely to be deprived of the known benefits passed down from educated mothers to their children. not being able to use contraception results in unwanted pregnancies and births.

increased among women in two countries and among men in one. especially in sub-Saharan Africa HIV prevalence in adults aged 15-49 years in developing regions and in sub-Saharan Africa (Percentage) and number of AIDS deaths in subSaharan Africa (Millions).to -year-old pregnant women is believed to accurately reflect overall developments in the epidemic because their infections are likely to be recently acquired and mortality and antiretroviral treatment have less influence on the data. women Prevention programmes are yielding results represent a growing share of people Sample data and national surveys suggest that HIV prevention has been successful. Thanks to improvements in prevention programmes. In sub-Saharan Africa. remained unchanged in one. million men aged 1 years and over were living with HIV worldwide in 00. 2006 and 2007 (Percentage) Every day. in 001. Finally. compared with 1. particularly in reducing risky sexual behavior. mostly due to a lack of HIV prevention and treatment services. some encouraging developments have sparked small victories in the battle against AIDS. million women and 1. The vast majority of those living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa. 1990-2007 among 1. from . * Data for 1990 are not available An estimated 1. Since 000-001. the rate of condom use among men aged 1 to  who had more than one partner in the previous 1 months increased in 1 countries and climbed among young women in eight. However. but the need for treatment still outpaces the available supply Proportion of population living with HIV in need of treatment who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. largely because newly infected people survive longer. In 19 of the  high-prevalence countries. 2000 and 2007 (Percentage) Despite small victories. the number of people newly infected with HIV declined from  million in 001 to . Antiretroviral drugs are adding years to peoples’ lives. the proportion of women and men aged 1 to  who had more than one partner in the previous 1 months decreased in 10 countries. malaria & other diseases TARGET Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS In almost every region. respectively. almost 0 per cent of adults living with HIV in 00 were women.8 million. 8 9 . the proportion of women and men aged 1 to 19 who became sexually active before their fifteenth birthday fell between 1990 and 00 in seven countries and increased in two.00 die from AIDS. HIV prevalence living with HIV Proportion of adults aged 15 years and over living with HIV who are women. million in 00 to . nearly . million in 00.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Deaths due to AIDS (millions) HIV prevalence (percentage) Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS. million in 001 to  million in 00. AIDS continues to take a terrible toll. HIV prevalence among young women attending antenatal clinics has declined in 1 of 1 most-affected countries. Over the same period. 1990.1 million and 1. Despite these staggering numbers. the number of people living with HIV rose from an estimated 9.00 people become infected with HIV and . the number of people who die from AIDS has started to decline. And with the expansion of antiretroviral treatment services.0 million in 00.

But with . As a result. For example. Although treatment among febrile children is moderately high across subSaharan Africa. Coupled with increased resources. In Eritrea. UNICEF increased its procurement from  million in 00 to nearly 0 million in 00. recorded malaria cases and deaths plummeted by more than 0 per cent between 000 0 1 . By the end of 00. but more expensive. Moreover. but this is changing. 2003-2006 (Millions) There has been less progress in treating malaria than in preventing it. Still. including  million in sub-Saharan Africa alone. million people in need of AIDS treatment in developing countries were receiving the drugs.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 The number of people living with HIV who received antiretroviral therapy increased by about 90. Southern Asia and the Commonwealth of Independent States was far lower than in subSaharan Africa. all sub-Saharan African countries for which there are trend data showed increases in insecticide-treated net use among children under five. more than a million mosquito nets were distributed between 000 and 00. few countries have expanded coverage since 000 and most patients often receive less effective medicines. only  million of the estimated 9. even in countries with high HIV prevalence. overall plans of action for children and policy plans of ministries such as those for education and health. the proportion of households with orphans and vulnerable children receiving external support ranged from 1 per cent in Sierra Leone to 1 per cent in Swaziland. but tangible support is slow in coming Initially. including 1 in sub-Saharan Africa. TA RG E T Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Despite tremendous progress. around 2000 and 2006 (Percentage) The number of insecticide-treated mosquito nets produced worldwide jumped from 0 million in 00 to 9 million in 00. Ten more countries – nine in sub-Saharan Africa – had such national plans in process. covering nearly half the region’s population and where data allowed an assessment of progress over time. 1 of these 0 countries have at least tripled their coverage since around 000. treatment with the more effective. Tuberculosis and Malaria increased its distribution from 1. In Viet Nam. By the end of 00. Many countries are also integrating policies for children affected by AIDS into national development plans. 2007 (Percentage) Planning for children orphaned by AIDS is increasing. governments and the international community failed to respond adequately to the grave challenges faced by children affected by AIDS. Despite limited availability. Several countries are making progress in providing orphans and vulnerable children with a minimum package of services. Africa. the proportion of children with a fever who received antimalarial medicines dropped from 1 per cent in 000 to  per cent in 00. this has led to a rapid rise in the number of mosquito nets procured and distributed within countries. but underutilized Number of doses of artemisinin-based combination therapies procured worldwide. with its ACT coverage climbing to 1 per cent). because of the magnitude of its AIDS crisis. million years of life since 00. Evidence suggests that the large-scale expansion of prevention programmes and improved access to more effective antimalarial drugs can substantially reduce malaria cases and deaths. overall insecticide-treated net use falls short of global targets. The proportion receiving treatment in Eastern Asia. some  million people in sub-Saharan Africa were denied antiretroviral therapy. million in 00 to 18 million in 00. Despite this progress. and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. Funding and procurement of ACT has increased markedly since 00. use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets falls short of global targets Proportion of children sleeping under insecticidetreated bed nets in selected countries. and by 00 about 80 per cent of households living in areas at high risk for malaria owned a net. household spraying and use of antimalarial medicines. As a result. including education. the number of malaria cases declined dramatically after implementation of control measures became a national priority in 1991. Coverage remains low. and nearly all sub-Saharan African countries have rapidly shifted their national drug policies to promote it. the need for treatment far outpaces the availability of antiretroviral drugs. social welfare and protection. Proportion of population living with HIV in need of treatment who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. specific national plans of action for children orphaned by AIDS and other vulnerable children had been developed by  countries.000 in 00. New malaria treatment strategies are effective. including increased distribution of insecticidetreated nets. health care. the use of antiretroviral drugs in developing countries has resulted in an estimated gain of . In a subset of  subSaharan African countries. artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was  per cent or less between 00 and 00 in a subset of 1 countries (Zambia was the exception. with a median of 9 per cent. Among 19 countries with data. million new infections that year alone.

