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Exercise 1

1. Which of the following is the quadratic equation?


3
(i) 11 = - 4x2 – x3 (ii) 4 y
y
7
(iii) z 4z 5 (iv) 3 y 2 7 3 y
4
q2 4
(v) 3
q2
Ans:- (i) Given equation is 11 = -4x2 – x3
i.e. x3 + 4x2 + 11 = 0 . Highest index is 3
∴ This is not a quadratic equation.
(ii) Equation is
3
4 y
y
on multiplying both sides by y
3 4y y2
i.e. y 2 4y 3 0
This is a quadratic equation.
{ It is of the type ay2 + by + c = 0, a ≠ 0 }
7
(iii) Given equation is z 4z 5
z
Multiply both sides by z to get
z2 – 7 = 4z2 + 5z
i.e. 3z2 + 5z + 7 = 0
This is of the type az2 + bz + c = 0 ( a ≠ 0 )
∴ it is a quadratic equation.
(iv) Given equation is
3y 2 7 3y
i.e. 3y 2 3y 7 0
This is of the type ay2 + by + c = 0 ( a ≠ 0 )
∴ it is a quadratic equation.
q2 4
(v) Given equation is 3
q2
i.e. q2 – 4 = - 3q2 i.e. 4q2 – 4 = 0
This is of the type aq2 + bq + c = 0
Where a = 4 ≠ 0, b = 0 , c = -4
∴ It is a quadratic equation.

2. Write the following quadratic equations in standard form


ax2 + bx + c = 0
7
(i) p (p-6) = 0 (ii) n 4
n
5 m2 5
(iii) 2z z 6 (iv) 3
z m2
Ans:- (i) Given equation is p (p-6) = 0
i.e. p2 – 6p = 0 i.e. p2 – 6p + 0 = 0
This is a quadratic equation in p in standard form
7
(ii) Given equation is n 4
n
i.e. n2 – 7 = 4n i.e. n2 – 4n – 7 = 0
This a quadratic equation in n in standard form.
5
(iii) 2z z 6
z
Multiply both sides by 2
∴ 2z2 – 5 = z2 – 6z
i.e. z2 + 6z – 5 = 0
This is a quadratic equation in z in standard form.
m2 5
(iv) Given equation is 3
m2
i.e. m2 + 5 = -3m2
i.e. 3m2 + m2 + 5 = 0 i.e. 4m2 + 0m + 5 = 0
This is a quadratic equation in m in standard form.

Exercise 2
1
1. Explain whether p 1, , 3 are the roots of quadratic equation
2
2p2 + 5p – 3 = 0.
Ans:- The values of p which satisfy the given quadratic equation
2p2 + 5p – 3 = 0 are the roots of quadratic equation.
i) P = 1, LHS = 2 (1)2 + 5 (1) – 3 = 4 ≠ 0
∴ LHS ≠ RHS
∴ P = 1 is not a root.
ii)
2
1 1 1
p , LHS 2 5 3
2 2 2
1 5 1 5
2 3 3 0
4 2 2 2
RHS
1
As equation is satisfied , p is a root of equation
2
iii) P = -3, LHS = 2 (-3 )2 + 5 ( -3 ) -3
= 2 × 9 – 15 – 3 = 0 = RHS
As equation is satisfied , p = -3 is a root of equation.

2. If one root of the quadratic equation x 2 - 7x + k = 0 is 4, then find the


value of k.
Ans:- As 4 is root of quadratic equation x 2 - 7x + k = 0, it will satisfy the
equation .
∴ Put x = 4 in the equation to get
42 – 7 (4) + k = 0 i.e. 16 – 28 + k = 0
∴ k = 12
Ans = K = 12

3. State whether k is a root of the equation y2 – (k – 4) y – 4 k = 0


Ans:- Quadratic equation is y2 – (k – 4) y – 4 k = 0
Put x = k in above equation
LHS = k2 – (k – 4) k – 4k = k2 – k2 + 4k – 4k = 0
= RHS
As x = k satisfies the equation , it is a root of the equation.

Exercise 3
20
1. Solve the quadratic equation x 12 0 by factorization method
x
20
Ans: Quadratic equation is x 12 0
x
2. Solve the quadratic equation 10x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 by factorization method.
Ans:- Quadratic Equation is 10x2 + 3x – 4 = 0
Split middle term 3x as 8x – 5x

3. Solve the quadratic equation x 2 3 3x 6 0 using factorization


method
Ans:- Quadratic equation is x 2 3 3x 6 0
Exercise 4

1. Solve quadratic equation x ( x – 1 ) = 1 by completing square


Ans:- Quadratic equation is x ( x – 1 ) = 1
i.e. x2 – x = 1
2
1
Third term coefficient of x
2
2
1 1
1
2 4
1
add in g both sides
4
2
2 1 1 1 5
x x 1 i.e. x
4 4 2 4
taking square roots
1 5 5
x
2 4 2
1 5 1 5
x
2 2 2
1 5 1 5
∴ roots are and
2 2

2. Solve the equation 6m2 + m = 2 by completing square


Ans:- Quadratic equation is 6m2 + m = 2
Divide both sides by 6
1 1
m2 m
6 3
2
1
Third term coefficient of m
2
2
1 1 1
2 6 144
1
add to both sides
144
1 1 1 1
m2 m
6 144 3 144
2
1 48 1 49
i.e. m
12 144 144
Taking roots on both sides
1 7
m
12 12
1 7 1 7
m or m
12 12 12 12
1 7 1 7
i.e. m or m
12 12 12 12
6 8
i.e. m or m
12 12
1 2
i.e. m or m
2 3
1 2
Thus roots are and
2 3

Exercise 6

1. Find discriminant of the quadratic equation 3 x2 2 2 x 2 3 0


Ans:- Quadratic equation is 3x 2
2 2 x 2 3 0 ……… (1)
Compare it with ax2 + bx + c = 0 to get
a 3 , b 2 2 and c 2 3
Now discriminant = ∆ = b2 – 4ac
2 2 2 4 3 2 3
4 2 8 3 8 24 32

2. Determine the nature of the roots of the equation 3y 2 +9y + 4 = 0 ,


using discriminant.
Ans:- Quadratic equation is 3y2 + 9y + 4 = 0
Compare it with ay2 + by + c = 0 to get, a = 3, b = 9, c = 4
Discriminant ∆ = b2 – 4ac = 92 – 4 (3) (4)
= 81 – 48 = 33
As ∆ > 0 , the roots of quadratic equation are real and unequal.

3. Determine the nature of the roots of quadratic equation


2x 2 5 3 x 16 0 using discriminant.
Ans:- Quadratic Equation is 2x 2 5 3x 16 0
Compare it with ax2 + bx + c = 0 to get, a = 2, b = 5 3 , c = 16
The discriminant is ∆ = b2 – 4ac
2
5 3 4 2 16
25 3 128 75 128
53
As ∆ < 0, roots are not real.
4. Find the value of k, for which the equation
( k – 12 ) x2 + 2 ( k – 12 ) x + 2 = 0 has real and equal roots.
Ans:- Quadratic equation is ( k – 12 ) x2 + 2 ( k – 12 ) x + 2 = 0
Compare it with ax2 + bx + c = 0 to get,
a = k – 12, b = 2 ( k – 12 ) , c = 2
As roots of equation are real and equal, discriminant = 0
i.e. b2 – 4ac = 0
i.e. [ 2 ( k – 12 ) ]2 – 4 ( k – 12 ) . 2 = 0
4 ( k – 12 )2 – 8 ( k – 12 ) = 0
Divide by 4 ( k – 12 )
{ ( k – 12 ) is coefficient of x2 ≠ 0 }
In a quadratic equation,
∴ k – 12 – 2 = 0 i.e. k = 14

5. Find the value of k for which equation k 2 x 2 – 2 ( k – 1 ) x + 4 = 0 has


real and equal roots.
Ans:-
Quadratic equation is
k 2x 2 –2(k–1)x+4=0
Compare it with ax 2 + bx + c = 0 to get,
a = k 2, b = -2 ( k – 1 ) and c = 4
As roots are real and equal,
discriminant = 0
i e. b2 – 4ac = 0
[ -2 ( k – 1 ) ]2 – 4 k2 ( 4 ) = 0
i.e. 4 ( k – 1 )2 – 16 k2 = 0
divide by 4
∴ ( k – 1 )2 – 4k2 = 0
i.e. k2 – 2k + 1 – 4k2 = 0
i.e. – 3k2 - 2k + 1 = 0
multiply by (-1)
∴ 3k2 + 2k – 1 = 0
i.e.3k2 + 3k – k – 1 = 0
3k(k+1)–(k+1)=0
i.e. ( k + 1 ) ( 3k – 1 ) = 0
i.e. k + 1 = 0 or 3k – 1 = 0
1
i.e. k = -1 or k
3

