ONLINE JOB PORTAL SYSTEM
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
PROJECT PROPOSAL………………………………………………………..1 PERFORMA FOR APPROVAL………………………………………………3 GUIDE RESUME………………………………………………..……………4-6 TITLE OF PROJECT…………………………………………………….……7 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….……9-11 TOOLS/PLATFORM, HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION…………………...……………………12-17 Technology Overview of .net 2005 with c# 2.0 ,………………………….. SQL SERVER 2005 , SDLC ……………………………………………… ANALYSIS (DFDs, ER Diagrams, Class Diagrams etc. As per the project requirements)…………………………………………………………………22-31 A COMPLETE STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM……………………….32-38 . . . . Number of modules and their description. Data structures for all modules. Process Logic of each module Report generation.
10. 11. 12.
TESTING AND RESULT………………..………………………………….39-51 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT…………………………………………………52 Glossary
ONLINE JOB PORTAL SYSTEM
.NET THROUGH C# 2.
for providing all the facilities needed during the project development. for his indefatigable guidance. We would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who were part of this project in numerous ways. BHUPENDRA SHRAMA sir ”. I would like to thank all those who helped me directly or indirectly. valuable suggestion. DPS RATHORE sir ” for his valuable suggestion while working on the project. I would like to acknowledge the ongoing support of my parents and my family members.Acknowledgement
This is a great opportunity to acknowledge and to thanks all those persons without whose support and help this project would have been impossible. I sincerely thank all faculty members of my institution for his extra effort to make our session on line inspire of all ideas. I would like to thanks to my project guide “Mr. Last but not the least. I thank my Counselors for his indispensable support and encouragement thought the project. moral support. whose patience and encouragement during these long days and night have been paramount in making this project a reality. I am very grateful to him. constant encouragement and contribution of time for the successful completion of project work. Thank you Ravi Kant Singh Vipin Tripathi
. I must also thanks to respected “Mr. At the outset.
Application to the done by “*NAME OF STUDENT*” under my guidance.
Signature of the student
Signature of the Guide
This is to certify that project entitled “ONLINE JOB PORTAL SYSTEM ” submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Computer Science. The matter embodied in this project has not been submitted earlier for award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.
The matter embodied in this project work has not Been submitted earlier for award of any degree or diploma to the Best of my knowledge and belief.SELF CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that project entitled “ONLINE JOB PORTAL SYSTEM” is done by me is an authentic work carried out for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Computer Application under the guidance of “NAME OF HOD”.
Signature of the Student
Computerization of the official works will help in doing lot of manual work quickly. thereby improving its operational efficiency & effectiveness
In today’s competitive environment. It will help in easy storage and access of all information.Introduction of ONLINE JOB PORTAL SYSTEM
Computerized on Line Job Search System is developed to facilitate the General administration system to manage the various information of the Job Seeker and Job Provider and the processes involved in a placement company.
. Information plays very crucial role. Today Internet is the fast way of transferring Data and Information over wide area. So. it can give good results. hence I have used internet as a way for exchanging information. As fast as information is accessed and processed. that organization can access accurate information quickly and easily as and when required. in short period of time. where Everybody wants to be on the top. Computerized system helps to fulfill these goals.
• To facilitate company so that it can search for best candidates available. So these are some of the objectives which we have to accomplish.
.Specific Objective of the site :
Objective of doing this project is to enhance my knowledge in the field of Ecom technology using ASP. • To act as a middle men connecting Job seeker and Provider • User can download different forms etc.Net as a language. • To make it Global. Some of the client requirement and objectives of this site is as under:• To increase the business of Client. • To facilitate job search.
0) SQL SERVER 2005
WINDOW XP SERvice PACK 2
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT
PROCESSOR RAM STORAGE CAPACITY
: : :
P-IV(1.80 GHZ) 256 40 GB
OPERATING SYSTEM RDBMS
WINDOW XP SERVICE PACK 2 SQL SERVER 2005
.NET(With C# 2. PLATFORM & LANGUAGE TO BE USED
NET Framework version 2. and threading classes.NET Framework version 1.0 extends the . New classes have been added to the .0
The Microsoft . For more information. New support for 64-bit applications enables users to build managed code libraries or easily use unmanaged code libraries on 64bit computers. see 64-bit Applications. 64-Bit Platform Support The new generation of 64-bit computers enables the creation of applications that can run faster and take advantage of more memory than is available to 32-bit applications.NET Framework that allow managed code to create and modify an ACL. registry. improvements to existing features.
.Technology Overview of my Project . and enhancements to the documentation.Net 2005 Framework .1 with new features.SQL SERVER 2005 and SDLC of Project . Access Control List Support An access control list (ACL) is used to grant or revoke permission to access a resource on a computer. This section provides information about some key additions and modifications. For more information about compatibility and for a list of the public API modifications to the class library that might affect the compatibility of your application. New members that use an ACL have been added to the I/O.Net 2005 with c# 2.
NET to track property values for individual users automatically.NET.0 includes significant enhancements to all areas of ASP. large value types. For Web page development. asynchronous database operations. and themes allow you to define a consistent look for controls and static text. you can precompile a Web site to produce executable code from source files (both
.NET Web page without writing code. Master pages allow you to create a consistent layout for all the pages in a site.NET include support for user-defined types (UDT). You can now customize Web sites and pages in a variety of ways.NET
New features in ADO. Improvements to Web site features allow you to create professional Web sites faster and more easily. ASP. For more information about these and other new ADO.NET Framework 2.NET pages easier and more robust.ADO. XML data types. Using Web Parts. you can create pages that users can customize in the browser.NET
The Microsoft . including the ability to build cache dependency on tables in a SQL Server database. Profile properties enable ASP. new controls make it easier to add commonly used functionality to dynamic Web pages. Caching features provide several new ways to cache pages. New data controls make it possible to display and edit data on an ASP. and new attributes that allow applications to support multiple active result sets (MARS) with SQL Server 2005.NET features. An improved code-behind model makes developing ASP. You can add navigation menus using simple controls.NET. To help protect your sites. snapshot isolation. see What's New in ADO.
NET also include new tools and classes to make Web site management easier for Web site developers. These authenticated stream classes support mutual authentication. For a more complete list of new features in ASP. which are used to reference critical operating system resources. and data signing.NET. which does not include any source information. data encryption. The NegotiateStream class uses the Negotiate security protocol for authentication. You can then deploy the resulting output.1 standards. controls render output that is compatible with XHTML 1.
Applications can use the new NegotiateStream and SslStream classes for authentication and to help secure information transmitted between a client and a server. and hosters. to a production server. You can use device filtering to specify different property values on the same control for different browsers.NET accommodates a wide variety of browsers and devices.code files and the markup in . Enhancements to ASP. The SslStream class uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) security protocol for authentication.aspx pages). By default. and their specialized derived
. server administrators. The new SafeHandle and CriticalHandle classes. ASP. COM Interop Services Enhancements Four major enhancements have been made to the classes and tools that support interoperability with COM:
The operating system maintains a limited number of handles. see What's New in ASP.NET.
provide safe and reliable means of manipulating operating system handles. and to wait while reading console input until a key is pressed. which is useful for performing smooth.