 million deaths due to tuberculosis and 1. million people infected with the disease. Countries have also been quicker to adopt more successful strategies that would have been out of reach if less funding were available (such as promoting ACT use). These developments suggest that even greater strides may be made in the fight against malaria in the coming years. however. including approximately 9. This was an increase from 00 and is attributed mainly to population growth. documented cases and deaths fell by 80 per cent between 000 and 00 after the introduction of ACT and improved mosquito control (including spraying with DDT). per cent between 00 and 00. Africa. In a closely monitored district in Zanzibar. then fell by 0. In the developing regions. 2000 and 2006   . 2004 and 2006 In 00.000 population (excluding people who are HIV-positive). The detection rate in Africa –  per cent in 00 – is furthest from the target. there were an estimated 1. Large increases in funding and attention to malaria have accelerated malaria control activities in many countries. In South Africa. million new cases. the incidence of tuberculosis should be halted and reversed well before 01. In addition. Halving the tuberculosis prevalence rate by 2015 is unlikely Number of tuberculosis cases per 100. new and more effective interventions (such as long-lasting insecticidal nets) have been developed.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 and 00. following a rise in malaria in the 1990s due to increasing drug and insecticide resistance. short of the  per cent benchmark for 00 contained in the ‘Stop TB Partnership’ Global Plan and the ultimate target of 0 per cent. Success in eradicating tuberculosis rests on early detection of new cases and effective treatment. China and India collectively account for more than two thirds of undetected tuberculosis cases. progress in detection slowed: the detection rate increased only marginally to 1 per cent.000 population (excluding people who are HIV-positive).000 population (incidence rate) peaked in 00. Progress towards tuberculosis targets is mixed Number of new tuberculosis cases per 100. cases and admissions to hospitals fell by 0 per cent and the crude under- mortality rate declined by 0 per cent between 00 and 00 after ACT began to be provided free in all public health facilities. If these trends are sustained globally. the number of new tuberculosis cases per 100. although many more still fall short of global goals. and production and distribution of key commodities have improved. 1990. 1990. Between 00 and 00. Progress stalled in improving the detection rate in China and India in 00.

the highest since reliable monitoring began and just short of the 8 per cent target. Between 00 and 00. compromising any chance of reaching the global benchmark. against a target of 1.000 people.000 people – and the death rate from the disease are falling faster than its incidence. If these objectives are to be met. The corresponding death rate fell by . DOTS has not yet had the impact on worldwide transmission and incidence needed to achieve the ‘Stop TB Partnership’ targets of halving the world’s 1990 prevalence and death rates by 01. If trends for the past five years continue. DOTS programmes.000 people.8 per cent to 19 per 100. the global prevalence rate. fell by . per cent in 00. including among those who are HIV-positive. are helping to mitigate the relative impact of the disease. regions lagging behind will have to improve both the extent and timeliness of the diagnosis of active tuberculosis and increase the rate of successful treatment. per cent to  per 100.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 The success rate for the treatment of tuberculosis under the ‘DOTS’ (Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse) programme was 8. which involve the appropriate diagnosis and registration of each tuberculosis patient followed by standardized multi-drug treatment. The prevalence rate for tuberculosis – the number of existing cases per 100. subSaharan Africa and countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States will fall short of both targets. Despite its success.   . compared with the 01 target of 1.