Exercise 5

x 1
1. Solve the equation x 2 0 , using formula method.
3
x 1
Ans:- Quadratic equation is x 2 0
3
i.e. 3x2 + x – 1 = 0
Comparing it with ax2 + bx + c = 0
To get, a = 3, b = 1, c = -1
Now b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 ( 3 ) ( -1) = 1 + 12 = 13
b b2 4ac
The roots are x
2a
1 13
6
1 13 1 13
∴ The roots of the given equation are and
6 6
2. Solve the quadratic equation 3q2 = 2q + 8 using formula method.
Ans:- Quadratic equation is 3q2 = 2q + 8
i.e. 3q2 – 2q – 8 = 0
Compare it with aq2 + bq + c = 0
To get, a=3, b= -2, c = -8
Now, b2 = 4ac = (-2)2 – 4 (3) (-8) = 4 + 96 = 100
The roots are
b b2 4ac
q
2a
2 100 2 10
2 3 6
∴ roots of quadratic equations are
2 10 2 10 12 8
and i.e. and
6 6 6 6
4
i.e. 2 and
3
Exercise 7
1. If one root of the quadratic equation kx 2 – 5x + 2 = 0 is 4 times the
other. Find k
Ans:- Given Q.E. is kx2 – 5x+ 2 = 0
Let α, β be the roots of given Q. E.
We are given α = 4 β
Now,
coefficient of x 5 5
coefficient of x2 k k
5 5
i.e. 4 i.e. 5
k k
1
i.e. ....... 1
k
cons tan t k
Also product of roots .
co efficient of x2
2 2 1
i.e. 4 . i.e. 2

k 4k 2k
1
Put from 1
k
2
1 1 1 1
i.e. 2
k 2k k 2k
k2 2k
divide by k 0
k 2

2. Find k, if the roots of the quadratic equation x 2 + kx + 40 = 0 are in the


ratio 2 : 5
Ans:- Quadratic equation is x2 + kx + 40 = 0
The roots are in the ration 2 : 5
Let roots be
α = 2m, β = 5 m
coefficient of x
sum of roots
coefficient of x2
k
2m 5m k
1
k
7m k m
7
cons tan t
Also, product of roots .
coefficient of x2
40
2m 5m
1
10m2 40
m 2
4
k
Put m
7
2
k k2
4 i.e. 4
7 49
k2 49 4 196
k 14
3. Find k, if one of the roots of quadratic equation kx 2 – 7x + 12 = 0 is 3
Ans:- The given quadratic equation is kx2 – 7x + 12 = 0
As 3 is a root of above equation,
It will satisfy the equation.
∴ put x = 3 in above equation to get
k (3)2 – 7 (3) + 12 = 0
i.e. 9k – 21 + 12 = 0 i.e. 9k = 9
k=1

4. If the roots of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 differ by 1, prove that


p2 = 1 + 4q
Ans:- Quadratic equation is x2 + px + q = 0
Roots differ by 1
Let α = β + 1
coefficient of x
now,
coefficient of x2
p
i.e. 1 i.e. 2 1 p
1
1 p
2 1 p
2
Cons tan t
Also,
Coefficient of x2
q
i.e. 1 .
1
1 p
put
2
1 p 1 p
1 . q
2 2
1 p 2 1 p
q
2 2
1 p 1 p
q
2 2
1 p2
q
4
1 p2 4q
i.e. p2 1 4q

5 Find k, if the sum of the roots of the quadratic equation


4x2 + 8kx + k + 9 = 0 is equal to their product.
Ans:- Quadratic Equation is
4x2 + 8kx + k + 9 = 0
We are given that
Sum of roots = product of roots
Coefficient of x Cons tan t
i.e. 2
Coefficient of x Coefficient of x 2
i.e. – (coefficient of x) = constant
i.e. – 8 k = k + 9
i.e. -8 K – k = 9
i.e. –9k =9
i.e. k = -1
6. If α and β are the roots of the equation x 2 – 5x + 6 = 0, find
(i) α2 + β2 (ii)

Ans:- Quadratic equation is x2 – 5x + 6 = 0


As α and β are the roots of above equation,
5 6
5 and . 6
1 1
(i) α2 + β2 = ( α + β )2 - 2α β = 52 – 2 × 6 = 25 – 12 = 13
2 2
13
(ii) from i
6

7. If one root of the quadratic equation kx 2 – 20x + 34 = 0 is 5 2 2 find k


Ans:- Quadratic Equation is kx2 – 20 x + 34 = 0
As α = 5 2 2 is a root of above equation,

β= 5 2 must be the other root


2
coeffic i e nt of x
Now, sum of roots
coefficient of x 2
20
5 2 2 5 2 2
k
20 20
i.e. 10 k 2
k 10

Exercise - 8

11
1. Form a quadratic equation with roots – 2 and .
2
11
Ans:- The given roots are α = -2 and β =
2
11 4 11 7
2 and
2 2 2
11
2 11
2
Quadratic Equation is
x2 – (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0
i.e. x2 – (α + β) x + α . β = 0
on putting the values
7
x2 x 11 0
2
Multiplying both sides by 2
∴ 2x2 – 7x – 22 = 0
This is required Q.E.

2. Form a quadratic equation if its one of the roots is 5 3


Ans:- If one of the root of a quadratic equation is 5 3 , then the other root
is 5 3
Let 5 3, 5 3
5 3 5 3 2 5
2 2
. 5 3 . 5 3 5 3 5 3 2

∴ Required quadratic equation is


x2 – ( α + β ) x + α . β = 0
i.e. x2 2 5x 2 0

3. If the sum of the roots of the quadratic equation is 3 and sum of their
cubes is 63. Find the quadratic equation.
Ans:- Suppose α, β are the roots of a quadratic equation. Then we are given
α + β = 3 and α 3 + β3 = 63
We have
(α + β) 3 = α 3 + 3 α 2β + 3 αβ2 + β3
i.e. (α + β) 3 = α 3 + 3 α β (α + β) + β3
(α + β) 3 = α 3 + β3 + 3 α β . ( α + β )
∴ 33 = 63 + 3 α β . 3
27 = 63 + 9 α β
∴ 9 α β = 27 – 63 = - 36
α β = -4
now, quadratic equation is
x2 – ( sum of roots) x + (product of roots) = 0
i.e. x2 – ( α + β ) x + α . β = 0
Put α + β = 3 and α β = - 4
∴ x2 – 3x – 4 = 0
This is the required Q.E.

4. If the difference of the roots of the quadratic equation is 5 and the


difference of the cubes is 215 , find the quadratic equation
Ans:- Suppose α, β are the roots of a quadratic equation.
We are given α – β = 5 and α3 – β3 = 215
Now, (α – β)3 = α3 - 3α2β + 3 α β2 – β3 = α3 – 3 α β ( α – β) – β3
On rearranging terms
3 α β . ( α – β) = (α3 – β3) – (α – β)3
Put α – β = 5 and α3 – β3 = 215
∴ 3 α β × 5 = 215 - 53 = 215 – 125 = 90
15 α β = 90
αβ=6
Now, ( α + β)2 = ( α – β)2 + 4 α β = 52 + 4 (6) = 25 + 24 = 49
∴α+β=±7
i.e. α + β = 7 or α + β = - 7
now, Quadratic equation is
x2 – ( α + β) x + α β = 0
# put α + β= 7 and α β = 6
∴ Q.E. is x2 – 7x + 6 = 0
# put α + β = -7 and α β = 6
∴ Q.E. is x2 – (-7) x + 6 = 0
i.e. x2 + 7x + 6 = 0
Ans: There are two such quadratic equations . They are
x2 – 7x+ 6 = 0 and x2 + 7x+ 6 = 0

Exercise 9

1. Solve: (x2 + 2x) (x2 + 2x – 11) + 24 = 0


Ans:- Equation is (x2 + 2x) (x2 + 2x – 11) + 24 = 0
Take x2 + 2x = m
∴ equation becomes
m (m – 11) + 24 = 0
m2 – 11m + 24 = 0
m – 8m – 3m + 24 = 0
m (m – 8) – 3 (m – 8) = 0
(m – 8) (m – 3) = 0
∴ m – 8 = 0 or m – 3 = 0
i.e. m = 8 or m = 3
But m = x2 + 2x
# m = 8 gives x2 + 2x = 8 i.e. x2 + 2x – 8 = 0
(x+4)(x–2)=0
i.e. x + 4 = 0 or x – 2 = 0
x = - 4 or x = 2
# m = 3 gives
x2 + 2x = 3 i.e. x2 + 2x – 3 = 0
i.e. ( x + 3 ) ( x – 1 ) = 0
i.e. x + 3 = 0 or x – 1 = 0
i.e. x = -3 or x = 1
Ans: x = -4, x = 2, x = -3 or x = 1 or S.S = {-4, -3, 1, 2}