. Other new class members control the foreground and background colors of text.
Marshaling improvements make interoperating with native code easier. simple animation.
The performance of calls between applications in different application domains has been made much faster for common call types.classes. to move a rectangular area of the screen buffer. and the frequency and duration of the console beep. This enhancement is important for creating robust build environments.exe) and Type Library Exporter (Tlbexp. the visibility and size of the cursor. Two enhancements to the interop marshaler satisfy the two most common user requests: the ability to wrap native function pointers into delegates and the ability to marshal fixed-size arrays of structures inside structures.exe) eliminate dependency on the registry to resolve type library references.
Console Class Additions
New members of the Console class enable applications to manipulate the dimensions of the console window and screen buffer.
New switches on the Type Library Importer (Tlbimp.
Data Protection API
The new Data Protection API (DPAPI) includes four methods that allow applications to encrypt passwords, keys, connections strings, and so on, without calling platform invoke. You can also encrypt blocks of memory on computers running Windows Server 2003 or later operating systems. Debugger Display Attributes You can now control how Visual Studio displays a class or member when an application is being debugged. The debugger's Display Attributes feature enables you to identify the most useful information to display in the debugger.
Debugger Edit and Continue Support
The .NET Framework 2.0 reintroduces the Edit and Continue feature that enables a user who is debugging an application in Visual Studio to make changes to source code while executing in Break mode. After source code edits are applied, the user can resume code execution and observe the effect. Furthermore, the Edit and Continue feature is available in any programming language supported by Visual Studio. Detecting Changes in Network Connectivity
The NetworkChange class allows applications to receive notification when the Internet Protocol (IP) address of a network interface, also known as a network card or adapter, changes. An interface address can change for a variety of reasons, such as a disconnected network cable, moving out of range of a wireless local area network, or hardware failure. The
NetworkChange class provides address change notification by raising events when a change is detected. Distributed Computing
In the System.Net namespace, support has been added for FTP client requests, caching of HTTP resources, automatic proxy discovery, and obtaining network traffic and statistical information. The namespace now includes a Web server class that you can use to create
a simple Web server for responding to HTTP requests. Classes that generate network traffic have been instrumented to output trace information for application debugging and diagnostics. Security and performance enhancements have been added to the System.Net.Sockets.Socket and System.Uri classes. In the System.Web.Services namespaces, support for SOAP 1.2 and nullable elements has been added. In the System.Runtime.Remoting.Channels namespaces, channel security features have been added. The TCP channel now supports authentication and encryption, as well as several new features to better support load balancing. EventLog Enhancements You can now use custom DLLs for EventLog messages, parameters, and categories. Expanded Certificate Management The .NET Framework now supports X.509 certificate stores, chains, and extensions. In addition, you can sign and verify XML using X.509 certificates without using platform invoke. There is also support for PKCS7 signature and encryption, and CMS (a superset of the PKCS7 standard available on
Microsoft Windows 2005 and later operating systems). PKCS7 is the underlying format used in Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) for signing and encrypting data. For more information, see the X509Certificate2 class topic.
FTP Support Applications can now access File Transfer Protocol resources using the WebRequest, WebResponse, and WebClient classes.
Generics and Generic Collections
The .NET Framework 2.0 introduces generics to allow you to create flexible, reusable code. Language features collectively known as generics act as templates that allow classes, structures, interfaces, methods, and delegates to be declared and defined with unspecified, or generic type parameters instead of specific types. Actual types are specified later when the generic is used. Several namespaces, such as System Namespace and System.Collections.Generic, provide generic classes and methods. The new System.Collections.Generic namespace provides support for strongly typed collections. System.Nullable<T> is a standard representation of optional values. Generics are supported in three languages: Visual Basic, C#, and C+ +. Reflection has been extended to allow runtime examination and
manipulation of generic types and methods. New members have been added to System.Type and System.Reflection.MethodInfo, including IsGenericType to identify generic types (for example,
you can compensate by using the new encoding and decoding fallback feature supported by several classes in the System. The normalization process converts character representations of text to a standard form so the representations can be compared for equivalence. new Gen<int.
class. long>()).GetGenericArguments to obtain type parameter lists.
Encoding and decoding operations map a Unicode character to or from a stream of bytes that can be transferred to a physical medium such as a disk or a communication line. and creating culture definitions that do not yet exist in the .
Support for custom cultures enables you to define and deploy culturerelated information as needed.
encoding.NET Framework.Text namespace. and MakeGenericType to create specific types (for example. Use the cached version when creating a
. see the CultureAndRegionInfoBuilder class. UTF8 is the most common encoding used to transform Unicode characters into bytes on computers. If a mapping operation cannot be completed.NET Framework now supports the latest normalization standard defined by the Unicode Consortium. are now several times faster than in previous releases. This feature is useful for creating minor customizations of existing culture definitions. For more information.
The GetCultureInfo method overload provides a cached version of a read-only CultureInfo object. Globalization Five new globalization features provide greater support for developing applications intended for different languages and cultures.
which are available at the IETF Request for Comments (RFC) search page.
Manifest-Based Activation This feature provides new support for loading and activating applications through the use of a manifest. which enables the user to decide whether to allow the application to execute before downloading the
. its dependencies. the manifest contains the security requirements of the application. The manifest model has several advantages over the assembly-based activation model.new CultureInfo object to improve system performance and reduce memory usage. The manifest-based activation model uses an application manifest for activation rather than an assembly.Compression namespace to read and write data with the GZIP compression and decompression standard. clicking an application's . For example. A manifest fully describes the application. and so forth.exe file from within the Windows shell causes the shell to load the common language runtime (CLR) and call a well-known entry point within that . Note: search is limited to RFC numbers. Traditionally. security requirements. You can now use the classes in the System.IO. I/O Enhancements Improvements have been made to the usability and functionality of various I/O classes.exe file's assembly. described in the IETF RFC 1951 and RFC 1952 specifications. applications are activated through a reference to an assembly that contains the application's entry point. It is now easier for users to read and write text files and obtain information about a drive. For example. especially for Web applications. Manifest-based activation is essential for supporting ClickOnce applications.
2. Classes in the new System.
.Tcp namespace support authentication and encryption using the Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI).code. This activation model also invokes an entity called a Trust Manager that performs the following tasks:
1.NET Framework remoting now supports IPv6 addresses and the exchange of generic types.Channels. you can now configure the connection cache time-out and the
. Finally. Determines whether an application is allowed to be activated. The classes in the System. Most commonly.
dependencies.Runtime. Sets up the security context to run an application in.Remoting. These APIs contain a mixture of both new classes and extensions to existing classes. querying policy.Channels. this step involves setting up a code access security (CAS) policy tree on the application domain in which the application will run.NET Framework Remoting
. or by any other means deemed appropriate for a given Trust Manager. This decision can be made by prompting the user.
