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Ecology for Peace Research Villages

Part I:
The Peace Research Center in Portugal is developing a large-scale
model for landscape renaturation and food supply in cooperation
with Sepp Holzer and his Permaculture
If our Earth were cultivated peacefully,
it would provide food for 12 billion people.
The reality, however, is that 100,000 people die every day
as a result of hunger and malnutrition.

Jean Ziegler,

UN Special Envoy for the Right to Food

Preamble: Before the Earth Becomes a Desert. Why We Must Act Now

1. The Tamera Location - Case Study of the Situation of Nature on the Iberian
a) The History of the Cultivation of the Property
b) The Water Situation
c) Deforestation
d) Agricultural Policy, Migration into Cities and Structural Change

2. How We Can Act. Holzer's Permaculture.

a) An Example of the Use of Holzer's Permaculture in Spain
b) Sepp Holzer's Philosophy and Its Use
c) Who is Sepp Holzer? A Portrait of an Inspired Human Being

3. The Tamera Peace Research Center

a) The Basic Idea of Tamera: If You Do Not Want War, You Need a Vision for
b) The Development of Tamera
c) Community - the Living Arrangement of the Future
d) Peace Education Monte Cerro: Training Global Peace Workers
e) The Planned Solar Village: A Model Survival Village for Areas of Conflict
f) Regional Self-Sufficiency – Network Creation in Alentejo

4. Realization
a) Why Introduce Holzer's Permaculture in Tamera?
b) Sepp and Veronika Holzer's Visit in March 2007 - Analyses and Visions
c) Concretely Planned Projects 2007 – 2009
d) Holzer's Permaculture in Tamera – A Possible Step by Step Plan and Time
Plan for Realization
e) Financing

Text: Dörthe Goschin and Leila Dregger
Layout: Leila Dregger
Photos: Various sources
Publisher: Solar Village Team Tamera, Barbara Kovats
Monte do Cerro
P-7630 Colos
Tel: 00351-283635306
Fax: 00351-283635374

Before the Earth becomes a Desert. Why We Must Act Now.
The ecological situtation on earth is dramatic. The destruction of the rain forests,
oceans and ecosystems, the spread of deserts, the daily disappearance of animal
species, the hunger and the beginning of wars because of water: all these are
symptoms and direct effects of a human way of life and methods of cultivation that
have lost their embeddedness in the cycles of nature.
The modern human being treats the soil, the plants, the water and the animals with
such a lack of contact, as if he/she had forgotten what life is and how it should be
Nature answers - storms and floods are only the beginning of a comprehensive
climate catastrophe that has already become a painful reality in many places on
earth. The predictions for the Iberian Peninsula are unambiguous: if we do not act,
Spain and Portugal will become a desert.

Both climate predictions and the approaching peak oil forebodes a time when people
will have to leave the large cities, the coastal areas and their current way of living and
have to learn to live on and off the land again. So far, they are in no way prepared for
The coming changes will be drastic, and all they will affect all aspects of life. But
does this necessarily mean that they will be accompanied by panic, war and
violence? Or will places exist by that time, where one can learn globally how to
resolve conflicts in a peaceful way, how to generate energy decentrally, and how to
treat nature in such as way that it provides an abundance of food and water?
This knowledge already exists today, scattered in many places, and in many
instances it is too unusual to be used today. What is missing is the networking of and
the connection between this knowledge, its concrete implementation, at least as a
model, in some places on earth, as well as handing it over to the coming generation.
Tamera is an experimentation and training location for the worldwide establishment
of model settlements. Here, a way of living is being researched and studied in an
exemplary way, in which people can again be embedded into the whole of Creation,
and in which the separation can be overcome at all levels: the separation between
people, between generations, between fields of knowledge, the separation from
nature and from our spiritual source. The creation of these so-called Peace Research
Villages and Healing Biotopes develops, connects and implements knowledge and
solution approaches in the areas of technology and energy generation, conflict
resolution and the creation of community, a spiritual way of life and ecological
Currently, 160 people from different parts of the world are living and studying in
Tamera. Among other things a concrete, self-sufficient model village, the "Solar
Village", is being established. This is an ecologically and socially sustainable model
settlement that can be emulated in all sunny regions on earth.

We see the work and research by the Austrian Permaculture mountain farmer Sepp
Holzer, his knowledge about cooperating with nature, his intuition and experience in
producing natural foods and in the renaturation of the land, as a very central area of
future-oriented research for the establishment of worldwide Peace Villages. His work
at a finca in Extremadura in Spain gives us confidence that something similar is
possible here, too.

Two years ago, the owner commissioned Sepp Holzer to renature her property. The
results have amazed both the media and professional circles. A whole different world
awaits the amazed visitor here. On a property of 270 hectares [675 acres], where two
years ago there was a drought in the summer, the pastures were sparse and the
holm oak died, a large water landscape now spreads out, covering 50 hectares [125
acres]. The embankments are abundantly covered with vegetables, the diseased
holm oaks serve as protection for the younger, healthy trees, and the olive trees no
longer require any irrigation. A cool breeze carries a note of paradisiacal freshness
and abundance. There are dragonflies and swarms of birds and fish already after one
growing season! And that in an area where it rains much less than in Alentejo.

In terms of both its beauty and the extent of its ecological destruction, Tamera - the
Monte do Cerro property - exemplifies all of Portugal and even all of Southern
Europe. An ecological renaturation project on this property can and will create
impulses for the entire region. Exemplary problem solutions that work well in this
Center for Peace Research are taken by students to their home countries and are
used there for the establishment of further Peace Research Villages.

What would a world look like in which, in all countries, all areas and zones of
vegetation, initially at least one place could be established, in which the knowledge,
the seeds and the diversity of nature are nursed and cared for, thus providing
impulses and serving as an example for the entire region?

We invite people who are interested and committed to gain an overview of the project
through this brochure and to contact us.
Please help to make this vision a reality.