In September 00.” Carbon dioxide (CO) released by the burning of fossil fuels accounts for more than half of the global greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change. In response to the growing demand for energy worldwide. Carbon dioxide emissions reached 8 billion metric tons in 00 and continued upward.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability TARGET Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Immediate action is needed to contain rising greenhouse gas emissions Emissions of carbon dioxide. countries began new negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that are to be completed by the end of 009. They also agreed to provide sufficient and stable funding to developing countries to achieve the accelerated phase out. Per capita emissions remain the highest in the developed regions. This quantitative success in the protection of the ozone layer has also achieved important climate benefits because many ozone depleting substances controlled under the Protocol are also potent greenhouse gases. changes in emissions ranged from a 8 per cent decline in countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States to an 8 per cent increase in South-Eastern Asia. about 1 metric tons of CO per person per year. 2000 and 2005 (Billions of metric tons) In 00. It is important to act now.8 metric tons in sub-Saharan Africa. the greenhouse effect of global ODS emissions would have equalled carbon dioxide emissions. without the worldwide effort to protect the ozone layer. Success in limiting ozone-depleting substances is also helping to mitigate climate change Consumption of all ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). while they increased by  per cent in South-Eastern Asia and by  per cent in Northern Africa. compared with about  metric tons in developing regions and 0. small islands. governments acknowledged the dual benefit to both ozone protection and climate change by agreeing to advance by up to 10 years the final phaseout date for hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). emissions increased by 0 per cent from 1990 to 00. An infusion of financial resources and investment. or both. It is estimated that. large investments in energy projects are expected over the coming years. were recognized as key issues. with annual growth from 000 to 00 greater than in the preceding decade. Severing the link between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions will require more efficient technologies for the supply and use of energy and a transition to cleaner and renewable energy sources. currently the greenhouse gas contributing most significantly to climate change. At the 00 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali. currently the most widely used ozone-depleting substance. the 0th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol. resulting in increased atmospheric concentrations of CO. mega deltas in Asia and Africa. their populations’ limited capacity to adapt to the consequences. the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change made it abundantly clear that the climate is warming and “most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-0th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Developed countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol have agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least  per cent from their 1990 levels by 01. as well as technology development and transfer (sharing expertise and technology among nations and regions). Emissions per unit of economic output fell by more than 0 per cent in the developed regions. and the African region overall seem to be especially vulnerable because of their high exposure to the effects of climate change. The investments made today will determine the pattern of greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. While no area can escape the adverse impact of climate change. 1986-2006 (Thousands of metric tons of ozone-depleting potential) The Montreal Protocol has resulted in the phasing out of over 9 per cent of all ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Globally. the Arctic. 1990. From 1990 to 00. The negotiations covered both mitigating and adapting to climate change – two facets that must be addressed simultaneously and urgently.   .