Manifest-based activation is provided by a set of APIs that allow managed hosts to activate applications and add-ins described by a manifest.Ipc namespace allow applications on the same computer to communicate quickly without using the network.Runtime.
WebResponse.NetworkInformation namespace. This class provides functionality similar to the Ping.number of method retries. applications can control the caching of resources obtained using the WebRequest. and supports synchronous and asynchronous calls. with your application's permissions. Using classes in the System. You can use the predefined cache policies provided by the .Net. Ping The Ping class allows an application to determine whether a remote computer is accessible over the network. Processing HTTP Requests from Within Applications You can use the HttpListener class to create a simple Web server that responds to HTTP requests. This information is similar to the information returned by the Ipconfig.
applications can access IP. IPv4.exe command-line tool. and UDP network traffic statistics.exe command-line tool.NET Framework or specify a custom cache policy. TCP. You can specify a cache policy for each request and define a default cache policy for requests that do not specify a cache policy. IPv6.
.Net. The Web server is active for the lifetime of the HttpListener object and runs within your application. This class is available only on computers running the Windows XP Service Pack 2 or Windows Server 2003 operating systems. which can improve the performance of network load-balanced remote clusters. and WebClient classes. Applications can also view address and configuration information for the local computer’s network adapters.Cache namespace. Programmatic Control of Caching Using the classes in the System.
and remoting. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time.NET Framework is an integral Windows component that supports building and running the next generation of applications and XML Web services. The common language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework. Code that targets the runtime is known as managed code. object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from
To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts.
The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives:
To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object code is stored and executed locally.NET Framework can integrate with any other code. thread management. the other main component of the . is a comprehensive.The . executed locally but Internet-distributed. such as Windows-based applications and Webbased applications.
performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.
To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the .NET Framework. the concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime.
execution of code. or executed remotely. providing core services such as memory management. including code created by an unknown or semitrusted third party. The class library.
To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications.NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and the . In fact. The .NET Framework class library. while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that promote security and robustness. while code that does not target the runtime is known as unmanaged code.
The . server-side environment for managed code. The . For example. Hosting the runtime in this way makes managed mobile code (similar to Microsoft® ActiveX® controls) possible. Using Internet Explorer to host the runtime enables you to embed managed components or Windows Forms controls in HTML documents. both of which are discussed later in this topic. ASP.NET hosts the runtime to provide a scalable.NET Framework can be hosted by unmanaged components that load the common language runtime into their processes and initiate the execution of managed code. The illustration also shows how managed code operates within a larger architecture. such as Web Forms and XML Web services.NET Framework in context
.NET.NET applications and XML Web services. such as semi-trusted execution and isolated file storage. ASP.traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP. thereby creating a software environment that can exploit both managed and unmanaged features. but also supports the development of thirdparty runtime hosts.NET Framework not only provides several runtime hosts. . Internet Explorer is an example of an unmanaged application that hosts the runtime (in the form of a MIME type extension). but with significant improvements that only managed code can offer.NET works directly with the runtime to enable ASP. The following illustration shows the relationship of the common language runtime and the class library to your applications and to the overall system.
registry-access operations. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime. managed components are awarded varying degrees of trust. This means that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file-access operations. With regards to security. Features of the Common Language Runtime The common language runtime manages memory. enterprise network. compilation. depending on a number of factors that include their origin (such as the Internet. code execution. or other sensitive functions. even if it is being used in the same active application. code safety verification. or local computer). and other system services.The following sections describe the main components and features of the .
. thread execution.NET Framework in greater detail.
The various Microsoft and third-party language compilers generate managed code that conforms to the CTS. The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. While the runtime is designed for the software of the future. For example. The CTS ensures that all managed code is self-describing. yet take full advantage of the runtime.
. For example. Language compilers that target the . releasing them when they are no longer being used. This means that managed code can consume other managed types and instances. In addition.The runtime enforces code access security. the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common software issues. while strictly enforcing type fidelity and type safety. Any compiler vendor who chooses to target the runtime can do so.NET Framework make the features of the . The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict typeand-code-verification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS). but cannot access their personal data. file system. greatly easing the migration process for existing applications. Interoperability between managed and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary COM components and DLLs. the class library. users can trust that an executable embedded in a Web page can play an animation on screen or sing a song. memory leaks and invalid memory references. it also supports software of today and yesterday.NET Framework available to existing code written in that language. For example. and components written in other languages by other developers. the runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to objects. or network. The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate Internetdeployed software to be exceptionally feature rich. This automatic memory management resolves the two most common application errors.
programmers can write applications in their development language of choice.
database connectivity.NET Framework types easy to use.The runtime is designed to enhance performance. As you would expect from an object-oriented class library. In addition to these common tasks. In addition. but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the .NET Framework collection classes implement a set of interfaces that you can use to develop your own collection classes.NET Framework.NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. and file access. while still enjoying the superior performance of the industry's best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting.NET Framework Class Library The . the class library includes types that support a variety of
. A feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of the system on which it is executing. managed code is never interpreted. Finally. data collection.NET Framework. the memory manager removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory locality-of-reference to further increase performance. For example.NET Framework. server-side applications. such as Microsoft® SQL Server™ and Internet Information Services (IIS). including tasks such as string management. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services. the . Your collection classes will blend seamlessly with the classes in the . providing types from which your own managed code can derive functionality. the runtime can be hosted by high-performance.NET Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks. This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to write your business logic. third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the . the . The class library is object oriented. Meanwhile. This not only makes the . .
enabling a user to perform a task. you can use the Web Forms classes. Client Application Development Client applications are the closest to a traditional style of application in Windows-based programming. If you write an ASP. and so on. buttons. as well as custom business applications such as data-entry tools. These are the types of applications that display windows or forms on the desktop. the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that vastly simplify Windows GUI development.
For example. This application is much like other client applications: it is executed natively.NET Framework incorporates aspects of these existing products
. and they likely access local resources such as the file system and peripherals such as printers.NET applications. reporting tools.NET Web Form application. developers created such applications using C/C++ in
conjunction with the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) or with a rapid application development (RAD) environment such as Microsoft® Visual Basic®. For example. In the past. you can use the . Client applications include applications such as word processors and spreadsheets. Client applications usually employ windows. has access to local resources. Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms). and includes graphical elements. ASP. Another kind of client application is the traditional ActiveX control (now replaced by the managed Windows Forms control) deployed over the Internet as a Web page. Windows services.NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services:
• • • • •
Console applications. menus. XML Web services. The . and other GUI elements.specialized development scenarios.
and in these cases the . This is one of many ways in which the . This means that binary or natively executing code can access some of the resources on the user's system (such as GUI elements and limited file access) without being able to access or compromise other resources. Because of code access security. toolbars. This model provides you with all the features of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance and scalability of the host server. Windows Forms controls have semi-trusted access to a user's computer. The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in different server environments. the . For example. Your applications can implement the features of a local application while being deployed like a Web page. menus. In some cases the underlying operating system does not support changing these attributes directly. Unlike ActiveX controls.NET Framework provides simple properties to adjust visual attributes associated with forms. many applications that once needed to be installed on a user's system can now be deployed through the Web.into a single.NET Framework automatically recreates the forms. You can easily create command windows. Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime.NET Framework are designed to be used for GUI development.NET Framework integrates the developer interface. which allows your custom managed code to control the behavior of the server. consistent development environment that drastically simplifies the development of client applications. and other screen elements with the flexibility necessary to accommodate shifting business needs. Server Application Development Server-side applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts. Servers such as IIS and SQL
. The Windows Forms classes contained in the . buttons. making coding simpler and more consistent.