Barbara Kovats
Head of the Solar Village Team, Tamera

Impressions from Tamera, from top left: In the 'Source Garden', overview from the mountain
village, 'Shepherd Garden', green oasis, in the auditorium, celebration at the inauguration of the
auditorium, Sepp Holzer in Tamera, visitors from Colombia inform themselves about solar energy.
Photos: Tamera Archive

1. The Initial Situation at the Tamera Location
Tamera is located in Southern Portugal, in the province of Alentejo, one of the least
populated regions of Europe, approx. 30 km as the bird flies from the west coast. The
property, which has a size of 134 hectares [335 acres], consists of hilly land with cork
oak cultures, eucalyptus forests, grassland and pastures as well as horticultural land.
The soil consists mainly of heavy loam; in the valleys there are alluvial deposits that
are 1-2 meters thick and that are rich in humus.
What has occurred during the course of decades at Monte do Cerro (as the property
of Tamera was called initially) is evidence of modern man's lack of understanding,
even of exploitation and indifference toward nature. Let us imagine that the property
were a living being. It would have experienced an enormous amount of pain and
would have had to witness a great deal of folly. And Monte do Cerro is not an
unusual case: human beings have treated the land this way everywhere; in Portugal
in Spain, in all of Europe - and everywhere, where modern man has tried to conquer
In the case of Monte do Cerro it is a miracle of regeneration that the land again
exudes so much beauty and charm, so many different ecological niches, shady
places and fertile valleys and that it has several sources and ponds. Rare types of
daffodils grow in the marsh areas in spring; turtles, crabs and fish live in and around
the ponds, and sometimes an otter can be seen, or else a pair of eagles circles high
over the place. The founders of Tamera acquired the property in 1995.

a) The History of the Cultivation of the Property

Up until 1974, during Salazar's dictatorship in Portugal, the property was a large
scale agricultural land holding. The owners lived in Lisbon and the property was
cultivated by a caretaker. Many of the older neighbors of today worked here as
laborers and remember "Monte do Cerro" as a land where fruit was ripe almost the
whole year around and the flowers blossomed.
Mainly flax and wine were cultivated here and livestock was kept on the property.
During the course of the centrally controlled industrialization of agriculture under
Salazar, when the entire Alentejo region was to be made into the granary of Portugal,
Monte do Cerro, and especially the steep slopes, were deep plowed with caterpillars.
This only led to short term growth successes. The topsoil sustained lasting damage
and the layer of humus was washed away from the slopes into the valleys. Even
today, several decades later, there are many slopes where only a few plants have
managed to hold on.
After the revolution in 1974, the property was transferred to a war veteran.
Subsidized by the European Union, he uprooted all the vines, bulldozed entire hills
and built an industrial hall with the goal of building a meat factory. But before he
could realize his plan, he went bankrupt and sold the land. Subsequently, there was
intense grazing on the property, which led to a compaction of the soil and to a further
depletion of the vegetation. This process of overgrazing is symptomatic for the entire
region of the Iberian Peninsula and beyond. If solutions can be found here, they will
apply to many regions on earth.

b) The Water Situation

Today, Tamera has four water sources, many ponds and a water catchment area of
approx. 500 hectares [approx. 1,235 acres]. The average annual amount of
precipitation is about 600 mm [24 inches], whereby almost all of the rain falls in

winter. As compared to its surroundings, Tamera is blessed with water. And yet water
is lacking during the hot summer, for a large part of the winter rains immediately
washes away unused from the property and also carries away fertile soil.
The land has lost a large part of its capacity to hold water. This is due to soil
compaction, deforestation (cork oaks dying and clearing of the land) and the entire
depletion of the vegetation.
The water situation in the entire country, as well as in the entire Iberian Peninsula is
getting worse by the year. The climate predictions are unequivocal: Spain and
Portugal will become a desert. The annual winter rainfall is becoming increasingly
unreliable. The large rivers in Portugal have their sources in Spain, where their water
is increasingly needed for industrial vegetable and fruit cultivation. In Portugal itself,
the Alqueva dam was built although it had long since been proven how uneconomical
and damaging a dam of this size is.
It is a vicious circle: The less capacity to hold water a tract of land has, the less
plants grow there. As the vegetation cover becomes thinner, the soil's capacity to
hold water diminishes. Devastating forest fires in the eucalyptus and other forest
monocultures in the entire region are one of the results and at the same time
aggravate the situation. So far, Tamera has so far been spared forest forests.

c) Deforestation
The traditional extensive hogs - cork oak - grain culture in the region was also
practiced in Monte do Cerro. But when the demand and price for cork rose during the
1970s, the bark was no longer peeled with the same expertise and care. The
cambium (the thin, living growth layer under the bark) was often damaged by the use
of the "modern" way of peeling with metal knives. In addition, peeling was carried out
at the wrong time of year.
When cultivating the land, large machines were used that damaged the flat root
systems of the trees. All damage to trees diminshes the supply of water and nutrition
to them and promotes infestations by fungi and beetles. In addition, weakened by the
compaction of the soil and the lack of water, they then slowly die.
Today, the entire region is afflicted by a massive dying of the cork oaks. Scientists
assume that the cause is a virus, but simply the profit-oriented intensive peeling
method and the overall worsened conditions of the water and the soil are sufficient to
explain the dying of the cork oaks.
The remaining stock of cork oaks in Tamera has become visibly sparse. It is to be
feared that more of them will die during the coming years. With the support of the EU,
the ecologists of Tamera replanted 20,000 trees to create a mixed forest. The
customary monoculture reforestation probably does not suffice to stem the process of
deforestation and desertification.

d) Agricultural Policy, Migration into Cities and Structural Change

90% of the EU financial aid to Portugal goes to 10% of the agricultural enterprises.
600,000 agricultural enterprises have disappeared since Portugal joined the EU 20
years ago; in other words, one farmer had to quit work every 20 minutes. And this in
a country with optimum climatic and soil conditions! Today there only 200,000 farms
remain in Portugal, and the country imports 80% of the food it requires. An example:
wheat production in Portugal was discontinued because the production costs were
twice as expensive as the reference price of wheat that is offered on the world
In the rest of Europe, the results of the agricultural policies are no different: in the 27
countries of the European Union, one agricultural enterprise is shut down every

minute. The result is an increasing depletion of the landscape, dwindling food quality,
a concentration on animal production and thereby on factory farming with all its
ethical and ecological horrors.
Especially in Portugal there has been a massive migration into the cities during the
last 30 years; by now 80% of all Portugues live in large cities and on the coast. But
nowhere was the structural change as dramatic as in Alentejo. Today, this is a largely
depopulated region and in the villages the ratio of the elder generation has constantly
risen. This trend, however, does not regenerate the region, it brings neglect to it.
Forest fires rage here every summer.
The traditional garden culture in Portugal is disappearing. For decades, it maintained
itself next to the industrialized agriculture. People lived in close connection with
nature, took care of the land in a sustainable way, for they were dependent for their
survival on the crops from their little gardens. Today, more and more people prefer to
buy cheap vegetables in the supermarkets rather than making the effort of planting
their own gardens. It is only very slowly that people are realizing what they they are
thereby losing.
Many regional types of tomatoes, cabbages and other kinds of vegetables will
disappear forever unless we do something now. During the last hundred years, there
has been a worldwide reduction of 80 - 95% in the diversity of the types of
vegetables that are available. The old generation is still alive and in some cases they
are protecting their seeds like a treasure. There is still time to enter into exchange
with them. The alternative to the globally organized industrial agricultural industry
consists of local production for local consumption; it is the right of every person and
every country to grow its own food.