which is equivalent to an increase of more than 0 million hectares since 1990. landscape restoration and the natural expansion of forests. such as reducing total allowable catches of commercial species. such as a declining population size. even though the net loss of forest area is slowing down. In addition to these protected forests. by 2010. while the proportion of underexploited and moderately exploited stocks has decreased. soil and water resources and. since 1990. which are a useful. and now accounts for over one tenth of the total forest area. or almost one third. per cent of the world’s oceans – about  million square kilometres – were protected. The total forest area designated primarily for biodiversity conservation has increased by an estimated 9 million hectares. They also conserve biodiversity.9 million hectares annually in the previous decade.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 TA RG E T Reduce biodiversity loss. can strengthen local and national economies and promote the well-being of present and future generations. 8 9 . such as mammals. reducing fishing capacity remains a key objective of global fisheries management. Trends in extinction risks can be measured by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Index. deforestation of about 1 million hectares per year resulted in an estimated net decline of . At present. the conservation of forest ecosystems and the flora and fauna in other forested areas is also increasing. 2005 (Percentage) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Deforestation continues to pose serious challenges. As a result. but this may become increasingly difficult. cycads and conifers have been found to be even more threatened than birds. However. Forests play a crucial role in mitigating climate change. where island species are often susceptible to invasive species that humans have deliberately or inadvertently introduced. A number of initiatives have taken hold in this direction. the international community has encouraged land and marine protection. Moreover. Despite their importance to the sustainability of fish stocks and coastal livelihoods. a significant reduction in the rate of loss In response to the loss of global biodiversity. amphibians. Total catches have been maintained at roughly the same level through the use of new resources. The percentage of forest designated for protection of soil and water resources has also increased – from 8 per cent in 1990 to 9 per cent in 00. reducing bycatch of vulnerable species (for example. seabirds and sea turtles). The index does not include changes due to a revised taxonomy or improved knowledge. The proportion of overexploited and depleted stocks in marine capture fisheries has increased slightly over the past 0 years. achieving. and deteriorations in their status. which shows the net balance between genuine improvements in the status of species (as measured by changes in their categories on the IUCN Red List). and establishing marine protected areas. million hectares of forest area per year over the period 000-00. The index for birds shows that they are least threatened in Northern Africa and Western Asia. 1990. data are most comprehensive for birds. 1998-2008 (IUCN Red List Index values for all bird species) Fish stocks require improved fisheries management to reduce depletion Status of exploited fish stocks. only 0. when managed sustainably. 2000 and 2007 (Percentage) Proportion of total forest area by designated function. 1978-2004 (Percentage) Marine areas and land conservation Deforestation slows and more forests are need greater attention designated for biodiversity conservation Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected. The number of species threatened with extinction is rising rapidly Proportion of all species expected to remain extant in the near future in the absence of additional conservation action. such as those resulting from successful conservation. participatory ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Several other classes of organisms. compared to 8. Management action is also required to mitigate the impact of fisheries on aquatic ecosystems. Major efforts to improve fisheries management are needed to improve the productive capacity of exploited stocks. Because of a rise in forest planting. and most threatened in Oceania. protection alone is insufficient: all protected areas must also be managed effectively for conservation. These concerns can be addressed through the adoption of a holistic. about 1 million square kilometres of land and sea (out to 1 nautical miles) were put under protection by 00. though imperfect indicator of trends in other forms of biodiversity. Sharp deteriorations in the status of birds in SouthEastern Asia recently have been driven by the rapid deforestation of the region’s Sundaic lowlands.

Open defecation jeopardizes an entire community. even though water in nature is available locally to meet human demands. nearly one in four uses no form of sanitation Proportion of population by sanitation practices. Nevertheless. billion people live in areas of economic water scarcity.8 billion people. 2000 and 2006 (Percentage) Since 1990.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Almost half of the world’s population face a scarcity of water Surface water and ground water withdrawal as percentage of total actual renewable water resources (around 2000) TARGET Halve. billion in the next seven years. it continues to be practised by almost half the population in Southern Asia and more than a quarter of those living in sub-Saharan Africa. improvements in sanitation have failed to keep pace with population growth. More than 1. 1990 and 2006 (Percentage) Water use has grown at more than twice the rate of the population for the past century. about . Although there is not yet a global water shortage. only 1 per cent of the poorest quintile of the population have access to improved sanitation. Almost a quarter of the developing world’s population live without any form of sanitation. by 2015. especially for rural people. billion of them live under conditions of physical water scarcity. billion people worldwide who practise open defecation. hepatitis and related diseases. and difficult access to reliable water supplies. in order to meet the target. institutional and financial capital limit access to water. live in river basins with some form of water scarcity. because of an increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases. high vulnerability to short. compared to 9 per cent of the population in the richest quintile. where human. as are some regions within large countries such as China and India. Of the 1. Some . Nevertheless. In 1 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Symptoms include environmental degradation and competition for water. substantially more than the growth achieved since 1990. Northern Africa and Western Asia are seriously compromised. which occurs when more than  per cent of the river flows are withdrawn. but meeting the target will require a redoubling of efforts Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility. the number of people using improved sanitation facilities must increase by about 1. representing more than 0 per cent of the world’s population. In developing regions. the number of people in developing regions using improved sanitation facilities has increased by 1. worm infestations. In urban areas. An additional 1 per cent use sanitation facilities that do not ensure hygienic separation of human waste from human contact. In 00. Symptoms include lack of or underdeveloped water infrastructure. not just those who practise it. the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation More people are using improved sanitation facilities. billion people remain without improved sanitation – more than one billion in Asia and another half billion in sub-Saharan Africa.1 billion. rural dwellers represent more than 0 per cent of the people without improved sanitation. While open defecation is declining in all regions. threequarters of those countries were in sub-Saharan Africa.and long-term drought. with significant improvements in South-Eastern and Eastern Asia. 1990. Roughly half the world’s population now live in rural areas. cholera. 0 1 . These conditions are prevalent in much of Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. more than one billion live in rural areas. Another 1. there were  countries where less than half the population used an improved sanitation facility.

