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Co-ordinate Geometry
Introduction
We have already learnt that graph of linear equation in two variables is a straight line. In this chapter we are going to learn about how to find the equation of a given line using co-ordinate system. For that we have to learn some concepts.

Inclination of a line

Let ℓ be the line in the XY-plane, Let θ be the angle made by the line ℓ with positive direction of X – axis. The inclination of a line ℓ is the smallest positive angle made by it with positive direction of X – axis (anticlockwise). Thus θ is called the inclination of a line where 0˚ ≤ θ < 180˚

X- axis makes an angle of 0˚ with positive direction of X – axis. ∴ Inclination of X – axis is zero degree and inclination of Y axis is 90˚ If line ℓ || line m || line n and if inclination of line n is θ, then inclination of line ℓ and line m is also θ.

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Slope of line
The slope of inclined plane is the ratio of vertical (rise) height and horizontal distance (run)

i.e. slope

Vertical height Horizontal distance

∆ ABC is right angled triangle where ∠ CAB = θ (see fig.)

i.e. θ is the angle which plane makes with the horizontal.

tan

BC AB

Vertical height Horizontal distance

∴ slope = tan θ If the inclination of the line is θ, then tangent of θ is called the slope (or gradient) of the line, It is denoted by m.

In the above figure Slope of line AB = tan θ = m If line AB coincides with X – axis then inclination will be 0˚ Slope of line AB = tan θ = tan 0 = 0 ∴ slope of X-axis is 0. As the inclination of Y-axis is 90˚ and tan 90˚ is not defined, slope of Y – axis is not defined.

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In the above figure inclination of line AB is 45˚. Inclination of line PQ is also 45˚ ∴ line PQ || line AB ∴ slope of line PQ = slope of line AB Slope of line AB = tan 45˚ = 1. ∴ slope of line PQ is also 1. Slopes of parallel lines are equal

The slope of a straight line passing through two points
Let P ( x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) be any two points on the line ℓ as shown in figure below.

Let θ be the inclination of line ℓ. ∴ ∠ QAS = θ Draw seg. PR ⊥ X- axis, seg QS ⊥ X-axis.

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www.missionssc.com Draw seg. PT ⊥ seg QS ∴ seg PT || seg RS. Consider PQ as transversal ∠ QAS = θ ∴ ∠ QPT = θ PR = y1 OR = x1 QS = y2 OS = x2 ∴ QT = y2 – y1 ∴ RS = x2 – x1 ∴ PT = x2 – x1 ……… (given) ∠ QPT = ∠ QAS ………… ( corresponding angles)

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Since RS = PT

In right angled ∆ PTQ, ∠ QPT = θ

tan

opposite side of angle adjacent side of angle QT PT y 2 y1 x 2 x1

but slope of line PQ tan Slope of line PQ y 2 y1 x 2 x1 y1 y 2 x1 x 2

Note: If x 1 = x 2 then slope is not defined and the line will be Y- axis or parallel to Y- axis Slope of Y – axis or of the lines parallel to Y-axis is not defined.

Equation of the line
In day to day life for solving problems we use variables for unknowns and frame the equation. After solving the equation algebraically we get the solution. We have learnt the linear equations in one variable and two variables. Solution of linear equations means the value of the variable which satisfies the equation. In geometry (linear) equations in two variables are used for representing lines. Other non-linear equations are used for representation of curves. The point which satisfy the equation lies on that line only. An equation of a line essentially defines the conditions which must be satisfied by every point on the line. Here, the problem is to find the equation of a given line in the plane with reference to suitable coordinate system. When such an equation is determined the given line is said to be described by that equation.

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We have already learnt the graphical representation of linear equation and the graphs of line represented by the equations x = a and y = b.

Consider the line AB given in above figure, Line AB is parallel to Y – axis such that its distance form the Y-axis is ‘a’. The x – co-ordinate of every point on the line AB is ‘a’ which is fixed number, we write this as x = a which is equation of line AB. All the points in the plane having x–coordinate ‘a’ lie on the line AB.