The fact that young people leave the country and move to the cities is
understandable to anyone who knows what traditional life is like in the villages. But in
the cities they also do not find what they are looking for. Youths need perspectives
for their future. They also need life models in the countryside that give them hope
and inspiration for their future and offers them a meaningful and interesting life. They
need the opportunity to work in a free atmosphere for a world that is worth living in. A
global training project with committed experts for the professions of the future, a
living and open meeting point for international encounters and exchange: the Tamera
peace project is increasingly becoming such a place. With Holzer's Permaculture, it
will integrate a further area of research, which increases the attraction of the place for
youths and its global relevance even more.

Impressions from a finca in Spain. 2nd from top, left: owner. Photos: Tamera archive

2. Holzer´s Permaculture. How We Can Act.

a) A finca in Extremadura: An Example of the Use of Holzer's Permaculture in

(In January of 2007 a delegation from Tamera visited the finca. Dörthe Goschin, who
participated in the trip, reports.)

The successful reshaping of a semi-arid landscape into a water paradise with a lush
plant biotope:
South of Madrid, in the middle of the Spanish Extremadura region, one can find a
successful example of the revitalization of a biotope that is acutely threatened by
desertification. Based on Holzer's Permaculture concept, the 270 ha [675 acre] finca
is a pioneer model for a green future in the Iberian Peninsula.

Long periods of drought and massive soil erosion caused by strong winter rainfall led
to the desertification of the landscape. This was the initial situation when the analysis
was made and a concept was developed for a sustainable renaturation of the
property. A further focus of the analysis of causes was on the fact that during the last
few years the holy oak trees are dying at a rapid pace everywhere in Spain. The
scientific explanation that there is a virus infection was subject to examination. As a
whole, the situation for the holy oaks in Extremadura is very similar to that of the cork
oaks in Alentejo.
When looking at the question of why the holy oak was dying, Sepp Holzer arrived at
a surprisingly simple and logical answer. In his opinion, the agrarian economical
development during the last 50 years has led to an extremely high overall strain on
the oak population, of which a large part is hundreds of years old. He pointed to the
coarse way of cutting the trees, creating a large "wound". This then gives rise to the
familiar damage to the trees: a break in the supply of water and nutrition due to the
entry of air into the tree's capillary system, fungi infestations on the weakened tree,
colonization of wood beetles whose larvae make burrow, and decay inside the tree.
Finally, the tree dies.

This process is enhanced by the extreme weather conditions. Originally a

Mediterranean hard-leaved tree, the oak tree is used to long periods of dryness.
However, through the past decades of overgrazing, the soil is so compacted that, in
spite of the strong rainfall in winter, the water can hardly penetrate into the soil, but
runs off on the surface. In addition, the browsing by the grazing animals decimates
the plant diversity and prevents the growth of a young forest. The humus layer lacks
the stability that comes from roots, leading to strong soil erosion through rainfall and
winds. This cycle creates a general stress situation for the oak veterans and
weakens their powers of regeneration.

To Sepp Holzer, this chain of influences shows that the theory of a virus infection is
an old wives' tale. He shakes his head at the suggested inoculation of the trees and
at the blindness to what is so clearly written in "nature's book".

For the regeneration of the entire area of the "tree graveyard", he thus suggested a
radical change in the concept of use. An important step was taken through the
suspension of pasture grazing, which initiated the land reclamation and the creation
of a young forest. Supporting measures were added, such as the targeted turning
over of the compacted soil in order to provide good soil for the tree seeds to

germinate in. A reforestation followed with a mixed cultivation of fruit trees, and
supporting plants, such as salads, legumes and root vegetables, were sowed. This
supported the improvement of the soil climate, and the creation of a natural layer of
humus was accelerated. When visiting the place only a year after planting had been
carried out according to Holzer's ideas, we could take a walk through large parts of a
fertile edible landscape in the middle of the sparse Extremadura region. Radishes
and salads grew under the trees in the middle of the meadows, they thrived
splendidly and were delicious during our long walks across the property.

But one is much more impressed by the changes on the property through the lakes
that have been created during the last two years. These lakes filled up only by the
rainfall during the winter months and now nestle gently like a row of pearls in the
landscape. An abundance of water fowl and the glitter of the lakes and ponds that
are up to 10 acres [25 acres] each, enchant the visitors. For quite some time, one
forgets that one is in an area of Europe that is threatened by rapid desertification.

"Water is life" - This core statement by Sepp Holzer can be experienced in this young
permaculture project in a breathlessly impressive way. After only one rainy season,
eight lakes were brimful with precious water. Now the body of the earth has time to
absorb the water over a long period of time. The microclimate is thereby permanently
vitalized and a rich diversity of species of plants and animals has a life space that is
alive in surroundings that until now were inhospitable.

Already today, the feeling of paradise can be sensed, and it does not require much
imagination, even by an ecological layman, to see the positive opportunities for
future developments. The visible reality speaks clear words. Altogether, Sepp Holzer
introduced 50 hectares [125 acres] of lakes and ponds into the overall design of the
property. These constitute the foundation for the ecological renaturation of the
biotope during the coming years.
The project can expand the mental horizon of every visitor in the knowledge that
there are solutions also for problems which up to now semed unsolvable. The finca is
an impressive signal for the Iberial Peninsula and an important answer to the
question of what is possible in the future in this region: catching water as the most
precious substance, instead of leading it off.
A rich biotope of mixed cultivation will change the characteristic landscape of the
Iberian Peninsula and transform this area, which has almost been declared a desert,
into a garden of Eden.
In the name of all life and of future generations, we are deeply thankful for Sepp
Holzer's far-sighted visionary power and steadfast drive.

b) The Philosophy of Sepp Holzer and its Use

Reading nature's book: every situation holds its own solution

According to Sepp Holzer, on every tract of land, be it a fertile river valley at
temperate latitudes, in the tundra or in the desert, it is possible to cooperate with
nature, to regulate it and to plant something that corresponds to the land and its
inhabitants. Holzer's Permaculture is not a method that offers the same procedures
for every situation. On the contrary, its core consists of observing nature, putting
oneself in the position of its creatures, and from this understanding recognizing from
within which measures now have a healing and meaningful impact.
Sepp Holzer: "Nature's book always contains the truth; we must only learn to read it."