NET is more than just a runtime host. your code no longer needs to share the same file
. In addition.NET Framework to target Web-based applications. it is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internet-distributed objects using managed code. If you have used earlier versions of ASP technology. Web-based applications. However. such as traditional client applications. However. and both have a collection of supporting classes in the .NET Framework. XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. unlike Web-based applications. For example. Server-side managed code
ASP. XML Web services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the Internet. or even other XML Web services. you can develop Web Forms pages in any language that supports the . As a result. an important evolution in Web-based technology. Instead.Server can perform standard operations while your application logic executes through the managed code.NET Framework. ASP.NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the .NET as the publishing mechanism for applications. Both Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and ASP. server-side application components similar to common Web sites. you will immediately notice the improvements that ASP. are distributed. XML Web services.NET and Web Forms offer. XML Web services consist of reusable software components designed to be consumed by other applications.
NET pages are faster. like any other managed application. The . Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because. For example. and XML.NET Framework provides a set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards. and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact with the runtime like any managed application. the Web Services Description Language tool included with the .NET Framework also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in development and consumption of XML Web services applications. If you develop and publish your own XML Web service. ASP. more functional. the . they take full advantage of the runtime. The . XML (an extensible data format).NET Framework is built on these standards to promote interoperability with non-Microsoft solutions. unmanaged ASP pages are always scripted and interpreted. such as SOAP.NET Framework. Using those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service.with your HTTP text (although it can continue to do so if you prefer).NET Framework SDK can query an XML Web service published on the Web. without concerning yourself with the communications development. The source code can create classes derived from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using SOAP and XML parsing. the Web Services Description Language tool and the other tools contained in the SDK facilitate your development efforts with the . XML Web services are built on standards such as SOAP (a remote procedure-call protocol). infrastructure required by distributed software
. and produce C# or Visual Basic source code that your application can use to become a client of the XML Web service. parse its WSDL description. Although you can use the class library to consume XML Web services directly. WSDL. In contrast. and WSDL ( the Web Services Description Language).
it benefits from features such as cross-language integration. like Web Forms pages in the managed environment. your XML Web service will run with the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of IIS. generate native code. and references in your code. unmanaged data. a simplified model for component interaction.
. or both managed and unmanaged data in your . Garbage collection eliminates memory leaks as well as some other common programming errors. versioning and deployment support.
The runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to objects.
Common Language Runtime (CLR)
Compilers and tools expose the runtime's functionality and enable you to write code that benefits from this managed execution environment. and debugging and profiling services.NET Framework application. Metadata is stored with the code. The runtime uses metadata to locate and load classes.
To enable the runtime to provide services to managed code. every loadable common language runtime portable executable (PE) file contains metadata. members. lay out instances in memory. Code that you develop with a language compiler that targets the runtime is called managed code. and set run-time context boundaries. Because language compilers supply their own types. resolve method invocations. If your code is managed. you can use managed data.Finally. enforce security. cross-language exception handling. enhanced security. Objects whose lifetimes are managed in this way are called managed data. language compilers must emit metadata that describes the types. releasing them when they are no longer being used.
and they follow the runtime's rules for defining new types. making the tasks of component replication and removal much less complicated. the Visual Basic language has more object-oriented features than before. you can define a class and then use a different language to derive a class from your original class or call a method on the original class. all managed components carry information about the components and resources they were built against. using. Objects written in different languages can communicate with each other. Registration information and state data are no longer stored in the registry where they can be difficult to establish and maintain.such as primitive types. As part of their metadata. as well as for creating. For example. which makes your code less likely to break because of some unmet dependency. For example. The runtime uses this information to ensure that your component or application has the specified versions of everything it needs. How you experience the runtime depends on which language compilers or tools you use. you might not always know (or need to know) whether your data is being managed. information about the types you define (and their dependencies) is stored with the code as metadata. and binding to types. and their behaviors can be tightly integrated. This means that some features of the runtime might be more noticeable in one environment than in another. if you are a Visual Basic developer. you might notice that with the common language runtime. Rather. Language compilers and tools expose the runtime's functionality in ways that are intended to be useful and intuitive to developers. This cross-language integration is possible because language compilers and tools that target the runtime use a common type system defined by the runtime. persisting. You can also pass an instance of a class to a method of a class written in a different language. Following are some benefits of the runtime:
. The common language runtime makes it easy to design components and applications whose objects interact across languages.
Very strong type safety. Additional runtime features include:
objects. interfaces. Syntax and keywords similar to C and C++. which provide the benefits of a managed execution environment as well as access to powerful capabilities and expressive data types that you are familiar with. Extensible types provided by a class library. New language features such as inheritance. Garbage collection.
The ability to compile once and run on any CPU and operating system that supports the runtime. support for explicit free threading that allows creation of multithreaded.
Language (IDL) unnecessary. support for structured exception handling and custom attributes. and
overloading for object-oriented programming. which manages object lifetime so that reference counting is unnecessary.
You can also write managed code using the C# language. scalable applications. which provides the following benefits:
• • • • • •
Complete object-oriented design. A good blend of Visual Basic simplicity and C++ power. Use of delegates rather than function pointers for increased type safety and security. Garbage collection. The ability to easily use components developed in other languages. especially cross-language inheritance. If you use Microsoft® Visual C++® .• • • •
Performance improvements. you can write managed code using the Managed Extensions for C++. Function pointers are available through the use of
In addition. you cannot make direct calls between two processes. which isolates the application from other applications running on the same computer. Application domains provide a more secure and versatile unit of processing that the common language runtime can use to provide isolation between applications. a memory pointer passed from one process to another cannot be used in any meaningful way in the target process. You can run several application domains in a single process with the same level of isolation that would exist in separate processes. Each application is loaded into a separate process. but without incurring the additional overhead of making cross-process calls or
. you must use proxies. at a much lower performance cost.the unsafe C# keyword and the /unsafe option of the C# compiler (Csc.exe) for unmanaged code and data. which provide a level of indirection. process boundaries have been used to isolate applications running on the same computer. Managed code must be passed through a verification process before it can be run (unless the administrator has granted permission to skip the verification). Code that passes the verification test is said to be type-safe. Instead. The applications are isolated because memory addresses are processrelative.
