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Energy exists in various forms on the earth, its most important forms being mechanical (or kinetic), chemical, heat (or thermal) and solar. Energy needs to be in useful form at the right place and time and this is achieved by means of converters, which change energy from one form to another, making it easier to store, transport, or use for work.
Before the industrial revolution man¶s energy needs were modest. He began to utilize energy using his own body. The energy is replenished from the food he eats. For heat, man relied on the sun. He also burned wood, straw, and dried dung. Energy utilization became more advance when man began to use energy provided by animals. As big animals like oxen, horses, donkeys etc. were domesticated; people acquired more muscle power and more mechanical energy, in more concentrated form. In addition to animal power, slavery became an efficient means by which the wealthy and powerful became richer and more powerful. Energy was used to dig ditches, build dams, hunt for animals, or for fighting wars. These only accounted for only a few hundred thousand watts.
Windmills and watermills added slightly to the energy supply of agrarian societies especially in Persia, China and Europe. In the 18th century however, coal burning was used to tap hundreds of millions of years' worth of photosynthesis through the use of steam engines, to convert chemical into mechanical energy. Coal was also used for heating buildings and smelting iron into steel. In 1880, the world's first electric generator was driven by a steam engine powered by coal. Thomas Edison's plant in New York City provided the first electric light to Wall Street financiers and the New York Times ().
A new form of fuel was surfaced in the late 1800s. Petroleum became a valuable commodity for lighting. In the 1900s, engines became 30 times as powerful as those of 1800s. High-pressure steam became better utilized. Steam engines became more useful as they were more portable than watermills and windmills. They could fit anywhere even on ships and railroad locomotives.
Steam engines made it easier to transport coal on a larger scale and thus more fuel became available to power more steam engines. Efficiency of energy usage has been regarded as one of the quickest. reliable energy fuels the technologies and services that enrich and extend life. This has created the need for efficiency in the utilization of energy. Fundamentally. less importantly. it rose by another 16-fold with oil. climate change. energy issues are vitally important and demand our understanding. expanding reliable and affordable supplies of energy supports and even accelerates changes that improve and save lives. Reliable energy means expanded industry. Energy utilization in the twentieth century has accounted for the most energy usage ever . Potential improvements in energy . most cost-effective ways to reduce the risks of global warming. expands communications. Energy utilization therefore increased fivefold in the 19th century under the impact of steam. However. and (after 1950) natural gas and. increased trade and improved transportation. limited natural resources are growing concerns around the World. In the 20th century. Petroleum was processed into gasoline and internal combustion engines came on stream. acid rain and smog .about 10 times as much energy as in the thousand years before 1900 A. modern agriculture. It powers advanced computers. For developing nations. powers cutting-edge medical and much more. Importance of Energy Study The importance of energy utilization cannot be overemphasized. nuclear power. For developed nations.D. Energy is the lifeblood of modern national economies. improves transportation. For these reasons and more. the utilization of energy is about people using energy to improve their daily lives. These are building blocks of economic growth that create the jobs that help people escape poverty and create better lives for their children. coal and petroleum.(BCA-NUS) Improving energy efficiency is a key strategy in making the world's energy system more economically and environmentally sustainable.
Wulfinghoff however provides a number of definitions to include: y y using less energy in a particular application Finding ways to purchase particular forms of energy at lower cost. The renewable sources of energy are those sources that are constantly renewed or restored naturally. schools. with regard to non-efficiency concerns such as availability and pollution. transportation systems. and the internal heat of the earth. offices. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1997) discusses the sources of energy in terms of renewable and non renewable sources.) y Shifting to energy sources that are considered to be more desirable. The major sources of utilized energy in the world today are non-renewable. factories.5% of the . It recommends that focus should be more on the use of renewable sources so that natural resources will be available for future generations. fossil fuels such as oil. Such shifts typically y y Involve serious compromises. Energy conservation Wikipwedia (2011) describes Energy conservation as efforts made to reduce energy consumption. They include wind. or less undesirable. Non-renewable sources of energy are those natural resources that cannot be replenished e. and coal. Donald R. as well as energy sources. hospitals. vegetation. Conserving water and materials.efficiency exist in all economies and all sectors ± in homes. the latter method may increase energy consumption considerably. power plants. The agency affirms the importance of conserving current supply of energy. (Paradoxically.) y y shifting to different energy sources of lower price Using ³free´ or ³renewable´ energy sources (Paradoxically. In the United States about 71.g. this is often expensive. gas. etc. This is usually accomplished by negotiating with energy providers or by using energy under less costly conditions. water. district heating systems. sun.