In 00. which now accounts for more than a third of those without improved drinking water supplies and requires a jumpstart to meet the target. which would require that 89 per cent of the population of developing regions use improved sources of drinking water by 01. but only 8 per cent of rural inhabitants. 1990. improvement in the lives of slum dwellers will require large investments. nearly one billion people today lack safe sources of drinking water. Recent findings confirm anecdotal evidence that women shoulder the bulk of responsibility for collecting water when none is available on the premises. there are slum households that lack just one service. improved sanitation. Less progress has taken place in sub-Saharan Africa. nearly one billion people do without Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source. The others are durable housing and sufficient living area. Still. Women are more than twice as likely as men to collect water. In 00. The homes of nearly three quarters of slum households in Asia also have only one slum characteristic. Some  million rural people lived without access to improved drinking water. the vast majority of slum households suffer from only one shelter deprivation. More girls than boys fetch water. Women shoulder the largest burden in collecting water Member of the household usually collecting water. TA RG E T By 2020. Northern Africa not only has the lowest slum concentration. to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Simple. the proportion was over 0 per cent. compared to 1 million urban residents. often improved sanitation. low-cost interventions to correct these specific deficiencies would go a long way towards improving the lives of many slums dwellers. 1.   . but nine out of 10 slum households lack only improved sanitation or sufficient living area. an improved drinking water source was available to 9 per cent of the urban population in developing regions. lacking a combination of access to improved water. billion people have gained access to safe water. At this rate. 2005 (Percentage) In many countries in Northern Africa. in sub-Saharan Africa. half of the slum households suffered from two or more shelter deprivations. * Data are not available for 000. while children usually collect water in 11 per cent of households. In sub-Saharan Africa. The same disparity applies to piped drinking water. slightly more than one third of the urban population in developing regions lived in slum conditions. with only 0 per cent of piped drinkingwater connections in rural households. where over 00 million people have gained access to improved drinking water sources and coverage has grown by 0 per cent since 1990. low-cost interventions could significantly improve the lives of many slum dwellers Urban households living in slum conditions and with one shelter deprivation. Progress has been most pronounced in Eastern Asia. the world is expected to meet the drinking water target. usually either insufficient living area or nondurable housing. Simple. In this region. Even in sub-Saharan Africa. durable housing or sufficient living area. Asia and Latin America. 2005/2006 (Percentage) The lack of improved sanitation and water facilities are two of the four defining characteristics of urban slums.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Though access to improved drinking water has expanded. 2000 and 2006 (Percentage) Since 1990.

This is mainly the result of a decline in debt relief grants. landlocked countries and small island developing states Develop further an open. Since 000. per cent of the gross national income (GNI) of the members of the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD. the private sector and a number of developing countries are becoming increasingly significant sources of development assistance. including several least developed countries in Africa and upper-middle-income countries in Eastern Asia. official development assistance (ODA) continued to drop from an all time high of $10. the Group of 8 industrialized nations predicted that their commitments. along with those of other donors. to $10. the Netherlands. The 00 World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing liberalized trade in those sectors. Excluding debt relief grants.0 per cent of GNI by 010 included in the Brussels Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries. notably for Nigeria. jeopardizing commitments for 2010 Official development assistance from OECD-DAC countries. admitted free of duty and developed countries’ average tariffs on imports of key products from developing countries. rule-based. official development assistance fell to 0. but still misses the target of 0. Even a sudden escalation of aid flows will not compensate for the failure to provide the continuous and predictable build-up in official development assistance that was implicit in their 00 commitments. billion in 00 and $10.1-0. Norway and Sweden were the only countries to reach or exceed this target in 00.8 per cent of their combined gross national income in 00. 1990-2007 (Percentage) Market access for most developing countries is little improved Proportion of developed country imports from developing countries. 1990-2007 (Billions of constant 2006 United States dollars) TA RG E T TA RG E T Address the special needs of the least developed countries. excluding arms and oil. Proportion of developed country imports from the least developed countries (LDCs). an even more rapid rise in aid to Africa is necessary to reach the Gleneagles projection for 010. per cent in 00 compared to 00. official development assistance to these countries has grown faster than developed countries’ gross national income. In December 00. Adjusting for changes in prices and exchange rates. Despite this increase. At the 00 United Nations World Summit and related meetings. Excluding the substantial debt relief to the region. billion in 00. While the majority of these commitments remain in force. admitted free of duty and developed countries’ average tariffs on imports of key products from the least developed countries (LDCs). Total aid remains well below the United Nations target of 0. With debt relief grants unlikely to return to 00 or 00 levels. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Development assistance will have to increase substantially to double aid to Africa by 2010 Net official development assistance from OECD-DAC countries as a proportion of donors’ gross national income. For the developed countries as a group. predictable. would double official development assistance to Africa by 010. developed countries pledged to increase aid from $80 billion in 00 to $10 billion in 010 at 00 prices. per cent in constant dollars. excluding arms and oil.   . Special purpose funds – such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. bilateral aid and contributions to multilateral development institutions will need to increase rapidly over the next three years if developed countries are to meet their commitments for 010. Tuberculosis and Malaria – have become important channels for some of these resources. benefiting some developing and least developed countries while hurting others. a few countries have announced new targets – some involving increased aid flows and others suggesting reductions. net aid rose by . Denmark. preliminary data show that bilateral official development assistance to Africa rose by 9 per cent in real terms in 00. At their 00 Gleneagles summit. The least developed countries (LDCs) receive about a third of all aid. 2000-2006 (Percentage) There has been little progress recently in reducing the barriers to exports from developing countries to developed countries. Non-governmental organizations.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for development Development aid falls for the second year. aid disbursements fell by 8. Luxembourg.1 billion in 00. 2000-2006 (Percentage) At current exchange rates.