Consider line CD given in above figure, Line CD is parallel to the X-axis such that its distance from X-axis is ‘b’. The y-coordinate of every point on the line CD is ‘b’, which is a fixed number, so y = b which is the equation of line CD. All the points having y-coordinate ‘b’ lie on the line CD.

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Different forms of an equation of a line
1. Equation of a line in slope-intercept form To find the equation of a line having slope ‘m’ and y-intercept ‘c’.

Let the line ℓ intersects Y-axis in a point A. A ≡ (0, c) Slope of the line ℓ is m. Let P(x, y) be any point on the line ℓ. We know how to find the slope of the line if two points are given,

Here slope of line AP

y c x 0

But slope of line ℓ = slope of line AP = m.

y c x

m

y

c

mx

y

mx

c

y = mx + c is the standard equation of a line in slope-intercept form, where m is the slope and c is the y - intercept If c = 0, then line passes through the origin, therefore we get y = m x. Thus equation of a line through origin and having slope m is y = m x 2. Equation of a line in slope-point form To find the equation of a line having slope ‘m’ and passing through the point A(x1, y1) A(x1, y1) is a point on the line ℓ. Slope of the line ℓ is m.

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Let P ( x, y) be any point on the line ℓ other than A. A (x1, y1) and P ( x, y) are the points on the line ℓ

Slope of line But slope of line y y1 m x x1 y y1 m x

y y1 x x1 is m

x1

This is the required equation of line passing through the point (x1, y1) and having slope m. 3. Equation of a line two-point form To find the equation of a line passing through A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) are the given points. Let P (x, y) be any other point on the line AB as shown in figure below.

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Slope of line AB

y 2 y1 x 2 x1

P is the point on line AB ∴ P (x, y) and A ( x 1, y 1) are two points on the line.

Slope of AP Slope of AP y y1 x x1 y y1 x 2 x x1 x 2 x1

y1 y x1 x

y y1 x x1

Slope of AB y 2 y1 x 2 x1 x1 y y1 y 2 y1 x x1 y 2 y1

It can also be written as

x x1 x1 x 2

y y1 y1 y 2

which is the equation of a line in two point form.

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Equation of a line in double intercept form To find equation of a line ℓ having x – intercept ‘a’ and y – intercept ‘b’ as shown in figure

x – intercept of a line is the x – coordinate of the point of intersection of line with X – axis. y – intercept of a line is the y – coordinate of the point of intersection of line with Y-axis. x – intercept of line ℓ is ‘a’ …… ( given ) ∴ A (a, 0) is a point on the line ℓ. y – intercept of line ℓ is ‘b’. ∴ B ( 0, b) is a point on the line ℓ. Let P (x, y) be any point on the line ℓ. ∴ (a, 0) ≡ (x1, y1) and (0, b) ≡ (x2, y2) y 2 y1 ∴ Slope of line x 2 x1

Slope of line AB

b 0 0 a

b a

b a

Equation of the line AB in ‘slope-point’ form is y – y2 = m (x – x 2)

y

b y b

y b x a

b b y b

b x 0 a b x a x a 1

Here y 2 b and x 2

0

....... dividing both the sides by 'b '

i.e.

x x int ercept

y y int ercept

1

which is the equation of line in double intercept form.

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General equation of a line
We have seen different forms of equation of a line. e.g. (i) y = 3x + 53 Slope intercept form (ii) y – 5 = 2 ( x – 11) Point slope form (iii) Two point form 13 3

y 3

5 2

x 2

(iv)

x 13

y 12

1

Double intercept form

Each of the above equations is a linear equation in two variables x and y. Each of the above equation can be written in the form ax + by + c = 0, which is called, general equation of a line. Generally the line is represented by the equation ax + by + c = 0 where a, b, c, ∈ R and a ≠ 0 or b ≠0. We can write this general equation in different forms. 1. To find slope and y – intercept of the line represented by ax + by + c = 0 Consider, ax + by + c = 0 ∴ by = – ax – c

y

a x b

c b

Comparing this with slope intercept form i.e. y = mx + c. We get,

Slope

m

a b c b

y intercept

coofficient of x coefficient of y constant term coefficient of y

2.