1 1
2. Solve: 2 x2 9 x 14 0
x2 x
1 1
Ans:- Equation is 2 x2 9 x 14 0
x2 x
We know the identity
2
1 1
x 2
x 2
x2 x
2
1 1 1 1
Note: x x2 2x . x2 2
x x x2 x2
2
1 1
x2 x 2
x2 x
∴ given equation becomes
2
1 1
2 x 2 9 x 14 0
x x
1
Take x m
x
2 m2 2 9m 14 0
i.e. 2m2 – 4 – 9m + 14 = 0
2m2 – 9m + 10 = 0
2m2 – 4m – 5m + 10 = 0
2m (m – 2) – 5 (m – 2) = 0
(m – 2) . (2m – 5) = 0
i.e. m – 2 = 0 or 2m – 5 = 0
5
i.e. m = 2 or m
2
1
As m x
x
1
# m = 2 , gives x 2
x
x2 1
i.e. 2 i.e. x2 + 1 = 2x
x
i.e. x2 – 2x + 1 = 0 i.e. ( x – 1)2 = 0
i.e. x – 1 = 0 i.e. x = 1
#
5 1 5
m gives x
2 x 2
x 1 5
2
i.e. i.e. 2 x2 1 5x
x 2
i.e. 2x2 + 2 – 5x = 0
i.e. 2x2 – 5x + 2 = 0
i.e. 2x2 – x – 4x + 2 = 0
i.e. x (2x – 1) – 2 (2x – 1) = 0
i.e. (2x – 1) = 0 or (x – 2) = 0
i.e. 2x – 1 = 0 or x – 2 = 0
1
i.e. x or x 2
2
1
Ans: x 1, x , x 2
2
1
Or solution set = {1, , 2}
2
12
3. Solve : 35 y 2 44
y2
12
Ans:- Equation is 35 y 2 44
y2
Take y2 = m ∴ equation becomes
12
35m 44
m
On multiplying both sides by m, we get
35m2 + 12 = 44m i.e. 35m2 – 44m + 12 = 0
i.e. 35m2 – 14m – 30m + 12 = 0
i.e. 7m ( 5m – 2 ) – 6 ( 5m – 2 ) = 0
i.e. (5m – 2) (7m – 6) = 0
i.e. 5m – 2 = 0 or 7m – 6 = 0
2 6
i.e. m or m
5 7
As m = y2
2 2 2
# m gives y 2 y
5 5 5
6 6 6
# m gives y 2 y
7 7 7
2 6
Ans: y ,
5 7
2 6
i.e. solution set = ,
5 7

4. Solve : 3x4 – 13x2 + 10 = 0


Ans:- Equation is 3x4 – 13x2 + 10 = 0
Now x4 = x2 × x2 = ( x2) 2

∴ equation becomes
3 (x2)2 – 13x2 + 10 = 0
Take x2 = m
∴ 3m2 – 13 m + 10 = 0
i.e. 3m2 – 3m – 10m + 10 = 0
i.e. 3m ( m – 1 ) – 10 ( m – 1 ) = 0
i.e. ( m – 1 ) ( 3m -10 ) = 0
i.e. m – 1 = 0 or 3m – 10 = 0
10
i.e. m = 1 or m =
3
As m = x2
# m = 1 gives x2 = 1 ∴ x = ± 1
10 10 10
# m gives x2 x
3 3 3
10
Ans: x 1,
3

15
5. Solve : 2 y 2 12
y2
15
Ans:- Equation is 2 y 2 12
y2
Take y2 = m
15
∴ equation becomes 2m 12
m
multiplying both sides by m
2m2 + 15 = 12m
i.e. 2m2 – 12m + 15 = 0
This can not be solved by factorization method
Compare it with am2 + bm + c = 0 , to get
a = 2, b = -12, c = 15
Now, b2 – 4ac = (-12)2 – 4 (2) (15)
= 144 – 120 = 24
b b2 4ac
Roots are m
2a
12 24 12 2 6
i.e. m
2 2 4
6 6
m
2
6 6 6 6
m or m
2 2
As m y2
#
6 6 6 6
m gives y 2
2 2
6 6
y
2

#
6 6 6 6
m gives y 2
2 2
6 6
y
2
6 6 6 6
Ans: y ,
2 2

Exercise 10

1. Tinu is younger than Pinky by three years. The product of their ages is
180. Find their ages.
Ans:- Suppose Tinu’s age is x yrs.
∴ Pinky’s age = (x + 3) yrs.
The product of their ages is given to be 180 yrs.
∴ x. (x + 3) = 180
i.e. x2 + 3x – 180 = 0
∴ (x + 15) ( x – 12) = 0
∴ x = -15 or x = 12
As age can not be negative, x ≠ -15
∴ x = 12
Tinu’s age = 12 yrs.
Pinky’s age = 12 + 3 = 15 yrs.

2. A natural number is greater than twice its square root by 3. Find the
number.
Ans:- Let n be the natural number. Its square root is n . It is given that the
natural number is greater than twice its square root by 3.
i.e. n = 2 n +3
i.e. n – 3 = 2 n (note this step)
On squaring both sides
(n – 3)2 = 4n
i.e. n2 – 6n + 9 = 4n
n2 – 6n – 4n + 9 = 0 i.e. n2 – 10n + 9 = 0
(n- 1) (n – 9) = 0
i.e. n – 1 = 0 or n–9=0
i.e. n = 1 or n = 9
But n = 1 does not satisfy the condition. Hence it is rejected
∴n=9
Required natural number is 9.

Note: If we consider 1 1 , then only condition is satisfied.


Here, 1 = 2 (-1) + 3

3. A natural number is greater than the other by 5. The sum of their squares
is 73. Find those numbers.
Ans:- Let the natural numbers be x and x + 5.
According to given condition,
x2 + (x+5)2 = 73
i.e. x2 + x2 + 10x + 25 = 73
2x2 + 10x + 25 – 73 = 0
2x2 + 10x – 48 = 0
Dividing both sides by 2
x2 + 5x -24 = 0
i.e. (x +8) (x -3) = 0
x+ 8 = 0 or x – 3 = 0
i.e. x = -8 or x = 3
As x is a natural number, x ≠ -8
∴x=3
Two natural numbers are 3 and 3 +5 = 8

n n 1
4. The sum of the first n natural numbers is given by S
2
Find n if the sum (S) is 276.
n (n 1)
Ans:- We are given S 276
2
∴ n (n+1) = 276 × 2 = 552
i.e. n2 + n = 552
i.e. n2 + n -552 = 0
i.e. n2 +24n -23n -552 = 0
i.e. n(n + 24)-23(n + 24) = 0
i.e. (n + 24) (n -23) = 0
∴ n + 24 = 0 or n -23 = 0
i.e. n = -24 or n = 23
As n is a natural number , n ≠ -24
∴ n = 23
n n 1
Note: We have 276
2
i.e. n(n+1) = 2 × 276 = 552
LHS is a product of two consecutive natural numbers. We express RHS
also as product of two consecutive natural numbers.
Now, 552 = 23 × 24
∴ n (n+1) = 23 × 24
∴ n = 23 (i.e. n +1 = 24)

5. A rectangular playground is 420 sq. m .If its length is increased by 7 m


and breadth is decreased by 5 m, the area remains the same .Find the
length and breadth of the playground .
Ans:- Let x m be the length of playground whose area is 420 sq. m.
420
breadth m
x
Now length is increased by 7m and breadth is decreased by 5m.
∴ New length = (x + 7) m
420
New breadth 5 m
x
It is given that area remains the same.
420
x 7 5 420
x
x 7 420 5 x
i.e. 420
x
(x + 7 ) (420 – 5x) = 420 x
420x – 5x2 + 2940 – 35x – 420x = 0
i.e. -5x2 -35x + 2940 = 0
divide both sides by -5
∴ x2 + 7x – 588 = 0
i.e. x2 + 28x -21x -588 = 0
i.e. x(x +28) -21 (x + 28) = 0
i.e. (x + 28) (x – 21) = 0
i.e. x = -28 or x = 21
As length cannot be negative, x ≠ -28
∴ x = 21
Length = 21m
420
Breadth 20 m
21

6. If the cost of bananas is increased by Re 1 per dozen , one can get 2


dozen less for Rs. 840. Find the original cost of one dozen of banana.
Ans:- Suppose cost of one dozen banana = Rs. x
840
∴ Number of dozens for Rs. 840
x
New cost of banana after increase by 1 Re is Rs. (x + 1) per dozen
840
∴ Number of dozens for Rs. 840
x 1
As per given condition
840 840
2
x x 1
840 x 1 840 x
2
x x 1
On cross multiplying
i.e. 2x.(x+1) = 840x + 840 – 840x
i.e. 2x2 + 2x = 840
i.e. 2x2 + 2x -840 = 0
divide by 2
i.e. x2 + x -420 =0
i.e. x2 + 21x -20x -420 = 0
i.e. x(x + 21) – 20 (x + 21) = 0
i.e. (x +21) (x -20)=0
i.e. x + 21 = 0 or x – 20 = 0
i.e. x = -21 or x = 20
But number of dozens cannot be negative
∴ x ≠ -21 ∴ x = 20
Cost of one dozen of banana = Rs. 20 /-
Miscellaneous Sums