An Eskimo will arrive at different solutions than those of an inhabitant of the desert or
someone in the rain forest of Central America. And yet there are principles that keep
appearing and experiences from which one can learn. Here, a small selection is
compiled. To those who wish to inform themselves more in depth, we recommend
the books by Sepp Holzer. (*)

Water is more valuable than land: increase the soil fertility by establishing
ponds and lakes.
In Holzer's Permaculture water receives the highest degree of attention. Water is
more valuable than land, and the value of a tract of land is directly dependent on its
water supply and its ability to store water. This is especially true for regions that are
threatened by desertification, such as for example Southern Europe.
Says Sepp Holzer: "Letting rain water rush through the land is like the behavior of a
person who saves every penny but doesn't care about the fact that his piggy bank
does not have a bottom."
Sepp Holzer's method of using rain water and keeping it on the land consists, among
other things, of the creation of pond and lake systems. For water is life. Everywhere,
where wetlands, lakes, rivers and ponds exist, a natural diversity of animals and
plants thrive, and they are an ideal foundation for usable biotopes and edible
landscapes - both in the water, on the shores and on the surrounding land. The water
in ponds and lakes soaks the soil through its capillary force and increases dew
formation in the surroundings. This water, which enters the roots directly from below,
promotes and supports the growth of the roots, and thus the plants, better than
aboveground irrigation. If needed, the water from the lakes is still available for
irrigation - and it is close to where it is needed and does not require long ditches and
Lakes and ponds not only serve to provide a water supply for the land - they are also
direct areas of production for growing specialized crops that are suitable for selling,
especially in areas where there is normally a lack of water: for example for sweet
water fish of all kinds or water lilies and other water plants.
Creating lakes and ponds is a one-time measure and is so to speak the foundation
for the subsequent establishment of biotopes. For this, Sepp Holzer does not hesitate
to work with heavy equipment. The transformation of an area always begins with the
careful and perceptive observation of the water supply, the water catchment area,
measuring the contour lines and carefully developing an overall plan. Sepp Holzer
works with special excavators and with excavator drivers that he instructs and works
with himself.

Some experiences and principles from "working with water":

- As much intervention as necessary, as little as possible. Sealing the ground with
foil or concrete is here not only superfluous, it is also damaging.
- The creation of lakes and ponds should always make use of the natural
conditions. It should never feel artificial or be designed as a rectangle. Holzer: "If
a lake looks as if it arose naturally, then we have done it right."
- Ponds and lakes should always have a feed basin, in which the suspended
particles can settle as fertile silt. The ponds will then be clear and the feed basins
become valuable reservoirs of humus that can be dredged once in a while.
- The protection afforded by planting and by providing different depth zones makes
it possible to keep predatory and prey fish together in a lake: natural self-
regulation is possible.
- For pond and water plants, too, the rule is: diversity is better than uniformity.

- The border areas of the lakes are zones of great productivity and are excellent
areas for growing vegetables.
- Different water depths and shadings provide different temperature and vegetation
zones, which brings many ecological advantages.

Economy and ecology: "Use nature, but do not exploit it."

"If one has land, then one should also use it fully and not let it lie fallow. It is our
responsibility to do something with it; that is why it was given to us." That is Sepp
Holzer's conviction. For him, economy, ecology, agriculture and environmental
protection are not contradictions. For no matter if we are dealing with extensive or
intensive cultivation, those who understand how to use nature and partake of its
abundance, also economically, will work effectively for its protection. Their interest in
nature's health will then never collide with safeguarding their own survival. Sepp
Holzer has learned this from the bottom up as a mountain farmer and he is convinced
that the human being only can survive if he pays attention to and uses nature's
He thus always takes three things into account when redesigning a tract of land: the
dream of the landscape and its creatures, the provision of its inhabitants with healthy
and fresh food and the possibility of planting something special, with which one can
trade - in an area where there is preferably a market niche.
The combination of self-sufficiency and the specialization on a product with which
one can trade is one element of networked regional self-sufficiency. Regional self-
sufficiency is necessary for survival - for example in areas of conflict, in which a
centralized or globalized supply is no longer guaranteed.

Together is better than alone: The symbiosis of interdependencies

In nature, monocultures only appear rarely and under extreme, often already
disrupted, conditions. Boundary zones with a great variety of species are the highly
productive zones in nature.
There are a number of symbioses between the different types of plants and animals
in a biotope, and they have hardly yet been scientifically discovered. Different plants
use different light, soil, nutrition and water conditions in such a way that all resources
and small ecological niches are used optimally. One plant secretes a substance that
keeps the pests of another away. The waste product from one is nutrition for another.
Birdsongs promote plant growth.
"A forest is more than the sum of its trees." Or: "Together is better than alone."
Biotopes are supporting communities. In interaction with the whole of nature,
optimum support communities develop on their own.
Sepp Holzer therefore does not primarily plant a certain kind of field crop, but he
designs the optimum conditions for biotopes to form.
He thus never sows or plants only one type of plant, but always includes seeds of
supporting plants. These can be nitrogen attracting plants such as peas or root
vegetables, which loosen up the earth or else poisonous plants, whose root
excretions gives the vegetables flavor and additional healing powers.

The human being is the guiding, perceiving part of a biotope. He/she takes part in its
symbiotic interplay and learns to intervene in the community of creatures in an
observant and healing way.

Guide nature, do not fight it: Animals as collaborators
An ecosystem unfolds its full biotope force when every being is in its right place. The
human being's task is to guide nature, not to fight it.
Every being that appears in a biotope has significance. If so-called pests appear,
Sepp Holzer does not ask: How can I get rid of them? but: What are they good for?
How can I use them? The human being has the ability to give all the components of a
biotope the place and the task that best serves the whole.
What does this mean, for example for pest infestations or for an excess of certain
wild herbs? First of all, they are valuable indicators of the condition of the land.
Based on them, Sepp Holzer draws conclusions; they are signs that he has to
change something. Maybe the vegetables are in a place that is too moist? Maybe this
soil was too fatty for the soft fruit, or maybe the clearing has too much shade for the
The next question is always: How can I make use of a negative condition? How do I
guide the forces of nature so that they work for me?

