National Icons & History of Currency of Bangladesh
Course Code: Course Title: Bangladesh Studies

Date of Submission: 24-12-2009

Executive Summary:

National Icons covered the most of the Bangladesh & all the things which represents Bangladesh. From this paper we will get to know about Bangladesh’s perfections & individuality. In this paper will describe about national icons of Bangladesh. The icons are 1. National Anthem
2. National flag 3. National Animal 4. National Bird 5. National Fruit 6. National flower 7. National sports 8. National park 9. National Forest 10. National Mosque 11. National Fish 12. National Airport 13. National Poet 14. National Symbol

Here in the paper we will cover the history of Bangladeshi currency. Since the independence, Bangladesh has got her own currency which is called “Taka”. From this paper we will learn when Taka was first introduced & some transformations of current notes.


Bangladesh is characterized by a unique coming together of many races, languages and religions. Its culture is a distinctive composite to which Jains, Buddhists, Hindus, Vaisnavas and Muslims have all contributed. From time to time Bangladesh searches for its roots as if trying to put back the missing parts in its long history.

Location and Physical Features:
Bangladesh is situated in the north-eastern part of south Asia. It lies between 20’ 34’ and 2e 36’ north latitude and 88’ I’ and 92’ 41’ east longitude. The heary and great Himalayas stand as the northen ramparts, while the southern frontier is guarded by the Bay of Bengal. On the west lies the expansive gangetic plains (West Bengal) of India and on the eastern frontier lies the almost impassable forest of Myanmar (Arakan Province) and India (Tripura and Assam hills). These picturesque geographical boundaries delineate out a low lying plain of about 144,000 (55,598 sq. miles) criss –crossed by innumerable brooks, rivers, rivulets and streams. Mighty rivers the Padma, Jamuna, Meghna, Karnaphuli and others flow through Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a deltaic region. Much of the country’s land area has been built up from alluvial deposits brought down by the major rivers. The land is mostly flat except for a range of hills in the southeast. Wooded marshylands and jungles mainly characterize it with forest regions in Sylhet, Rangamati, Khagrachari and Bandarban Hill Tracts, Sundarbans, Mymensingh and Tangail.

National Icons:

1. National Anthem:
Amar Shonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal) is a 1906 song written and composed by the poet Rabindranath Tagore, the first ten lines of which were adopted in 1972 as the Bangladesh national anthem. The word shonar literally means ‘made of gold’, but in the song shonar Bangla may be interpreted to either express the preciousness of Bengal or a reference to the color of paddy fields before harvest. The song was written in 1906 during the period of Bangabhanga when Bengal was divided in two halves by the British government based on religion. This song, along with a host of others, was written to rekindle the unified spirit of Bengal.

My Bengal of gold, I love you Forever your skies, your air set my heart in tune as if it were a flute, In Spring, Oh mother mine, the fragrance from your mango-groves makes me wild with joyAh, what a thrill! In Autumn, Oh mother mine, in the full-blossomed paddy fields, I have seen spread all over – sweet smiles! Ah, what a beauty, what shades, what an affection and what a tenderness! What a quilt have you spread at the feet of banyan trees and along the banks of rivers! Oh mother mine, words from your lips are like Nectar to my ears! Ah, what a thrill! If sadness, Oh mother mine, casts a gloom on your face, my eyes are filled with tears!

2. The National Flag:

The national flag of Bangladesh was adopted officially on 17 January 1972. A red disc is on top of the green field, offset slightly toward the hoist so that it appears centered when the flag is flying. The red disc represents the sun rising over Bengal, and also the blood of those who died for the independence of Bangladesh. The green field stands for the lushness of the land of Bangladesh. The red disc is a socialist symbol of the rising Sun of independence after the dark night of a blood-drenched struggle.

