National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

1990-2002 Report of Mexico

Executive Summary

Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Instituto Nacional de Ecología

José Luis Luege Tamargo Secretary of the Environment and Natural Resources Dr. Adrián Fernández Bremauntz President of the National Institute of Ecology Julia Martínez Fernández Coordinator of the Climate Change Program Luis Conde Alvarez Head of the Department of Mitigation Methods and Studies in the Area of the Preparation of Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Periférico Sur 5000, 5° piso, Col. Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Del. Coyoacán, Mexico City, C.P. 04530 Tel.: 54-24-64-18 and 19, Fax: 54-24-54-85 http://www.ine.gob.mx http://cambio_climatico.ine.gob.mx

Summary

This publication presents the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI) for the period 1990-2002. Mexico's emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents were 643,183 Gg in 2002, (with a preliminary figure of Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry, LULUCF). The 2002 NGHGI reports on emissions of the 6 sources and sinks and the 6 greenhouse gases included in the Appendix A of the Kyoto Protocol. In this edition, fluorated gas (halocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride) emissions are estimated for the first time in the category of Industrial Process emissions and emissions in the Solvents category, which makes it the most complete Inventory prepared by Mexico to date. The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from 1990 to 1998 that were reported in the First and Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were recalculated in the present inventory, taking into consideration more up-to-date information than was used at that time, and applying emission factors that are more appropriate for the national situation. Thus the 2002 NGHGI figures are meant to replace the previously calculated values.

This inventory was estimated according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines, and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National GHG Inventories, published in the year 2000. The preparation of the NGHGI is an effort by Mexico to fulfill its commitments acquired by signing (1992) and later ratifying (1993) the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which went into effect on March 21, 1994.

Keywords: 2002 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory NGHGI

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Acknowledgments

The National Institute of Ecology, as the government office responsible for drawing up the 2002 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, extends its deepest gratitude to the organizations and individuals who contributed to the preparation and revision of this document. The work of compiling data was facilitated thanks to the collaboration of the Federal Electrical Commission (CFE), the National Water Commission (CNA), the National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Computing (INEGI), Mexican Petroleum (PEMEX), the Department of Social Development (SEDESOL), the Department of the Economy (SE), the Department of Energy (SENER), the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT), the companies Arkema, DuPont, and Quimobásicos, as well as of the Mexican Automobile Association (AMIA), the National Chamber of Cement (CANACEM), the National Chamber of Industry of Transformation (CANACINTRA), the National Chamber of the Sugar and Alcohol Industries (CNIAA), and the National Auto Parts Industry (INA). The emissions estimates and later inclusion of reports on each emissions category was possible thanks to the dedicated work of specialists at the Center for Ecosystems Research (CIECO-UNAM), the National Center for Research and Technological Development (CENIDET), Southern Frontier College (ECOSUR), School of Postgraduates (COLPOS), Institute of Engineering (UNAM), the Institute of Electrical Research (IIE), Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP), National Forest, Agricultural and Stockraising Research Institute (INIFAP) and the National Institute of Ecology (INE).
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The revision and preparation of the final version of each section of the document was enriched by the timely, objective collaboration of the Department of Agriculture, Stock Raising, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA), Department of Communications and Transports (SCT), Department of Social Development (SEDESOL), Department of the Economy (SE), Department of Energy (SENER), and the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT). The 2002 NGHGI was prepared with the economic support of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), and of the Global Environment Fund (GEF), through the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), as well as with funds from the National Institute of Ecology (INE). The National Institute of Ecology would especially like to thank Juan Carlos Arredondo and Dick Cuatecontzi for their contributions and help in drawing up this document. We would be grateful for your valuable comments on this document.

Table of Contents

Summary...................................................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgments..................................................................................................................... iv Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................v List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. vi List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... vii Glossary..................................................................................................................................... viii Definitions ................................................................................................................................... ix RE.1. RE.1.1. Executive Summary .....................................................................................................1 Background of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Climate

Change ........................................................................................................................................1 RE.1.2. RE.1.3. Summary of national tendencies with respect to emissions and sinks .....2 Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends.....5

RE.1.3.1. Overview of source and sink category emission .................................................5 RE.1.3.2. Energy [1] ..................................................................................................................7 RE.1.3.3. Industrial Processes [2] .........................................................................................12 RE.1.3.4. Solvents [3]..............................................................................................................14 RE.1.3.5. Agriculture [4]..........................................................................................................15 RE.1.3.6. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry [5] (LULUCF) (Preliminary) .......16 RE.1.3.7. Waste [6]..................................................................................................................17

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List of Tables

Table RE.1 IPCC emissions categories............................................................................... 1 Table RE.2 Global Warming Potential of greenhouse gases............................................... 2 Table RE.3 Emissions in Gg of CO2 equivalent for the period 1990-2002........................... 2 Table RE.4 Subcategories of Energy................................................................................... 7 Table RE.5 GHG emissions in the Energy category (Gg).................................................... 7 Table RE.6 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas .................................... 7 Table RE.7 Subcategories of Industrial Processes............................................................ 13 Table RE.8 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period 1990 – 2002, Gg.......................................................................................................... 14 Table RE.9 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period 1990 – 2002, Gg of CO2 equivalent............................................................................. 14 Table RE.10 MDVOC emissions by sector in the Solvents category for the period 1990-2002, Gg ............................................................................................................ 15 Table RE.11 Subcategories of Agriculture......................................................................... 15 Table RE.12 Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in the Agriculture category, Gg of CO2 equivalent................................................................................... 16 TableRE.13 Subcategories of LULUCF ............................................................................. 16 Table RE.14 Subcategories of Waste................................................................................ 17