Animals play an important role in Sepp Holzer's Permaculture. For him, they never
only serve the purpose of being eaten. Whether dealing with wild or domestic
animals, for Sepp Holzer they have to "work". For a hog, this may mean that it has to
wallow in the thicket of blackberry bushes to find its fodder - for example legumes
that have been rolled in lard. It thereby uproots the blackberries, opens up the soil,
fertilizes it and thus creates the conditions for sowing or planting for example fruit
trees. When it comes to the hog, this "work" provides a more natural way of keeping
animals than any detention in a pigsty.

Successful cooperation with animals saves work that the human being otherwise
would have to carry out with tools, machines or fertilizers.

Sepp Holzer on the Krameterhof (

c) Who is Sepp Holzer? A Portrait of an Inspired Human Being

On his mountain farm home, Sepp Holzer developed a form of alpine permaculture
long before he had heard of this concept. This is a type of cultivation that uses and
guides the symbioses and interactions in nature, that works together with the forces
of nature and does not break its forces. His spectacular successes made him
famous. Today, he and his wife Veronika Holzer travel the world to plan and support
ecological projects.
Anyone who has met Sepp Holzer will remember this man. This lively, at first sight
gruff and square built mountain farmer, has a touching subtlety in his observation of
natural processes, a loving empathy and knowledge that cannot be learned from
books. In addition, he is one of those gifted persons who know how to share this
experience with others and let others see through his eyes. In his company, even
people who have grown up with hardly any contact with nature have the delightful
experience of sensing that every tree, every bug, every fistful of soil is alive and full
of soul.

First research experiments as a child

Even as a child, Sepp Holzer, who was born in 1942 in the Krameterhof in Lungau in
Austria at an elevation of 1500 m, was interested in all processes in nature. He was
fascinated as he watched the germination and growth processes on the windowsill,
and when it became too much for his parents, he used the pocket money that he got
from his father to lease a small piece of land. Undisturbed, he followed his joy of
discovery as a boy, raised ants and studied the diversity of life that congregated
around his wetland pond. He swapped his lunch snacks for a trout and let his
schoolfellows experience the wealth of his little pond for a few pennies. He thus
began to get to know the cycles of nature on a small scale and became aware early
on of the abundance that nature can yield, even on a sparse mountain farm in
Lungau, the so-called "cold spot" of Austria. These experiences that he made as a
child have had an impact on him up until today and became the source of his deeply
rooted knowledge. He always remains true to them, even if it meant having to defy
his parents, the authorities or the experts.
"I never stop learning" he says. "If we watch with a wakeful eye and put ourselves in
the position of the creatures, then every moment offers us the possibility of
discovering something new. It's a shame to spend even a moment without being
involved with nature."

Remodeling the Krameterhof

Even before the age of consent in Austria, when he was 19 years old, he took over
his father's farm and began to restructure it according to his own ideas.
He exchanged tracts of land with his neighbors, slowly realigning the boundaries
around his farm. He was especially interested in the seemingly inferior wetland
properties, especially if they contained a wellspring. Ultimately, he owned a
contiguous water catchment area with many steep drops and a difference in
elevation of altogether 600 m. He began to dig ponds and lakes and started to raise
This was only one of his activities. Since it became increasingly difficult to survive as
a farmer, he was always on the lookout for further sources of income. Together with
his wife Veronika Holzer, he built, one after the other, a game park, a guest station,
various animal and plant breedings and other projects. He could introduce his
knowledge of nature and his drive everywhere, but at some point he also ran up

against boundaries everywhere. It was either the opening of Eastern Europe, which
destroyed the economic viability of his animal husbandry or a competitor to his trout
farm, who could better survive on the market due to his traditional brand name or the
tax authorities who "penalized" the increased value of his property through higher
But Sepp Holzer did not let himself be intimidated by failures, and his greatest secret
of success may be that he seemed to come out stronger and more knowledgeable
after every mistake. His connection to nature helps him thereby.

"I often lie awake at night and think about my life's path so far. In these moments
nothing can keep me in bed. I then go out into the fresh air and go for a little night
walk. These walks often help me clear my thoughts and I usually come back with
new plans or with answers that I have been trying to find for a long time. When I am
alone at night, I find my peace and calm and I feel my connection with nature."

The agrarian rebel

It took a while until he found the activity in which his knowledge about the cycles of
nature and cooperation with nature could fully come to fruition. The key experience
for this came when he participated in a special seminar about fish farming. Up until
then he had used the insights of agricultural science as a matter of course; he had
used fertilizers and sprayed pesticides. Now, during the seminar, he saw with his
own eyes the effects of chemicals on the microbes in the soil and in the water. The
realization that if he followed the instructions of advisers and the legal requirements,
he would himself contribute to the destruction of life and the diversity that he loved so
deeply, struck him like a bolt of lightning. The veil that covered the high gloss world of
the experts and industry lifted and revealed the fatal impasse of our time, which
consists of a lack of understanding of natural processes and the hunger for profit.
Sepp Holzer became an "agrarian rebel". Everywhere, he began to see the effects of
the false way of thinking that is disconnected from nature and that is prevalent in
industry and science: in the monocultures of the forests and the agricultural system,
in how farmers are kept ignorant, and in regulations and methods that always
prescribe the same solution for different climatic zones and biotopes. He decided to
only accept laws that are in tune with nature. This earned him quite a few
denunciations. As profitable as they were, the creation of mixed-tree forests, where
before there was only a desert of scrawny spruces, was described as "biotope
destruction". But he won all lawsuits, for the accusers could never deny that the soil
fertility and the diversity had grown through his work.
He introduced a diversity of fish into his ponds, and if they are protected by different
depths and vegetation, predator and prey fish thrive together. He planted "edible"
biotopes on the embankments, along the roads and in the spruce monocultures. With
little intervention he used the slopes that so far had been unusable as sun traps and
planted sub-tropical and frost-susceptible plants. "Kiwis in the Alpine Pastures" was
one headline that made him famous beyond the borders of Austria. Raised beds that
were built up with an excavator and to which he added biomass became highly
productive agricultural areas. Special plants, such as gentian, wild mushrooms,
primeval grains and wild potatoes thrive as a part of naturally designed biotopes.
Salads, peas and radishes grow wherever you go on the entire farm, and he sowed
them as he was walking around, as soon as he found an open space. Much of it is
never harvested, but then "vegetables that remain in the ground are the best kind of