Official Specifications:
According to Bangladesh Government specifications, following is the specification of the national flag: 1. The flag will be in bottle green and rectangular in size in the proportion of 10:6, with a red circle in near middle. 2. The red circle will have a radius of one-fifth of the length of the flag. Its centre will be placed on the intersecting point of the perpendicular drawn from the ninetwentieth part of the length of the flag, and the horizontal line drawn through the middle of its width. 3. Depending on the size of the building the flag sizes will be 10 ft × 6 ft (3.0 m × 1.8 m); 5 ft × 3 ft (1.5 m × 0.91 m); 2.5 ft × 1.5 ft (760 mm × 460 mm). The size of the flag for car is 12.5 in × 7.5 in (320 mm × 190 mm), and the size of the table flag for bilateral conferences is 10 in × 6 in (250 mm × 150 mm).

National Flag of Bangladesh

3. Royal Bengal Tiger:

The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh. The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India and Bangladesh. They are also found in parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and southern Tibet. The Bengal tiger is the most numerous of the tiger sub-species. According to WWF there are about 2,000 Royal Bengal tigers in the wild today, including 1,411 in India, 450 in Bangladesh, 150 in Nepal, 100 in Bhutan, as well as a number in Myanmar and China. Royal Bengal Tiger is found in The Sunderbans. This is a very rare species.

Royal Bengal of Tiger


Oriental Magpie Robin (Doel):

The Oriental Magpie Robin which is called “Doel” is the national bird of Bangladesh. This species is 19 centimeters (7.5 in) long, including the long tail that is usually held cocked upright. It is similar in shape to the smaller European Robin, but is longer-tailed. The male has black upperparts, head and throat apart from a white shoulder patch. The under parts and the sides of the long tail are white. Females are grayish black above and grayish white. Young birds have scaly brown upperparts and head. This magpie-robin is a resident breeder in tropical southern Asia from Bangladesh.

Magpie Robin (Doel)

5. Water Lily:

The white water lily is the national flower of Bangladesh. This flower is common in shallow lakes and ponds throughout temperate and tropical Asia. The hairy water lily is known as Shapla in Bengla. It appears in the coat of arms of the country as a simplified heraldic design.

Water Lily

6. Hadudu:

Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) is a team sport that originated in South Asia. Two teams occupy opposite halves of a field and take turns sending a "raider" into the other half, in order to win points by tagging or wrestling members of the opposing team; the raider then tries to return to his own half, holding his breath during the whole raid. Bangladesh Amateur Kabaddi Federation was formed in 1973 . It framed rules and regulations for the game. Bangladesh first played a Kabaddi test in 1974 with a visiting Indian team, which played test matches with the district teams of Dhaka, Tangail, Dinajpur, Jessore, Faridpur and Comilla . In 1978, the Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation was formed at a conference of delegates from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan in the Indian town of Villai . In the team, or transnational, style of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a field of 12.5m × 10m (roughly half the size of a basketball court). Each has five supplementary players held in reserve. The game is in 20-minute halves, with a five-minute half-time break during which the teams switch sides. Kabaddi is popular throughout South Asia, and has also spread to Southeast Asia, Japan and Iran. It is the national game of Bangladesh where it is known as Hadudu.

Kabaddi at the Asian Games

7. Dhaka Shishu Park:

Shishu Park is the only public sector children's amusement park in Shahbag, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Established in 1979 on 15-acre (61,000 m2) of land, it is the first children's amusement park in Bangladesh. Established as a profit making venture by Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation, the government-owned tourism promotion agency in Bangladesh, it is maintained by Dhaka City Corporation as its only entertainment park since 1983. The 12 rides rides of the park include including a toy train, a merry-go-round and a number of wheel-based rides. Bangladesh Air Force donated a fighter jet in 1992. It draws about 6,000 visitors a day. During the Eid-ul-Fitr holidays the number of visitors reach up to 350 thousands. The City Corporation earns about BDT 200 million annually from the park. The park is open Monday through Thursday and Saturday from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm. On Fridays, it is open from 2:30 pm to 7:30 pm. Due to lack of maintenance the rides have deteriorated in condition. As of 2007, a City Corporation plan to revamp the park for BDT 9 billion waits for approval of the Ministry for Local Government and Rural Development. The plan includes an expansion of the area to 19 acres (77,000 m2) and adding 16 new rides besides reinstalling the old rides.

