A PROJECT REPORT ON
“STUDY OF CUSTOMER PREFERENCES OF INTER-16 KNAPSACK SPRAYERS PUMP BRAND IN JUNNAR TAHASIL OF PUNE DISTRICT” AT
“NAMDEO UMAJI AGRITECH IND.PVT .LTD.” BY “AMITESH RAMDAS SABALE”
SUBMITTED TO “UNIVERSITY OF PUNE”
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISRATION (MBA) 2008-2010
THROUGH DEPARTMENT OF MBA PES’ MODERN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING PUNE-5
CHAPTE R NO. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY COMPANY PROFILE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LITERATURE REVIEW DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS SUGGETIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE
PAGES 01 05 23 28 35 44 45 47 48 49
I express my sincere gratitude to all the people who have played a part in the successful completion of the Summer Internship Program.
I am highly grateful to Mr. Sandeep for his valuable time in helping and guiding me, throughout this summer internship program. I am also thankful to the staff members of the Namdeo Umaji Agritech Ind.pvt .Ltd.” for giving me their valuable time and information whenever needed.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank our HOD, Dr. Prof. Mrs. S. P. Walvekar for giving me valuable inputs for completion of this project. I would also like to express my deepest thanks to the internal project guide Prof. Mrs. Shraddha Khoje for giving me the necessary insight into my study.
Amitesh R. Sabale MBA II
Chapter 01 EXECUTIVE SUMMERY OF THE PROJECT
1.1 Namdeo Umaji Agritech (I) Pvt. Ltd.:- In Brief Namdeo Umaji Agritech (I) Pvt. Ltd. has its significant share in Indian agriculture and gardening market. The company is providing services to farmers and gardeners all over India. They look at the company as a major player in agriculture evolution in India. It is one of the most admired, fastest growing company with focus towards diverse business like innovations, crop protection chemicals, seeds, growth medias, agricultural instruments, international business. 1.2 Title of the project: “Study of customer preferences of INTER-16 Knapsack sprayers pump brand in Junnar tahasil of Pune district” 1.3 Objectives of study
To find out farmers awareness of INTER-16 sprayer brand in Junnar tahasil of Pune district.
To find out demand for INTER-16 sprayer brand in Junnar tahasil of Pune district.
To identify competitive positioning of INTER-16 sprayer brand with respect to i. Quality ii. service
To suggest a suitable promotional strategy for creating product awareness.
• INTER sprayers has good market potential • Awareness being low market share of INTER 16 is less than other sprayers
Area covered: Narayangaon, Manchar, Pargaon-Mangrul and Nimgaon Sava of Junnar tahasil in Pune dist.
Focus: Focus was on Farmers.
To conduct trial demonstration for promotion.
1.6 Methodology: The research approach used was survey method, in which 100 Farmers were surveyed. The survey was conducted mainly in Narayangaon, Manchar, Pargaon-Mangrul and Nimgaon Sava of Junnar tahasil in Pune district. Questionnaire was used as research instruments to gather the information with an intension to find the customer preference for INTER 16 sprayers.
Primary data The data collected was primary data through survey method in which Questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data, as well as direct observation made of the farmers of Junnar tahasil of Pune district. Secondary data Secondary data was collected through website of the company i.e.
www.namdeoumajiagritech.com, books (marketing Management). 1.7 Sample Size: 100 Farmers. 1.8 Research Technique: Survey Method 1.9 Contact Method: Personal Interview 1.10 Research Tool: Questionnaire. 1.11 Major findings:
• • • •
It was found that Namdeo Umaji Agritech India. Pvt.Ltd has good market share in Junnar Tahasil. Nearly 56% of Farmers in the area are provided with credit facility by other companies. It was found that service provided by all companies was regular & satisfactory.
Logistics plays an important role in Agricultural market.
1.12 Suggestions and Recommendations: • The Company has to provide more credit facility to the farmers.
There is need to redistribute area to the distributors depending on the capacity and
efficiency of each distributor. • The outliers are very curious about the schemes that these company offers,
executives should see that there is proper and regular communication of implementation of various schemes to all farmers. • The executive should also continuously interact with farmers to understand the
potential and their grievances and take timely action. • Demonstrations should be arranged in the village, guiding the use of product by the
Farmers should be provided with durable servicing for sprayers. Influence positive word of mouth from opinion leaders.
1.13 Conclusion: Due to less awareness and unavailability of the INTER-16 spraying Brand in the market it results into negligible demand.
CHAPTER: 02 COMPANY PROFILE
Namdeo umaji Agritech (I) Pvt.Ltd. was established in the year 1885 by shri.Namdeo Umaji Bhalinge, Mumbai. The company has its significant share in Indian agriculture and gardening market. The company is providing services to farmers and gardener all over India. The farmers look at the company as a major player in agriculture evolution in India. It is one of the most admired, fastest growing company with focus towards diverse business like innovations, crop protection chemicals, seeds, growth medias, international business. Over the period the company has earned massive experience in producing and marketing agriculture products. The seeds provided are the results of extensive study and much admired know-how by the company’s technical team. It has been selling imported vegetables seeds, flower seeds, garden tools, dealing with peat substrates from European market, and recently also started dealing with the chemical sprayers. 2.1 Company vision: To be a leader in every market they serve. To be admired for innovative business practices and high performance standards. The company focuses on delighted customers.