Sepp Holzer becomes internationally famous
Finally, professional circles began to take note of him. Parallel to this, official agrarian
science had begun to realize its mistakes. The impasse to which the path of industrial
agriculture had led had finally become obvious and one was looking for new
During the seventies, Bill Mollison in Australia had developed a type of farming that
he called permaculture. In his Permaculture Institute, he carried out research on the
principles of cooperation with nature, according to which not individual cultures were
planted but instead entire biotopes that sustain themselves, because the individual
elements support each other mutually. For Mollison, permaculture was not only an
agricultural method, but a holistic approach and a way of dealing with nature, which
he also used to cooperate with nature when it came to construction, nutrition and
other areas. People are experimenting with permaculture at many places around the
world. Although he had never heard the word permaculture, Sepp Holzer had
probably created the largest, most encompassing and convincing permaculture
project in Europe, a kind of alpine permaculture. Today he calls his method "Holzer's
Permaculture". By now, diploma theses have been written, television programs have
been made and newspaper articles have been published about his method. Groups
of a hundred and more interested people have visited the Krameterhof, and almost
on a daily basis Sepp Holzer guided people through his biotopes and they were in
awe of the place.

The connection between Sepp and Veronika Holzer seems to confirm the old wisdom
that "behind every great man there is a great woman". Without her he would probably
often not have had the stamina to walk his path, which was often difficult and full of
conflicts. Even if she at first is much quieter than her husband, her knowledge is as
great as his. Whenever she expresses it, those who are interested can learn as much
as they can from him.
In the meantime Sepp and Veronika Holzer have also begun to work with
international projects, making their knowledge available to others. They travel all over
the world – to Scotland, Russia, Chile, the Middle East, Columbia, Spain, the Canary
Islands – to provide advice and to help with the renaturation of biotopes.
For them, it is especially important to support projects that have a humane purpose
or that constitute models for a whole region. After years and decades of learning on
the Krameterhof, his wife and he have now begun to introduce their insights for a
global change in thinking.

Photos: On the Krameterhof.
(Photos from

Impressions from Tamera, from above left: Entrance gate, inauguration of Monte Cerro, the
founders Sabine Lichtenfels and Dieter Duhm, Jürgen Kleinwächter, visitors to the Solar Village,
in the garden, celebration of the inauguration of the assembly hall, students at Monte Cerro.
Photos: B.B.

3.The Tamera Peace Research Center

The Tamera Peace Research Village in the Alentejo region in Southern Portugal is to
become a test property for a new large project of Holzer's Permaculture. It is
intended as a model, a research and training project, within the framework of the
"Global Campus", for the renaturation of a property, for the self-sufficiency of a larger
community and for the development of an ecology for future-oriented villages on
earth. In Tamera, knowledge and research about cooperation with nature represents
an area that so far was not sufficiently represented when it comes to developing a
model for the future.

a) The Basic Idea of Tamera: If You do not Want War, You Need a Vision for
Humanity will only survive if it abandons the destructive systems of violence. But the
majority will only get out when there are convincing models for entering into a peace
culture - functioning, non-violent models for all areas of human life. This requires a
new orientation in economy, ecology and technology, for communication and conflict
resolution as well as for the establishment of communities, love and sexuality.
Tamera is a place of experimentation and research for the establishment of peace
research villages worldwide. In Tamera the foundations and conditions for human
beings to live non-violently with each other and with nature is being researched. If
this succeeds in one place, then the results of this research are to be used and
developed further in other places on earth. The goal is to create a worldwide network
of peace research villages, as ecologically and socially sustainable model
settlements. Together, these peace research villages are to develop the knowledge
that is necessary for peace and survival in the future, for a world where peak oil and
climatic changes will have forced us to live and operate differently.
Dieter Duhm, the founder of Tamera, says: "The patterns of order in human society
must conform to the patterns of life and of Creation. Unless the biosphere and the
sociosphere, or human life and universal life come into harmony with each other, it
will no longer be possible to heal the earth."
In the meantime, a worldwide network of supporters and cooperation partners is
being created for this plan.

b) The Establishment of Tamera

After may years of preparation, Tamera was founded in 1995 by the sociologist and
psychoanalyst Dieter Duhm, the theologian and peace messenger Sabine Lichtenfels
and the physicist and musician Rainer Ehrenpreis. On the 134 hectare [331 acre]
property, an initially fairly improvised infrastructure was built for the theoretical and
practical study and research in the areas of establishing community, ecology and
technology. 20,000 trees were planted, temporary accommodations and workshops
were built and self-supply gardens and initial experimental biotopes were created.
But especially a training program for youths and young adults was started in order to
create a community of people with different professions and from different age
groups. By now, about 160 people from different parts of the world are working and
studying in Tamera.

c) Community - The Life Form of the Future
The main focus of the research and experience in Tamera lies in the area of
establishing community and social competency. Community knowledge and conflict
resolution constitute the focal points of the training program in Tamera. What Sepp
Holzer says about the creation of community in nature, also applies to community
among humans. Their ethical orientation is based on truth among each other, mutual
support and responsibility toward the whole. It is not separation and delineation
toward others that promotes individuality, but cooperation and authentic
communication. In Tamera it is so to speak the human interior of a healthy ecology
that is researched and studied.
Community is also the form of life in which we will be best prepared for the coming
challenges. Take Cuba in the beginning of the 1990's as an example. Very suddenly
and unexpectedly, an entire nation had to come to terms with the end of its oil
richness. Since it was a society with a relatively high degree of social cohesion -
ironically enough protected by the existing dictatorial conditions - the Cubans could
relatively easily jointly develop effective solutions at the local level.
Things would proably have gone differently in most other countries. Although
knowledge of community - without dominance and dictatorship - has existed on earth
before, it was lost during the course of the millenia. One culture after the other were
robbed of their social connections: tribes, extended families and village cultures
disappeared and what remained was societies of singles and lone warriors. In order
to establish modern communities today, research and experience are needed in
order to translate the knowledge of community into a modern context, in which there
is also a place for individual freedom, adventure and love.
In Tamera, there is a sustainable and generalizable knowledge about community
which has been developed over decades. This is knowledge about a spiritual way of
life, truthful communication, raising children in a free and safe environment, active
and vital partnership relationships between the sexes and a complementary
cooperation between younger and more experienced persons.

d) Peace Education Monte Cerro: Training Global Peace Workers

Since May of 2006, peace workers, including those from areas of conflict, can
undergo training in the "Monte Cerro" experiment. Here, they study the theoretical
and practical knowledge that is needed in order to survive the current era of
transformation and establish alternatives for the post-industrial era. One goal of the
studies is to empower them to help build peace villages in the form of functioning,
self-sufficient settlements. The training includes the technological, ecological, social
and spiritual fields of knowledge. At its core lie the topics of community building,
conflict resolution and social competency.
A central idea behind the Monte Cerro training could be formulated as follows,
paraphrasing Gandhi: "We must carry out the changes in ourselves that we would
like to see in the world."
The training is led by the first generation of young teachers who have gone through
the Tamera Peace School. Qualified persons and specialists from various fields such
as solar energy, architecture, a spiritual life practice, peace journalism and more in-
depth in the area of ecology, supplement the knowledge of the Tamera community.
Sepp Holzer's Permaculture is now an important new field of study.
It is planned that a Monte Cerro University be established. The first building has
already been built: it is an auditorium, built of straw bale adobe, 30 meters long and 8
meters high, with a green roof. It can hold up to 300 persons.

