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relationship of the moles & masses of the reactant to one another & also to the products In the combustion of triethylene glycol, 2C6H14O4(l) + 15O2(g) 12CO2(g) + 14H2O(l) for the reaction to undergo, 2 moles C6H14O4(l) must react with 15 moles of O2(g) produce 12 moles of CO2(g) and 14 moles H2O(l). Mole-Mole Relationship sample problem: Consider the reaction, 2C6H14O4(l) + 15O2(g) 12CO2(g) + 14H2O(l) (a) How many moles of CO2 would be produced if there are 20 moles of 12 mol CO2 C6H14O4? mol CO2 = 20 mol C6H14O4 mol 2 C6H14 O4 = 120 mol CO2
(b) how many moles of potassium sulfate are produced from 8 moles of potassium nitrate? (c) how many moles of nitric acid will be produced from 50 moles of sulfuric acid? Mass-Mass Relationship recall that: moles = mass/molecular mass sample problem: based on the balanced chemical equation: 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) how many grams of NH3 will be required to produce 150 g of H2O? 1 4 mol NH3 g NH3 = 150 g H2O mol H2O 18 g H2O 6 mol H2O 17 g NH3 1 mol NH3 = 94.44 g NH3 Exercises: 1. What is the mass in grams of H3PO4 produced from the reaction of 500 g of P4O10 with H2O? P4O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4 2. The reaction between hydrogen sulfite & calcium hydroxide produced calcium sulfite & water. (a) formulate the balanced chemical equation (b) how many moles of calcium sulfite will be produced when 150 g of hydrogen sulfite was reacted to calcium hydroxide? (c) what is the mass of each of the products produced in the reaction? Percent Purity various reactants in chemical reactions are not pure (i.e., mixed with other useless contents) & only pure or reactive compounds participate in reactions the purity of a substance is expressed as percent purity, given as: % purity = mass of pure compound in a substance x 100 total mass of the substance total mass of the substance = mass of the pure compound + mass of impurities
113 Stoichiometry Page 1 of 3
of to of
(b) How many moles of O2 are needed to
produce 75 moles of H2O? mol O2 = 75 mol H2O 15 mol O 2 14 mol H2O = 80.36 mol O2
(c) How many moles of H2O are produced if
there are 100 moles of CO2 produced? 14 mol H2O = 100 mol CO2 mol H2O 12 mol CO2
= 116.67 mol H2O Exercises: 1. From the balanced equation, 2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g) (a) How many moles of Al are necessary to react with 3.50 moles of HCl? (b) How many moles each of AlCl3 & H2 are produced? 2. The reaction is given as: potassium nitrate + sulfuric acid potassium sulfate + nitric acid (a) formulate the balanced equation
Gen Mike Filomeno
Some of the reactants will be used up completely while others will be left over at the end of a reaction.96 g or 432. C8H4O3. The extent of a reaction depends highly on the amount of this reactant. (i. The crude product from this reaction is typically 65% CaC2.85 x (500 kg) = 425 kg NaCl or 425. calculate the theoretical mass of the other reactant 3.75)/100 = 450. Using the basis. by the reaction: 2C10H8 + 9O2 2 C8H4O3 +4CO2 + 4 H2O Since some of the naphthalene is oxidized to other products. Actual Yield is the amount of product that is actually obtained during a reaction. Select a reactant which will be used as the basis for calculation 2. Excess Reactant is the reactant present in quantities greater than necessary to react with the quantity of the limiting reactant. only 65% of the maximum yield was obtained..00 x 102 g of nitroglycerin? (b) calculate the percent yield in this reaction if the amount of O2 generated is found to be 6. (actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield) % yield = actual yield x 100 theoretical yield sample problem: Phthalic anhydride. How much CaO must be reacted to produce for 50 kg of CaC2? Theoretical & Actual Yield during chemical reactions.sample problem: how many grams of sodium sulfate could be produced from 750 kilograms of 85% pure NaCl? 2NaCl + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2HCl mass of NaCl = 0.e.5 g NaCl 1 mol Na2SO4 2 mol NaCl 119 g Na2SO4 1 mol Na2SO4 = 693.26 kg Exercises: 1. For the reaction: CaO + 3C CaC2 + CO. Titanium is prepared by the reaction of titanium(IV) chloride