To convert the general equation ax + by + c = 0 in double intercept form. We know,

x x intercept ax by c ax by 0

y y intercept c

1

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a x c x c a

b y c y c b 1

1

p q

1 q/ p

x intercept

c and y intercept a

c b

Note: For finding x–intercept, put y = 0 and for finding y–intercept, put x = 0 in the given equation.

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Exercise 1
Q.1 Sol: Find the slope of a line with inclination 30˚ Inclination of a line = θ = 30˚

Slope

tan

tan 30

1 3
1 5 , 1 and B 3, 2 2

Q.2 Sol:

Find slope of the line passing through the points A

Points are A x1 , y1

1 , 1 and B x 2 , y 2 2 5 1 y 2 y1 2 Slope of line AB 1 x 2 x1 3 2 3/ 2 3 5/ 2 5

3,

5 2

Q.3 Sol:

Using concept of slope check whether the points A (7,8), B ( -5, 2) and C (3,6) are collinear. Given points are A (7,8), B ( -5, 2) and C( 3,6)

Slope of line AB Slope of line BC

y2 x2 y2 x2

y1 x1 y1 x1

2 8 5 7 6 2 3 5 4 8

6 12 1 2

1 2

Here slopes of lines AB and BC are the same. But point B is common to both the lines ∴ points A, B, C are collinear. Note: 1. If slopes are not equal, then lines are not parallel. So points are not collinear. 2. The simplest method to check collinearity of three points is to plot them on graph paper. If a straight line can be drawn through those points, points are collinear. Otherwise, they are not collinear. Q.4 Sol: Find value of k if the points (-3, 11), (6, 2), (k, 4) are collinear Suppose A (-3, 11), B (6, 2) and C (k, 4 ) are given points.

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Slope of line AB Slope of line AC

y2 x2 y2 x2

y1 x1 y1 x1

2 11 6 3 4 11 k 3

1 7 k 3

As points A, B, C are collinear, Slope of line AC = Slope of line AB

7 k 3

1

On cross multiplying – 7 = – (k + 3) –7=–k–3 ∴K=–3+7=4 Ans : K = 4 Q.5 Sol: Show that ( -2, 1), ( 0, 3), ( 2, 1) and ( 0, -1) are the vertices of a parallelogram Suppose given points are A (-2, 1), B ( 0, 3), C ( 2, 1) are D ( 0, -1) We know that the slope of line =

y 2 y1 x 2 x1

Slope of line AB Slope of line BC Slope of line AD Slope of line CD

3 1 0 2

2 2

1 .......... 1

1 3 2 1 .......... 2 2 0 2 1 1 2 1 ........... 3 0 2 2 1 1 2 1 ........... 4 0 2 2

From (1) and (4) , Slope of line AB = Slope of line CD ∴ line AB || line CD From (2) and (3) Slope of line BC = Slope of line AD ∴ line BC || line AD Here both pairs of opposite sides of quadrilateral are parallel. □ ABCD is a parallelogram. ∴ ( -2, 1), ( 0, 3), ( 2, 1) and ( 0, -1) are the vertices of a parallelogram

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www.missionssc.com Q.6 Sol:

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A (0,0), B ( 7,2), C (7, 7), D (2,7) are vertices of a quadrilateral. Find slope of each diagonal. Vertices of a quadrilateral are A (0,0), B ( 7,2), C (7, 7) and D (2,7) There are two diagonals, AC and BD.