1. Form an equation for the following


The ten’s place digit in a two digit number is greater than the square of
digit at unit’s place (x) by 5 and the number formed is 61.
Ans:-
As unit’s place digit is x, as per given condition ten’s place digit = x 2 +5
As weightage of that place is 10, the number formed is 10 ( x 2 +5)+x
But it is given to be 61
∴ equation is 10 ( x 2 + 5 ) + x = 61

2. Find m if roots of a quadratic equation ( m + 1 ) x 2 –2(m–1)x+1=


0 are real and equal
Ans:-
Quadratic equation is
(m+1)x 2 –2(m–1)x+1=0
Comparing with the standard equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , we get
a = m + 1, b = – 2 ( m – 1 ), c = 1
we have
∆=b 2 – 4ac
=[-2(m–1)] 2 – 4 ( m + 1 ) (1)
=4(m 2 – 2m + 1 ) – 4m - 4
= 4m 2 – 8m + 4 – 4m – 4
∆ = 4m 2 – 12m ---------- (1)
We are given that the given equation has real and equal roots
∴∆=0
∴ 4m 2 – 12m = 0
∴ 4m ( m – 3 ) = 0
∴ 4m = 0 or m – 3 = 0
∴ m = 0 or m = 3
3. If α and β are the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 find the value
of

Ans:-
Quadratic equation is
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
As α and β are the roots of the equation
b c
and
a a
2 2
and
2 2 2
We have , ( 2
2
( 2

2
b c b2 2c
2
a a a2 a
c c
a a
b2 2ac a b2 2ac
2
a c ac
2
b 2ac
ac

4. If one root of the quadratic equation x 2 + 6x + k = 0 is h 2 6 , find k.


Ans:-
Quadratic equation is
x 2 + 6x + k = 0
Given that h 2 6 is one root
∴ the second root is h 2 6
∴α= h 2 6 and β = h 2 6
∴α+β= h 2 6 + h 2 6 = 2h ----------- (1)
Comparing with ax 2 + bx + c = 0, we get
a = 1, b = 6, c = k
b 6
6 (2)
a 1
∴ from (1) and (2)
2h = - 6 ∴h=-3
c
Again
a
k
h 2 6 h 2 6
1
h2 24 k
( 3) 2 24 k
k 9 24 15
∴ h = – 3 and k = – 15

1 1
5. Solve the quadratic equation by factorization method.
x 2 x2
Ans:- Quadratic equation is
1 1
x 2 x2
On cross multiplying we get
x 2 = x + 2 i.e. x 2 –x–2=0
i.e. x 2 – 2x + x – 2 = 0
i.e. x ( x – 2 ) + 1 ( x – 2 ) = 0
i.e. ( x – 2 ) ( x + 1 ) = 0
i.e. x = 2 or x = – 1
Thus, roots of the quadratic equation are 2 and – 1

6. Solve the quadratic equation ( 2y + 3 ) 2 = 81 by factorization method


Ans:- Quadratic equation is
( 2y + 3 ) 2 = 81
i.e. ( 2y + 3 ) 2 – 81 = 0
i.e. ( 2y + 3 ) 2 –9 2 =0
i.e. ( 2y + 3 – 9 ) ( 2y + 3 + 9 ) = 0
i.e. ( 2y – 6 ) ( 2y + 12 ) = 0
i.e. 2y – 6 = 0 or 2y + 12 = 0
i.e. y = 3 or y = – 6
Roots are 3 and – 6

5
7. Form the quadratic equation whose roots are – 3 and
2
5
Ans:- Let α = – 3 and β = be the given roots of a quadratic equation in x.
2
5 1
2 2
5 15
and 3
2 2
Now, quadratic equation is
x – ( sum of roots ) x + ( product of roots ) = 0
2

1 15
i.e. x 2 x 0
2 2
Multiplying both sides by 2
∴ 2x 2 + x – 15 = 0 is required quadratic equation

8. Form a quadratic equation if one of the roots is 3 2 3


Ans:- Let α = 3 2 3 be the given root. Then other root must be 3 2 3
∴α+β= 3 2 3 + 3 2 3 =6
αβ = ( 3 2 3 ) ( 3 2 3 ) = 3 2 – (2 3 ) 2 = 9 – 12 = – 3
∴ quadratic equation is
x 2 – ( sum of roots ) x + ( product of roots ) = 0
i.e. x 2 – 6x – 3 = 0

9. If α, β are the roots of the equation 4x 2 – 5x + 2 = 0, find the equation


whose roots are
i) α + 3β and 3α + β
ii) and
2 2
iii) and

1 1
iv) and

Ans:-
As roots of 4x 2 – 5x + 2 = 0 are α and β
( 5) 5
4 4
2 1
4 2
i) Required quadratic equation has roots α + 3β and β + 3α
sum of roots = α + 3β + β + 3α = 4α + 4β = 4 ( α + β )
5
=4× =5
4
product of roots ( ) 3 2 9 2

2 2
3[ ( 2 ( 6
2
2 5 1
( 4 3 4
4 2
25 75 32 107
3 2
16 16 16
Now, required quadratic equation is
x 2 – ( sum of roots ) x + ( product of roots ) = 0
on putting values, we get
107
x 2 5x 0 i.e. 16x 2 80x 107 0
16
ii) Required quadratic equation has roots and
2 2
( )2 2
sum of roots
2
5 1 25
2 1
4 2 16 9 9
2
1 1 16 8
2 2
product of roots 1

Required quadratic equation is


x 2– ( sum of roots ) x + ( product of roots ) = 0
9
i.e. x 2 x 1 0
8
i.e. 8x 2 9x 8 0
2 2
iii) Required quadratic equation has roots and
2 2 3 3 3
( 3
sum of roots

3 3 3
( 3
3 3 3
( 3
3
5 1 5 125 15 125 120
3
4 2 4 64 8 64 5 5
sum of roots 2
1 1 1 64 32
2 2 2
Also,
2 2
1
product of roots
2
Required quadratic equation is
x 2– ( sum of roots ) x + ( product of roots ) = 0
5 1
i.e. x 2 x 0
32 2
i.e. 32x 2 5x 16 0

1 1
iv) Roots of required quadratic equation are and

1 1 1 1
sum of roots (

5 5/ 4 5 5 5 10 15
2
4 1/ 2 4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1
product of roots

2 2
1 ( )2 2 1

1 25
(5 / 4 ) 2 2 1
1 2 1 1 16 1 9
2 2 2
2 1/ 2 1/ 2 2 1/ 2 2 16
1 9 29
2
2 8 8

Required quadratic equation is


x 2– ( sum of roots ) x + ( product of roots ) = 0
15 29
i.e. x 2 x 0
4 8
i.e. 8x 2 30x 29 0

10. If the difference between the roots of the quadratic equation is 3 and
difference of their cubes is 189, find the quadratic equation
Ans:- Let α and β be the roots of the equation
∴α–β=3 and α 3 –β 3 = 189
We have
α 3 –β 3 =(α–β) 3 +3αβ(α–β)
∴ 189 = (3) 3 +3 α β ( 3)
∴ 189 = 27 + 9 α β
∴ 9 α β = 189 – 27
162
∴αβ=
9
∴ α β = 18
Now,
(α + β) 2 = (α - β) 2 +4αβ
∴ (α + β) 2 =3 2 + 4 × 18
∴ (α + β) 2 = 9 + 72 = 81
∴α+β=±9
∴ The required quadratic equation is
x 2 –(α+β)x+αβ=0
∴x 2 – ( ± 9x ) + 18 = 0
∴x 2 – 9x + 18 = 0 and x 2 + 9x + 18 = 0
are the equations.

11. If α + β = 5 and α 3 +β 3 = 35, find the quadratic equation whose roots


are α and β.
Ans:- We are given
α + β = 5 and α 3 +β 3 = 35
α 3 +β 3 =(α+β) 3 -3αβ(α+β)
∴ 35 = 5 3 – 3 α β (5)
∴ 35 = 125 - 15 α β
∴ 15αβ = 90
∴αβ=6
As α, β are roots of quadratic equation, the required quadratic equation
is
x 2 – (α + β ) x + α β = 0
i.e. x 2 – 5x + 6 = 0

12. If the difference of the roots of the quadratic equation is 4 and difference
of their cubes is 208, find the quadratic equation.
Ans:- Let α and β be the roots of the equation
∴α–β=4 and α 3 –β 3 = 208
We have
α 3 –β 3 =(α–β) 3 +3αβ(α–β)
∴ 208 = (4) 3 +3 α β (4 )
∴ 208 = 64 + 12 α β
∴ 12 α β = 208 – 64 = 144
∴ α β = 12
Now,
(α + β) 2 = (α - β) 2 +4αβ
∴ (α + β) 2 =4 2 + 4 × 12
∴ (α + β) 2 = 16 + 48 = 64
∴α+β=±8
∴ The required quadratic equation is
x 2 –(α+β)x+αβ=0
∴x 2 – ( ± 8x ) + 12 = 0
∴x 2 – 8x + 12 = 0 and x 2 + 8x + 12= 0
are the required equations.