The water then falls back to Earth as rain. Wind Energy Wind is the movement of air that occurs when warm air rises and cooler air rushes in to replace it. They will become too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. provides a list of the top seven renewable energy sources to include solar energy. constantly recharged by the global cycle of evaporation and precipitation. contributes to the growth of trees and other plants that are used for biomass energy. Solar Energy The sun is regarded as the most powerful source of energy. The heat of the sun causes water in lakes and oceans to evaporate and form clouds. geothermal and ocean energy. The energy of the wind has been used for centuries to sail ships and drive windmills that grind grain. 1. West L. coal. Renewable Energy sources Nigeria currently relies heavily on oil. wind energy. Today. hydropower. Their sources will eventually dwindle. It drains into rivers and .energy used to generate electricity is from non renewable sources while 9% are from renewable sources. For example. water heating. Renewable energy resources-such as wind and solar energy-are constantly replenished and will never run out. 2. and gas for its energy needs. Most forms of renewable energy come either directly or indirectly from the sun. Solar energy. and a variety of industrial processes. biomass energy. lighting and cooling (in temperate regions) homes and other buildings. hydrogen. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable. Hydropower Water is a renewable resource. wind energy is captured by wind turbines and used to generate electricity. 3. heat from the sun causes the wind to blow. and plays an essential role in the cycle of evaporation and precipitation that makes hydropower possible. generating electricity. can be used for heating.
it can be used to power vehicles. grasses and other plants. Hydropower is one of the major sources of energy for electricity in Nigeria. However. When hydrogen is separated from other elements. the major sources are wood biomass. Wood is still the most common source of biomass energy. Biomass Energy Biomass has been an important source of energy ever since people first began burning wood to cook food and warm themselves against the winter chill. but other sources of biomass energy include food crops.streams that flow back to the ocean. forage grasses and shrubs. the energy of flowing water can be used to generate electricity. 6. Hydrogen is the most common element on Earth. Flowing water is used to power water wheels that drive mechanical processes. Biomass can be used to produce electricity and as fuel for transportation. organic components from municipal and industrial wastes. municipal and industrial) and aquatic biomass.750 MW. hydropower capacity in Nigeria still remains underexploited (6) 4. Hydrogen Hydrogen as fuel and source of energy is not very popular. only 1. However. replace natural gas for heating and cooking. agricultural and forestry waste and residue. agricultural. When used to rotate turbines and generators. Geothermal energy can . and to generate electricity. The steam or hot water can be used to power generators and produce electricity. The gross exploitable hydro potential in Nigeria is put at approximately 14. or for other applications such as power generation for industry. In Nigeria.930 MW representing 14% of the gross is currently being generated at Kainji. even methane gas harvested from community landfills. The technology needed to realize its potential is still in the early stages. or to manufacture products that would otherwise require the use of nonrenewable fossil fuels (West). residues and wastes (forestry. Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is in the form of Steam and hot water produced from heat within the earth. Jebba and Shiroro constituting about 30% of total installed grid connected electricity generation capacity of the country. 5.
There were long queues at gasoline stations with threats of insufficient heating oil. heating systems. in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources (EPA. or "greenhouse effect" which has environmental impacts such as rising sea levels that can damage coastal areas.be drawn from deep underground reservoirs by drilling or from other geothermal reservoirs closer to the surface. but the ocean remains an important potential energy source for the future. Carbon dioxide is produced when oil. Energy conservation is also important because the consumption of nonrenewable sources such as burning fossil fuels impacts the environment negatively. and gas combust in power stations. and major changes in vegetation growth patterns that could cause some plant and animal species to become extinct. coal. It is important to state that every unit (or kilowatt) of electricity conserved reduces the environmental impact of energy use. Energy conservation started as a result of the "energy crisis" that erupted in 1973 due to the embargo of oil that was directed primarily against the United States by Arab oil producing countries. Ocean Energy Energy from ocean waves and tides can be drawn to generate electricity. policy in the Middle East. 7. most ocean energy is not cost-effective compared to other renewable energy sources. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere acts as a transparent blanket that contributes to the global warming of the earth. This warming trend could significantly alter our weather and pose a threat to human survival. Other effects include ³Acid rain´ a precipitation which is formed when sulfur dioxide reacts with water and oxygen in the clouds. and car engines. . Energy prices in rose radically. Heat stored in sea water can also be converted to electricity. Using current technologies.S. especially for petroleum there were shortages of petroleum supply. 1997). Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use. in reaction to U.