2.2 Company’s commitment to India After supplying top quality seeds of different crops to farmers for nearly 122 years, today company deliberately concentrates on limited range of crops, which aim to offer wide selection of varieties. Strategy is to offer customers high quality seeds and other inputs to agriculture.
So today a company engaged in rendering services to the farmers and gardeners by improving yields of their crops through the marketing of various Quality Seeds of different crops and varieties. This strategy enables us to offer our customers varieties with excellent yields and quality characteristics Our experts pay the greatest possible attention to research, marketing, logistics and service. 2.3 Business Area: 2.3.1 Exotic varieties of high yield seeds The company’s continual quest for quality comes to the end users in a form of “Pyramid Seeds”. A range of selective variety of exotic vegetables and flowers seeds, many of this seeds are produced and imported from various countries like USA, THAILAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, etc these are watchfully tested and experimented before introducing to farmers. 2.3.2 Namdeo Umaji Industrial Company
Imports spray pumps from Goizper S. Spain under brand name INTER for spraying pesticides. 2.3.3 R.S.Sales Corporation Imports natural Organic Seaweed Foliar from Harveson, Philippines under the brand name FREEGROW and distributes all over India. This is sprayed for plants healthy and vigorous growth.
2.3.4 Horticon Flower and Food Traders (I) Pvt, Ltd Has gained immense popularity in field of Hi-tech agriculture and contract farming. The next step is to enter into a big seedling nursery of various vegetable and flowers in green houses under controlled conditions with the aim “As fast you grow, fast we achieve the goal”.
The company has recently launched the most comprehensive one stop shop-“GARDENIA”. This will deliver entire gardening solutions in Pune Baner road. For your home gardening with wide varieties of exotic flowers. Variety of farm tools and equipments, manures, and fertilizers, ceramic pots and garden décor etc. We continue to be a leader in marketing of quality seeds by cultivating industry relation among retailers 2.3.5 Research and Development Lab
Research is an unending part of quest for quality. Only persistent experiments can result in supreme quality end products. The company has set its own research, development and demo farm at Uralikanchan, 30 km away from Pune. The seeds of vegetables and flowers are tested for parameters before introducing to farmers. Company’s research experts are providing strong technical services to Indian farmers by giving tech information on suggestions on different crops through field days, literatures and articles in agricultural magazines, journals. 2.3.6 Namdeo Umaji Agritech(India) Pvt. Ltd. is very pleased to meet you on our Website having many introduced vegetables and flowers seeds of new varieties in the new times. Namdeo Umaji Agritech (India) Pvt. Ltd. has been making great contribution to the eating habits of cosmopolitans for about 115 years with the spirit of "Seeding with Trust, Harvesting with Smile."
We continue to be a leader in marketing of quality seeds by cultivating industry relation among retailers
We continue to be a leader in marketing of quality seeds by cultivating industry relation among retailers, produce handlers and growers.
We never forget what our Seed grows up to be. We continue to be a leader in marketing of quality seeds by cultivating industry relation among retailers, produce handlers and growers.
Board of Directors
Marketing Dept. National Sales Manager
Regional Sales Manager
2.3.7 Market Channels: Generally products (Exotic seeds, substrate, and equipments) are imported from countries like USA, Thailand, France, and Germany and kept at Uralikanchan cold storage and warehouse. Company delivers this product to the distributor & retailers. Retailers sell this product to the customers. To meet the immediate requirement of farmers the company is having a particular retailer in Narayangaon area. 2.3.8 Distribution channel of company: Distribution forms a bridge between company and retailer and even sometimes between Company and Customers. Distribution is offered to the person who is having sound economic background and wide network of area. Company Network:
Product Information 2.4 Sprayers: Sprayers are the machine to apply fluids in the form of droplets. Sprayer is used for the following purposes:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Application of herbicides to remove weeds
Application of fungicides to minimize fungus diseases
Application of insecticides to control insect pests
Application of micronutrients on the crop
2.5 The main functions of sprayers are:
1. 2. 3.
To break the liquid into droplets of effective size
To distribute them uniformly over the plants
To regulate the amount of liquid to avoid excessive application
2.6 Desirable Quality of sprayers:
The sprayers should produce a steady stream of spray material in the desired fineness of the particle so that the plants to be treated may be covered uniformly
It should deliver the liquid at sufficient pressure so that it reaches all the foliage and spreads entirely over the sprayed surface
It should be light in weight, sufficiently strong, easily workable and repairable
2.7 Basic components of sprayers: 1. Nozzle body 2. Nozzle cap 3. Swirl plate 4. Spray gun 5. Spray boom filter 6. Filter 7. Over-flow pipe 8. Relief Valve 9. Pressure regulator
10. Cut-off Valve 11. Nozzle Disc 12. Nozzle Boss 13. Nozzle tip 14. Spray lance 2.8 Types of spray:
High volume spray (more than 400 liters spray/ha): -The dilute liquids are applied by hydraulic machines. It consumes more time and labour.