Through cooperation with international cooperation partners, a globally networked
training has become possible in Tamera. Together with the Global Ecovillage
Network (GEN), Tamera is holding EDE (Ecovillage Design Education) courses. And
thanks to the cooperation with the Gaia University, beginning in the summer of 2007,
students can complete studies in Tamera and receive an official final degree
(Bachelor or Masters).

The "Global Campus" initiative is a further internationally networked training initiative

for peace workers. For this, the cooperation partners from Tamera are as follows:

The Barefoot College, India (

The Barefoot College was founded in 1972 and has trained more than 125,000
people from rural areas in ecological technology for life and survival in villages. Here,
the students of the Global Campus learn to master simple solar technologies and
acquire the necessary skills to establish community projects in poor rural areas.
Holy Land Trust, Palestine (
The Holy Land Trust (HLT) was founded in 1998 in Bethlehem, in order to support
the Palestinian townships in resisting the occupation with non-violent methods. With
an innovative training program in non-violent action and communication, which was
developed by Sami Awad, the students will here gain the necessary knowledge to
resolve conflicts peacefully.

San José de Apartadó, Colombia (

In one of the most violent regions on earth, the peace village San José de Apartadó
is taking an uncompromising stand for peace and non-violence. The students of the
Global Campus will live together with the 450 inhabitants, support the village actively
and implement in practice what they have learned from other projects.

e) The Planned Solar Village: A Survival Model for Areas of Conflict

One core area of the research work in Tamera is the establishment of the so-called
Solar Village. On a 5 hectare [12 acre] part of the Tamera property, the Solar Village
will bring together the fields of ecology, technology, architecture and community to
form a holistic pilot model. It is planned as a generalizable settlement model for a
future community or a peace village, which can be replicated in every region on earth
that has much sunshine. The planned model will be a largely self-sufficient
settlement for 50 persons. The Solar Village is intended as a research station for
future solar knowledge for the post-industrial era; its technology was developed by
the physicist and inventor Jürgen Kleinwächter from Lörrach in Germany.
In 2006 the course was set, the plans were submitted, the building site was prepared,
a research greenhouse was built and the first series of tests were carried out.

f) Regional Self-Sufficiency - Creating a Network in the Alentejo Region

The establishment of regional self-sufficiency through the creation of a network in
Alentejo is a new field of activity in Tamera. Step by step, we want to renounce the
consumption and use of food, energy and other goods from the global circulation of
goods and replace them with goods from our own production or from that of the
region. Already now, Tamera produces a large part ot its food itself. Regarding
energy production, it is planned that during the next year Tamera will switch over
entirely to renewable energies. For water treatment, we are seeking ways that will be
applicable also to other dry areas.

Being a place with several hundred co-workers and students, Tamera represents a
certain economic factor in the region, which can give smaller producers, such as
small trade companies and organic farmers, a measure of security. We have thus
begun to inspire and encourage local companies to design their production not only
according to the standards of the global economy, but also for example to plant
organic grains or produce honey or other things ecologically.
We feel that peace research villages such as Tamera have a special responsibility
within their region. They function as a model and can thus bring technical and
ecological innovations to the people, making them visible and tangible. This task of
the peace research villages will help ensure that the transformation to a future
society that is independent of industrial systems occurs peacefully.

4. Realization
a) Why Introduce Holzer's Permaculture in Tamera?
Sepp Holzer's Permaculture will expand Tamera's work and the research fields of
community building, political networking, peace economy and solar technology that
have been dealt with up to now, by the important field of cooperation with nature.
A peace research village, no matter in what part of the world it is established, needs
a good concept in order to embed it in nature and to achieve a high degree of self-
sufficiency regarding food. We believe that the work by Sepp Holzer can offer this. By
meeting with Sepp Holzer and by touring his previous projects, we have experienced
that it is truly possible to create a paradise on earth: a place in which the human
being and nature cooperate with one another in trust.

Tamera's focus on community knowledge and social competency makes the ideas
and practice of Permaculture especially understandable; for we are dealing one and
the same universal basic principle that is applied to different fields of knowledge.
Tamera's character as a training center will support the spreading of Holzer's
Permaculture. Here, international students and peace workers will study Holzer's
Permaculture, experience its implementation and take it back to their home region
where they can put it to use.
The growing importance of Tamera as a model for the future of the region requires
that a local and generalizable answer be found to the ecological destructon in
Alentejo and throughout the entire Iberian Peninsula. Our friends and network
partners in the region are following the project with great interest and if the concept
or parts of it are successful, they will also use and implement it themselves.
For all these reasons we regard it as a must to implement Holzer's Permaculture in

b) Sepp and Veronika Holzer's Visit in March 2007 - Analyses and Visions
Sepp Holzer and his wife Veronika visited Tamera from March 3 - 4. He walked
across the property for two days together with a group of co-workers and trainees
and toured the vegetable gardens, reforestations and the planned Solar Village. He
thereby developed a great vision of an ecologically healthy model project that would
supply a few hundred people with vegetarian food and ensure the renaturation of the
"You have a wonderful property" he said. "One can almost already see the landscape
of lakes, fruit and vetegable cultivation and healthy forests that can be created here
with relatively little intervention. It is not difficult to grow enough food here for all the
inhabitants. But the land is still suffering greatly from the false cultivation in the entire
region during the last decades; nature is calling out for help and something must
soon be done."
He made very concrete recommendations for the improvement of every part of the
property and for every ecological problem. This included a reforestation with fruit
trees (instead of the cork oak monoculture that is prevalent in large parts of the
Alentejo region), as well as vegetable cultivation on raised beds, a restructuring of
the tree nursery, establishing an olive plantation, planting the road embankments
with vegetables and fruit, using the forests as grazing land for the horses and many
other things. His main recommendation, however, concerned the establishment of an
entire pond and lake system as the core piece in the renaturation of the property.