with molten magnesium between 950°C & 1150°C according to the 950° 1150° reaction: TiCl4(g) + 2Mg(l) Ti(s) + 2MgCl2(l) If 200 kg of Mg is reacted with TiCl4: (a) calculate the theoretical yield of Ti(s) (b) determine the actual yield of Ti(s) if the percent yield in this reaction 68% Limiting & Excess Reactants in chemical reactions.75 kg C8H4O3 % yield = actual yield x 100 theoretical yield actual yield = (% yield x theoretical yield) / 100 = (65%)(693. Its decomposition may be represented by: 4 C3H5N3O9 6N2 + 12CO2 + 10H2O + O2 (a) what is the maximum amount of O2 in grams that can be obtained from 2. Some of them are left unreacted since not all reactions proceed to completion. 2. all reactants are converted into products) It is the maximum amount which can be produced during a reaction.000 g NaCl g Na2SO4 = 425 kg NaCl 1000 g 1 mol NaCl 1 kg 58. = 432264.94 kg C8H4O3 Exercises: 1. 2. Nitroglycerin (C3H5N3O9) is a powerful explosive. How much phthalic anhydride would be produced from the oxidation of 600 kg of C10H8? theoretical yield of C8H4O3 = 600 kg C10H8 1 kmol C10 H8 128 kg C10 H8 Gen Mike Filomeno 2 kmol C8H4O3 2 kmol C10 H8 148 kg C8H4O3 1 kmol C8H4O3 Chem 113 Stoichiometry Page 2 of 3 . Calculate the % Zinc in the sample. is made by the controlled oxidation of naphthalene.18 g/mL). Limiting Reactant is the reactant that reacts completely (or used up first) in a chemical reaction. C10H8. Guidelines in Determining the Limiting Reactant: 1.55 g. Theoretical Yield is the amount of product obtained if the reaction goes to completion. A 300 sample of impure Zinc reacts with 125 mL of 25% HCl solution (density of acid is 1. not all reactants are totally converted to products. Compare the theoretical mass to the given actual mass of the reactant. reactants are not present in exact stoichiometric amounts.
that reactant is the excess reactant. (a) calculate the theoretical yield of V (b) calculate the percent yield if 803 g of V are obtained = 10. Subtract this amount from the actual amount given sample problem: Flourine reacts with iron to produce iron(III) fluoride. 5.18 g F2 (theoretical) since the theoretical (10.0 g of fluorine is added to 10 g of iron: (a) determine the limiting & excess reactants (b) calculate the mass of iron(III) fluoride obtained from the reaction (c) how much of the excess reagent will be left unreacted? basis: Iron (Fe) 2Fe + 3F2 2FeF3 mass of F2 = 10 g Fe mol Fe 56 g Fe 38 g F2 1 mol F2 3 mol F2 2 mol Fe 1.0 g F2 mol F2 38 g F2 2 mol Fe 3 mol F2 = 4. 1.0 g). Determine the actual amount of the excess reactant that will react completely with the limiting reactant 2.4.10 g Exercises: Gen Mike Filomeno 56 g Fe 1 mol Fe Chem 113 Stoichiometry Page 3 of 3 . 630 g of ammonia are allowed to react with 1140 g of CO2. Guidelines in Determining the Amount of Excess Reactant Left after Reaction: 1. Industrially.91 g FeF3 1 mass of Fe reacted = 5. that reactant is already the limiting reactant.96 x 103 g of Ca.0 g F2 1 mol F2 38 g F2 113 g FeF3 1 mol FeF3 = 9. The reaction between aluminum & iron(III) oxide can generate temperatures approaching 3000°C and is used in welding metals: 3000° 2Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2Fe If 124 g of Al are allowed to react with 600 g of Fe2O3: (a) determine the limiting & excess reactants (b) calculate the mass of Al2O3 formed (c) how much of the excess reactant (in grams) is left at the end of the reaction? 3.91 g Fe excess Fe = (10.91 g) = 5.54 x 103 g of V2O5 react with 1. If 5. (a) determine the limiting & excess reactants (b) calculate the mass of urea formed (c) how much of the excess reactant (in grams) is left after the reaction? 2. If the theoretical mass is less than the actual mass. Urea [(NH2)2CO] is prepared by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide: 2NH3(g) + CO2(g) (NH2)2CO(aq) + H2O(l) In one process. F2 is the limiting reactant it follows that Fe is the excess reactant 2 mol FeF3 3 mol F2 mass of FeF3 = 5. vanadium metal.0 g – 4.18 g) > actual (5. can be obtained by reacting vanadium(V) oxide with calcium at high temperatures: 5Ca + V2O5 5CaO + 2V In one process. which is used in steel alloys. If the theoretical mass is greater than the actual mass.