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List of Figures
Figure RE.1 Contribution by emissions category for the period 1990-2002 .........................4 Figure RE.2 Emissions by type of gas for the period 1990-2002 .........................................4 Figure RE.3 Diagram of GHG emissions for Mexico ............................................................6 Figure RE.4 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas ....................................8 Figure RE.5 Change in annual percentage of GHG emissions in the Energy category with respect to the previous year................ ..........................................................................8 Figure RE.6 Absolute annual change in GHG emissions in the Energy category with respect to 1990................................................................................................................ 9 Figure RE.7 Mexico’s energy intensity for the period 1990-2002 .......................................10 Figure RE.8 Mexico’s emissions intensity for the period 1990-2002 ..................................10 Figure RE.9 Emissions in the Energy category by type of fuel consumed in this country in subcategories 1A1, 1A2 y 1A4. ........................................................................11 Figure RE.10 Percent of contribution by sector to GHG emissions in the Energy category for 1990 and 2002 ........................................................................11 Figure RE.11 Percent of contribution by sector to CO2 emissions in the Industrial Processes category for 1990 and 2002 ........................................................................13 Figure RE.12 Waste emissions from 1990 to 2002 ............................................................17

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Glossary

ANFACAL - Asociación Nacional de Fabricantes de Cal, A.C. ANIQ - Asociación Nacional de la Industria Química [National Association of the Chemical Industry] BIE – Banco de Información Electrónica [Bank of Electronic Information] CANACEM - Cámara Nacional del Cemento [National Centre for Cement] CANACINTRA – Cámara Nacional de la Industria de la Trasformación [National Centre for the Processing Industry] CINASA - Compañía Nacional de Abrasivos, S.A. de C.V. CFE – Comisión Federal de Electricidad [Federal Electrical Commission] CICC – Comisión Intersecretarial de Cambio Climático [Interdepartmental Commission on Climate Change] CNA – Comisión Nacional del Agua [National Water Commission] CONAFOR – Comisión Nacional Forestal [National Forestry Commission] COREMI - Consejo de Recursos Minerales [Mineral Resources Council] GDP – Gross Domestic Product GHG – Greenhouse gas HL – hectolitres (100 litres) IMC - Industrial Minera Comercial, S.A. de C.V. INEGI – Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática [National Statistics, Geography and Computing Institute] IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change MMTCE – Millions of metric tons of carbon equivalent NMVOC –Non-methane volatile organic compound
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QA/QC – Quality Assurance/Quality Control, activities proposed to ensure quality and its control, consisting in the reviewing and comparison of emission factors, methodologies and information on the activities SEDESOL – Secretaría de Desarrollo Social [Department of Social Development] SEMARNAT – Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales [Department of the Environment and Natural Resources] SENER – Secretaría de Energía [Department of Energy] SIAVI – Sistema de Información Arancelaria Vía Internet [System of Tariff Information Via Internet] UNFCCC – United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change USGS – United States Geological Survey USW – Urban solid waste

Definitions

Activity Data – Numerical value or magnitude of a socioeconomic activity (production, consumption, processing, etc.) with which a possible greenhouse gas emission is associated Anthropogenic – Generated by human activities Clinker – Basic component of cement Decision Tree – Flow Chart proposed by the Good Practice Guidance as a first step in determining the methodology to be applied in estimating greenhouse gas emissions Emission Factor – This corresponds to the conversion unit for estimating emissions based on activity data; the emission factor is expressed in units of quantity of emissions per unit mass of the activity or source that generates greenhouse gases. Emissions Category – This refers to that group of sectors or economic activities (set of emissions sources), of the same type, in which some greenhouse gas is released into the atmosphere. According to IPCC classification, the emissions categories are: Energy; Industrial Processes; Solvents, Agriculture; Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry; and Waste. Emissions Source – Process or mechanism that releases some greenhouse gas Gg – Unit of measurement of mass equivalent to 109 grams, used for GHG emissions. One gigagram is equal to 1000 metric tons. Good Practice Guidance – This refers to the manual of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories published in 2002. Global Warming Potential (GWP) - This is a relative scale used to compare the impact on global warming of the emission of one kilo of a greenhouse gas compared with the emission of a kilo of carbon dioxide. The values of the index

take into consideration the radiative efficiency of each gas as well as its decay rate in the atmosphere. Greenhouse Gas – This refers to any gaseous component of the atmosphere that has the capacity to absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. These gases can be classified as either naturally generated or emitted as a result of human socio-economic activities. Hazardous wastes – Any waste in any physical state that, due to its corrosive, reactive, explosive, toxic, inflammable or biologically infectious (CRETIB) characteristics, represents a hazard to the ecological equilibrium or the atmosphere. All containers, recipients, and packaging that have been in contact with this waste are included. Industrial Wastewater – Water that is contaminated through its use in industrial processes, or in energy generation IPCC Guidelines – This refers to the manuals of the Guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change, 1996 revised version, which are: the work manual, the reference manual and the instructions for the inventory report. IPCC Software – Calculation program in Excel provided by the IPCC to systematize and facilitate the estimating of emissions for each emissions category during the preparation of GHG inventories