Slope of diagonal AC Slope of diagonal BD

y2 x2 y2 x2

y1 x1 y1 x1

7 0 7 0 7 2 2 7

7 7 5 5

1 1

Q.7 Sol:

Vertices of a triangle are A ( 3, -4), B ( 5, 7), C ( -4, 5). Find slope of each side of triangle ABC. Vertices are A ( 3, -4), B ( 5, 7) and C ( -4, 5)

Now slope

y 2 y1 x 2 x1 7 4 11 5 3 2 5 7 2 4 5 9 5 4 9 4 3 7

Slope of side AB Slope of side BC Slope of side AC

2 9 9 7

Q.8 Sol:

Show that line joining ( -1, 1), and ( -9, 6 ) is parallel to the line joining ( -2, 14 ) and ( 6, 9 ) Suppose A ( -1, 1), B ( -9, 6 ), P ( -2, 14 ), Q ( 6, 9 ) are given points.

Slope of line AB Slope of line PQ

y2 x2 y2 x2

y1 x1 y1 x1

6 1 9 1 9 14 6 2

5 8 5 8

5 8

As slope of lines AB and PQ are the same, line AB || line PQ i.e. line joining (-1, 1) and (-9, 6) is parallel to the line joining ( -2, 14 ) and ( 6, 9) Q.9 Sol: If the slope of line joining points (k, -3) and (4, 5) is

1 , find value of k. 2

We have slope of a line

y2 x2

y1 x1
5 3 4 k 8 4 k
.

Slope of line through (k, -3) and (4, 5) is

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But it is given to be

1 . 2

1 4 k 2 i.e. 8 2 4 k k 4 16 12
Q.10 Sol: If (K, -5) lies on the line joining (4, 1) and (2, -3), find K. Suppose P (K, -5), lies on line through A (4, 1) and B (2, -3) ∴ points A, P, B are collinear. ∴ line AP || line AB Slope of line AP = Slope of line AB

8

1 5 4 k i.e. 6 4 k

3 1 2 4 4 2 2 1 k 8 6 2

6 1 2 4 i.e. 6 k
Q.11 Sol:

8 1

2 k i.e. 2 k

Find point on the X axis such that the slope of the line containing that point and the point ( 5, -3) is -2 If a point lies on a X axis, its y co-ordinate = 0 So we can take point on X axis as A (a, 0), B ( 5, -3) is another point.

Slope of line AB

y2 x2

y1 x1

3 0 5 a

3 5 a

But it is given to be -2

3 5 a 2 5 a 10 2a a 7 2 2a

2 3 3

3 10 7

po int on X axis is

7 ,0 2

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Exercise 2
Q.1 Sol: Find the slope and y intercept of the line 2 ( x – 1) = 3 ( 4 – y) Equation of a line is 2(x – 1) = 3( 4 – y) i.e. 2x – 2 = 12 – 3y i.e. 3y = -2x + 2 + 12 i.e. 3y = -2x + 14 divide both sides by 3

y

2 14 x 3 3

On comparing it with y = mx + c, We get,

m slope

2 and 3 14 y int ercept c 3
3 and c 7 2

Q.2 Sol:

Write the equation of a line if m We are given that slope ∴ equation of a line is y = mx + c

m

3 and c = y and intercept = 7 2

i.e. y
Q.3 Sol:

3 x 2

7

Write the equation of line 5y – 3x + 7 = 0 in slope intercept form Equation of a line is 5y – 3x + 7 = 0 i.e. 5y = 3x -7 Divide both side by 5

y

3x 5

7

i.e. y
3 5 c

3 x 5

7 5

This is slope – intercept form of an equation of a line ( y = mx + c)