Application Domain Overview
Historically. The verification process determines whether the code can attempt to access invalid memory addresses or perform some other action that could cause the process in which it is running to fail to operate properly. The ability to verify code as type-safe enables the common language runtime to provide as great a level of isolation as the process boundary.
As such. using application domains ensures that code running in one domain cannot affect other applications in the process. the call to the object is remote. the call to the object is local. the caller and the object being referenced are in different application domains. the compilation might fail
. both the caller and the object being referenced are in the same application domain. Objects that pass between domains are either copied or accessed by proxy. Isolating applications is also important for application security. The common language runtime enforces this isolation by preventing direct calls between objects in different application domains. If the calling domain does not have access to the metadata for the object being called.
Individual applications can be stopped without stopping the entire process. Cross-domain calls use the same remote call infrastructure as calls between two processes or between two machines. If the object is copied. The isolation provided by application domains has the following benefits:
Faults in one application cannot affect other applications. Because type-safe code cannot cause memory faults. the metadata for the object being referenced must be available to both application domains to allow the method call to be JIT-compiled properly.switching between processes. That is. If the object is accessed through a proxy. you can run controls from several Web applications in a single browser process in such a way that the controls cannot access each other's data and resources. Using application domains enables you to unload the code running in a single application. For example. The ability to run multiple applications within a single process dramatically increases server scalability.
Code running in one application cannot directly access code or resources from another application. In this case.
You must load an assembly into an application domain before you can execute the code it contains.with an exception of type System. the application domain provides configuration settings such as application version policies. and information about where to locate assemblies that are loaded into the domain. The runtime host decides whether to load assemblies as domain-neutral when it loads the runtime into a process. see MarshalByRefObject Class. The mechanism for determining how objects can be accessed across domains is determined by the object.
The behavior of code is scoped by the application in which it runs. For more information. Running a typical application causes several assemblies to be loaded into an application domain. See Remote Objects for more details. If an assembly is used by multiple domains in a process.
Permissions granted to code can be controlled by the application domain in which the code is running.FileNotFound. For more information. In other words. see the LoaderOptimizationAttribute attribute and the associated LoaderOptimization
. the location of any remote assemblies it accesses.IO.
Application Domains and Assemblies
This topic describes the relationship between application domains and assemblies. the JIT output from an assembly's code can be shared by all domains referencing the assembly.
This setting is called single domain because it is commonly used when the host is running only a single application in the process. Each application domain that accesses the assembly must have a separate copy of the static data. all of which run the same code. the runtime contains additional logic to direct a caller to the appropriate copy of the static data or method. As a result. Use this setting when there are multiple application domains in the process. Assemblies should not be loaded as domain-neutral if the set of permissions granted to the assembly is likely to be different in each domain. There are three options for loading domain-neutral assemblies:
Load no assemblies as domain-neutral. which is always loaded domain-neutral. The performance of a domain-neutral assembly is slower if that assembly contains static data or static methods that are accessed frequently. For hosting.
Load all assemblies as domain-neutral.NET Framework SDK. to prevent references to objects in static fields from crossing domain boundaries.
When you decide whether to load assemblies as domain-neutral. This extra logic slows down the call. This can occur if the runtime host sets an application domain-level security policy.enumeration. you must make a tradeoff between reducing memory use and performance. except Mscorlib. Access to static data is slower because of the need to isolate assemblies.
. An assembly is not shared between domains when it is granted a different set of permissions in each domain. see the documentation for CorBindToRuntimeEx in the common language runtime Hosting Interfaces Specification found in the . Use this setting when running more than one application in the same process.
Load strong-named assemblies as domain-neutral.
and e-commerce applications. Analysis Services also includes a new data mining component. The OLAP Services feature available in SQL Server version 7. For more information.0. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the term Analysis Services.0 is now called SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services.
. Microsoft SQL Server 2005 includes several new features that make it an excellent database platform for large-scale online transactional processing (OLTP). quality. reliability.What's New in Microsoft SQL Server 2005
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 extends the performance. and ease-of-use of Microsoft SQL Server version 7. data warehousing.
.The Repository component available in SQL Server version 7. For more information. These conceptual topics provide links to topics that describe the commands or statements you use to work with these features.
Relational Database Enhancements
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 introduces several server improvements and new features: XML Support The relational database engine can return data as Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents. For more information. References to the component now use the term Meta Data Services. Federated Database Servers SQL Server 2005 supports enhancements to distributed partitioned views that allow you to partition tables horizontally across multiple servers.0 is now called Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Meta Data Services. update. such as between application servers and database servers.
SQL Server 2005 introduces Net-Library support for Virtual Interface Architecture (VIA) system-area networks that provide high-speed connectivity between servers. This group. The What's New topics contain brief overviews of the new features and links to relevant conceptual topics that provide more detailed information. or federation. The term repository is used only in reference to the repository engine within Meta Data Services. . Additionally. A user-defined function can return either a scalar value or a table. For more information. . of database servers can support the data storage requirements of the largest Web sites and enterprise data processing systems. For more information. User-Defined Functions The programmability of Transact-SQL can be extended by creating your own Transact-SQL functions. and delete values in the database. This allows you to scale out one database server to a group of database servers that cooperate to provide the same performance levels as a cluster of database servers. XML can also be used to insert.
Cascading Referential Integrity Constraints You can control the actions SQL Server 2005 takes when you attempt to update or delete a key to which existing foreign keys point. You can now specify collations at the database level or at the column level. and as the return type for user-defined functions. For more information. AFTER triggers fire after the triggering action. table is a type that allows applications to store results temporarily for later use.
. bigint is an 8-byte integer type. They can also be defined on views. For more information. .
SQL Server 2005 replaces code pages and sort orders with collations. Previously. . sql_variant is a type that allows the storage of data values of different data types. SQL Server 2005 includes support for most collations supported in earlier versions of SQL Server. UPDATE. Existing applications do not need to be modified to take advantage of the performance improvements with indexed views. SQL Server 2005 introduces the ability to specify which AFTER triggers fire first and last. code pages and sort orders could be specified only at the server level and applied to all databases on a server.Indexed Views Indexed views can significantly improve the performance of an application where queries frequently perform certain joins or aggregations. New Data Types SQL Server 2005 introduces three new data types. This is controlled by the new ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses in the REFERENCES clause of the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements. where the result set of the view is stored and indexed in the database. . For more information. INSERT. and introduces a new set of collations based on Windows collations. DELETE). in which case they greatly extend the types of updates a view can support. For more information. An indexed view allows indexes to be created on views. . For more information INSTEAD OF and AFTER Triggers INSTEAD OF triggers are executed instead of the triggering action (for example. It is supported for variables.
This results in improved disk read and write patterns for the index creation step. the complete process of creating an index is eligible for parallel operations. Operations with char and varchar operands having different code pages are now supported. . not only the initial table scan. along with one or more instances of the database engine from SQL Server 2005. and if the database engine should use parallel scanning and sorting during index creation. Each computer can run one instance of the relational database engine from SQL Server version 6.