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Municipal Solid Waste – Mixed solid waste from human activities in a home, in public places and services, demolitions, constructions, commercial and service establishments. Municipal Wastewater – Water that is contaminated through its use in human settlements, centres of population or, in general, in homes, businesses and urban services.

Sink – Process or mechanism that absorbs and/or retains greenhouse gases Trona – Mineral base for obtaining sodium carbonate by the natural process

Abbreviations of chemical compounds

CO2 CH4 N2O CO NOx NMVOC SO2 HFC PFC SF6 CF4 C2F6

Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Oxides Non-methane volatile organic compound Sulfur Dioxide Hydrofluorocarbons Perfluorocarbons Sulfur Hexafluoride Perfluoromethane Perfluoroethane

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Executive Summary
analyses or comparison with other emissions categories in this document.
Table RE.1 IPCC emissions categories
1 Energy 1A Consumption of fossil fuels 1B Fugitive methane emissions 2 Industrial Processes 3 Solvents 4 Agriculture 5 Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry 6 Waste

RE.1.1 Background of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Climate Change
The present National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory (NGHGI) comprises the estimates of emissions according to source and sink for the period from 1990 to 2002. It was drawn up according to the indications in articles 4 and 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the National Communication Guidelines for Non-Annex I Parties of the UNFCCC adopted in decision 17/CP.8, which indicate that Non-Annex I Parties should include information of a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and anthropogenic absorption by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, as far as possible, prepared using the comparable methodologies promoted and approved by the Conference of the Parties1. national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and anthropogenic absorption by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, as far as possible, prepared using the comparable methodologies promoted and approved by the Conference of the Parties, there are only preliminary estimates for the year 2002 for Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry [5] (LULUCF) emissions, so that their figures are only considered in the section of the General Panorama of the Executive Summary of this document; LULUCF emissions are not included in the

In accordance with IPCC Guidelines, NGHGI estimates were made using level 1 methodologies, by default, and wherever possible, level 2 methodologies were used. Calculations were made using data for specific activities in the country, gathered with the support of the corresponding organizations in each emissions category; similarly, emissions factors were used by default, except for the subcategory of transport emissions, where an emission factor was obtained that was appropriate for national circumstances. Estimates of anthropogenic emissions are reported in itemized form by gas and emissions categories. For the report on aggregated emissions, CO2 equivalent units are given, using the global warming potentials provided by the IPCC in its Second Assessment Report, based on the GHG effects over a 100-year time horizon (see Table RE.2).

1. UNFCCC. (2004). “UNFCCCReporting on Climate Change. User manual for the guidelines on national communications from Non-Annex I Parties”. Climate Change Secretariat, Germany, p. 1. 1

Table RE.2 Global Warming Potential of greenhouse gases2 Type Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide HFC-23 HFC-32 HFC-125 HFC-134 HFC-134a HFC-152a HFC-143a Sulfur Hexafluoride Perfluoromethane Perfluoroethane Chemical Formula CO2 CH4 N2O CHF3 CH2F2 C2HF5 C2H2F4 CH2FCF3 C2H4F2 C2H3F3 SF6 CF4 C2F6 Global Warming Potential 1 21 310 11,700 650 2,800 1,000 1,300 140 3,800 23,900 6,500 9,200

*Includes only those greenhouse gases whose emissions were estimated in 2002 NGHGI

RE. 1.2 Summary of national tendencies with respect to emissions and sinks
The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2002 (without LULUCF) were 553,329 Gg in CO2 equivalent, which represents an increase of 30% with respect to 1990. These emissions include the six main greenhouse gases contemplated by the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH2, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6) in the four emissions categories shown in Table RE.3.

Table RE.3 Emissions in Gg CO2 equivalent for the period 1990-2002
Emissions Category 1 Energy
1A Consumption of Fossil Fuels 1B Fugitive Emissions

1990 312,027.2 279,863.7 32,163.5 32,456.4 47,427.5 33,357.2 425,268.2

1992 321,835.9 291,045.5 30,790.4 32,878.3 46,049.6 36,935.4 437,699.1

1994 342,899.6 308,931.8 33,967.8 39,247.8 45,503.9 46,862.6 474,513.8

1996 349,430.6 311,197.1 38,233.4 42,744.0 44,076.6 52,894.9 489,146.1

1998 394,128.8 351,760.2 42,368.7 50,973.1 45,444.9 62,655.9 553,202.8

2000 398,627.3 356,796.3 41,831.0 55,851.2 45,527.0 63,219.8 563,225.2

2002 389,496.7 350,414.3 39,082.3 52,102.2 46,146.2 65,584.4 553,329.4

2 Industrial Processes 4 Agriculture 6 Waste Total

2. Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change: Summary for Policymakers and Technical Summary of the Working Group I Report, p. 26. 2