Low volume sprays (5 to 400 liters spray/ha): -it uses air stream from a fan as a pesticide carrier with small quantities of liquid. There is saving of material and labour.
Ultra low volume (ULV) spray(less than 5 liters spray/ha.): -ULV spraying can be defined as plant protection operation in which total volume of liquid applied amount to a few milli liters/acre. It is mainly used in aircraft spraying.
2.9 Types of sprayers Sprayer can be grouped into two categories viz. (a) Manually operated and (b) Power operated depending on whether they are worked by human labour or powered by fuel engines. (A) Manually operated or hand operated are grouped into
a) Pneumatic (compressed air sprayers) 1. Domestic sprayers 2. Hand compression sprayer or compression knapsack sprayer GARDEN COMPRESSION SPRAYER
nursery and flower gardens and ideal for Pest Control operations.
b) Hydraulic sprayers 1. Pedal or foot sprayer 2. Rocking sprayer 3. Knapsack sprayer:-These sprayers are carried on the back of the operator by means of two shoulders straps. The tank is shaped to fit the back comfortably being that on side and slightly curved on the other, hence also known as Backpack. The pump assembly, which may be enclosed within the tank or fixed outside, is worked continuously by the operated while spraying. There is thus no advance pressurizing. The pump handle may be fixed at either side permitting right or left hand pumping. They are useful for small scale spraying or spot spraying gardens, vegetable plots, vineyards etc. About 0.5 ha can be covered in a day. The essential parts of knapsack
sprayers are tank; pump assembly, lever rod with operating handle, 1 or 2 shoulder strap and discharge line. 4. Stirrup pump STIRRUP SPRAYER
These hand operated Stirrup Sprayers are ideal for antimalarial spraying and for
other public healt
(B) Power operated sprayers are grouped into 1. Mist blower or motorized knapsack sprayers 2. Portable power sprayers
2.10 SPRAYERS Manual, retained pressure type knapsack sprayer made of top quality materials, corrosionproof and non-subject to attack by treatment products used in agriculture and gardening Today, it is as critical as it was decades ago, to ensure crop protecting products are applied in the safest, effective and efficient manner. Much progress has been made but there are
still apparent deficiencies; although an International Standard for Knapsack Sprayers is now agreed and implemented there is no corresponding standard or code of practice that identifies and describes how best to use these machines. These Industry Best Knapsack Spraying Practices have been prepared by the partners to meet that increasing demand for such an agreed information base. Clearly, requirements that define Best Knapsack Spraying Practices will vary to meet local conditions. Thus it was critical that international and national experts should collectively contribute to and assess what is required. The considerable knowledge of the following independent experts who have supported and validated these Industry Best Knapsack Spraying Practices is, therefore, greatly appreciated. Farmers worldwide with quite small areas under cultivation need to apply modern plant protection products to control weeds and protect their crops from pests and diseases. This has necessitated using a knapsack sprayer, but because it is manually operated the user is in close proximity to the spray so is more exposed to it than those using larger mechanized equipment. Improvements in the design of knapsack sprayers has made them more reliable and safer to use, but users will find that these Best Knapsack Spraying Practices will be invaluable and enable them to achieve the skills and proficiency in Good Application Practice. These Best Knapsack Spraying Practices have been proposed, collated and reviewed during 2008 by experts from 10 countries in three continents. They are intended as a reference source for all with interests in agricultural and horticultural Crop Protection Products [pesticides] in our shared quest to ensure that every operator of knapsack sprayers has the same, equal opportunity to use these products in the safest, most effective and efficient manner. National and/or regional adaptation may be necessary to conform with
and/or support local legislation, Codes of Practice and other initiatives that share comparable ideals to these BSPs. It is hoped that these BSPs support rather than conflict with that approved and recognized
Retained Pressure Knapsack Sprayer
2.11 THREE OUTSTANDING WORLD FIRST:
a) The eccentricity means that the activation arm and the point of support of the chamber are closer together. This makes it easier to work the lever, reduces wear on friction parts and thus gives the sprayer and its components a longer lifetime. Being a single unit, the chamber has fewer parts to maintain and the suction tube
cannot be deformed. The unit's large capacity means better retention of liquid under pressure, and therefore fewer pistons -strokes to maintain ideal, highly regular spraying. b) A part from its normal job, the filter also seals off and lets through the liquid via the joint action of its viton seals and the spring.
The whole system can be manually dismantled, and is completed by a continuous spray, which can be activated with operating hand. c) A rib/partition joins the walls of the tank, making its stronger and more deformation resistant. The advanced design of this simple, highly functional unit makes it very light. It has fewer parts due to so many components being built in. This makes it highly durable and guaranteed product, and at the same time ensures maximum economy.
