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What is the mass flux across the surfaces S1 and S2? Answer: 15.7 kg/s
2. A water jet strikes normal to a fixed plate (see left). Neglect gravity and friction, and compute the force required to hold the plate fixed. Answer: 503 N
3. A fire in the Pariser hydraulics laboratory released 2 kg of a toxic gas into a room of dimensions 30 m x 8 m x 5 m. Assuming the laboratory air to be well-mixed and to be vented at a speed of 0.5 m/s through an aperture of 6 m2, calculate: (a) the initial concentration of gas by mass (in ppm parts per million); (b) the time taken to reach a safe concentration of 1 ppm. (For air, density = 1.20 kg/m3.) Answer: 1390 ppm and 2895 secs. 4. A burst pipe at a factory causes a chemical to seep into a river at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr. The river is 5 m wide, 2 m deep and flows at 0.3 m/s. What is the average concentration of the chemical downstream of the spill? Answer: 2.31x10–4 5. The continuity and x-momentum equations can be written for 2-d flow in conservative form (and with compressibility neglected in the viscous forces) as ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ( ) )
a) By expanding derivatives of products show that these can be written in the equivalent nonconservative forms: ( )
where the material derivative is given in 2-dimensions by
b) Define what is meant by the statement that a flow is incompressible. To what does the continuity equation reduce in incompressible flow? 6. Using the x-component of the momentum equation in 2D, derive the velocity profile in fully-developed, laminar flow for (a) pressure-driven flow between stationary parallel planes (“Poiseuille flow”); (b) constantpressure flow between one stationary and one moving plane (“Couette-flow”).
( ) Note material derivative. (c) Calculate the corresponding streamfunction. and magnitude of density variations. a) If the density is uniform. gravitational. respectively. the steady-state momentum equation for an inviscid fluid can be written ( ) where U is the velocity magnitude. By resolving forces along a streamline. (a) Calculate the velocity components u and v. Discuss the circumstances under which a fluid flow can be adequately approximated as: (a) incompressible. Carry out research to find the name and physical significance of these numbers. (b) Calculate the convective acceleration. (d) Sketch the streamlines and suggest a geometry in which one might expect this flow. length and velocity scales. 8. (b) inviscid 10. state which of (i). (iii) is a valid dimensionless number. describe the “Boussinesq” approximation (in this context) and give an application in which it is used. A velocity field is given by the velocity potential – . show that pressure and gravitational forces can be combined in a piezometric pressure (which should be defined). (ii). and Reynolds number: √( ) is a typical where are characteristic density. In each of the following cases. . For incompressible flow in a rotating reference frame the force per unit volume f is the sum of pressure. c) Show how the momentum equation (with Boussinesq approximation for density) can be nondimensionalised in terms of Froude number. b) If density variations arise from a scalar field. (i) (ii) (iii) (a) (b) ( | | ) ⁄ ( ) (c) 9.7. Derive Bernoulli’s equation. 11. and viscous forces: ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ where ⃗ ( ) is the gravity. . s the distance along a streamline and the angle between local velocity and the horizontal.
The upper wall is moving at speed U0. H. (b) Write down a differential equation for the temperature distribution along the rod. in terms of the velocities and . (a) What are the boundary conditions on upper and lower walls? (b) What is the net pressure force on a single cell? (c) Write down a second-order approximation for the shear stress on the upper face of jth internal cell. find the volume flow rate per unit span (Represent your answer as a multiple of U0H). with unit depth in areas Ae. (Assume the cell to be Cartesian. face 15. the z direction. Neglecting diffusion.12. A rod of length 1 m and 1 cmx1 cm square crosssection has left side temperature fixed at 100 C. is divided into N equally-sized cells of dimension as shown. An. As and volume V). while the lower wall is stationary. . (d) Write down similar approximations for on upper and lower walls. . and 14. A 2-d finite-volume calculation is to be undertaken for fully-developed. with the velocity u stored at the centre of each cell. (h) Solve the Navier-Stokes equation analytically for this case and compare with your answers in parts (f) and (g). The conductivity is k = 1000 m/W-K. Solve analytically and compare with (a). derive an algebraic discretisation of the conservation equation in the form where the sum is over the faces. 13. Aw. . boundedness. and at locations . Which of the following properties does the QUICK scheme satisfy: transportiveness. A streamwise pressure gradient dp/dx = -G is also imposed. (Separate equations are required for internal and boundary cells). ⁄ ( ). The rod is allowed to cool along its length at a rate proportional to its difference from the ambient temperature. The depth of the channel. ( ) (a) Divide the rod into 5 control sections with nodes at the centre of each section and carry out a finite-volume analysis to find the temperature along the rod. (f) Solve your equations for the nodal velocities in the case N = 4 and solution in terms of Uo) (Represent your (g) Using your answer to part (f). Consider 1st order upwinding scheme for a two-dimensional steady flow field. and assuming a uniform source S per unit volume. 16. (e) By balancing pressure and viscous forces set up the finite-volume equations for velocity. Show that a quadratic function fitted to values takes the value at x=0. laminar flow between parallel walls.
what is: (a) the net force in the x direction? (b) the net force in the x direction. with the help of diagrams. the “staggered-grid” arrangement of velocity and pressure to overcome this problem and state its advantages and disadvantages. For the rectangular control volume with surface pressures shown. . For the part of a uniform Cartesian mesh shown in the figure right the momentum equation gives a velocity vs pressure relationship of the form for each cell.0. p is pressure and all quantities are expressed in consistent units. 21. Find the x and y components of the net pressure force on the cell. If the values of u and p are as given in the figure. u is velocity.17. Describe. per unit volume? (c) the average pressure gradient in the x direction? 18. The figure below shows a quadrilateral 2-d cell (of unit depth) with given cell-vertex coordinates and cell-face pressures. The figure shows a triangular cell in a 2-d unstructured mesh. 22. the origin of the “odd-even decoupling” problem in the discrete pressure field that may occur with co-located storage of velocity and pressure in a finite-volume mesh.2. calculate the advective velocity on the cell face marked f by Rhie-Chow interpolation if: (i) pw = 1. Calculate the x and y components of the net pressure force on the cell (per unit depth). Explain. 19. briefly. 20. (ii) pw = 1. together with the coordinates of its vertices and the average pressures on the cell faces. where denotes a centred difference.
and ? | | . d. The source term for a dependent variable is given by . comment on the following practices ( denotes the value from the previous iteration): | | . a) The 1-D advection diffusion equation for a transported variable ( ) is where is the density. (ii) central advection schemes . If the continuity equation were to be regarded as a special case of general scalar transport equation. what would be the expressions for . | | | 26. The central differencing scheme for diffusion using cell-centered storage follows the approximation | Show that this is a second-order accurate. is the diffusivity. . c.23. | . a. Making use of the W and EE nodes also. The local arrangement of nodes and faces in a 1-d finite volume mesh with standard geographical notation and uniform mesh spacing is shown in the figure below. find symmetric fourth order accurate scheme for the derivative on the cell face. If this term is to be linearized as 25. b) Write finite-difference expressions for on both w and e faces. Write this in a corresponding integral form for the shaded cell in Figure. b. c) Write expressions for on w and e faces of the shaded if u is positive for (i) first-order upwind. is the velocity. is the source density. 24. | | .
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