"Your prerequisites here are especially good. The water situation is excellent", he
said. He declared his willingness to cooperate and provide consulting if Tamera
decided to realize this vision. In the meantime, the community found the time and the
will to develop an internal concept for the project. The first result is the following plan
by stages.

c) Concretely planned projects 2007-2009

Pilot plants
Already shortly after the visit by Sepp Holzer, the first pilot plants were created in the
form of raised beds for vegetables.

Developing a concept, authorizations, fundraising

The co-workers in Tamera have decided to realize Sepp Holzer's vision. A team of
ecologists and gardeners are standing ready to transform Sepp Holzer's concept to
reality with his help. The overall concept for the property will be developed during the
year 2007. This includes surveying work on the property, soil testing, etc.
Authorizations will be obtained and cooperation partners will be sought in the region.

Large projects: A lake landscape and vegetable cultivation for 300-500 people
The foundation for the overall project of Holzer's Permaculture in Tamera consists of
the excavation work for the lakes and the shore regions and for creating raised beds.
As soon as possible, preferably already in the autumn of 2007, a dam is to be built,
which will hold back a part of the rainwater during the coming winter, damming it up
to form a lake. The planned lake extends from the auditorium and the guest house to
below the planned Solar Village.

All work during the extablishment of Holzer's Permaculture in Tamera will constitute a
part of the peace training within the framework of Monte Cerro; as much as possible
from this will occur under direct instruction from Sepp Holzer. In this way we want to
ensure, right from the start, that the knowledge about cooperation with nature is
passed on.
We invite those people who, having read Sepp Holzer's books, are interested in this
work and are looking for a way to get more in-depth training, to collaborate with us for
a while in Tamera and get to know this work.

d) Holzer's Permaculture in Tamera – A Possible Step by Step Plan and Time

Plan for Realization

The creation of the planned "edible landscape" in Tamera requires many steps to be
realized. In the following, these steps are listed as a first sketch. To implement the
plan, we are planning to hold regular work and learning camps for students and
interested guests, where they can learn about and directly experience Holzer's

- Beginning of March, 2007: Initial consulting visit by Sepp Holzer in Tamera

and beginning of the first tests with raised beds (300 m² for vegetable production,
75 m² for the tree nursery, especially for fruit trees)

- Spring / summer 2007: The planning stages are developed. Creation of an
overall concept, creation of a work brochure (in Portuguese and English),
acquiring information about and applying for the official authorizations
(renaturation with retention space) etc.
- Spring 2007: Beginning collection and systematic reproduction of regional
seeds for fruit trees, vegetables and supporting plants. (Beginning of search for
suitable sources for fruit trees and seeds, collecting seeds from our own property
and from the region.)
- Developing ideas for the creation of an ecological operation center, currently
needed especially for the storage of the seeds, in the future also for machinery
- May / June 2007: Detailed planning for the first large pond below the
auditorium and - if possible also - the first lake landscape in the southern main
valley in Tamera ("tail area"), together with Sepp Holzer.
- September / October 2007: Creating the pond, constructing the shore
terraces, embankments and raised beds around the pond - in combination with
the exterior design of the auditorium.
- Autumn 2007: Sowing the winter vegetables and the supporting seeds around
the auditorium and pond area (also for acquiring seeds).
- Autumn / winter 2007/08: Expansion of the fruit tree nursery (one year nursing
of fruit trees from commercial tree nurseries in raised beds at the future location
for weaning)
- Early spring 2008: Sowing and planting fruit trees, introducing mixed spring
seeds in some terraces and raised beds
- Autumn 2008: Next phase of pond building - repetition of the cyclical work
throughout the year (creation of ponds, terraces, and raised beds, sowing and
planting fruit trees, vegetables and supporting plants, harvest, gaining
experiences and seeds …)
- February / March 2009: Beginning the grafting of sowed fruit trees with
regional and old types

In addition to these initial measures, which lay the foundation for a new landscape,
we are considering running a first test of the afforestation suggested by Sepp Holzer,
with the help of hogs that with their muck-raking activity prepare the soil for new
planting. For this, areas that are to be afforested are to be used by neighboring
farmers as grazing land for hogs and subsequently various fruit and forest trees are
to be sowed.

e) Financing
Billions of Euros are currently being invested in the expansion of tourism on the
coast, on land that according to climate prognoses will be flooded in a few decades.
We are looking for committed financial backers and farsighted investors.
The establishment of Holzer's Permaculture, at the scale that Tamera can offer and
with the prerequisites that it offers as an international peace research project, is a
great opportunity with effects that go far beyond the project itself.

It is difficult to determine the exact costs in advance. We expect the costs for a first
phase in autum of 2007 of approximately 65.000,- €.

1st Phase:
Creating the pond and the corresponding landscape around the auditorium:
- Building the dam, the raised beds and the terraces
- Purchase and nursing of fruit trees, seeds and irrigation technology
- Additional costs for masonry and stairs for the auditorium

2nd Phase:
Creation of the lake landscape in the southern main valley in Tamera:
- Creating the pond, raised bed and terrace landscape
- Purchase and nursing of fruit trees, irrigation technology

3rd Phase:
Creation of the lake landscape in the area of the planned Solar Village
(northwestern part of the property):
- Creation of the pond landscape with raised beds and terraces
- Purchase and nursing of fruit trees, irrigation technology

A more precise calculation will be done after a detailed planing together with Mr.

For further information:

Tamera, Monte do Cerro, P-7630 Colos, Portugal
Tel: +351-283 635 306, Fax: -283 635 374

Your contact person: Barbara Kovats


For financial support:

Netzwerk für eine Humane Erde e.V., GLS-Bank Bochum:
Account-No.: 400 141 9100
Bank Code (BLZ): 430 609 67
IBAN: DE60 4306 0967 4001 4191 00

Associação para um mundo humanitário, Caixa Crédito Agrícola S. Teotónio,
NIB: 0045 6332 4018 1786 5584 5
IBAN: PT50 0045 6332 4018 1786 5584 5 BIC: CCCMPTPL

Verein Netzwerk/Tamera, Freie Gemeinschaftsbank Basel, Stiftung Förderfond
Account-No: 400.631.3, Clearing No: 8392, BIC: RAIFCH22XXX,
IBAN: CH20 0839 2000 0040 06313

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Cheques: please send them directly to: IHC - International Humanities Center, PO
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