2.12 Main Features
Reversible: The leaver can be worked with either the right or left hand. Wide range of accessories.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Arm/leaver /lance clamp for easy transport and storage. Shockproof and non-corrosive base. Mechanical agitator. Ergonomically shaped tank and back separator. Strong and light. External level indicator in filters and US gallons. Wide filling mouth. Cover with non-spill valve. Hose with nuts, without clamps.
10 Handle for transport. 11 Directed, strong, easily adjustable straps.
Net weight Gross weight Packaging measurements Units/m3 Tank capacity High pressure insecticides Test pressure Hose length Strap length Strap width
3.15 kg 3.80 kg 43 x 18 x 59 cm./ 17" x 7.3" x 23.5" 20 u 16.8 Ltr. 1.5-3 bar / 21.50-42 PSi. 15 bar / 210 PSi 1.30 m - 51" 1+1 m. - 39"+39" 4cm - 1.60"
2.13 Spraying Equipments A sprayer may be defined as a mechanism in which the liquid is broken into droplets which are discharged with some force. Main function of sprayers is to atomize the sprayer fluid into small droplets and to eject it with some force for distributing it properly.
2.14 Parts of typical sprayers: A sprayers consists of definite parts, each with a definite function,
Tank of typical sprayers: To hold the spray fluid which the fluid is drawn in through a suction pipe.
Pump: Required to build up pressure in the system. Depending on whether the pressure is directly applied to the liquid or the air column above it, sprayers are classified into hydraulic and pneumatic sprayer. In either case, the fluid (liquid or air) is compressed i.e. pressed into a smaller space than the occupied under normal pressure; thereby forcing out the liquid in front of some force.
Agitator: In chemical spraying some arrangement to keep the liquid in the tank in constant motion to prevent solid matter settling down at bottom is necessary. This may be provided by a paddle shaped attachment moving up and down the tank or a jet of liquid let into the tank.
Filters: to prevent solid particles clogging the system. Strainers or filters are provided at various points such as filter opening, suction liner opening, lance and nozzle.
Gasket and washers: At all joints to prevent leakages.
Pressure gauge: To record pressure at various points such as tanks and all discharge points.
Valve: - When the pressure put in exceeds a set limit, it can be released through a safety valve. The valves are also provided to govern the direction of the flow of spray fluid.
8. 9. 10.
Hose: - For conduction of spray fluid from the sprayer to lance.
Lance: -A metal or bamboo tube attached to the outer end of the hose.
Nozzle: -Nozzle is an important component in a sprayer since it breaks up
the liquid from the machine into droplets and spread them as spray. Nozzles are of different designs for different rates of discharge and for low pressure control. In this type of nozzle the spray fluid is made to rotate by a swirl plate by means of slanting holes in it or spiral screw threats on it. Nozzle producing solid cone sprays are used where a more even coverage is desired as in weed control and for spot treatment. 2.15 Types of Nozzles 1. Hollow cone nozzle
Solid cone Nozzles
3. Flat fan Nozzles 4. Jet Nozzles
2.16 Major Competitors:
Pesticide Sprayers -Aspee 2007 Item Code: AspeeV2007, Aspee v2007 is a big competitor product for INTER 16 sprayer.
Pesticide Sprayers Item Code: sha-1, Shankar is also a big competitor for INTER 16 sprayer.
Item Code: SR-60 Hi-tech (SRP/60), Hi-tech is also one of the competitor for INTER 16 sprayer
Chapter 03 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Namdeo Umaji Agritech (I) Pvt. Ltd.:- In Brief Namdeo Umaji Agritech (I) Pvt. Ltd. has its significant share in Indian agriculture and gardening market. The company is providing services to farmers and gardeners all over India. They look at the company as a major player in agriculture evolution in India. It is one of the most admired, fastest growing company with focus towards diverse business like innovations, crop protection chemicals, seeds, growth medias, agricultural instruments, international business. 3.2 Title of the project: “Study of customer preferences of INTER-16 Knapsack sprayers pump brand in Junnar tahasil of Pune district” 3.3 Objectives of study
To find out farmers awareness of INTER-16 sprayer brand in Junnar tahasil of Pune district.
To find out demand for INTER-16 sprayer brand in Junnar tahasil of Pune district. To identify competitive positioning of INTER-16 sprayer brand with respect to Quality
Service availability • To suggest a suitable promotional strategy for creating product awareness.
1.4 Hypothesis: • • INTER sprayers has good market potential Awareness being low market share of INTER 16 is less than other sprayers
3.5 Meaning of Research
Research in common parlance refers to search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact research is an art of scientific investigation. Redman and Mory define research as a “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge.” The advance learner’s dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as “A careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” Research is an academic activity and as such the term should used in a technical scene. According to Clifford Woody, research comprise defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and researching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determining whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is search.