The greatest contribution to total emissions comes from the Energy category [1], which contributes an average of 72% of the total emissions annually for the period between 1990 and 2002; in particular, in this emissions category, the consumption of fossil fuels is the main source of GHG emissions in this country since it contributes an average of 64% of total emissions every year. The relative importance of each category with respect to total emissions varied between 1990 and 2002; towards 2002, a greater participation is observed in the emissions in the Waste [6] and Industrial Processes [2] categories, while the contribution to the total tends to fall in the Energy [1] and Agriculture categories [4]. The contribution of fugitive emissions [1B] within the energy category remains stable, with an average of 7.4% of total emissions every year. In terms of their contribution to the total (Figure RE.1), the most marked change is shown in the category of Waste, whose emissions increased 97% between 1990 and 2002 as a result of the increase in the disposal of solid waste in sanitary landfill and because of the impetus given over the last decade to the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. A large part of this increase occurred between 1990 and 1996, when emissions rose by 59%; in the years following, from 1996 to 2002, the rate of growth fell and tended to become stable, showing an annual increase of between 1 and 4%. Another significant change occurred in the category of Industrial Processes [2], since it shows an increase of 60% in its GHG emissions to 2002 with respect to 1990; the increase in emissions is due to a greater use of limestone and dolomite, mainly caused by the growth of the construction industry during this last decade and by a greater production of raw materials, products and derivatives of iron and steel.

Although its contribution with respect to the total diminished by 4% during this period, the Energy category [1] increased its emissions by 25% between 1990 and 2002, due mainly to a greater consumption of fossil fuels in this country; this situation can be explained by the natural growth of the country's economy during those years, which generated an increase in energy demand, and by the small variation in the type of fossil fuels used in this country, both for transport and for generating electrical power. In spite of the increase in emissions, the lower contribution by the Energy category to the total is explained by an improvement in the country's energy intensity, and by the greater relative participation in the categories of Waste and Industrial Processes. With regard to the Agriculture category [4], it showed a decrease of 3% to 2002 with respect to 1990, attributable to a possible stagnation in the stock-raising sector, as well as an increase in imports and a lower national production of basic grains such as rice. With regard to the gases considered, the main GHG is CO2, which showed an increase of 28% with respect to 1990, due mainly to the consumption of fuels in the sectors of transport and the electricitygenerating industry; followed by CH4, which underwent a 34% increase with respect to 1990, with fugitive emissions from petroleum and natural gas, enteric fermentation, sanitary landfill and wastewater being those that contributed to the emissions of this gas; finally, N2O showed a 16% increase with respect to 1990, with the main contribution for this gas being emissions from farmlands.

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Figure RE.1 Contribution by emissions category for the period 1990-2002
100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0% 1990 En1992 1994 1996 1998 Agriculture 2000 Waste 2002

Industrial Processes

Figure RE.2 Emissions by type of gas for the period 1990-2002 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 199 199
CO2

millions of CO 2 equiv.

199
CH4

199
N2O HFCs

199
PFCs

200
SF

200

Regarding HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, these have a participation of 1% in the GHG inventory. The potential emissions of these gases altogether have increased by a factor of 16 with respect to 1992, due mainly
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to an increase in the consumption of HFCs in refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; however, PFCs showed a decrease of 42% from 1990 to 2002 as a result of the decrease in aluminum production in this country.

RE. 1.3. Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends
In the present report, an inventory is reported for the first time on the estimates of emissions in the Solvents category as well as the emissions of fluorated gases in the category of Industrial Processes. Similarly, emissions for the categories of Industrial Processes, Solvents and Waste were calculated for the period 1990 to 1998, based on new information available. Fixed-source and area emissions were also re-calculated, and emissions for automotive transport because there were more appropriate emissions factors that took into account technological aspects considered to be the most representative ones for Mexico. In addition, for emissions estimates in Agriculture, emissions factors were applied by default, corrected, and published by the IPCC in 2001. This work is the result of the collaboration between academe and the public sector, as was the NGHGI presented previously. Unlike previous inventories, a work system was developed on this occasion that would guide and facilitate the preparation of the NGHGI and at the same time make it possible to record the experience acquired in its preparation. As part of this process, a computing system funded by tax funds was developed in 2005, taking the work sheets of the IPCC guidelines as a model, in order to facilitate the capture of information and to resolve some problems presented with IPCC software.