13. If one root of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 is the square of


the other, show that b3 +a 2 c +ac 2 = 3 abc
Ans:- Quadratic equation is ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Let first root be α. Then second root must be its square i.e. α 2
coeff of x
sum of roots
coeff of x 2
2 b
(1)
a
constant
product of roots
coeff of x 2
2 c c
i.e. 3 (2)
a a
To get the required result, we have to eliminate α from (1) and (2)
On cubing both sides of (1), we get
3
2 3 b
a
3 2 2 2 3 b3
i.e. 3 ( ) ( )
a3
3
using a b a3 3ab ( a b ) b3

3 3 2 6 b3
i.e. 3 ( )
a3
6 3
now , ( )2
3 3 2 3 b3
3 ( ) ( )2
a3
Put values from (1) and (2) to get
2
c c b c b3
3
a a a a a3
c 3bc c2 b3
i.e.
a a2 a2 a3
multiply both sides by a 3 to get
a 2 c – 3abc + ac 2 =-b 3

on rearranging terms we get


b3 + a 2 c +ac 2 = 3 abc

1 1 1
14. If the sum of the roots of the quadratic equation is zero.
x p x q r
2 2
(p q )
Show that the product of the roots is
2
Ans:- Quadratic equation is
1 1 1
x p x q r
x q x p 1
i.e.
x q x p r
i.e. ( 2x p q ) r x q x p
2
i.e. 2x r pr qr x px qx pq
2
i.e. x ( p q 2r ) x pq pr qr 0
If α and β are the roots of the above equation then
( p q 2r )
( p q 2r )
1
We are given
α+β=0
∴ - ( p + q – 2r ) = 0
∴ p + q = 2r
p q
r (1)
2
Now,
pq pr qr
product of roots
1
pq r (p q)
p q
pq ( p q) ......... from (1)
2
( p q) 2 2pq ( p 2 q 2 2pq )
pq
2 2
2
(p q2)
2

15. Solve the equation : x 4 – 29x 2 + 100 = 0


Ans:- equation is
x 4 – 29x 2 + 100 = 0
i.e. ( x 2 ) 2 – 29x 2 + 100 = 0
put x 2 =m
Thus the equation becomes
m 2 – 29 m + 100 = 0
i.e. m 2 – 25m – 4m + 100 = 0
i.e. m ( m – 25 ) – 4 ( m – 25 ) = 0
i.e. ( m – 4 ) ( m – 25 ) = 0
i.e. m = 4 or m = 25.
i.e. x 2 = 4 or x 2 = 25
∴ x = ± 2 or x = ± 5
Thus the roots are 2, - 2, 5, - 5

16. Solve : 7y 4 – 25y 2 + 12 = 0


Ans:- equation is
7y 4 – 25y 2 + 12 = 0
i.e. 7 ( y 2 ) 2 – 25y 2 + 12 = 0
put y 2 =m
i.e. 7m 2 – 25m + 12 = 0
7m 2 - 21m – 4m + 12 = 0
7m ( m – 3 ) – 4 ( m – 3 ) = 0
( 7m – 4 ) ( m – 3 ) = 0
Hence, 7m – 4 = 0 or m – 3 = 0
Thus, m = 4 / 7 or m=3
4
i.e. y 2 3 or y 2
7
2
i.e. y 3 or y
7
2 2
The roots are 3, 3, ,
7 7

2
17. Solve : 6 m 2 7
m2
Ans:- equation is
2
6m 2 7
m2
i.e. 6 m 4 2 7 m 2
i.e. 6 m 4 7m 2 2 0
i.e. 6 (m 2 ) 2 – 7m 2 +2=0
put m 2 =x
thus the equation becomes
6x 2 – 7x + 2 = 0
6x 2 – 3x – 4x + 2 = 0
i.e. 3x ( 2x – 1 ) – 2 ( 2x – 1 ) = 0
i.e. ( 3x – 2 ) ( 2x – 1 ) = 0
∴ 3x – 2 = 0 or 2x – 1 = 0
i.e. x = 2 / 3 or x = 1 / 2
2 1
m2 or m 2
3 2
2 1
m or m
3 2
2 2 1 1
Hence , , , are the roots.
3 3 2 2

18. Solve the equation : ( p 2 +p)(p 2 + p – 3 ) = 28


Ans:- equation is
(p 2 +p)(p 2 + p – 3 ) = 28
Put p 2 +p=m
Hence, the equation becomes
m ( m – 3 ) = 28
i.e. m 2 – 3m – 28 = 0
i.e. m 2 – 7m + 4m – 28 = 0
i.e. m ( m – 7 ) + 4 ( m – 7 ) = 0
i.e. ( m + 4 ) ( m – 7 ) = 0
i.e. m = - 4 or m = 7
∴p 2 +p=-4 or p 2 +p=7
i.e. p 2 +p+4=0 or p 2 +p–7=0

consider p 2 +p+4=0
comparing with ap 2 + bp + c = 0
a = 1, b = 1, c = 4
b b 2 4ac
p
2a
1 1 4(1) (4) 1 15
2(1) 2
The roots are not real numbers.

consider p 2 +p-7=0
comparing with ap 2 + bp + c = 0
a = 1, b = 1, c = - 7
b b 2 4ac
p
2a
1 1 4(1) ( 7) 1 29
2(1) 2
1 29 1 29
Thus, the roots are and
2 2

1 1
19. Solve the equation : 3 x 2 4 x 6 0
x2 x
Ans:- equation is
1 1
3 x2 4 x 6 0
x2 x
1
put x m
x
now
2
2 1 1
x x 2 m2 2
x2 x
Hence, the given equation becomes
3(m 2 + 2 ) – 4m – 6 = 0
i.e. 3m 2 + 6 – 4m – 6 = 0
i.e. 3m 2 – 4m = 0
i.e. m ( 3m – 4 ) = 0
i.e. m = 0 or 3m – 4 = 0
∴m=0 or m=4/3
Hence,
1 1 4
x 0 or x
x x 3
2
x 1 4
i.e. x 2 1 0 or
x 3
i.e. x 2 1 or 3( x 2
1) 4x
∴ x = ± 1 or 3x 2 – 4x – 3 = 0
Consider 3x 2 – 4x – 3 = 0
comparing with ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a = 3, b = - 4, c = - 3
b b 2 4ac
x
2a
( 4) ( 4) 2 4 (3) ( 3) 4 16 36
2 (3) 6
4 52 4 2 13 2 (2 13 ) 2 13
6 6 6 3
2 13 2 13
Hence, the roots are 1, - 1, ,
3 3

1 1
20. Solve the equation : 9 x 2 3 x 20 0
x2 x
Ans:- equation is
1 1
9 x2 3 x 20 0
x2 x
1
put x m
x
now
2
2 1 1
x x 2 m2 2
x2 x
Hence, the given equation becomes
9(m 2 + 2 ) – 3m – 20 = 0
i.e. 9m 2 + 18 – 3m – 20 = 0
i.e. 9m 2 – 3m – 2 = 0
i.e. 9m 2 – 6m + 3m – 2 = 0
i.e. 3m ( 3m – 2 ) +1 ( 3m – 2 ) = 0
i.e. ( 3m + 1 ) ( 3m – 2 ) = 0
i.e. ( 3m + 1 ) = 0 or ( 3m – 2 ) = 0
∴m=-1/3 or m=2/3
1 1 1 2
x or x
x 3 x 3
2 2
x 1 1 x 1 2
i.e. or
x 3 x 3
2 2
i.e. 3( x 1) x or 3( x 1) 2x
i.e. 3x 2 x 3 0 or 3x 2 2x 3 0

Consider 3x 2 +x–3=0
comparing with ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a = 3, b = 1, c = - 3
b b 2 4ac
x
2a
1 1 2 4 (3) ( 3) 1 1 36 1 37
2 (3) 6 6

Consider 3x 2 - 2x – 3 = 0
comparing with ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a = 3, b = - 2, c = - 3
b b 2 4ac
x
2a
( 2) ( 2) 2 4 (3) ( 3) 2 4 36 2 40
2 (3) 6 6
2 2 10 2 (1 10 ) 1 10
6 6 3