Marketing managers often commission formal marketing studies of specific problems and opportunities. They may request a market survey, a product-preference test, a sales forecast by region, or an advertising evaluation. It is the job of the marketing researcher to produce insight into the customer's attitudes and buying behavior. We define marketing research as the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company. Marketing research is now about a $16.5 billion industry globally, according to ESOMAR, the World Association of Opinion and Market Research Professionals. A company can obtain marketing research in a number of ways. Most large companies have their own marketing research departments, which often play crucial roles within the organization. Marketing research is not limited to large companies with big budgets and marketing research departments. At much smaller companies, marketing research is often carried out by everyone in the company and by customers, too. A marketing research project starts with an information need. It ends with an actionable report or presentation or both. In between are various steps to ensure that the marketing research project achieves what it set out to do.
A diagrammatic representation of the marketing research is shown in the following figure:
1. Information need felt
Plan and do secondary research Plan and do . primary research
Define the research 2. objective
Design the research 3. methodology
Tabulation and analysis
Report writing and presentation
3.6 Designing the research methodology:
Research methodology depends, to the target population, and how easy or difficult to access it is. The second factor which influences research methodology is, of course, the importance of decisions which will be taken based on the research. The accuracy level required is based on the critically of the decision, which will follow: The major parts of the research methodology are: 1. Research method- secondary and primary 2. Sampling plan
3. Questionnaire design 4. Field work plan 5. Analysis plan 3.7 Research in brief The research was carried out to determine the customer preferences for INTER16 sprayers Sample Deign:
Method of sampling: The sampling method used for project was non-random sampling and judgmental/purposive sampling.
Sample size: As it was not possible to sample the entire target population, so in this case 60 farmers where surveyed.
Research approach: The research approach used was survey. Research Instrument: Questionnaire was used as a research instruments to gather the information.
3.8 Sources of data:
Primary Data: The data collected was primary data through Questionnaire method as well as direct observation made with farmers in Junnar tahasil of Pune district.
Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected through website of the company i.e. www.namdeoumajiagritech.com, books (marketing Management).
The researcher can gather secondary data, primary data, or both. Secondary data are data that were collected for another purpose and already exist somewhere. Primary data are data freshly gathered for a specific purpose or for a specific research project. Researchers usually start their investigation by examining some of the rich variety of secondary data to see whether the problem can be partly or wholly solved without collecting costly primary data. Secondary data provide a starting point and offer the advantages of low cost and ready availability. When the needed data do not exist or are dated, inaccurate, incomplete, or unreliable, the researcher will have to collect primary data. Most marketing research projects involve some primary-data collection. The normal procedure is to interview some people individually or in groups, to get a sense of how people feel about the topic in question, and then develop a formal research instrument, debug it, and carry it into the field. 3.9Research Approaches Primary data can be collected in five main ways: through observation, focus groups, surveys, behavioral data, and experiments.
3.10 Questionnaires A questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to respondents. Because of its flexibility, the questionnaire is by far the most common instrument used to collect primary data. Questionnaires need to be carefully developed, tested, and debugged before they are administered on a large scale. In preparing a questionnaire, the researcher carefully chooses the questions and their form, wording, and sequence. The form of the question can influence the response. Marketing researchers distinguish between closed-end and open-end questions. Closed-end questions specify all the possible answers and provide
answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate. Open-end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words and often reveal more about how people think. They are especially useful in exploratory research, where the researcher is looking for insight into how people think rather than measuring how many people think a certain way and see "Marketing Memo: Questionnaire Dos and Don'ts."
3.11 Analysis of data: The collected data is categorized in as systematic way as per need of objective and then simple statistical technique like pie chart and bar graph are used to analyze the data. The next-to-last step in the process is to extract findings from the collected data. The researcher tabulates the data and develops frequency distributions. Averages and measures of dispersion are computed for the major variables. The researcher will also apply some advanced statistical techniques and decision models in the hope of discovering additional findings. 3.12 Field work: It involves direct visit to Farmers on their farm.
Chapter: 04 LITERATURE REVIEW
4.1 Market Potential: Market Potential is total level of sales achievable in a market assuming that every potential customer in that market is buying, that they are using the product on every possible occasion, and they are using the full amount of product on each occasion. Market potential signifies the anticipated sales of goods or services for the entire industry in a market for a certain period of time. Market potential measures the likely demand for a product or service in a country, or any other defined trade area. With market potential data company can: • Make informed decisions about products and services based on latest trend and consumers demand.
• Develop successful advertising and marketing plans.
• Understand predict and influence consumer behavior. 4.2 Promotion mix: A company’s total marketing communication mix also called its promotion mix consists of the specific blend of Advertising, Sales promotion, personal selling and direct marketing tools that the company uses to pursue its advertising and marketing objectives.