Dhaka Shishu Park

8. Baitul Mukarram Mosque:
Baitul Mukarram is the national mosque of Bangladesh. Located at the heart of Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, the mosque was founded during the 1960s. The mosque has a capacity of 30,000, giving it the respectable position of being the 10th biggest mosque in the world. However the mosque is constantly getting overcrowded. This especially occurs during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, which has resulted in the Bangladeshi government having to add extensions to the mosque, thus increasing the capacity to at least 40,000.

Baitul Mukarram Naional Mosque

9. Sundarbans:
The Sundarbans is the largest single block of tidal mangrove forest in the world. The name Sundarban can be literally translated as "beautiful jungle" or "beautiful forest" in the Bengali language (Sundar, "beautiful" and ban, "forest" or "jungle"). The name may have been derived from the Sundari trees that are found in Sundarbans in large numbers. The forest lies at the feet of the Ganges and is spread across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, forming the seaward fringe of the delta. The seasonally-flooded Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests lie inland from the mangrove forests. The forest covers 10,000 km2 of which about 6,000 are in Bangladesh. It became inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage site in 1997, but while the Bangladeshi and Indian portions constitute the same continuous ecotope, these are separately listed in the UNESCO world heritage list as the Sundarbans and Sundarbans National Park, respectively. The Sundarbans is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for the eponymous Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), as well as numerous fauna including species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes. It is estimated that there are now 500 Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area. Sundarbans was designated a Ramsar site on May 21, 1992. The fertile soils of the delta have been subject to intensive human use for centuries, and the ecoregion has been mostly converted to intensive agriculture, with few enclaves of forest remaining. The remaining forests, together with the Sundarbans mangroves, are important habitat for the endangered tiger. Additionally, the Sundarbans serves a crucial function as a protective flood barrier for the millions of inhabitants in and around Kolkata (Calcutta) against the result of cyclone activity. It is the national forest of Bangladesh.


Hilsha Fish:


Hilsa known as Ilish in Bangladesh is the national fish of Bangladesh. The Hilsa lives in the sea for most of its life, but migrates up to 1,200 km inland through rivers in the Indian sub-continent for spawning. Distances of 50-100 km are usually normal in the Bangladesh rivers. Hilsa is mainly available in the major Bangladesh rivers of the Padma, Meghna, Jamuna and Godavari. Those from the Padma are considered to be the best in taste.

Hilsa Fish

11.Zia International Airport:

Zia International Airport is the largest airport in Bangladesh located in Kurmitola, 11 NM (20 km; 13 mi) north of Dhaka, with Dhaka Cantonment on one side and Uttara Residential Area on the other. It started operations in 1981, and was named after Bangladesh's former president, Ziaur Rahman. It is the home base and hub of Biman Bangladesh Airlines, GMG Airlines and United Airways. It has an area of 1,981 acres (802 ha). Nearly 52% of the country's international and domestic arrivals and departures occur through Zia Airport, while country's second largest international airport at Chittagong handles about 17% of passengers. About 4 million international and 1 million domestic passengers and 150,000 tons of freight and mail pass through Zia International Airport annually. Zia Airport has terminal buildings, hangars, technical areas, a freight village (warehouse), and other modern equipment for handling aircraft. It connects many major cities of the world with Bangladesh. From here, Biman Bangladesh flies to 21 cities on 2 continents.

Zia International Airport


Kazi Nazrul Islam:

Kazi Nazrul Islam (25 May 1899–29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, musician, revolutionary and philosopher who pioneered poetic works espousing intense spiritual rebellion against orthodoxy and oppression. His poetry and nationalist activism earned him the popular title of Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet). Accomplishing a large body of acclaimed works through his life, Nazrul is officially recognized as the national poet of Bangladesh and commemorated in India. He is honored as the National Poet of Bangladesh. Born into a poor Muslim family, Nazrul received religious education and worked as a muezzin at a local mosque. He learned of poetry, drama, and literature while working with theatrical groups. After serving in the British Indian Army, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Kolkata (then Calcutta). He assailed the British Raj in India and preached revolution through his poetic works, such as "Bidrohi" ("The Rebel") and "Bhangar Gaan" ("The Song of Destruction"), as well as his publication "Dhumketu" ("The Comet"). His impassioned activism in the Indian independence movement often led to his imprisonment by British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul wrote the "Rajbandir Jabanbandi" ("Deposition of a Political Prisoner"). Exploring the life and conditions of the downtrodden masses of India, Nazrul worked for their emancipation. Nazrul's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender. Throughout his career, Nazrul wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best-known for his poems, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals. Nazrul wrote and composed music for his nearly 4,000 songs (including gramophone records), collectively known as Nazrul geeti (Nazrul songs), which are widely popular today. At the age of 43 (in 1942) he began suffering from an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. Eventually diagnosed as Pick's disease, it caused Nazrul's health to decline steadily and forced him to live in isolation for many years. Invited by the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972, where he died four years later.



Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh. It is known as “Kathal” in Bengali. The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy and fibrous. It provides food energy and is a source of dietary fiber. Varieties of jackfruit are distinguished according to the characteristics of the fruits' flesh. It is one of the largest fruits to grow on trees in the world, and a Jackfruit Tree can live and bear fruit for approximately a hundred years if taken care of correctly.



Jatio Smrity Shoudho:

Jatiyo Sriti Soudho or National Martyrs' Memorial is a monument in Bangladesh. It is the symbol of the valour and the sacrifice of those killed in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which brought the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistani rule. The monument is located in Savar, about 35km north-west of the capital, Dhaka. Plans for the monument were initiated right after the independence, in 1972. Following the site selection, road and land development, a nation-wide design competition was held in June, 1978. Following evaluation of the 57 submissions, Syed Mainul Hossain's design was chosen. The main structure and the artificial lake and other facilities were completed in 1982.

Jatio Smrity Shoudho


National Symbol:

A water Lily is floating on the water, Both side of the lily has Paddy, float 4 Star (2+2) both side and three jute leaves at the top.

National Symbol of Bangladesh

Currency of Bangladesh:
The name of Bangladeshi currency is Taka. There are two types like many other countries'- notes and coins. Notes are of one taka, two taka, five taka, ten taka, twenty taka, fifty taka, one hundred taka and five hundred taka. Coins are of one poisha, five poisha, ten poisha, twenty-five poisha, fifty poisha, one taka and five taka. Notes from five taka to five hundred taka are issued by Bangladesh Bank. One taka and two taka notes and all the coins are issued by Bangladesh Government. Bangladesh has a variable currency rates with other countries.

1. One Thousand Taka Note:

Security Feature:
1.Optically variable ink (OVI): OVI used in the numeric Bengali inscription appears golden when looked directly and green when viewed obliquely. 2. Security thread: Holographic window type 4mm, wide security thread. 3. Microscopic printing: "BANGLADESH BANK 1000 TAKA" printed microscopically. 4. Note Number: Indifferent series number in Bengali accompanies Bengali & English serial number. 5. Latent image: Numeric Bengali inscription "1000". 6. Iridescent stripe: A vertical stripe on the back containing inscription "BANGLADESH BANK" with variable color. 7. Intaglio printing. 8. Watermark: Watermark of water lily, Bangladesh Bank's monogram and English inscription 1000. 9. Dot for blind. 10. Paper: Durable paper with special coating and scattered fluorescent fiber. 11. Borderless printing Date of Issue : 27-10-2008.


Five Hundred Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Security thread in the right hand side. Water mark depicting the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger in sitting posture in the left hand side and a water mark containing the figure 500 in Bengali in the center . Date of Issue : 15-12-1976.

Security Feature:
Window type security thread in the right hand side and watermark of Tiger head. Date of Issue 02-07-1998.

Security Feature:
The Optical Variable Ink (OVI) has been used in the bangla inscription instead of numeric. When titled up and down the optically variable color of on obverse of the note will change from a distinct magenta to green and green to magenta as well. Holographic window type security thread. Dot for the blind. Latent image. Head of a Royal Bengal tiger in cylinder mould made watermark and logo of Bangladesh Bank in electrotype watermark. Date of Issue : 24-10-2004.