Multiple Instances of SQL Server
SQL Server 2005 supports running multiple instances of the relational database engine on the same computer. You can specify whether indexes are built in ascending or descending order. For more information . on a schedule.
You can now create indexes on computed columns. or as they occur.0. Image filtering allows you to index and query documents stored in image columns. full-text search is able to load the appropriate document filter to extract textual information for indexing. The user provides the document type in a column that contains the file name extension that the document would have had if it were stored as a file in the file system. The SQL Server 2005 utilities and administration tools have been enhanced to work with multiple instances. You can update the full-text index with these changes by flushing the log manually.
Full-Text Search Enhancements
Full-text search now includes change tracking and image filtering. Each instance has its own set of system and user databases.Collations support code page translations. You can use ALTER DATABASE to change the default collation of a database.
The CREATE INDEX statement can now use the tempdb database as a work area for the sorts required to build an index. Applications can connect to each instance on a computer similar to the way they connect to instances of SQL Servers running on different computers. and makes it more likely that index pages will be allocated in contiguous strips. using the background update index option. Using this information. Code page translations are not supported for text operands. In addition. For more information.
.5 or 7. For more information. Change tracking maintains a log of all changes to the full-text indexed data. For more information.
The distributed query optimizer can then use this information to reduce the amount of data that has to be sent from the OLE DB data source. such as between application servers and database servers.
Distributed Query Enhancements
SQL Server 2005 introduces a new OPENDATASOURCE function. The SQL Server 2005 utilities and administration tools have been enhanced to work with failover clusters. and maintain a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 failover cluster.Failover Clustering Enhancements
The administration of failover clusters has been greatly improved to make it very easy to install.
64-GB Memory Support
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Enterprise Edition can use the Microsoft Windows 2005 Advanced Windows Extension (AWE) API to support up to 64 GB of physical memory (RAM) on a computer. and support Secure Sockets Layer encryption over all Net-Libraries. SQL Server 2005 introduces Net-Library support for Virtual Interface Architecture (VIA) system-area networks that provide high-speed connectivity between servers. and the ability to reinstall or rebuild a cluster instance on any node in the cluster without affecting the other cluster node instances. . which you can use to specify ad hoc connection information in a distributed query. Distributed queries also support the other functions
. the ability to add or remove a node from the cluster through SQL Server 2005 Setup. The new Net-Libraries also support connections to multiple instances of SQL Server on the same computer. For more information
The SQL Server 2005 Net-Libraries have been rewritten to virtually eliminate the need to administer Net-Library configurations on client computers when connecting SQL Server 2005 clients to instances of SQL Server 2005. configure. Additional enhancements include the ability to failover and failback to or from any node in a SQL Server 2005 cluster. SQL Server 2005 also specifies methods that OLE DB providers can use to report the level of SQL syntax supported by the provider and statistics on the distribution of key values in the data source. For more information. SQL Server 2005 delegates more SQL operations to OLE DB data sources than earlier versions of SQL Server.
as well as the ability to pass the security credentials of a client between computers. SQL Server 2005 uses Kerberos and delegation to support both integrated authentication as well as SQL Server logins. With Microsoft Windows® 2005. A database federation built using SQL Server 2005 databases is capable of supporting the processing requirements of the largest Web sites or enterprise-level databases.
Scalability Enhancements for Utility Operations
SQL Server 2005 enhancements for utility operations include faster differential backups. more easily understood model for specifying backup and restore options. and parallel scanning. The new model makes it clearer that you are balancing increased or decreased exposure to losing work against the performance and log space requirements of different plans. SQL Server 2005 introduces support for recovery to specific points of work using named log marks in the transaction log. parallel Database Console Command (DBCC) checking.
Kerberos and Security Delegation
SQL Server 2005 uses Kerberos to support mutual authentication between the client and the server. so that work on a remote server can proceed using the credentials of the impersonated client. and the new bigint and sql_variant data types. For more information. Groups of servers running SQL Server that cooperate in this type of partitioning are called federations of servers.
Updatable Distributed Partitioned Views
SQL Server 2005 introduces enhancements to distributed partitioned views.
Backup and Restore Enhancements
SQL Server 2005 introduces a new. Differential backups can
. . You can partition tables horizontally across several servers. mixing columns with different collations in result sets. SQL Server 2005 distributed queries add support for the OLE DB Provider for Exchange and the Microsoft OLE DB Provider for Microsoft Directory Services. and the ability to do partial database restores Users can define passwords for backup sets and media sets that prevent unauthorized users from accessing SQL Server backups. and define a distributed partitioned view on each member server that makes it appear as if a full copy of the original table is stored on each server. such as multiple instances. For more information.introduced in SQL Server 2005.
or queries that you want to make secure. DBCC now takes advantage of multiple processors. This reduces the amount of space used to store small text.now be completed in a time that is proportional to the amount of data changed since the last full backup. and image values be placed directly in the data row instead of in a separate page. ntext. can be stored as templates in an IIS virtual root. which gives you HTTP access to the data and XML functionality of SQL Server 2005. thus enabling near-linear gain in performance in relation to the number of CPUs (provided that I/O is not a bottleneck). or OLE DB to work with the XML functionality of SQL Server 2005:
You can define XML views of SQL Server 2005 databases by annotating XML-Data Reduced (XDR) schemas to map the tables.
Text in Row Data
SQL Server 2005 supports a new text in row table option that specifies that small text. ntext. The XML views can then be referenced in XPath queries. thereby enabling them to be run concurrently with update activity on tables. and reduces the amount of disk I/O needed to process these values. DBCC can be run without taking shared table locks while scanning tables. For more information.
. and executed by referencing the template name. which retrieve results from the database and return them as XML documents. views. The results of SELECT statements can be returned as XML documents. and columns that are associated with the elements and attributes of the schema. You can now access SQL Server 2005 over HTTP using a Universal Resource Locator (URL). and image data values. You can define a virtual root on a Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) server. The SQL Server 2005 Transact-SQL SELECT statement supports a FOR XML clause that specifies that the statement results be returned in the form of an XML document instead of a relational result set.
XML Integration of Relational Data
The Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 relational database engine natively supports Extensible Markup Language (XML). Complex queries. ADO. Additionally. You can use HTTP.
and Show Plan Text. up to the auditing levels required by the C2 level of security defined by the United States government. SQL Profiler Enhancements SQL Profiler now supports size-based and time-based traces. For more information. or delete data in the tables of the database. update. SQL Query Analyzer Enhancements
Graphical Administration Enhancements
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 introduces these graphical administration improvements and new features:
Log shipping allows the transaction logs from a source database to be continually backed up and loaded into a target database on another server. This allows you to use the data in XML documents to insert. and includes new events for Data File Auto Grow. Show Plan All. see Log Shipping. Log File Auto Grow. Log File Auto Shrink. such as in place of a table or view reference in a FROM clause. This is useful for maintaining a warm standby server. including modifying multiple rows in multiple tables in a single operation. Data File Auto Shrink. SQL Profiler has been enhanced to provide auditing of SQL Server activities. OPENXML can be used everywhere a rowset function can be used in a Transact-SQL statement. Show Plan Statistics. or for offloading query processing from the source server to a read-only destination server. For more information.•
You can expose the data from an XML document as a relational rowset using the new OPENXML rowset function.