The global food crisis is partly the result of domestic agricultural subsidies and tariff protection by developed countries. Post-completion-point countries also received additional assistance of $1. For the average developing country. such expenditures remained more than three times higher than the official development assistance of developed countries. such as some agricultural goods. before being cut by $1   . are critical in ensuring that people have access to affordable drugs. the poor availability of medicines in the public sector often forces patients to purchase medicines in the private sector where prices are still higher. For their part. This is particularly true for the least developed countries. lowest-priced generic medicines in the private sector cost over six times international reference prices. and patients in the quality of generic medicines. Surveys in about 0 developing countries indicate that availability of selected drugs was only  per cent in the public sector and  per cent in the private sector. 2000. tuberculosis and malaria medicines to public health facilities. in the appropriate dosage forms. but can still be poor. such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. lack of incentives for maintaining stocks. To accelerate their development through enhancing production and trading capacities. This is due to a combination of factors such as inadequate funding. Preferential duty-free market access and low rates of average applied tariffs on various labour-intensive products. the proportion of developing countries’ exports that have duty-free access to developed countries’ markets has remained largely unchanged since 00. supply and distribution. sector-allocable ODA of OECD-DAC donors to basic social services (basic education. 2001-2006 (Percentage) Developing countries are shouldering less debt External debt service payments as proportion of export revenues. provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries Trade-related assistance needs to be increased Proportion of total bilateral. Although several unilateral agreements that benefit developing countries have been extended or converted into regional or bilateral trade agreements. governments need to define national goals and objectives for the pharmaceutical sector and to identify strategies to meet them. pharmacists. availability is better in the private sector. and the prices of originator brand medicines are generally much higher. with assured quality. but less so to technical cooperation to boost production and trade. in adequate amounts. Nevertheless. In the  developing countries for which data are available. billion in 00 present-value terms. Meanwhile. This acts as a disincentive to agricultural production in developing regions and undermines official development assistance’s broad objective of supporting development. Providing assistance in pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals will require delivery of the additional ODA that has been promised. per cent of total aid between 00 and 00. Of these  countries. encouraging price competition. ranging from multinationals to generic manufacturers to national distributors. 2004 and 2006 (Billions of United States dollars) By the end of June 008. no major new initiatives favour developing countries as a group. Some countries have attempted to make private sector mark-ups transparent. further reducing their debt service. Nearly all developing countries also have a published Essential Medicines List – a government-approved list of medicines that are intended to be available within the public health system at all times.  had reached their ‘completion point’. safe water and sanitation) and trade-related technical assistance and capacitybuilding. giving them more resources with which to service their diminished debt. primary health care. creating a more favourable environment for investment. Even generic medicines acquired in the private sector are often several times their international reference price. and increasing the confidence of physicians. it even fell slightly in the case of least developed countries. textiles and clothing. nutrition. the value of exports of low-income economies has increased by more than  per cent since 00. Technical cooperation for building trade capacity. in most developing countries the availability of medicines at public health facilities. Other strategies for increasing the use of generic medicines include preferential registration procedures. Developed countries’ total support to their own domestic agricultural sectors grew by some $ billion between 000 and 00. availability in the private sector was only  per cent. but more than half of these policies have not been revised in the past five years and need updating.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 the developed country members of the World Trade Organization vowed that. developing countries need technical and other forms of assistance such as the development of infrastructure. per cent to . Tuberculosis and Malaria. billion in 00. Generic drugs offer an alternative to higher priced original and brandnamed medicines. by 008. inability to forecast accurately. In a sample of six countries in Eastern. and at a price the individual and the community can afford. and cannot be achieved by reallocating resources among different sectors. the proliferation of preferential trading schemes between developed countries and non-LDC developing countries is eroding the margin of preference that LDC exports receive in developed markets. However. have become important channels for improving the procurement and distribution of HIV. the burden of servicing external debt fell from almost 1 per cent of export earnings in 000 to  per cent in 00.  of 1 eligible countries had qualified for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative. and inefficiencies in procurement. these countries had received committed debt relief of $8. is often very poor. Most developing countries have a National Medicines Policy. The support provided by developed countries to their own agricultural sector has continued at a time when developing countries have been encouraged to end all public support to their agriculture. In all regions. Less than three quarters of developing countries have generic substitution policies. have had a positive impact on LDCs. at $ billion. Many donor countries have paid more attention to the sectors addressed by the Millennium Development Goals. where they are usually provided at a low cost or free-of-charge. which for many years have discouraged agricultural production in developing countries. fell from . Together. while others have regulated them. However. It is expected to fall further in 00. for example. TA RG E T TA RG E T Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies. 1990-2006 (Percentage) Poor availability and high prices are barriers to access to essential drugs in developing countries Pharmaceutical companies. However. Some pharmaceutical manufacturers have lowered their prices to public health systems in developing countries to accord with the purchasing power of governments and households. they would make at least 9 per cent of their tariff lines duty-free and quota-free for imports originating from least developed countries. Domestic agricultural subsidies by rich countries overshadow money spent on development aid Official development assistance from OECD-DAC countries and agricultural support in OECD countries. billion under the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). International health funds. Options to promote the use of generics include allowing pharmacists to dispense a generic product in place of the originator brand listed on the prescription. meaning that all the conditions for debt relief had been fulfilled and that relief becomes irrevocable. South-Eastern and Southern Asia. Excluding arms and oil.