RE.1.3.1. Overview of source and sink category emission
GHG emissions for 2002 in CO2 equivalent units, and with preliminary figures for the category Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF), were estimated at 643,183 Gg, taking into account the six gases stated in Annex A of the Kyoto Protocol. The diagram in Figure RE.3 summarizes the contribution by emissions category (left side) and by gas (right side). The contribution of GHG emissions in different categories in terms of CO2 equivalent in 2002 is the following: the Energy category represented 61% of the emissions with 389,497 Gg; next are the LULUCF categories with 14% of the total emissions (89,854 Gg), Waste with 10% (65,584 Gg), Industrial Processes with 8% (52,102 Gg) and Agriculture with 7% (46,146 Gg). In particular, the sectors of the Energy category, as a main source of emissions, contributed in the following way: energy generation represented 24% of the country's total emissions, transport contributed with 18%, the consumption of fossil fuels in manufacturing and the construction industry contributed 8%, and their consumption in the residential, commercial and agricultural sectors was 5%, while fugitive methane emissions contributed with 6% of total emissions. On the whole, fixed-source and area emissions (which include energy generation, the manufacturing industry and construction and other energy sectors, not counting transport) represented 37% of the total inventory. GHG emissions by gas are the following: 480,409 Gg (74%) correspond to CO2, 145,586 Gg (23%) to CH4, 12,343 Gg (2%) correspond to N2O, and the remaining 1% is made up of 4,425 Gg of HFCs, 405 Gg of PFCs and 15 Gg of SF6.
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Figure RE.3 Diagram illustrating GHG emissions for Mexico

3. Information on Mexico based on the diagram designed by the World Resources Institute, WRI. WRI. (2005). “Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse gases and international climate change agreements”, p. 4. 6

RE.1.3.2. Energy [1]
The Energy category is one of the main emitters of GHG in the national inventories of greenhouse gases. This category is subdivided into consumption of fossil fuels and in fugitive emissions of methane. (See Table RE.4). Greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2 equivalent units, in the Energy category showed an increase of 25% to 2002, with respect to the base year (1990), rising from 312,027 Gg to 389,497 Gg; however, their contribution to the total volume of emissions fell by 4% over the same period (see Table RE.5). Greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2 equivalent units, in the Energy category showed an increase of 25% to 2002, with respect to the base year (1990), rising from 312,027 Gg to 389,497 Gg; however, their contribution to the total volume of emissions fell by 4% over the same period (see Table RE.5). By type of gas, in 2002, CO2 contributed with 89%, CH4 with 10% and N2O with the remaining 1% of greenhouse gas emissions in the Energy category (see Table RE.6 and Figure RE.4).

Table RE.4 Subcategories of energy
1A Consumption of fossil fuels 1A1 Generation of energy 1A2 Manufacturing and the construction industry 1A3 Transport 1A4 Others (Commercial, residential and agricultural) 1B1 From coal mining and management 1B2 From petroleum and natural gas activities

1B Fugitive methane emissions

Table RE.5 GHG emissions in the Energy category (Gg)
Category and subcategories 1 Energy 1A Consumption of fossil fuels 1B Fugitive emissions of fuels 1990 312,027 279,864 32,163 1992 321,836 291,045 30,790 1994 342,900 308,932 33,968 1996 349,431 311,197 38,233 1998 394,129 351,760 42,369 2000 398,627 356,796 41,831 2002 389,497 350,414 39,082

Table RE.6 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas
Gas CO2 CH4 N2O TOTAL 1990 276,490 34,371 1,166 312,027 1992 287,518 33,086 1,232 321,836 1994 305,152 36,280 1,467 342,900 1996 307,889 39,964 1,578 349,431 1998 349,233 43,005 1891.20607 394,129 2000 353,868 42,605 2,155 398,627 2002 346,361 40,634 2,501 389,497

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Figure RE.4 GHG emissions in the Energy category by type of gas
400,000 350,000 300,000 Gg CO 2 Eq. 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1990 1992 1994 CO2 1996 CH4 1998 N2O 2000 2002

Figures RE.5 and RE.6 illustrate the annual percent change of greenhouse gas emissions in the Energy category, and the absolute change in emissions with respect to 1990, respectively.

Figure RE.5 Annual percent change in GHG emissions in the Energy category with respect to the previous year
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 10% 8% 6% 4%
2.76% 7.45% 6.90% 5.52% 4.91%

7.00%

2%
0.38%

0%
-0.42% -0.78% -1.52%

-2% -4% -6%
-5.16% -3.59%

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Figure RE.6 Absolute annual change in GHG emissions in the Energy category with respect to 1990
90,000
82,102 86,600 80,531 77,469 67,947

80,000 70,000 60,000 Gg CO 2 Eq. 50,000 40,000
30,872 37,403 56,676

30,000 20,000
13,163

10,000 0

8,600

9,809

8,453

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Greenhouse gas emissions in this category present an average annual growth rate of 2% between 1990 and 2002, which is less than the average annual growth rate of the GDP, which was 3.1% in the same period. Figures RE.7 and RE.8 show the behaviour of energy intensity (consumption of fossil fuels per unit of the gross domestic product at constant prices in 1993) and emissions intensity (greenhouse gas emissions per consumption of fossil fuels per unit of the GDP at constant prices in 1993) for the period from 1990 to 2002. In these graphs one can observe a tendency toward improvement in both intensities, in terms of a lower consumption of fossil fuels and a smaller quantity of GHG emissions per unit of gross domestic product generated in this country. The only change in the tendency toward improvement of the energy intensity is observed in the period from 1996 to 1998, which shows a setback due to an increase in the consumption of fossil fuels, in an attempt for the economy to recover its growth after the crisis of 1995. Related to this, the tendency toward improvement in the emis-

sions intensity is also affected; in that same period a change takes place in the selection of fossil fuels burned in the country, as shown in Figure RE.9; the change meant an increase in emissions due to the consumption of diesel, non-associated natural gas and fuel oil; the intensity of emissions improves from 1999 onward, this being the year in which the consumption of fuel oil decreases, and the consumption of nonassociated gas and diesel is established. Within the Energy subcategories, emissions produced in 2002 from the burning of fossil fuels in fixed and area sources (energy generation [1A1], manufacturing and construction industry [1A2], other sectors [1A4]) are equal to 61% of the emissions in this category (236,028 Gg) while emissions for the transport sector [1A3] represented only 29% (114,385 Gg), and fugitive emissions 10% (39,082 Gg).