It can also be used to copy complete databases between instances of SQL Server 2005. extended stored procedures. tables.. which allows you to navigate through and get information (such as parameters and dependencies) about database objects. and stored procedures. You can save (and compress) the snapshot
. views. views. For more information.
Copy Database Wizard Users can run the Copy Database Wizard to upgrade SQL Server version 7. which provide easier and more flexible methods for applying the initial snapshot to Subscribers. and merge replication by adding:
Alternate snapshot locations. Other enhancements include server tracing and client statistics that show information about the serverside and client-side impact of a given query. The Object Browser also supports generating scripts to either execute or create objects.0 databases to SQL Server 2005 databases. including user and system tables. SQL Query Analyzer also includes templates that can be used as the starting points for creating objects such as databases. and functions. SQL Query Analyzer includes a stored procedure debugger. stored procedures.SQL Query Analyzer now includes Object Browser.
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 introduces the following replication improvements and new features: Implementing Replication SQL Server 2005 enhances snapshot replication. transactional replication. For more information.
which allow you to transfer a database with replicated data and one or more subscriptions from one Subscriber to another SQL Server.and post-snapshot scripts. the subscription database at the new Subscriber will automatically receive its own pull subscriptions to the publications at the specified Publishers. More snapshot scripting options. which makes programmatic generation of snapshots easier. Schema changes on publication databases.files to a network location or removable media. Pre. On demand script execution. which allows you to reduce the amount of processing on the Distributor or Subscriber by running the Distribution Agent or Merge Agent on one computer while activating that agent from another computer. Enhancements to merge replication include:
. which allow you to add or drop columns on the publishing table and propagate those changes to Subscribers. which includes user-defined functions. and multiple instances of SQL Server. Support of new SQL Server features. The ActiveX Snapshot Control. and then merging the changes between sites when they are connected. which allow you to run scripts before or after a snapshot is applied at the Subscriber. allowing the Publisher and Subscribers to make updates while connected or disconnected. which support transfer of indexes. extended properties. which can then be transferred to Subscribers without using the network. After the database is attached to the new Subscriber.
Merge Replication Merge replication is the process of distributing data from Publisher to Subscribers. which allows you to post a general SQL script that will be executed at all Subscribers.
Attachable subscription databases. Remote agent activation. and constraints to Subscribers. new data types. You can use remote agent activation with push or pull subscriptions. indexed views.
In merge replication topologies where a publication contains an identity column. which provide more efficient application of the initial snapshot when using dynamic filters. priority based on a column value. Support for timestamp columns in published tables. first/last change wins. and merge by appending different text values.
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• • •
. Validation is also available through SQL Server Enterprise Manager. minimum/maximum value wins. and where new rows can be inserted at Subscribers. Vertical filters for merge publications. manual conflict resolution. Improved management of the growth of merge tracking data. a Subscriber to a merge publication can synchronize with any specified server that has the same data as the original Publisher. Dynamic snapshots. automated management of identity ranges at the Subscriber ensures the same identity values are not assigned to rows inserted at different subscription databases. The ability to use alternate synchronization partners when synchronizing data. Automated management of identity ranges. Optimizations for determining data changes relevant to a partition at a Subscriber. Using alternate synchronization partners.• • •
Greater parallelism of the Merge Agent for improved server-to-server performance. Several new merge replication conflict resolvers including interactive resolvers that provide a user interface for immediate. This feature is also available when queued updating is used with snapshot replication or transactional replication. New options to validate permissions for a Subscriber to upload changes to a Publisher (check_permissions) and security enhancements including code signing of conflict resolvers included with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. More powerful dynamic filtering with user-defined functions. New COM interfaces that support heterogeneous data sources as Publishers within a SQL Server replication topology. and that primary key constraint violations do not occur. Validation of replicated data per subscription or on a publication-wide basis. additive/average value.
or DELETE statements on published data. When you create a publication with the queued updating option enabled and a Subscriber performs INSERT. Publishing indexed views as tables. The option to store data modifications made at the Subscriber in a queue (queued updating). and then when data modifications are made at the Publisher. Validation is also available through SQL Server Enterprise Manager. Validation of replicated data at the Subscriber.
. Improved error handling and the ability to skip specified errors and continue replication. including validation on vertical partitions.•
Reinitialization to allow uploading of changes from the Subscriber before the application of a new snapshot. For more information. You can also set up transactional replication to work with log shipping.
Transactional Replication With transactional replication. an initial snapshot of data is applied at Subscribers. enabling you to fail over to a warm standby server without reconfiguring replication. The queued transactions are applied asynchronously at the Publisher when network connectivity is restored. the changes are stored in a queue. Enhancements to transactional replication include:
Concurrent snapshot processing so that data modifications can continue on publishing tables while the initial snapshot is generated. the individual transactions are captured and propagated to Subscribers. UPDATE. The ability to restore transactional replication databases without reinitializing subscriptions or disabling and reconfiguring publishing and distribution. The option to transform data as it is published to Subscribers (transforming published data).
Queued Updating Queued updating allows snapshot replication and transactional replication Subscribers to modify published data without requiring an active network connection to the Publisher.
string manipulations. and for transforming
. the same data may have been updated by the Publisher or by another Subscriber and conflicts can occur when applying the updates. column manipulations.
Replication Usability There have been several improvements in SQL Server Enterprise Manager that provide for easier implementation. New wizards for creating jobs that create dynamic snapshots for merge publications that use dynamic filters (Create Dynamic Snapshot Job Wizard). Using transformable subscriptions in your replication topology allows you to customize and send published data based on the requirements of individual Subscribers. You can choose to show advanced options in these wizards on the Welcome page of each wizard. which organizes all subscriptions and publications on the server being administered. and administration of replication. The ability to browse for and subscribe to publications (when permission is allowed) using Windows Active Directory. monitoring. and Create Pull Subscription Wizards. Enhancements to replication usability include:
A centralized Replication folder in the SQL Server Enterprise Manager tree. and filtering capabilities of Data Transformation Services (DTS). Create Push Subscription.
Transforming Published Data Transformable subscriptions (available with snapshot replication or transactional replication) leverages the data movement. Standard and advanced replication options separated in the Create Publication. including performing data type mappings. transformation mapping. Conflicts are detected automatically and several options for resolving conflicts are offered. The ability to see multiple Distributors in a single monitoring node in SQL Server Enterprise Manager. and use of functions as data is published.Because the updates are propagated asynchronously to the Publisher.
allowing you to maintain a complete execution history. Internet and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) sites. Build packages that send messages to each other. Join multiple package executions as part of a transaction.