 per cent of Africa’s population had a mobile phone. With technological developments and the deployment of wireless broadband technologies. In developed countries. make available the benefits of new technologies. but the poorest regions lag behind Number of Internet users per 100 population. Growth has been strongest in regions with few fixed telephone lines. where available. By 00. broadband remained inaccessible to the majority of the population because of its high cost. Providing Internet connectivity to the developing world will help realize goals for health. compared to  per cent with fixed telephone lines and  per cent who are Internet users. billion people were connected to the Internet – just over 18 per cent of the world’s population. billion by the end of 00. education. 1990-2006 The number of fixed and mobile telephone subscribers jumped from 0 million in 1990 to over  billion by the end of 00. most countries in sub-Saharan Africa had not yet commercially deployed broadband services and. In Africa. By the end of 00. Broadband access. with more than 00 million subscribers added since 00. which has spurred Internet use in developed countries. especially information and communications Internet use is increasing rapidly. employment and poverty reduction. Mobile phone use soared. over 0 million new mobile subscribers were added in 00.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 TA RG E T In cooperation with the private sector. compared to 11 per cent in developing countries and only 1 per cent in the least developed countries. 1. 8 per cent of the population were using the Internet in 00. 8 9 . bringing the total to more than . With around 00 million subscribers by the end of 00. 2000 and 2006 Mobile phones are expanding communications in developing countries Number of telephone subscriptions and Internet connections per 100 population. has been slow to expand in many developing regions. and almost every country now has more mobile than fixed telephone subscribers. But the digital divide is still wide. world. there are new opportunities to close the communications gap between developing and developed countries.