Here slope c
Q.4 Sol:

m

y int ercept

7 5

It ( 4, -3) is a point on the line 5x + 8y = C, Find C. Point P (4, -3) lies on the line 5x + 8y = C Co – ordinates of P will satisfy equation of line Put x = 4, y = -3 in the given equation. - 16 -

www.missionssc.com ∴ 5 (4) + 8 (-3) = C Ans: C = -4 Q.5 Sol: ∴ C = 20 – 24 = -4

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If (3, 4) is a point on the line 3y = mx + 2, find slope. As point (3, 4) lies on the line 3y = mx + 2, co-ordinates satisfy equation of a line put x = 3 and y = 4 in the equation of a line ∴ 3 (4) = m (3) + 2 ∴ 3m = 12 – 2 = 10

m

10 3

Equation of a line becomes

3y

10 x 3
10 x 9 slope

2
2 3 10 9

Divide both sides by 3

y

Compare with y = mx + c

m

Exercise 3
Q.1 Sol: Slope of a line is 3 and y intercept is -4. Write the equation of this line. Slope of line m = 3 and y intercept = c = -4 ∴ equation of a line in slope intercept form is y = mx + c i.e. y = 3x -4

Q.2 Sol:

Line PQ intersects Y axis in (0, 3) with slope

1 . Write the equation of line PQ. 2

As line PQ intersects Y axis in (0, 3) , y intercept = c = 3.

Also, Slope

m

1 2

∴ equation of line PQ is y = mx + c

i.e. y
Q.3 Sol:

1 x 2

3

Write the slope of line 3 ( x + 3) = y – 1 Equation of line is 3 ( x + 3 ) = y -1 i.e. 3x + 9 = y – 1 i.e. y – 1 = 3x + 9 i.e. y = 3x + 9 + 1 i.e. y = 3x + 10 On comparing it with y = mx + c, we have slope = m = 3. - 17 -

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Q.4 Sol:

Write equation of line passing through point P (-2, -3) and m The point (x1, y1) on line is (-2, -3)

3 5

x1

2, y1 m

3 3 5

Also, slope

Equation of line in point –slope form is y – y1 = m ( x – x1)

i.e. y 3

3 x 2 5

i.e. 3( x + 2) = 5 ( y + 3) i.e. 3x + 6 = 5y + 15 i.e. 3x – 5y – 9 = 0 Q.5 Sol: Write down equation of a line passing through (-3, 5) and (4, -7) in the form y = mx + c The points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) on the line are (-3, 5) and (4, -7) respectively. Equation of line using two point form is

x x1 x1 x 2 i.e. x 3 3 4

y y1 y1 y 2 y 5 x 3 i.e. 5 7 7 7 y 5 7y 35 y 5 12

i.e. 12 x 3 i.e. 12x 36

12x 7y 1 0 i.e. 7y 12x 1 divide both sides by 7 y 12 x 7 1 7

Q.6 Sol:

Write equation Equation is

x 4
y 1

y 1
1 x 4

1 in y = mx + c form

x 4

i.e. i.e. y

x 4

y 1 i.e. x 4 1 i.e. y

1

y

1 x 1 4

This is in the form of y = mx + c

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Here m slope
Q.7 Sol:

1 and c y intercept 4

1

Write equation of a line passing through the points A (-3, 4) and B (4, 5) Two points on the line are A(-3, 4) ≡ (x1, y1) and B(4, 5) ≡ (x2, y2) ∴ equation of line using two points form is

x x1 x1 x 2 i.e.

y y1 y1 y 2

x 3 y 4 3 4 4 5 x 3 y 4 i.e. 7 1 i.e. i.e. i.e. x
Q.8 Sol:

7 y 4 7y 7y 28 31 0

x 3 x 3

Y intercept of a line passing through (7, 3) is 4. Write its equation. As Y intercept is 4, the point A ( 0, 4) lies on line. The point B ( 7, 3) also lies on line. ∴ equation of line in two point form is

x x1 x1 x 2 i.e. i.e. x i.e. x i.e. x
Q.9 Sol:

y y1 y1 y 2 y 4 4 3

x 0 0 7 x 7

y 4 1 7 y 4 7y 28 0 7y 28

Inclination of a line passing through (2, 4) is 45˚. Find its equation. Inclination of line = θ = 45˚ ∴ slope = m = tan 45˚ = 1 Also, (x1, y1) ≡ (2, 4) lies on line ∴ its equation using point slope form is y – y1 = m (x – x1) i.e. y – 4 = 1 ( x – 2) i.e. x – y + 2 = 0

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www.missionssc.com Q.10 Sol:

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Inclination of a line is 60˚. If y intercept is 7, find equation of a line As inclination = θ = 60˚ Slope of line = tan θ = tan 60˚ = 3 As y intercept = c = 7 equation of line using slope – intercept form is y = mx + c

i.e. y

3x

7

Exercise 4
Q.1 Sol: Find x and y intercept of the line 3x y equation of line is 3x y Put y = 0 in (1) to get,

5 3

0

5 3

0 ....... 1

3x

5 3

0 5 3 i.e x 5 9 X int ercept

i.e. 3x

Put x = 0 in (1) to get,

y
Q.2 Sol:

5 3

0

y

5 3

Y int ercept

Find x and y intercepts of line 4x – 7y = 0 Equation of line is 4x – 7y = 0 …… (1) Put y = 0 in (1) to get 4x = 0 i.e. x = 0 = x intercept Put x = 0 in (1) to get -7y = 0 i.e. y = 0 = y intercept Find slope and y intercept of line 7x – y + 3 = 0 Equation of line is 7x – y + 3 = 0 …… (1)

Q.3 Sol:

Slope

coefficient of x coefficient of y

7 1

7

To get y intercept put x = 0 in (1) ∴-y+3=0 ∴ y = 3 = y intercept OR

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www.missionssc.com Equation of line is 7x – y + 3 = 0 i.e. y = 7x + 3 compare it with y = mx + c to get m = 7 = slope and c = 3 = y intercept Q.4 Sol:

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Write the equation of line 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 in double intercept form and write x and y intercepts Equation of line is 2x + 3y -7 = 0 i.e. 2x + 3y = 7 divide both sides by 7

2x 3y 1 7 7 x y i.e 1 7/2 7/3
Comparing it with

p q

1 q/p

x a

y 1 to get b

a b
Q.5 Sol:

7 2 7 3

x intercept y intercept

Write equation of a line 2x – y = 3 in double intercept form. Find x and y intercepts. Equation of line is 2x – y = 3 Divide both sides by 3

2x 3 i.e. x 3/ 2

y 1 3 y 3 1 a b 1 b/a 2 1 3 3/ 2

Comparing it with

x a a b

y 1 to get b 3 x int ercept 2 3 y int ercept

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www.missionssc.com Q.6 Sol:

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Find the equation of the line passing through (2, -1) and parallel to 3x + 4y = 10 Given line is 3x + 4y = 10

its slope

coefficient of x coefficient of y

3 4

Parallel lines have same slope ∴ slope of required line parallel to given line is also

3 4

m

3 4

Also, point (x1, y1) on line is (2, -1) ∴ equation of line using point slope form is y – y1 = m (x – x1)

i.e. y 1

3 x 2 4

i.e. 4y + 4 = -3x + 6 i.e. 3x + 4y – 2 = 0 Note: This is a sum from textbook ( page 146). The answer given in the text is wrong. Second method (Do not use in exam) Parallel lines have the same slope. ∴ Equation of any line parallel to 3x + 4y = 10 is 3x + 4y = k The point (2, -1) lies on the line ∴ put x = 2, y = -1 in equation of line ∴ 3 (2) + 4 (-1) = k i.e. k = 2 ∴ equation of required line is 3x + 4y = 2 Q.7 Sol: Find equation of a line parallel to 4x + 3y = 5 and having x intercept = -3. Note:In the textbook by mistake they have given 4x + 3 = 5 Given line is 4x + 3y = 5

its slope

coefficient of x coefficien of y

4 3

For required line also,

slope

m

4 3

{∴ parallel lines have same slope } As x intercept is -3, the point (x1, y1) on line is (-3, 0)