1 37 1 10
Hence, the roots are ,
6 3
1 1
21. Solve the equation : 30 x 2 77 x 12 0
x2 x
Ans:- equation is
1 1
30 x 2 77 x 12 0
x2 x
1
put x m
x
now
2
2 1 1
x x 2 m2 2
x2 x
Hence, the given equation becomes
30 ( m 2 + 2 ) – 77m – 12 = 0
i.e. 30m 2 + 60 – 77m – 12 = 0
i.e. 30m 2 – 77m + 48 = 0
i.e. 30m 2 – 45m – 32m + 48 = 0
i.e. 15m ( 2m – 3 ) – 16 ( 2m – 3 ) = 0
i.e. ( 15m - 16 ) ( 2m – 3 ) = 0
i.e. ( 15m - 16 ) = 0 or ( 2m – 3 ) = 0
∴ m = 16 / 15 or m=3/2

1 16 1 3
x or x
x 15 x 2
2 2
x 1 16 x 1 3
i.e. or
x 15 x 2
2
i.e. 15 ( x 1) 16 x or 2 ( x 2 1) 3x
i.e. 15x 2 16 x 15 0 or 2x 2 3x 2 0

Consider 15x 2 - 16x – 15 = 0


i.e. 15x 2 – 25x + 9x – 15 = 0
i.e. 5x ( 3x – 5 ) + 3 ( 3x – 5 ) = 0
i.e. ( 5x + 3 ) ( 3x - 5 ) = 0
i.e. 5x + 3 = 0 or 3x – 5 = 0
i.e. x = - 3 / 5 or x=5/3

Consider 2x 2 - 3x – 2 = 0
i.e. 2x 2 - 4x + x – 2 = 0
i.e. 2x ( x – 2 ) + 1( x – 2 ) = 0
i.e. ( 2x + 1 ) ( x – 2 ) = 0
i.e. 2x + 1 = 0 or x–2=0
i.e. x = - 1 / 2 or x=2
Hence, the roots are – 3/ 5, 5 / 3, - 1/ 2, 2

1 1
22. Solve the equation : 12 x 2 56 x 89 0
x2 x
Ans:- equation is
1 1
12 x 2 56 x 89 0
x2 x
1
put x m
x
now
2
2 1 1
x x 2 m2 2
x2 x
Hence, the given equation becomes
12 ( m 2 - 2 ) – 56m + 89 = 0
i.e. 12m 2 - 24 – 56m + 89 = 0
i.e. 12m 2 – 56m + 65 = 0
i.e. 12m 2 – 30m – 26m + 65 = 0
i.e. 6m ( 2m – 5 ) – 13 ( 2m – 5 ) = 0
i.e. ( 6m - 13 ) ( 2m – 5 ) = 0
i.e. ( 6m - 13 ) = 0 or ( 2m – 5 ) = 0
∴ m = 13 / 6 or m=5/2

1 13 1 5
x or x
x 6 x 2
2 2
x 1 13 x 1 5
i.e. or
x 6 x 2
2
i.e. 6 ( x 1) 13 x or 2 ( x 2 1) 5x
i.e. 6x 2 13 x 6 0 or 2x 2 5x 2 0

Consider 6x 2 - 13x + 6 = 0
i.e. 6x 2 – 9x - 4x + 6 = 0
i.e. 3x ( 2x – 3 ) - 2 ( 2x – 3 ) = 0
i.e. ( 3x - 2 ) ( 2x - 3 ) = 0
i.e. 3x - 2 = 0 or 2x – 3 = 0
i.e. x = 2 / 3 or x=3/2
Consider 2x 2 - 5x + 2 = 0
i.e. 2x 2 - 4x - x + 2 = 0
i.e. 2x ( x – 2 ) – 1 ( x – 2 ) = 0
i.e. ( 2x - 1 ) ( x – 2 ) = 0
i.e. 2x - 1 = 0 or x–2=0
i.e. x = 1 / 2 or x=2

Thus the roots are 2 /3, 3 / 2, 1 / 2, 2

23. Solve the equation : ( y 2 + 5y ) ( y 2 + 5y – 2 ) – 24 = 0


Ans:- equation is
(y 2 + 5y ) ( y 2 + 5y – 2 ) – 24 = 0
Put y 2 + 5y = m
Hence, the equation becomes
m ( m – 2 ) – 24 = 0
i.e. m 2 – 2m – 24 = 0
i.e. m 2 – 6m + 4m – 24 = 0
i.e. m ( m – 6 ) + 4 ( m – 6 ) = 0
i.e. ( m + 4 ) ( m – 6 ) = 0
i.e. m = - 4 or m = 6
∴y 2 + 5y = - 4 or y 2 + 5y = 6
i.e. y 2 + 5y + 4 = 0 or y 2 + 5y – 6 = 0

consider y 2 + 5y + 4 = 0
i.e. y 2 + 4y + y + 4 = 0
i.e. y ( y + 4 ) + 1 ( y + 4 ) = 0
i.e. ( y + 1 ) ( y + 4 ) = 0
i.e. y = - 1 or y = - 4

consider y 2 + 5y – 6 = 0
i.e. y 2 + 6y – y – 6 = 0
i.e. y ( y + 6 ) – 1 ( y + 6 ) = 0
i.e. ( y + 6 ) ( y – 1 ) = 0
i.e. y = - 6 or y = 1
hence, the roots are – 1, - 4, - 6, 1

24. Solve : 2( y 2 – 6y ) 2 –8(y 2 – 6y + 3 ) – 40 = 0


Ans:- equation is
2( y 2 – 6y ) 2 –8(y 2 – 6y + 3 ) – 40 = 0
Put y 2 – 6y = m
The equation becomes
2m 2 – 8 ( m + 3 ) – 40 = 0
i.e. 2m 2 – 8m - 24 – 40 = 0
i.e. 2m 2 – 8m - 64 = 0
i.e. m 2 – 4m - 32 = 0
i.e. m 2 – 8m + 4m - 32 = 0
i.e. m ( m – 8 ) + 4 ( m – 8 ) = 0
i.e. ( m + 4 ) ( m – 8 ) = 0
i.e. m + 4 = 0 or m–8=0
i.e. m = - 4 or m = 8
Hence,
y 2 – 6y = - 4 or y 2 – 6y = 8
i.e. y 2 – 6y + 4 = 0 or y 2 – 6y – 8 = 0

consider y 2 – 6y + 4 = 0
comparing with ay 2 + by + c = 0 to get,
a = 1, b = - 6, c = 4
b b 2 4ac
y
2a
( 6) ( 6) 2 4 (1) (4) 6 36 16
2(1) 2
6 20 6 2 5 2(3 5)
3 5
2 2 2
consider y 2 – 6y – 8 = 0
comparing with ay 2 + by + c = 0 to get,
a = 1, b = - 6, c = - 8
b b 2 4ac
y
2a
( 6) ( 6 ) 2 4 (1) ( 8) 6 36 32
2(1) 2
6 68 6 2 17 2(3 17 )
3 17
2 2 2
The roots are 3 5 and 3 17

25. Three consecutive odd natural numbers are such that the product of the
first and third is greater than four times the middle by 1. Find the
numbers.
Ans:- Let x be an odd natural number.
∴ x, x + 2, x + 4 are consecutive odd natural numbers.
We are given
x(x+4)=4(x+2)+1
∴x 2 + 4x = 4x + 8 + 1
∴x 2 =9
i.e. x = ± 3
i.e. x = 3 or x = - 3
but – 3 is not a natural number. Hence x = 3
thus, the numbers are 3, 5, 7

26. In garden there are some rows and columns. The number of trees in a
row is greater than that in each column by 10. Find the number of trees
in each row if the total number of trees is 200.
Ans:- Let the number of trees in each column = x
∴ the number of trees in each row = x + 10
We are given
x ( x + 10 ) = 200
i.e. x 2 + 10x – 200 = 0
i.e. x 2 + 20x – 10x – 200 = 0
i.e. x ( x + 20 ) – 10 ( x + 20 ) = 0
i.e. ( x – 10 ) ( x + 20 ) = 0
∴ x = 10 or x = - 20
Number of trees cannot be negative, hence we discard x = - 20
Hence, number of trees in each column = 10
And number of trees in each row = 20

27. One diagonal of a rhombus is greater than other by 4 cm. If the area of
the rhombus is 96 cm 2, find the side of the rhombus.
Ans:- Let one diagonal = x cm
∴ The other diagonal is ( x + 4 ) cm
1
Area of the rhombus ( product of diagoals )
2
1
96 x ( x 4)
2
∴ x (x + 4 ) = 192
∴x 2 + 4x – 192 = 0
∴x 2 + 16x – 12x – 192 = 0
∴ x ( x + 16 ) – 12 ( x + 16 ) = 0
∴ ( x – 12 ) ( x + 16 ) = 0
∴ x = 12 or x = - 16
As length cannot be negative, x ≠ -16
∴ x = 12

Let diagonal BD = 12
∴ diagonal AC = 12 + 4 = 16
Diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.
Hence, AM = 8 and BM = 6
In right triangle AMB
AB 2 = AM 2 + BM 2