3. One Hundred Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Water mark of the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger in the left hand side. Engraved printing which has been done in three colors namely deep blue, deep brown and red. Date of Issue : 15-12-1977.

Security Feature:
A Hundred Taka Note with signature of Dr. Salehuddin Ahmed, Governor and the inscription '100' on its left-hand upper side with color shifting ink (OVI) has been issued since 28 June, 2005. All other features of the Note are remaining the same as before. Date of Issue : 28-07-2005.

4. Fifty Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Security thread in the left hand side and water mark of the head of the Royal Bengal Tiger in the right hand side. Date of Issue : 24-08-1987.

Security Feature:
Security thread towards the right hand side and water mark depicting the head of the Royal Bengal Tiger on the left hand side. Date of Issue : 04-06-1979.

Security Feature:
Watermark of a Royal Bengal Tiger in the right. In its holographic security thread Bangladesh is inscribed in both sides. Designed Print of flowers and creepers in rectoverso system is engraved in both sides. Along the lower border of the Note Bangladesh Bank is inscribed in microtext printing on the obverse. Two identification dots are inscribed in the right hand side for the blind. Date of Issue : 30-07-2005.

5. Twenty Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Holographic window type security thread. Dot for the blind. Latent image. Head of a Royal Bengal Tiger in Motional water mark and logo of Bangladesh Bank in Electrotype watermark. Date of Issue : 13-07-2002.

Security Feature:
Water mark depicting the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger on the left hand side and a security thread towards the right hand side. Date of Issue :20-08-1979.

6. Ten Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Security thread on the right hand side and watermark depicting the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger on the left hand side. Date of Issue : 03-08-1978.

Security Feature:
Water mark of the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger. Design See-through in the above and below the portrait on the right side of the note, Clear text Security thread. Date of Issue : 11-12-1997.

Security Feature :
A security thread at the left of the picture of mosque and watermark depicting the raised head of a Royal Bengal Tiger. Date of Issue : 03-09-1982.

Security Feature :
A Ten Taka Note with signature of Dr. Salehuddin Ahmed, governor has been issued since 21 September 2006. Various portions along with the serial number in the obverse of the note are intaglio printed. Others Notes of same denomination are on circulation as usual. Date of Issue : 21-09-2006.

Security Feature :
Water mark of the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger in the left. Optical Thread. National flower Shapla in see-through window. Date of Issue : 14-12-2000.

7. Five Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Water mark head of a Royal Bengal Tiger in the left side of the note, security thread on the right with 3mm width instead of 0.75mm in the existing 5 taka notes. Date of Issue : 08-10-2006.

Security Feature:
Security thread on the right hand side near the panel containing water mark which depicts the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger. Date of Issue :01-09-1973.

8. Two Taka Note:

Security Feature :
Head of a Royal Bengal Tiger on the left hand side and security thread on the right hand side. Date of Issue : 29-12-1988.

9. One Taka Note:

Security Feature:
Security thread on the left hand side near the picture of a woman pounding rice and a water mark depicting the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger on the right hand side. Date of Issue : 18-12-1973.

Security Feature :
Water mark of the head of a Royal Bengal Tiger in the left and side of the note. General Security thread. See-through image just above the water mark. Date of Issue: 03-09-1979

One Poisa

Five Poisha


Ten Poisha

Twenty Five Poisha

Fifty Poisha

One Taka

Two Taka

Five Taka


In this paper Bangladesh was broadly described. The national icons of Bangladesh was covered widely with image. The currency of Bangladesh was described with history & specifications including images. Coins were covered by images. In this assignment I had to cover the Bangladeshi national icon and went through each and every points of it which helped to me learn about my country. I learnt about the flag size, the more about our national poet, animal, airport, forest. These information helped me to know my country in a new way.

University of Idaho. 19 December 2009. College of Letters, Arts, & Social Sciences. 15 December 2009. <> Bangladesh Cultural Center. 19 December 2009. Bangladesh Cultural Center. 15 December 2009. <> Bangladesh Online. 19 December 2009. Tourism. 15 December 2009. <> Wikipedia. 19 December 2009. <> 0px-Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg.png


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