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Note: x intercept is - 3 means - 3 is x co-ordinate of point of intersection of line and x axis. Clearly y co-ordinate of that point is zero. Using point slope form, equation of line is y – y 1 = m (x – x 1)

i.e. y 0

4 x 3 3

i.e. 3y = – 4x – 12 i.e. 4x + 3y + 12 = 0 Q.8 Sol: Write equation of X and Y axes (co-ordinate axes) As y co-ordinate of every point on X axis is 0, equation of X axis is y = 0 Similarly, x co-ordinate of every point on Y axis is zero, Therefore equation of Y axis is x = 0 Write the equation of a line through the origin and the point (-3, 5) First Method Co-ordinates of origin are (0, 0) Here, O (0, 0) and A (-3, 5) lie on line

Q.9 Sol:

Slope

y2 x2

y1 x1

5 0 3 0

5 3

5 3

m

Using point slope form equation of line is y – y1 = m (x – x1)

i.e. y 0

5 x 0 3

i.e. 3y = -5x i.e. 5x + 3y = 0 Note : We have taken (x1, y1) as (0, 0), we get the same answer even if we take (x1, y1) as (-3, 5)

y 5

5 x 3 3

i.e 3y 15

5x 15 i.e. 5x 3y 0

Second Method Two points on line are (x1, y1) ≡ (0, 0) and (x2, y2) ≡ (-3, 5) Using two point form, equation of line is

x x1 x1 x 2 x 0 0 3

y y1 y1 y 2 y 0 x i.e. 0 5 3 y 5

i.e. 3y = -5x i.e 5x + 3y = 0 - 23 -

www.missionssc.com Q.10 Sol:

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Find equation of line parallel to X axis and passing through the point (-3, 4) Slope of X axis = 0 ∴ Slope of required line parallel to X axis is also 0 i.e. m = 0 { parallel lines have same slope } The point (x1, y1) on line is (-3, 4) ∴ equation of line using point-slope form is y – y1 = m (x – x1) i.e y – 4 = 0 ( x + 3) i.e. y – 4 = 0 Graph:

OR Equation of any line parallel to X axis is of the type y = b The point (-3, 4) lies on the line ∴ Co-ordinates satisfy equation of line Put y = 4 in y = b to get 4 = b i.e. b = 4 ∴ equation of line is y = 4 i.e. y – 4 = 0 Q.11 Sol: Write equation of a line parallel to Y axis and passing through the point (-3, 5). A line parallel to Y axis has equation x = a. The point (-3. 5) lies on this line ∴ -3 = a i.e. a = -3 i.e. x + 3 =0 ∴ line is x = -3

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Q.12 Sol:

A (3, 7), B (5, 11), c (-2, 8) are the vertices of △ABC. Find equation of median AD

AD is the median (i.e. a line segment joining a vertex and midpoint of side opposite to it) of ∆ ABC ∴ D is midpoint of side BC B (x1, y1) is (5, 11) and C(x2, y2) is (-2, 8) by mid-point formula, co-ordinates of point D are

x1 x 2 5 2 3 2 2 2 y1 y 2 11 8 and y 2 2 3 19 D x , y is , 2 2 x
x x1 x1 x 2
Note:

19 2

As A is (3,7), equation of median AD using two point form is

y y1 y1 y 2

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are any two points on this line. For AD they are (3, 7) and

3 19 , 2 2

x 3 y 7 3 19 3 7 2 2 x 3 y 7 i.e. 3 5 2 2 x 3 y 7 i.e. 3 5 i.e.
i.e. 3 ( y – 7) = -5 ( x – 3 ) - 25 -

www.missionssc.com i.e. 3y – 21 = -5x + 15 i.e. 5x + 3y – 36 = 0

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Note: Answer given in the textbook is wrong. Answer can be checked as follows: The co-ordinates of A and D should satisfy equation of AD. Q.13 Sol: P ( -3, 4), Q ( 2, 3), R ( -2, -5) are the vertices of △PQR. Find equation of all medians.

