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Linux

Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systemsusing


the Linux kernel. Linux can be installed on a wide variety of
computerhardware, ranging from mobile phones, tablet computers and
video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers.Linux is a
leading server operating system, and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers
in the world.

Linux Logo
The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source
software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely
modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under
licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Typically Linux is packaged in a format
known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux
distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu), Fedora and openSUSE.
Linux distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting utilities and libraries to fulfill
the distribution's intended use.

History

Unix
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 atAT&T's Bell
Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson,Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and
Joe Ossanna. It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly
language, a common practice at the time. Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, Unix
was re-written in the programming languageC by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the
kernel and I/O). The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language
allowed easierportability to different computer platforms. With a legal glitch forcing AT&T
to license the operating system's source code,Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted
by academic institutions and businesses.
GNU
The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete
Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Work began in
1984.Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU
General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs
required in an operating system (such as libraries,compilers, text editors, a Unix shell, and a
windowing system) were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers,
daemons, and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.Linus Torvalds has said that if the
GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his
own.

User interface
Users operate a Linux-based system through a command line interface (CLI), a graphical
user interface (GUI), or through controls attached to the associated hardware, which is
common for embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default mode is usually a
graphical user interface.
On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the
extensive desktop environments KDE Plasma Desktop, GNOME, and
Xfce,though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. Most popular
user interfaces are based on the X Window System, often simply called
"X". It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application
running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may
interact with the application.

Linux Distributions:
A Linux distribution is a member of the family of Unix-like operating
systems built on top of the Linux kernel. Such distributions (often called
distros for short) are Operating systems including a large collection of
software applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, media
players, and database applications.

Some popular linux distributions:

Ubuntu
PclinuxOS
Fedora
Red Hat
Debian
Linux Mint
Open SUSE

Features of linux:
¬It is an open source platform,so anyone can edit its code.
¬It is free to use.
¬It more secure and stable than windows and Mac.
¬It do not slow down with time.
¬It do not gets affected by virus.
¬It can run on several year old computer.

Market Share:

Operating SystemMarket ShareLinux63.7%Microsoft


Windows30.7%UNIX2.7%BSD2.4%Solaris0.1%Other0.5%