donors and representatives from national statistical offices. The United Nations Statistics Division maintains the official website of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators and its database – accessible at mdgs.UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2008 A note to the reader Measuring progress towards the MDGs In the United Nations Millennium Declaration of September 2000. analyse and disseminate data. To provide a framework by which progress could be measured.org. 0 1 . comprised of representatives of national statistical services. Building such capacity will require increased and better coordinated financial and technical support from the international community. These regional groupings are based on United Nations geographical divisions. the situation in individual countries within a given region may vary significantly from the regional figures. territory. city or area of its authorities.un. few indicators have data for the current year or 00. they Developed regions Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Northern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa South-Eastern Asia Oceania Eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia Latin America & the Caribbean This report presents data on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for the world as a whole and for various country groupings. the Group is identifying national priorities and making recommendations for improvements in the delivery and coordination of statistical assistance to countries. Finally. Achieving success will depend on country ownership and government commitment to spur the institutional changes needed to ensure the sustainability of capacity-building initiatives. Discrepancies across sources and gaps in national data have raised concerns in the statistical community. 1 The basis for this analysis This analysis is based on regional and subregional figures compiled by the United Nations Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators. the coordination of national statistical systems and the mechanisms for reporting to international statistical agencies. 1 Since there is no established convention for the designation of ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries or areas in the United Nations system. but data for 2000 are also presented. even when countries produce the necessary data. For each indicator. Data in international sources therefore often differ from those available within countries. the figures are weighted averages of country data. These are classified as ‘developing’ regions. which are compiled.org  Given the time lag between collecting data and analysing them. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in the present publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country.org. The 2004 Marrakech Action Plan for Statistics. are also accompanied by metadata with a complete explanation of how the indicators are produced and of the methodologies used for regional aggregates. 18 targets and 48 indicators. In general. adopted by aid recipients and donor stakeholders at the Second International Roundtable on Managing for Development Results. In 2006. and the responsible international agencies estimate the missing values. many of the indicators are supplemented by or derived exclusively from data collected through surveys sponsored and carried out by international agencies. Data are typically drawn from official statistics provided by governments to the international agencies responsible for the indicator. Work is under way in countries to improve the availability of the necessary data. These include many of the health indicators. for the most part. To ensure comparability across countries and regions.un. In some cases. adjustments are often needed to ensure international comparability. particularly the most disadvantaged. highlighting the urgent need to build statistical capacity in countries where resources are limited. leaders from 189 nations embraced a vision for a world in which developed and developing countries would work in partnership for the betterment of all. the data are those used by international agencies within their area of expertise (see inside front cover for a list of the contributing organizations). Regional groupings Building stronger statistical systems These efforts to measure. monitor and report on progress towards the MDGs have highlighted the need to improve most developing countries’ capacity to produce. using the population of reference as a weight. additional indicators to track progress towards the new targets were also identified.  The new MDG monitoring framework is available at http://mdgs. However. countries may have more recent data that have not yet become available to the relevant specialized agency. from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. to the extent possible. To fill in frequent data gaps. a number of initiatives have been launched in this direction. In an effort to improve transparency. In other cases. the country data series in the database are given colour codes to indicate whether the figures are estimated or provided by national agencies. was a major step towards assisting developing countries in strengthening their statistical capacity. whenever possible. individual agencies were designated to be the official providers of data and to take the lead in developing methodologies for data collection and analysis. based on data available as of June 2008 on all official MDG indicators. this vision was transformed into eight Millennium Development Goals. Since periodic assessment of the MDGs began over five years ago. and the ‘developed’ regions. including the new ones introduced. The Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators is also addressing statistical capacity-building: together with international agencies. In 2007. groups of countries for which a meaningful analysis can be carried out. or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. the United Nations Economic and Social Council endorsed a resolution adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission. The aggregate figures in the report provide an overall assessment of regional progress under the eight goals and are a convenient way to track advances over time. 00 World Summit Outcome.un. The baseline for the assessment is 1990. this distinction is made for the purposes of statistical analysis only. General Assembly resolution 0/1. This is done through periodic data collection from ministries and national statistical offices around the globe. This report presents an assessment of progress. with some modifications necessary to create. A complete list of countries included in each region and subregion is available at mdgs.1 The developing regions are further broken down into the subregions shown on the map above. the transition economies of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Asia and Europe. Numerous interventions have recently been launched to reconcile national and international monitoring and to resolve the differences in methods and definitions used by different agencies within countries and in international agencies. to provide a more detailed picture of progress since the Declaration was signed. countries do not produce the data required to compile the indicator. this monitoring framework was revised to include four new targets agreed to by member states at the 2005 World Summit.

org PHOTO CREDITS Cover: UN Photo/Tim McKulka Page : UN Photo/Fred Noy Page : UNICEF/HQ0-1/Susan Markisz Page 11: UNICEF/HQ0-118/Kent Page 1: UN Photo/Shehzad Noorani Page 1: UN Photo/WFP Page 1: UN Photo/Martine Perret Page 0: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe Page : UN Photo Page : UNICEF/HQ0-0/Shehzad Noorani Page 8: UN Photo/Mark Garten Page : UN Photo/Mark Garten Page : UNCDF Photo/Adam Rogers Page : UN Photo/Tim McKulka Page : UN Photo/Fred Noy Page 9: UNCDF Photo/Adam Rogers Copyright © United Nations.org/millenniumgoals Visit the UN Millennium Campaign Office website at www.org Visit the UN Millennium Development Goals website at www. 2008 All rights reserved.  .un.UNITED NATIONS For more information: Visit the UN Statistics Division Millennium Development Goals website at mdgs.millenniumcampaign.un.

18 ISBN – Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization. 2007 92-1-101173-9 Published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) .I. women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty. it is also essential to building enduring global peace and security. healthier and decent lives for millions of people. Reaching our goals for development around the world is not only vital to building better.” S A L E S N U M B E R : E . Ours is the generation that can achieve the development goals and free our fellow men.August 2008 .08.“The Millennium Development Goals can be achieved if immediate steps are taken to implement existing commitments.

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