Here we use midpoint formula. If end points of a segment are (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), then midpoint of segment is

x1 x 2 y1 y2 , 2 2
Here vertices of a triangle are P (-3, 4), Q (2, 3), R ( -2, -5) Let PA, QB, and RC be the medians Median PA A is the midpoint of seg. QR, Where Q is (2, 3) and R is (-2, -5) ∴ x co-ordinate of point A =

2 2 2 3 5 y co-ordinate of point A = 2

0
2 2 1

∴ A is (0, -1) As P is (-3, 4) Slope of PA is

y 2 y1 x 2 x1

4 1 3 0

5 3

5 3

∴ equation of PA using point-slope form is y – y1 = m (x – x1) i.e. y – y1 = m ( x- x1)

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5 x 3 3 i.e 3y 12 5 x 15 i.e.5x 3y 3 0 i.e. y 4
Median QB B is midpoint of side PR P is ( -3, 4), Q is ( -2, -5) ∴ Co-ordinates of midpoint of B are

x

3 2 2 4 5 y 2 5 B is , 2

5 2 1 2 1 2

As Q is (2, 3) Slope of QB is,

1 2 5 2 2 3

7 2 9 2

7 9

∴ equation of QB is

y

3

7 x 2 9

i.e. 7 ( x – 2) = 9 ( y – 3) i.e. 7x – 14 = 9y – 27 i.e. 7x – 9y + 13 = 0 Note: To get equation we have used co-ordinates of Q. We could have taken co-ordinates of B also. Median RC C is midpoint of side PQ P is (-3, 4) and Q is (2, 3) ∴ Co-ordinates of C are

x

3 2 1 and y 2 2 1 7 C is , 2 2

4 3 2

7 2

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www.missionssc.com As R is (-2, -5)

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7 2 Slope of RC is 1 2 2 5

17 2 3 2

17 3
17 is 3

∴ equation of median RC using R ( -2, - 5) and slope = m = y – y1 = m ( x – x1) i.e. y + 5 =

17 (x+ 2) 3
i.e. 17x + 34 = 3y + 15

i.e. 17 ( x + 2) = 3 ( y + 5) i.e 17x – 3y + 19 = 0

Ans : Equation of medians are 5x + 3y + 3 = 0, 7x – 9y + 13 = 0 and 17x – 3y + 19 = 0. Note : The point of intersection of 3 medians of a triangle is called as centroid. Q.14

Sol:

In the fig. two lines are intersecting at point (3,4). Find the equation of line PA and line PB Inclination of line PA is 45˚ ∴ its slope = tan 45˚ = 1 As P is (3, 4), equation of line PA using point -slope form is y – y1 = m (x – x1) i.e. y – 4 = 1(x -3) i.e. x – y + 1 = 0 Inclination of line PB is 60˚ ∴ its slope = tan 60˚ =

3

As P is (3, 4), equation of line PB is

y 4

3 x 3 3 3 0

i.e. 3 x y 4

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www.missionssc.com Q.15

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Find equation of the line passing through the point (5, 2) and having equal intercepts on the co-ordinate axes. Equation of line in double intercept form is Here, intercepts are equal ∴a=b Also (5, 2) lies on the line ∴ co-ordinates satisfy equation of line.

Sol:

x a

y 1 b

5 b

2 b

1

i.e

7 1 b

∴ b = 7 and a = 7 ∴ equation of line is

x y 1 i.e x y 7 7 i.e. x y 7 0

7

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