Following are the major promotional tools:
4.3Advertising: Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services, by an identified sponsor. Beyond its reach advertising is also very expressive, it allows company to dramatize its product through the artful use of visual, print, sound. Advertising can trigger quick sales. 4.4 Sales Promotion: Short term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of product or service. Sales promotion tools attract consumer attention, offer strong incentives to purchase and to boost sales. Major sales promotion tools are as follows: 1. Sample- A sample amount of the product offered to consumer for trial. 2. Point of Purchase Promotion: Display and demonstration that takes place at point of purchase or sale. 3. Discount: A straight reduction in price on purchases during a stated period of time. 4. Price pack: Reduce price that is marked by producer directly in the label or package. 4.5 Personal Selling: Personal presentation by the firms sale force for the purpose of making sales and adding customer relationship. It involves personal interaction between two or more people, each
person can observe the others needs and characteristics and make quick adjustments. Includes sales presentation and trade show. 4.6 Direct marketing: Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain and mediate response and cumulative lasting customer relationship. Direct marketing is done to following reason-
Customization: Customization is done to build to order. Customer gets exactly, and only what they want.
Service and support – Company uses knowledge gained from direct contact before and after sales, to provide customer service.
Latest technology- The latest relevant technology is introduced in its product much more quickly.
To make a chemical pest control method more biologically effective, economically attractive and environmentally safe, the application must be accurate (Graham-Bryce, 1978). That is, it must deriver the required lethal amount without affecting unintended recipients. Accurate application implies efficient target oriented spraying (Joyce, 1968) which means maximizing the proportion of droplets reaching the target, The application of pesticides is still very poor in Pakistan and many other countries too. Ahmed (1992) noted that most sprayers in use are defective, so the govt. should concentrate efforts to improve the quality of plant protection machinery and arrange training of farmers to improve the application of pesticides.
Thomhill et al. (1995) showed that the converse of maximizing pesticide contact on to the target is the minimization of contamination both of the operator and the environment. One of the top priorities in herbicide spraying is the accurate placement of larger (150 µϻ) droplets, with minimal drift to non target plants. If weed leaves are the target, there is a need to balance low drift requirement with a droplet size that is small enough to retained by the leaf surface. Control of droplet size also reduces the risk operator contamination. Herbicide application with governed spinning disc sprayer (the ‘Herbi’ and Harbaflex’) could reduce operator exposure by 2.7-4.4 times in comparison with lever-operated knapsack sprayers, fitted with hollow cone or deflector nozzles. However, exposure can also be reduced by training operators to improve application techniques and make minor modification to conventional knapsack sprayers (by incorporation of devices such as constant-pressure valves). ULV spraying When the last major desert locust plague ended 25 years ago the techniques of ultra-low volume (ULV) spraying had just been developed, mainly for applying dieldrin, both from air (courshee, 1959) and through exhaust nozzle sprayers, which were developed specifically for this purpose (sayer and Rainey,1958). MacCuaig (1983) found that alternative pesticide for locust control has been tested by topical application in the laboratory but there have been relatively few rigorous fields’ trials. Fenitrothion has become the standard pesticides and has been used extensively at the area dosage recommended in the locust hand book (Steedman, 1988) although the only adequate field trials have been against Australia plague locust (Nguyen, 1983). Very large quantities of pesticides in ULV formulations have been applied over vast
areas during the more resent desert locust plague. But often without adequate field trials to determine the areas dosage required for effective control. Rainey and Sayer (1953) studies that the first effective swarm control using an aerial ULV spraying technique was carried out in eastern Africa and this is considered by many to be the most practical application method of desert locusts. In their review of control techniques for this species, Bennett and Symmons (1972) indicated that area dosages for effective control are greater for settled locust than for settling or flying swarms (although assessing the accuracy of estimates of effectiveness is difficult). An aerial spray treatment of a flying locust swarm is often quoted being the most efficient example of pesticides dose transfer to any insect pest; MacCuaig and watts (1963) estimated 6% efficiency in terms of a ratio of kill to a toxicity coefficient. MacCuaig and Yeats (1972) estimates that higher efficiencies of up to 20% could be achieved with these ‘toxic spray curtains’ prompting Courshee (1991) and other to propose volume application rates as low as 0.2 L/ha. Air to air spraying of swarms is hazardous, and the special skills of redeployed wartime pilots appear to have been lost in many control areas. Thus in spite of the technical arguments, most aerial application is block spraying, several square kilometers at a time, against hopper bands are settled (FAO,1992). 4.7 Effect of sprayer design on spraying Dobson et al. (1995) studied that in contrast to the relative stasis in vehiclemounted locust sprayer design until the late 1980s, portable ULV sprayers benefited from developments in ULV technology for cotton and cereal spraying in the 1970s. companies such as Turbair and Berthoud were producing hand held battery operated spinning disc sprayers and these were gradually being refined to be more reliable and more economical
with battery power. They were adopted as very useful locust control tool for use in impassable zone and for mopping up small pockets remaining after larger, scale operations. When manpower is available teams of operators with these spinning disc sprayers can treat medium sized targets and even applying barriers over large infested blocks Symmons (1991) noted that sprayers should be selected primarily on their ability to produce droplets of the desired size range this can be verified by droplet analysis using laser based sizing instruments. Thereafter field testing is required of available sprayers to ensure that they are effective, robust and easy to use in actual control operations with FAO having already conducted testing of some sprayers and developed specific
recommendations. Data on the droplet size spectra produced by the AU3000, AU4000 and AU8000 by Micronair rotary atomizers have been reported [Van Vliet and Picot (1987), Parkin and Siddique (1990), Hewitt (1993)]. The spectra from the ‘Electrodyn’ and the ‘Ulva+’ spinning disc atomizer have the high proportions (>80%)of spray volume in the size band above. All other droplet size was measured with a Malvern 2600 particle size analyzer, using techniques described by Bateman and Alves (2000). Clayton (1992) showed that an important development was the modification of spinning disc sprayers for very low volume (VLV) application, where conventional pesticide formulations are mixed with small quantities (5-50 l/ha) of water and thus do away with the need of special, expensive ULV formulations Spraying with larger volumes of water, instead of 0.5-3 L/ha of oil-based formulation, necessitated the development of more
robust machines such as the ULVA+. CDA sprayers are the products of medium-scale industrial enterprises, which have been responsible for commercial sustainability over 30 years; they are now well established in certain markets including; small holder cotton, migrant pest control and herbicides application in amenity areas. The effective time available was restricted was restricted to an approximately 3 hr period in the morning when the wind-speed was >2m/s and the ground temp was <30 degree Celsius. Under these circumstances, ULV drift spraying is the only feasible method of application, and there is considerable pressure to reduce volume application rates well below 1 l/ha in aerial operations. Other techniques for improving work rate, including the use of global positioning systems, are discussed by Dobson (1999).