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Figure RE.7 Mexico’s energy intensity in the period 1990-2002

4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 MJ/$produced 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Source: Own preparation using data from the National Energy Balance 2005.

Figure RE.8 Mexico’s emissions intensity for the period 1990-2002

0.28 0.28 kgGEI/peso produced 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Emissions in the subcategory of consumption of fossil fuels show a variation in their contribution with respect to 1990. For example, the contribution of the energy generating industry increases from 34% to 40%, while the participation of the emissions from manufacturing and the construction industry and that of other sectors decreases (Figure RE.10).
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Greenhouse gas emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels show an increase to 350,414 Gg of CO2 equivalent in 2002, 25% higher than that registered for the base year 1990.

Figure RE.9 Emissions in the Energy category by type of fuel consumed in this country in subcategories 1A1, 1A2 y 1A4.
period of change in of fuel

45,00

Gg of CO

2

40,00

Die-

35,00

30,00 Natural 25,00

Liquefied

20,00

15,00

Fuel

10,00

5,00

Unassociated dry

0 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200

Natural gas

Fuel

Diesel

Liquefied gas

Unassociated dry gas

Figure RE.10 Percentage contribution by sector to GHG emissions in the Energy category for 1990 and 2002
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1990 Energy-generating industry Transport Fugitive emissions 2002 Manufacturing and construction industry Other sectors

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In 2002, the contribution of the different sectors that form part of the subcategory of consumption of fossil fuels [1A], with respect to fixed and area sources, is as follows:
• 65% of the total greenhouse gas

emissions generated by fixed sources of combustion belong to the energy industries [1A1].
• 22% is generated by the sectors of

Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons (HFC, PFC) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are the GHGs estimated within this category. In addition, other secondary gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are considered. In general terms, the main gas emitted in the category of Industrial Processes is CO2, which represented 90% of emissions in this category in 2002 with 47,069 Gg.. CO2 emissions increased 51% with respect to the base year 1990 due to greater cement production, a greater use of limestone and dolomite, and to an increase in the production of raw materials, products and derivatives of steel and iron in this country. Fluorated gas emissions show a substantial increase in the period from 1992 to 2002, representing 1% of the total inventory when taken all together; this increase mainly reflects a greater use of HFCs in refrigerators and air conditioners in industry, homes and automobiles; this family of gases has replaced some of the chlorofluorocarbons controlled by the Montreal Protocol whose use is restricted all over the world. SF6 emissions, although they represent a smaller portion than HFCs within the fluorated gas emissions, increased by a factor of five between 1990 and 2002. However, the data obtained for the estimate of SF6 emissions show only the acquisitions of electrical equipment by the Federal Electrical Commission for the period 1990-2002, but fail to take into account the equipment that was acquired before 1990, and do not specify the units that are retired from the system every year.

manufacturing and construction industry [1A2], and
• the remaining 14% is produced by

the residential, commercial and farming sectors [1A4]. In that same year, the total emissions of greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalent units from the transport sector [1A3] were 114,385 Gg and are broken down in the following way: automobile transport [1A3b] contributed with 91%, air transport [1A3a] with 6%, maritime transport [1A3d] with 2%, and rail transport [1A3c] with the remaining 1%. Fugitive methane emissions [1B] for 2002 in CO2 equivalent came to 39,082 Gg, 96% of which was comprised of emissions from the production of petroleum and natural gas [1B2] in this category and the remaining 4% from the coal mining and management process [1B1a].

RE.1.3.3. esses [2]

Industrial

Proc-

The Industrial Processes category considers the emissions generated in the production and use of minerals, the production of metals, the chemical industry, some processes such as the production of paper, foods and drinks, and, finally, in the production and consumption of halocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride (see Table RE.7).