∴ AB 2 = 64 + 36 = 100
∴ AB = 10
Length of side of the rhombus is 10 cm
28. A man riding on a bicycle covers a distance of 60 km in a direction of
wind and comes back to his original position in 8 hours. If the speed of
the wind is 10 km/hr, find the speed of the bicycle.
Ans:- Let the speed of the bicycle be x km/hr
Speed of wind = 10 km/hr
∴speed in the direction of the wind = ( x + 10 ) km/hr
and speed in the direction opposite to wind = ( x - 10 ) km/hr
Now,
distance
time
speed
Thus, from the given conditions
60 60
8
x 10 x 10
60 ( x 10 ) 60 ( x 10 )
i.e. 8
( x 10 ) ( x 10 )
i.e. 60 ( x 10 x 10 ) 8( x 10 ) ( x 10 )
i.e. 15 ( 2x ) = 2 ( x 2 – 100 )
∴ 30x = 2x 2 – 200
∴ 2x 2 – 30x – 200 = 0
∴x 2 – 15x – 100 = 0
∴x 2 – 20x + 5x – 100 = 0
∴ x ( x – 20 ) + 5 ( x – 20 ) = 0
∴ ( x + 5 ) ( x – 20 ) = 0
∴x+5=0 and x – 20 = 0
∴x=-5 and x = 20
Now x cannot be negative, hence x = 20
∴ speed of bicycle = 20 km/hr

29. The sum of four times a number and three times its reciprocal is 7. Find
that number.
Ans:- Let the number be x.
Then we are given
1
4x 3 7
x
i.e. 4x 2 3 7x
i.e. 4x 2 – 7x + 3 = 0
i.e. 4x 2 – 4x – 3x + 3 = 0
i.e. 4x ( x – 1) – 3 ( x - 1 ) = 0
i.e. ( 4x – 3 ) ( x – 1 ) = 0
∴ 4x – 3 = 0 or x–1=0
∴x=3/4 or x=1
3
The numbers are and 1
4

30. For doing some work Ganesh takes 10 days more than John. If both work
together they complete the work in 12 days. Find the number of days if
Ganesh worked alone.
Ans:- Let John take x days to complete the work, thus Ganesh will require
( x + 10 ) days to complete the work.
1
Now, work completed by John in one day =
x
1
and work completed by Ganesh in one day =
x 10
1 1
thus, work done by John and Ganesh in one day =
x x 10
now, they complete the work in 12 days
1 1
12 1
x x 10
x 10 x
12 1
x ( x 10 )
12 ( 2x 10 ) x ( x 10 )
24x 120 x2 10x
2
i.e. x 14x 120 0
i.e. x 2 – 20x + 6x – 120 = 0
i.e. x ( x – 20 ) + 6 ( x – 20 ) = 0
i.e. ( x + 6 ) ( x – 20 ) = 0
i.e. x + 6 = 0 or x - 20 = 0
∴x=-6 or x = 20
Now x cannot be negative, hence x = 20
Thus, number of days taken by Ganesh to complete the work alone is
20 + 10 = 30

31. A natural number is greater than three times its square root by 4. Find
the number.
Ans:- Let the natural number be x.
We are given
x= 3 x + 4
i.e. x – 4 = 3 x
on squaring both sides
(x–4)2=(3 x )2
i.e. x 2 – 8x + 16 = 9x
i.e. x 2 – 17x + 16 = 0
i.e. x 2 – 16x – x + 16 = 0
i.e. x ( x - 16 ) – ( x – 16 ) = 0
i.e. ( x – 16 ) ( x – 1 ) = 0
∴ x – 16 = 0 or x – 1 = 0
∴ x = 16 or x = 1.
Now, x = 1 does not satisfy the given condition, hence the required
natural number is 16.

32. The sum of the areas of two squares is 400 sq. m. If the difference
between their perimeters is 16m, find the sides of two squares.
Ans:- Let the side of smaller square be x m. Then the perimeter of the square is
4x.
Now perimeter of the second square is 4x + 16
Hence a side of the greater square is
4x 16
=(x+4)m
4
Area of first square = x 2

Area of second square = ( x + 4 ) 2 =x 2 + 8x + 16


We are given
Sum of areas = 400
∴ x 2+ x 2 + 8x + 16 = 400
∴ 2x 2 + 8x – 384 = 0
∴x 2 + 4x – 192 = 0
∴x 2 + 16x - 12x – 192 = 0
∴ x ( x + 16 ) – 12 ( x + 16 ) = 0
∴ ( x – 12 ) ( x + 16 ) = 0
∴ x – 12 = 0 and x + 16 = 0
∴ x = 12 or x = - 16
Now side of a square cannot be negative
Hence, side of smaller square = 12 m and side of greater square = 16 m

33. Exterior angle of a regular polygon having n – sides is more that of the
polygon having n 2 sides by 50 ˚. Find the number of the sides of each
polygon.
Ans:- Sum of all exterior angles of any polygon is 360˚.
A n sided polygon has n exterior angles. As it is a regular polygon all
exterior angles are of equal measure.
360
Hence, the measure of each exterior angle of n sided polygon is
n
Similarly, the measure if each exterior angle of a regular polygon having
360
n side is
2
n2
We are given
360 360
50
n n2
360n 360
50
n2
360n 360 50 n 2
∴ 50n 2 – 360n + 360 = 0
Divide by 10
5n 2 – 36n + 36 = 0
∴ 5n 2 – 30n – 6n + 36 = 0
5n ( n – 6 ) – 6 ( n 6 ) = 0
∴ ( 5n – 6 ) ( n – 6 ) = 0
∴ 5n – 6 = 0 or n–6=0
∴n=6/5 or n=6
Now, number of sides cannot be 6 / 5, hence n = 6
Number of sides of one polygon = 6
Number of sides of other polygon = 6 2 = 36

34. Tinu takes 9 days more than his father to do a certain piece of work.
Together they can do the work in 6 days. How many days will Tinu take to
do that work alone ?
Ans:- Let Tinu take x days to complete the work, thus her father will require
( x - 9 ) days to complete the work.
1
Now, work completed by Tinu in one day =
x
1
and work completed by her father in one day =
x 9
1 1
thus, work done by Tinu and her father in one day =
x x 9
now, they complete the work in 6 days
1 1
6 1
x x 9
x 9 x
6 1
x ( x 9)
6 ( 2x 9 ) x ( x 9)
i.e. 12x – 54 = x 2 – 9x
i.e. x 2 – 21x + 54 = 0
i.e. x 2 – 18x - 3x + 54 = 0
i.e. x ( x – 18 ) - 3 ( x – 18 ) = 0
i.e. ( x - 3 ) ( x – 18 ) = 0
i.e. x – 3 = 0 or x - 18 = 0
∴x=3 or x = 18
Now x = 3 does not satisfy the given condition, hence x = 18
Thus, number of days taken by Tinu to complete the work alone = 18

35. The sum of the squares of five consecutive natural numbers is 1455. Find
the numbers.
Ans:- Let x, x + 1, x + 2, x + 3, x + 4 be the five consecutive numbers.
We are given
x 2 +(x+1) 2 + ( x + 2) 2 +(x+3) 2 +(x+4) 2 = 1455
∴x 2 +x 2 + 2x + 1 + x 2 + 4x + 4 + x 2 + 6x + 9 + x 2 + 8x + 16 =
1455
∴ 5x 2 + 20x + 30 = 1455
∴ 5x 2 + 20x – 1425 = 0
∴x 2 + 4x – 285 = 0
∴x 2 + 19x – 15x – 285 = 0
∴ x ( x + 19 ) – 15 ( x + 19 ) = 0
∴ ( x – 15 ) ( x + 19 ) = 0
∴ x = 15 and x = - 19
As x is a natural number it cannot be negative, hence x ≠ -19
∴ x = 15
Thus the numbers are 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19.