A technical aspect of individual machines A freestanding issue.5.It was then that the realization that energy sources may not be enough to cope with mankind's use of energy became apparent. 3. New Energy Conservation Energy sources are being depleted. Distinct interest groups variously seek to address it by economic. political. social. 10% (high growth).5% (optimistic) and 13% (optimistic) GDP growth rate per annum. the energy demand of Nigeria has been forecasted to be approximately 2. without replacement. Wulfinghoff explains that the concept of energy conservation was not new at the time of the energy crisis but the energy crises brought a new dimension to energy conservation. According to (). respectively. Perceived mainly as a resource conservation and/or environmental issue. to be addressed by technical and economic means. Its structure is measured by the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) alongside with its shares by the various sectors and sub-sectors of the economy. technical. struggling to become and processes. 11.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) with petroleum products having the largest share of 67.3% of the total .5 and 4. Old Energy Conservation Energy sources are discovered ahead of demand. Perceived by everyone as an issue of labor requirements and fuel costs.5 folds between the years 2000 and 2015 and approximately 8. 13. 3. This increase in demand for energy is due to the high level of economic activities expected in Nigeria as measured by the total GDP. A societal issue. He summarizes the differences between the pre-energy crises philosophy on energy conservation and that of the post energy crises in a table as shown below. technically integrated.5 folds between the years 2000 and 2030 based on 7% (reference). An issue for individual parties. Energy Perspective of Nigeria Nigeria¶s population drives its energy demand due to the high level of economic activity. In 2007. the total primary energy consumed was 11. and/or metaphysical means. 17 and 22.
2% thermal and 31.17 and 0.1% hydro). natural gas at 8. available capacity of 4914 MW (67. 5. This quantity cannot be directly measured.2% hydro) and an operational capacity of 3149 MW (68. Coal which generates 40% of the world¶s electricity has however been neglected for a long time in Nigeria because the existing coal power production facilities degrade the environment through pollution.e.04% for the 2002-2007 periods. Measurement of Energy utilization Efficient use of energy is one aspect of energy conservation.9%.05% with their respective total average consumption standing at 16. Instead. The key metric of interest is energy savings. according to Olayinka (2010). and (b) What energy consumption would have occurred during the same period had the efficiency measures not been installed (i.08. it should be measureable. .8% hydro).8% thermal and 32. This level of consumption was followed by that of hydropower at 23. As at the 2007.7% and coal at 0. the baseline).consumption amounting to a total average consumption of 78.9% thermal and 24.7% between 2002 and 2007. the measurements are estimated by taking the difference between: (a) Actual energy consumption after efficiency measures are installed. For energy to be efficiently used. PHCN records showed that electricity generation was put at a total installed capacity of 7876 MW (75..
171-177 Retrieved January 21. Retrieved January 24. 2011.sg/BuildingEnergy/energy_studies/index. ISESCO ± Science and Technology Vision.medwelljournals. Energy Conservation.177 7. Washington. West. National University of Singapore 3. (2001. Renewable Energy for Rural Development: The Nigerian Perspective. L. S. O. Energy Studies: Importance of Energy Study. Sambo. S.171.1. (2005). 2001.nus. Top 7 Renewable Energy Sources. 1. 2011. Olayinka. Energy Utilization and Renewable Energy Sources in Nigeria Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 5 (2). . Elementary Energy info book.2010. Retrieved January 21. Manassas: The NEED Project 2. Wikipedia (2011) Energy conservation.edu.com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy.htm 8.wikipedia. A. Pollution Prevention (P2) Education Toolbox. United States Environmental Protection Agency 5. from http://www. Retrieved January 24. BCA-NUS Building Energy and Research Information center. (2010). from http://www. EPA (1997).bdg.com/abstract/?doi=jeasci. from http://environment.org/wiki/Energy_Conservation 6. 1222.about. October 17).html 4. History of Energy. from http://en. 2011.
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