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Self-efficacy comes from the work of Albert Bandura. The authors treat the construct as best described by the term ³confidence.´ It is a forward-looking expectancy that one¶s abilities will be sufficient to meet a particular challenge. Hope is the construct developed by C. Rick Snyder. Dr. Snyder approached hope as a way of thinking that involves goals, pathways (waypower) and agency (willpower). The authors suggest that the pathways component of this construct distinguishes it from self-efficacy and optimism and provides a unique contribution to PsyCap. Optimism is primarily taken from the positive explanatory style of Martin Seligman, although it also discusses the future orientation approach of Carver and Scheier. Interestingly, although the chapter leans heavily on explanatory style, the PsyCap construct introduced later in the book draws in its items for optimism from the Carver and Scheier model. Frankly, I am a little confused as to whether the micro-intervention introduced later in the book develops positive explanatory style or positive expectancies for the future. However, while the two constructs are separate, it may be that, in the context of an integrated approach including self-efficacy, hope, and resiliency, any effective intervention will actually develop both. I hope that future work in this area will address this point more clearly in reference to the prior research base. Resiliency is also an area with multiple research streams. I am personally more familiar with that developed by Karen Reivich and Andrew Shatte which uses explanatory style as a key component. The resiliency research used in this construct, however, draws from the ³assets´ approach of Ann Masten and colleagues from the University of Minnesota. In Chapters 6 and 7, the authors consider additional constructs which they believe may have potential for inclusion in PsyCap. They classify these as cognitive (Creativity and Wisdom), affective (Well-Being, Flow and Humor), social (Gratitude, Forgiveness, Emotional Intelligence, and Spirituality), and higher order (Authenticity and Courage). Those familiar with the Values in Action Character Strengths Questionnaire will recognize that each of these except Well-Being and Flow are considered character strengths in the VIA. Well-being is the topic of research form from the work of Ed Diener and colleagues. Flow is the construct developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi that is incorporated into the Authentic Happiness conceptualization of happiness ² pleasure, engagement, and meaning ² as engagement. I have not yet had an opportunity to compare the research-based referenced in this book to that discussed in Character Strengths and Virtues. These chapters demonstrate how open PsyCap is for future development.