36. The side of one regular hexagon is larger than that of the other regular
hexagon by 1 cm. If the product of their areas is 243, then find the sides
of both the regular hexagons.
Ans:- Let the side of the smaller regular hexagon be x cm.
Then the side of the larger hexagon is ( x + 1 ) cm
Area of smaller hexagon is
3 3 3 3 2
( side ) 2 x
2 2
Area of greater hexagon is
3 3 3 3
( side ) 2 ( x 1) 2
2 2
We are given
Product of areas = 243
3 3 2 3 3
x ( x 1) 2 243
2 2
27
x 2 ( x 1) 2 243
4
4
x 2 ( x 1) 2 243
27
2 2
x ( x 1) 36
∴x(x+1)=±6
∴ x ( x + 1 ) = 6 or x ( x + 1 ) = - 6
∴x 2 +x=6 or x 2 +x=-6
∴x 2 +x–6=0 or x 2 +x+6=0

Consider x 2 +x–6=0
i.e. x 2 + 3x – 2x – 6 = 0
i.e. x ( x + 3 ) – 2 ( x + 3 ) = 0
i.e. ( x – 2 ) ( x + 3 ) = 0
∴x–2=0 or x+3=0
∴x=2 or x=-3
As side cannot be negative, x ≠ -3
∴x=2
Consider x 2 +x+6=0
comparing with ax 2 + bx + c = 0 to get
a = 1, b = 1, c = 6
here b 2 4ac 1 2 4(1) 6 1 24 23 0
roots are not real
∴ x = 2 is the only root
Answer :- Side of a smaller hexagon = 2 cm
Side of a greater hexagon = 2 + 1 = 3 cm

1
37. Two years ago my age was 4 times the age of my son. Six years ago,
2
my age was twice the square of the age of my son. What is the present
age of my son.
Ans:- Let the present age of the son be x years.
Age of son 2 years ago = ( x – 2 ) years
1 9
∴ Age of father 2 years back = 4 ( x 2) ( x 2)
2 2
∴ present age of father =
9 9(x 2) 4 9x 18 4 9x 14
( x 2) 2
2 2 2 2
Age of son 6 years ago = ( x – 6 ) years
9x 14 9x 14 12 9x 26
Age of father 6 years ago = 6 years
2 2 2
We are given
9x 26
=2(x–6) 2
2
i.e. 9x – 26 = 4 ( x 2 – 12x + 36 )
i.e. 9x – 26 = 4x 2 – 48x + 144
i.e. 4x 2 – 57x + 170 = 0
i.e. 4x 2 – 40x – 17x + 170 = 0
i.e. 4x ( x – 10 ) – 17 ( x - 10 ) = 0
i.e. ( 4x – 17 ) ( x – 10 ) = 0
i.e. 4x – 17 = 0 or x – 10 = 0
i.e. x = 17 / 4 or x = 10
For x = 17/4, son’s age 6 years ago becomes negative !
∴ x ≠ 17/4
∴ x = 10
Ans: The present age of the son is 10 years.
38. A car covers a distance of 240 km with some speed. If the speed is
increased by 20 km / hr, it will cover the same distance in 2 hours less.
Find the usual speed of the car.
Ans:- Let the usual speed of the car be x km / hr.
Now,
distance 240
time hours
speed x
Increased speed = ( x + 20 ) km / hr
240
Time taken with this speed to cover 240 km will be hours
x 20
We are given
240 240
2
x x 20
240( x 20) 240 x
2
x ( x 20)
∴ 240 ( x + 20 – x ) = 2x ( x + 20 )
∴ 4800 = 2x ( x + 20 )
Divide both sides by 2
∴ 2400 = x ( x + 20 )
∴x 2 + 20x = 2400
∴x 2 + 20x – 2400 = 0
∴x 2 + 60x – 40x – 2400 = 0
∴ x ( x + 60) – 40 ( x + 60 ) = 0
∴ ( x – 40 ) ( x + 60 ) = 0
∴ x – 40 = 0 or x + 60 = 0
∴ x = 40 or x = - 60
As speed cannot be negative, x ≠ -60
∴ x = 40
Thus usual speed of car = 40 km / hr

39. An express train takes 30 min less for a journey of 440 km, if its usual
speed is increased by 8 km / hr. Find its usual speed.
Ans:-
Let the usual speed of the train be x km / hr.
Now,
distance 440
time hours
speed x
Increased speed = x + 8
440
Time taken with this speed to cover 440 km will be hour
x 8
We are given
440 440 1 1
30 min hr
x x 8 2 2
440 ( x 8) 440 x 1 440 x 8 x 1
i.e.
x ( x 8) 2 x x 8 2
2 440 ( x 8 x ) x(x 8)
∴ 880 ( 8 ) = x ( x + 8 )
∴x 2 + 8x = 7040
∴x 2 + 8x – 7040 = 0
∴x 2 + 88x – 80x – 7040 = 0
∴ x ( x + 88) – 80 ( x + 88 ) = 0
∴ ( x – 80 ) ( x + 88 ) = 0
∴ x – 80 = 0 or x + 88 = 0
∴ x = 80 or x = - 88
As speed cannot be negative, x ≠ -88
∴ x = 80
Thus usual speed of train = 80 km / hr

40. The divisor and quotient of the number 6123 are same and the remainder
is half the divisor. Find the divisor.
Ans:- Let the divisor = quotient = x Also, dividend = 6123
x
Remainder = half the divisor =
2
Now, dividend = ( quotient × divisor ) + remainder
x
∴ 6123 = x (x) +
2
∴ 12246 = 2x 2 +x
∴ 2x 2 + x – 12246 = 0
∴ 2x 2 + 157x – 156x – 12246 = 0
∴ x ( 2x + 157 ) – 78 ( 2x + 157 ) = 0
∴ ( x – 78 ) ( 2x + 157 ) = 0
∴ x – 78 = 0 or 2x + 157 = 0
∴ x – 78 or x = - 157 / 2
We discard the negative fraction to get x = 78.
Hence the required divisor is 78.

41. From the same place at 7 am ‘A’ started walking in the north at the speed
of 5 km / hr. After 1 hour ‘B’ started cycling in the east at a speed of 16
km/hr. At what time they will be at distance of 52 km apart from each
other.
Ans:-

Let P be the common starting point. Let ‘A’ reach point A and B reach
point ‘B’ when they are at a distance of 52 km from each other.
Let the time taken by ‘A’ to reach the point A be x hours.
Then the time taken by ‘B’ to reach the point B is x – 1 hours.
Speed of ‘A’ is 5 km/hr and speed of ‘B’ is 16 km / hr, hence the
distances covered by ‘A’ and ‘B’ in km are
PA = 5x and PB = 16 ( x – 1 ) respectively
In right triangle APB,
AB 2 = PA 2 + PB 2

∴ ( 52 ) 2 = ( 5x ) 2 + [ 16 ( x – 1) ] 2

∴ 2704 = 25x 2 + 256 ( x 2 – 2x + 1 )


∴ 2704 = 25x 2 + 256 x 2 – 512x + 256
∴ 281x 2 – 512x – 2448 = 0
∴ 281x 2 – 1124x + 612x – 2448 = 0
∴ 281x ( x – 4) + 612 ( x – 4 ) = 0
∴ ( 281x + 612) ( x – 4 ) = 0
∴ 281x – 612 = 0 or x–4=0
∴ x = - 612 / 281 or x=4
As time taken cannot be negative, x ≠ -612/281
∴x=4
∴ they are 52 km apart after 4 hours from 7 a.m.
i.e. they are 52 km apart at 11 a.m.
Thus time taken by ‘A’ to reach at point A = 4 hours
‘A’ starts at 7 am, hence they meet at 7 + 4 = 11 am

42. One tank can be filled up by two taps in 6 hours. The smaller tap alone
takes 5 hours more than the bigger tap alone. Find the time required by
each tap to fill the tank separately.
Ans:- Let the smaller tank take x hours to fill the tank.
Hence, time taken by the bigger tank to fill the tap = x - 5
1
The work done by smaller tank in 1 hour =
x
1
The work done by bigger tank in 1 hour =
x 5
1 1
Thus, the work done by both in one hour =
x x 5
Now, the tank fills in 6 hours by both the taps.
1
That is both taps together fill th part of the tank in one hour
6
1 1 1
x x 5 6
1 1
i.e. 6 1
x x 5
x 5 x
6 1
x ( x 5)
6 ( 2x 5) x ( x 5)
∴ 12x - 30 = x 2 - 5x
∴x 2 – 17x + 30 = 0
∴x 2 – 15x - 2x + 30 = 0
∴ x ( x – 15 ) - 2 ( x – 15 ) = 0
∴ ( x - 2 ) ( x – 15 ) = 0
∴x-2=0 or x – 15 = 0
∴x=2 or x = 15
Now x = 2 does not satisfy given condition. Hence x = 15
The smaller tape takes 15 hours and the bigger tap takes 15 – 5 = 10
hours to fill the tank alone.

43. Around a square pool there is a footpath of width 2m. If the area of the
5
footpath is times that of the pool, find the area of the pool.
4
Ans:-

Let side of the pool be x m, then side of the footpath is ( x + 4 ) m


Area of pool = x 2

Area of outer square = ( x + 4 ) 2 =x 2 + 8x + 16


Area of footpath = area of outer square – area of pool
=x 2 + 8x + 16 – x 2 = 8x + 16
We are given
5
area of footpath area of pool
4
5
8x 16 x2
4
4 (8x 16 ) 5x 2
∴ 32x + 64 = 5x 2

∴ 5x 2 – 32x – 64 = 0
∴ 5x 2 – 40x + 8x – 64 = 0
∴ 5x ( x – 8 ) + 8 ( x – 8 ) = 0
∴ ( 5x + 8 ) ( x – 8 ) = 0
∴ 5x + 8 = 0 or x–8=0
∴x=-8/5 or x=8
As length cannot be negative, x ≠ - 8 / 5
∴x=8
i.e. side of the square pool = 8m
Its area = 8 2 = 64 sq. m.