CHAPTER: 05 DATA ANALYSIS
1. Usage of sprayer Table 1: Usage of sprayer Sr.No. 1 2 Option Yes No No. of Respondents 82 18 % of Respondents 82 18
Fig 1: Usage of sprayer Inference: Out of all farmers, surveyed 82% use sprayer for spraying purpose and 18% don’t use sprayers.
IF, YES to Q. 1 2. Awareness about sprayer brands in the market. Table2: Awareness about sprayer brands in the market Sr.No. Option No. Respondents 1 2 3 4 Hi Tech Aspe INTER-16 Shankar 47 64 45 12 57 78 54 15 of % of Respondents
Fig2: Awareness about sprayer brands in the market
Out of all farmers surveyed 54% farmers where aware about INTER 16 sprayer brand in market, 57% farmers where about Hi-Tech, 78% where aware about Aspe and 15% where aware about Shankar
3. Preference to use of brand Table3: Preference to use of brand Sr.No. Option No. Respondents 1 2 3 4 Hi Tech Apse INTER-16 Shankar 14 34 30 04 16 42 37 05 of % of Respondents
Fig3: Preference to use of brand
Inference: Out of all farmers surveyed 37% farmers prefer to use INTER 16 sprayer brand, 16% farmers prefer Hi-Tech, 5% prefer Shankar, 42% farmers prefer Aspe.
4. Reason for not using INTER-16 brand Table4: Reason for not using INTER-16 brand
of % of Respondents
1 2 3 4
Un availability High cost High maintenance Any other
14 25 06 07
26 48 12 14
Fig 4: Reason for not using INTER-16 brand
Inference: Out of all farmers surveyed it was found that 12% farmers due to High maintenance, 26% farmers due to un availability, 48% farmers due to High cost and 14% farmers due to other reason do not use INTER16 brand sprayers for spraying.
Reason that you use INTER Table5: Reason for using INTER-16 brand
of % of Respondents
1 2 3 4
Easy availability Low maintenance Long Life Any other
07 14 07 02
23 48 23 06
Fig 5: Reason for using INTER-16 brand
Inference: Out of all farmers surveyed it was found that 23% farmers due to Long life, 23% farmers due to easy availability, 48% farmers due to Low maintenance and 06% farmers due to other reason to use INTER16 brand sprayers for spraying.
6. Aspects which differentiate INTER16 from other brands
Table6. Aspects which differentiate INTER16 from other brands
of % of Respondents
2 3 4
Service Delivery Any other
08 03 02
32 07 05
Fig6. Aspects which differentiate INTER16 from other brands Inference: Aspects which differentiate INTER16 from other brands in which 56% of respondent’s differentiate it because of Quality, 32% due to Service, 7% due to Delivery and 5% due to other reaso
7. Rating of INTER brand with compared to other brand
Table 7: Rating of INTER brand with compared to other brand
of % Respondents 06 61 27 06
1 2 3 4
Poor Good Very Good Excellent
02 18 08 02
Fig 7: Rating of INTER brand with compared to other brand
Inference: Rating of INTER brand with compared to other brand gives that INTER16 brands in which 61% farmers says that it is Good, 27% farmers says that it is Very good, 6% farmers says that it is poor and 6% farmers says that it is excellent.
8. Reason for not using sprayers Table8.Reason for not using sprayers Sr.No. Option No. of Respondents % of
Respondents 1 2 3 4 High cost Bad experience No regular supply of spares Using Hired sprayers 01 00 03 14 06 00 16 78
Fig 8.Reason for not using sprayers Inference: Out of all farmers surveyed it was found that 16% farmers due to no regular supply of sprayers, 78% farmers due to use of hired sprayers, 06% farmers due to High cost do not use INTER16 brand sprayers for spraying.
