Pneumonia and other Acute Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia remains in the list of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. It ranked third among the causes of morbidity and fourth among the causes of death in 2000.
Figure 4.4 Trends in Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Philippines, 1980-2000 1200

There was an increase in the morbidity trend for pneumonia from 1990 to 1996. This may be due to improved case finding and reporting with the intensification of the program to control acute respiratory infections during this period. The morbidity trend decreased

Rate per 100,000 population

1000 800 600 400 200 0 Morbidity Mortality

slightly from 1997 to 2000 but the number of cases remained high at 829 cases per 100,000 population in 2000. On the other hand, there is a decreasing trend of mortality from pneumonia in the general population from 1990 to 2000 despite the high number of cases per year. The mortality rate from pneumonia decreased from 64.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 1990 to 42.7 deaths per 100,000 in 2000 (PHS). This reflects improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of cases. The region with the highest reported mortality rate from pneumonia is Western Visayas (74.6 deaths per 100,000 population) followed closely by Ilocos (73.7 per 100,000) and Cagayan Valley (59.2 per 100,000) with ARMM having the lowest reported death from pneumonia at 2.5 deaths per 100,000

Source: Philippine Health Statistics, 2000


Central Luzon Southern Tagalog Bicol Western Visayas Central Visayas Eastern Visayas Western Mindanao Northern Mindanao Southern Mindanao Central Mindanao Caraga ARMM PHILIPPINES 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Year Figure 4.5 Pneumonia Mortality Rate by Region Philippines, 2000 NCR CAR Ilocos Cagayan Valley Rate per 100,000 population

followed by Central Mindanao (15.6 per 100,000) and Western Mindanao (21.3 per 100,000) (PHS 2000).

Source: Philippine Health Statistics, 2000

Death rate from pneumonia among children under-five years of age followed a downward trend since the 1980s. The death rate from pneumonia decreased by around 83.6 percent during a twenty-year period, from 401.93 per 100,000 under five years old
138 Chapter 4 Reducing the Burden of Disease

076. health centers and hospitals generally provide patients with the necessary drugs at low cost. IMCI is a strategy used in providing holistic health care services among the under five-year-old children ranging from detailed history taking. not all health facilities are able to carry out IMCI appropriately and consistently due to shortage of drugs.children in 1980 to 66.899.000 under 5 years old children 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Figure 4. general consultations and treatment services for older children. DOH and PhilHealth-accredited clinics. adults and older persons with pneumonia needs improvement to multiply the gains that have been achieved in pneumonia control among the younger age groups. diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions. This is a 12 percentage point reduction from the 58 Rate per 100. The 2003 NDHS revealed that only 46 percent of children below five years of age who had the symptoms of acute respiratory infection were taken to a health facility or health care provider for treatment.11 per 100. physical examination. This may imply that the reduction in deaths from pneumonia among young children may have been due to improved knowledge and skills in managing the fewer pneumonia cases that have been brought to the health facility. Although the drugs necessary to treat pneumonia are available over the counter.17 per 100.000 in 2000 (PHS).000 in 1999 to 5. On the other hand.6 Pneumonia Mortality Rate Among the Under-Five-Years-Old Children Philippines. National Objectives for Health Philippines 2005-2010 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Year 139 . morbidity rate among under-five years old children went up from 4. The promotion of IMCI through regular in-service and pre-service training of frontline health personnel is supported by international and local funding agencies.23 per 100. However. The IMCI strategy requires that appropriate drugs for pneumonia are available at the health service outlets at any given time. 1980-2000 Source: Philippine Health Statistics. 1980-2000 percent reported in the 1998 NDHS. Management of pneumonia and other childhood infections has improved in 16 of the 17 regions that applied the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). This is due to the limited local sources of drugs or to failures in the drug distribution system at the regional and local levels.000 in 2002 (FHSIS).

2000 Strategic Thrusts for 2005-2010 Improve the quality and reliability of implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) in all health care units through training. Continue medical. especially for young children and older persons.000 older persons 453 per 100.11 per 100. nursing and midwifery education on pneumonia diagnosis and management. Ensure availability of affordable drugs for pneumonia patients.000 under five-yearold children Baseline Data and Source 66.7 per 100. National Objectives for 2005 .Goal: Mortality from pneumonia and other acute respiratory infections is reduced. 2003 Mortality from pneumonia among the general population is reduced. Promote timely and appropriate management for pneumonia and acute respiratory illness among the general population to avoid further complications of the disease.000 population 42.000 under fiveyear-old children Philippine Health Statistics. supervision and monitoring.3 percent National Demographic and Health Survey. 46.000 population Philippine Health Statistics. 140 Chapter 4 Reducing the Burden of Disease . Mortality rate from pneumonia among all age groups 21 per 100. Mortality rate from pneumonia among 60-year-old persons and older 400 per 100.2010 Objective Mortality from pneumonia among children under 5 years old is reduced. at the local level. 2000 90 percent Target 33 per 100. Indicator Mortality rate from pneumonia among under five-year-old children Percentage of under five-yearold children with symptoms of ARI who sought treatment from a health facility or health provider Mortality from pneumonia among older persons is reduced.000 older persons Philippine Health Statistics.

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