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Table RE.7 Subcategories of Industrial Processes
2A Mineral products 2A1 Cement production 2A2 Production of calcium oxide and hydroxide 2A3 Use of limestone and dolomite 2A4 Production and use of sodium carbonate 2A5 Bituminous waterproofing 2A6 Asphalt paving 2A7 Glass 2B1 Production of ammonium 2B2 Production of nitric acid 2B3 Production of adipic acid 2B4 Production of carbides 2B5 Others 2C1 Production of iron and steel 2C2 Production of iron alloys 2C3 Production of aluminum 2C4 Use of SF6 in aluminum and magnesium foundries 2D1 Pulp and paper 2D2 Food and beverages 2E1 Emissions as waste or by-products 2E2 Fugitive emissions 2F1 Refrigeration and air conditioning equipment 2F2 Foams 2F3 Extinguishers 2F4 Aerosols 2F5 Solvents 2F6 Electric equipment and automatic switches

2B Chemical industry

2C Production of metals

2D Other industrial processes 2E Production of halocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride 2F Consumption hexafluoride of halocarbons and sulfur

Figure RE.11 Percent contribution by sector to CO2 emissions in the Industrial Processes category in 1990 and 2002
100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0% 1990 Cement Use of limestone and dolomite Production of ammonia Production of iron and steel Production of aluminum Production of lime Production and use of sodium carbonate Production of carbides Production of iron alloys 2002

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Table RE.8 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period 1990 – 2002, Gg
GHG CO2 COVDM SO2 CO CH4 NOx N2O 1990 31,142.88 406.92 92.05 67.23 5.13 5.10 1.62 1992 32,168.76 447.12 81.74 43.84 4.68 3.93 1.00 1994 38,001.77 566.96 71.56 32.24 4.40 2.81 0.14 1996 39,519.71 383.80 87.02 67.36 4.79 10.24 3.26 1998 44,016.44 407.61 99.32 63.57 4.70 8.49 2.29 2000 50,442.14 611.94 104.28 56.55 4.61 5.50 0.82 2002 47,069.14 525.27 102.70 42.13 3.62 4.17 0.36

Table RE.9 GHG emissions by gas in the Industrial Processes category for the period 1990 – 2002, Gg CO2 equivalents
GHG CO2 CH4 N2O HFC PFC SF6 Total 1990 31,142.88 107.7 502.2 701.2 2.4 32,456.38 1992 32,168.76 98.3 310 40.4 257.5 3.4 32,878.36 1994 38,001.77 92.4 43.4 463.6 642.6 3.9 39,247.67 1996 39,519.71 100.59 1010.6 1469.8 638.1 5.2 42,744.00 1998 44,016.44 98.7 709.9 2770.6 642.6 6.1 48,244.34 2000 50,442.14 96.8 254.2 4414 635.9 8.1 55,851.14 2002 47,069.14 76 111.6 4425.2 405.1 15.2 52,102.24

In addition, the data correspond to the equipment acquired for the electric distribution system, but fail to include the nearly 3,700 units acquired for the transmission system, or other units for the electrical generation system, since the annual breakdown for the period involved is not available. SF6 estimates neglect to consider the possible destruction of the gas, leaks in the equipment or its reuse in other equipment, since these data are unknown. On the other hand, PFCs show a decrease of 42% from 1990 to 2002, due mainly to the decrease in the production of aluminum in this country.

adhesives, varnishes, shellacs, and other chemical products. NMVOCs play an important part in the troposphere as precursors in the formation of ozone, which is an indirect greenhouse gas. Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) generated by the use of solvents were considered for the years 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002. Since the 1996 revised IPCC Guidelines neglect to offer an estimate methodology, the methodologies proposed in the reports of United States and three other countries were followed. The total NMVOC emissions for 2002 came to 220.5 Gg, where the main source corresponds to solvents; NMVOC emissions showed an increase of 84% in 2002 with respect to 1990.

RE.1.3.4. Solvents [3]
The Solvents category contemplates the emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) generated in the use of the solvents in paints, printer inks,
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Table RE.10 NMVOC emissions by sector in the Solvents category for the period 1990-2002, Gg
Product Enamels Shellacs Water soluble paints (mineral-free) Varnishes Water soluble paints (with minerals) Paints with solvents Sealants Adhesives Waterproofing Printer inks Solvents Total, Gg Years 1996 37.5 6.6 3.2 5.1 2.2 13.2 5.3 16.7 18.3 14.7 57.5 180.3

1990 29.6 4.9 3.2 3.5 ND 6.4 3.0 7.1 8.9 ND 52.8 119.4

1992 33.4 5.9 3.6 4.4 ND 7.9 3.9 7.6 8.7 ND 51.7 127.1

1994 42.1 7.0 3.5 6.3 2.5 13.7 6.4 12.9 9.2 10 67.8 181.4

1998 42.7 7.3 4.8 5.6 2.7 17.4 6.4 23.6 17.8 20.4 61.6 210.3

2000 50.9 10.3 5.6 7.3 2.7 21.5 7.1 29.3 17.1 20.2 73.8 245.8

2002 45.4 10.5 5.3 6.6 2.2 17.5 6.5 23.3 14.1 24.7 64.4 220.5

The main emissions in 2002 in the Solvents category come from solvents, with 29%; enamels, with 21%; printer inks, with 11%; and adhesives, with 10%. The rest of the emissions come from chemical products such as lacquers, varnishes, waterproofing, sealants and paints.

This category was estimated taking into account an updating in the values of emission factors and of activity data or census data for the headings included under agricultural and stock-raising activities in Mexico. One can observe that, for the period from 1990 to 2002, the average methane (CH4) emissions represent 84% of the category and those of nitrous oxide (N2O) the remaining 16% (Table RE.10). A decrease can also be appreciated in emissions in this sector from 47,427 to 46,146 Gg, possibly deriving from the importing of basic grains such as rice and the stagnation of the livestock sector.