9. Other sources use for applying chemicals
Table9. Other sources use for applying chemicals Sr.No. Option No. Respondents 1 2 Hired services Any other 14 04 78 22 of % of Respondents
Fig 9: Other sources use for applying chemicals Inference: From the above graph it says that 22% of respondents use Hired services and 78% of respondents use other resources.
10. Would you like to buy or replace pump in near future?
Sr.No. 1 2
Option Yes No
No. of Respondents 28 72
% of Respondents 28 72
Inference: Out of all farmers, surveyed 72% don’t want to replace and 28% want to replace sprayers.
11. How do you decide to buy a particular brand of pump? Table11.Decide to buy a particular brand of pump Sr.No. Option No. of % of Respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 Quality Price Delivery After sales service 14 11 9 6 35 28 23 14
Out of all farmers surveyed it was found that 35% farmers decide to buy a particular brand of pump on the basis of quality,28% on the price basis,23% on delivery basis and 14% on after sales service.
12. Is any facility given to you by company like replacement or exchange offer?
of % Respondents
Inference: Out of all farmers, surveyed 78% says that replacement facility is given by dealers and 22% says that there is no such facility provided.
CHAPTER: 06 FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS
6.1 Lack of awareness about the products: Barring a few products consumer does not have much awareness about INTER 16 sprayer brand. 6.2 Competitors: There are several big players in the market some are looking to grab the sizable amount of market share. Competitors such as Hi-tech and Apse have good amount of market Share. This is mainly because of the promotional activities undertaken by them. 6.3 Promotional Strategies: Used by company: Promotion through internet. Occasionally offer scheme. Not used by company: No brand ambassador. Regular advertisement on TV channels. Price off on bulk purchase. There can be great chance in increase in sales if company uses some innovative and suggested means of marketing. 6.4 Consumer behavior before purchasing:
Customers consider prior experience about the product, general opinion about Product in the locality, etc. They also have perception of quality difference in of different brand.
CHAPTER: 07 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 From Farmers point of view: • • For Field trials farmers should be contacted before purchasing a product. Field assistant of company should frequently visit the farmers in village and provide the technical guidance. 7.2 Regarding Product: • Farmers should be provided with durable servicing for sprayers. • Company should provide an information booklet along with every piece which will provide detail information regarding use, maintenance of the product in the regional language. • Demonstrations should be arranged in the village, guiding the use of product by the company experts. 7.3 Regarding distribution: • Focus more on marketing channels for effective distribution through India.
Synchronization of demand and supply.
7.4 Regarding Promotional and Advertising:
Demonstration on plots should be arranged in progressive farmer’s farm and government as well as non government institutions.
Interaction of big farmers with sales person and technical persons will be beneficial for increasing awareness about the product.
The demonstrations can be shown in the agricultural exhibitions (i.e. Kisan, Agro won) for promoting the product.
Advertisement should be given in mostly read news paper and magazines regarding results and viability of product.
7.5 Regarding target market:
Company should target the farmers who are majorly engaged in the cultivation of vegetables which requires frequent sprayings.
Big farmers should be the major target so that automatically small farmers get influenced.
Also focus on the farmers having green house or poly house.
CHAPTER: 08 CONCLUSION
The conclusion is that due to less awareness about the INTER16 sprayer brand. Company has low market share in the Junnar tahasil Pune district. If company concentrates on the four P’s of marketing mainly emphasizing on the Promotional activity it will increase its demand and the market share. Due to availability of different option to the farmers at low price it creates less demand for brand. Existing customer who use the INTER16 sprayer brand they are satisfied with the quality of brand.
Philip Kotler-Marketing Management (12th edition)
2. C. R. Kothari- Research Methodology
1. 2. 3. 4.
Questionnaire Name of Farmer: Address: 1. Do you use sprayer for spraying purpose? a. Yes If YES, 2. Which all brands are you aware of in market for spraying? a. Hi Tech c. Shankar 3. Which brand do you prefer to use? a. Hi Tech c. Shankar b. d. Aspee Inter b. d. Aspee Inter b. No
4. What is the reason that you did not use INTER-16? a) Unavailability c) High maintenance 5. What is the reason for using “INTER-16”? a) Easy availability c) Long life b) Low maintenance d) any other b) High cost e) after sales service
6. How do you find “INTER-16” different from other brands? a) Quality c) Delivery b) price d) after sales service
7. How do you rate “INTER-16” in comparison to other Brands? a) Poor c) Very Good If No to Q.1 8. Why you don’t prefer to use sprayer? a) High Cost c) Lack of regular supply of spares b) Bad experience from other brands d) Using hired service b) Good d) Excellent
9. What are the other sources you use for applying chemicals? a) Hired services b) Any other
10. Would you like to buy or replace pump in near future? a) Yes b) no
11. How do you decide to buy a particular brand of pump? a) Quality c) Delivery b) price d) after sales service
12. Is any facility given to you by company like replacement or exchange offer? a) Yes b) no