RE.1.3.5. Agriculture [4]
The Agriculture category mainly comprises emissions from farming (crops and soil management) and stock-raising activities (enteric fermentation and manure management). The main gases are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

Table RE.11 Subcategories of Agriculture
4A Enteric fermentation 4B Manure management 4C Rice growing Subdivided into 10 different types of animals Subdivided into 10 different types of animals 4C1 Irrigated crops 4C2 Rain-fed crops 4C3 Swamp crops

4D Farmlands 4E Programmed burning of lands 4F In situ burning of agricultural waste

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Table RE.12 Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in the Agriculture category, Gg of CO2 equivalent
1990 CH4 40,312.76 85% N2O Total 7,114.81 15% 47,427.57 1992 39,403.39 86% 6,646.09 14% 46,049.48 1994 38,698.77 85% 6,805.10 15% 45,503.87 1996 37,155.64 84% 6,921.06 16% 44,076.70 1998 37,988.29 84% 7,456.43 16% 45,444.72 2000 37,712.00 83% 7,814.76 17% 45,526.76 2002 38,681.60 84% 7,464.49 16% 46,146.09

RE.1.3.6. Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry [5] (LULUCF) (Preliminary)
The category of LULUCF considers the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the subcategories mentioned below, as well as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions generated by land use change [5B]. IPCC subcategories are shown in the following table:

Table RE.13 Subcategories of LULUCF
5A Changes in the existence (inventory) of forests and other woody biomass 5A1 Tropical rainforests 5A2 Temperate forests 5A3 Northern forests 5A4 Pastures, tropical savannas and tundra 5B Land Use Change 5A5 Others 5B1 Tropical rainforests 5B2 Temperate forests 5B3 Northern forests 5B4 Pastures, tropical savannas and tundra 5C Capture due to the abandoning of lands 5B5 Others 5C1 Tropical rainforests 5C2 Temperate forests 5C3 Northern forests 5C4 Pastures, tropical savannas and tundra 5C5 Others 5D Emissions and capture of CO2 from the soil

GHG emissions for 2002, measured in CO2 equivalent units, came to 89,854 Gg. Emissions in this sector in terms of CO2 were the following: The LULUCF category contributes a total in emissions of 86,877 Gg CO2. These emissions are the result of the balance between 64,484 Gg CO2 from the combustion and
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decomposition of air biomass associated with the processes of the conversion of forests to other uses, 30,344 Gg CO2 for emissions derived from mineral lands and agricultural areas, 4,932 Gg CO2 from emissions in managed forests and a capture of 12,883 Gg CO2 on abandoned lands. The capture of CO2 is discounted from total emissions in this category.

RE.1.3.7. Waste [6]
The category of waste contemplates the methane emissions (CH4) generated from municipal solid waste and municipal and industrial wastewater, as well as the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted by the municipal wastewater, and the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) generated by the incineration of dangerous waste. GHG emissions for 2002, measured in CO2 equivalent units, came to 65,584 Gg, compared with the 33,357Gg emitted in 1990.

GHG emissions due to waste, measured in CO2 equivalent, underwent an increase of 96% from 1990 to 2002 as a result of the increase in the disposal of solid waste in sanitary landfill and the impetus given over the last decade to the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater; within this percentage is also included the change recorded in the emissions by incineration of toxic waste whose value increased by a factor of 30 between 1990 and 2002, but whose contribution to the total in this last year was less than 0.5%. Waste incineration is a relatively new activity in this country.

Table RE.14 Subcategories of Waste
6A Disposal of solid waste in ground 6A1 Disposal of solid waste in sanitary landfills 6A2 Disposal of solid waste in open-air dumps 6A3 Others 6B1 Industrial wastewater 6B2 Domestic and municipal wastewater 6B3 Others

6B Wastewater management and treatment

6C Waste incineration

Figure RE.12 Waste emissions from 1990 to 2002
40,000 35,000

eq (Gg)
2

30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1990

Emissions

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

Disposal of solid Wastewater management and treatIncineration of 17

Greenhouse gases that are naturally present in the atmosphere are a key element in maintaining the earth's temperature by holding in part of the energy from the Sun; these include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Their presence and concentration remained stable for centuries until the 19th century, at which time the Industrial Revolution took place. Since that date, human activities have generated greenhouse gases, thus causing an increase in their concentrations in the atmosphere. As a result, the temperature of the planet tends to increase, thereby causing variations in the climate. According to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001), three quarters of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are due to the burning of fossil fuels. For this reason, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in which 189 countries of the planet are represented, aims at stabilizing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in

the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous levels of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. This level should be achieved in a timeframe that would allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, in order to ensure that food production is not threatened, and to allow economic development to remain sustainable. For this reason, the Mexican Government reiterates its commitment to the UNFCCC by presenting, with figures to the year 2002, its third national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. The result of this inventory will make it possible to ascertain our country's contribution as a greenhouse gas emitter in the world context, identify those categories that contribute in different measures to these emissions, and establish national priorities regarding the mitigation of climate change.

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