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Enhanced Logging Facilities DTS package logs save information for each package execution. available through DTS Designer or the DTS object model. You can also view execution information for individual processes within a task. Build packages that execute other packages.
. Use these tasks to:
Import data from.published data in snapshot replication or transactional replication (Transform Published Data Wizard).
Data Transformation Services Enhancements
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 introduces these Data Transformation Services (DTS) enhancements and new features: New Custom Tasks New DTS custom tasks. Run packages asynchronously. allow you to create DTS packages that perform tasks or set variables based on the properties of the run-time environment. and send data and completed packages to.
Using Global Variables to Pass Information Between DTS Packages You now can use the Execute Package task to dynamically assign the values of global variables from a parent package to a child package. use one package to download data on a nightly basis. you can save source and destination error rows to a file through the DTS OLE DB text file provider and re-process the error rows. You can now use global variables as input and output parameters for queries . assign summary data values to global variables. DTS includes an option for saving the results of a parameterized query to a global variable. For example.
Using Parameterized Queries You can now use parameterized source queries in a DTS transformation task and an Execute SQL task.
. and pass the values to another package that further processes the data. summarize the data. Use global variables to pass information from one package to another when each package performs different work items. For more information.You can generate exception files for transformation tasks. This allows a package created by the DTS Import/Export Wizard or DTS Designer to be incorporated into Visual Basic programs or to be used as prototypes by Visual Basic developers who need to reference the components of the DTS object model. In addition. A new multiphase data pump allows advanced users to customize the operation of the data pump at various stages of its operation. When you log to exception files. allowing you to perform functions such as saving disconnected Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO) recordsets in DTS. Saving DTS Packages to Visual Basic Files DTS packages now can be saved to a Microsoft® Visual Basic® file.
an ampersand (&). SQL Server sysnames and reserved names should not be used as instance names.0 and install a named instance of SQL Server 2005. A computer can run any number of named instances of SQL Server concurrently. For example.
This instance is identified by the network name of the computer on which it is running.0.0 servers can operate as default instances. or other characters.Working with Named and Multiple Instances of SQL Server 2005
With Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005. Single and multiple instances of SQL Server 2005 (default or named) are available using the SQL Server 2005 Personal Edition. the SQL Server 2005 Standard Edition. you have the option of installing multiple copies. A named instance can run at the same time as an existing installation of SQL Server version 6. in the format <computername>\<instancename>. and can contain numbers.0 installation to a default instance of SQL Server 2005. Applications using client software from earlier versions of SQL Server can connect to a default instance. A new instance name must begin with a letter. the term "default" should not be used as an instance name because it is a reserved name used by Setup. or an underscore (_). The instance name cannot exceed 16 characters.5 or SQL Server version 7. Applications must use SQL Server 2005 client components to connect to a named instance. You must either upgrade the SQL Server 7. you can specify it as:
A default instance of SQL Server.5 or SQL Server version 7. However. When setting up a new installation of SQL Server 2005 or maintaining an existing installation.
This instance is identified by the network name of the computer plus an instance name.0.
A named instance of SQL Server. or the SQL Server 2005 Enterprise Edition. a computer can have only one version functioning as the default instance at a time. or keep the default instance of SQL Server 7.
You cannot install a default instance of SQL Server 2005 on a computer that is also running SQL Server 7. or instances of SQL Server on one computer. SQL Server version 6.
You can leave previous installations intact.
Multiple instances occur when you have more than one instance of SQL Server 2005 installed on one computer. Setup specifies the installation of a default instance.You can install a default instance of SQL Server 2005 on a computer running SQL Server 6. The maximum number of instances supported in SQL Server 2005 is 16. but the SQL Server 6. or instead of installing the default instance of SQL Server 2005. The number of instances that can run on a single computer depends on resources available. registry structure. or you can run SQL Server version 6.0 and a named instance of SQL Server 2005 at the same time. The directory structure. Each instance operates independently from any other instance on the same computer.5 installation and the default instance of SQL Server 2005 cannot be running at the same time.5 in a version switch configuration with SQL Server 2005. there are several ways to accomplish this. and applications can connect to any of the instances. and service names all reflect the specific instance name you specify. If you need to have three different versions of SQL Server installed on the same computer. you can choose to install SQL Server 2005 as a named instance instead by clearing the Default option in the Instance Name dialog box. When you install SQL Server 2005 on a computer with no existing installations of SQL Server. you can run SQL Server version 7. A named instance of SQL Server 2005 can be installed at any time: before installing the default instance of SQL Server 2005. and also install and run SQL Server 2005. after installing the default instance of SQL Server 2005.5.
Working with Instances and Versions of SQL Server
Multiple instances in Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 offer enhanced ways to work with earlier versions of Microsoft SQL Server already installed on your computer. You must switch between the two using the SQL Server 2005 vswitch command prompt utility. However.
. For example. Each named instance is made up of a distinct set of services and can have completely different settings for collations and other options.
Books Online for SQL Server 7.0. SQL Server Books Online for SQL Server 7. as well as one or more earlier versions. scripts. the 7. with pointers to the SQL Server 2005 tools replacing previous versions of the tools. If installed on the same computer as SQL Server 2005. they are replaced with the SQL Server 2005 Books Online.0 remains accessible from the start menu in the SQL Server 7. For more information
. and SQL Server 2005.0 are not redirected in this way -. and templates).0 with a named instance of SQL Server 2005.0 installed or not. Whether you have SQL Server 7.In addition. All other shared tools from the 7.they remain ready for use. Running SQL Server 7.0 program group.) For more information.
Using SQL Server Books Online for SQL Server 7. you can access information in the SQL Server 7.0 Books Online files are also upgraded. users of all editions of SQL Server can have more than one instance of SQL Server 2005 installed and running at once (multiple instances).5 or SQL Server version 7. either SQL Server version 6.0.
Note The concept of the default instance is new to SQL Server 2005.
Note This is an exception to what occurs for the other shared tools (such as code samples.0 on your computer and install a named instance of SQL Server 2005. due to the introduction of multiple instances. In this side-by-side configuration.5.0
When you keep Microsoft SQL Server version 7.5 with the default instance or named instances of SQL Server 2005.0 is upgraded to the default version of SQL Server 2005. (A default instance is identified by the network name of the computer on which it is running. When SQL Server 7. when a named instance of SQL Server 2005 is installed along with SQL Server 7.0 documentation.0 can function as default instances of SQL Server. .0 installation are copied to storage locations.0 remains in its original location: C:\Mssql7\Books. Considerations for using SQL Server 2005 in combination with previous installations include:
• • •
Using SQL Server 6. Files for Books Online for SQL Server 7. SQL Server 7. Working with three versions of SQL Server: SQL Server 6. That is.
Examples are mobile disconnected users. disconnect from the network. manufacturing resources planning. Some examples are:
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) systems must be capable of handling thousands of orders placed at the same time. Managers and marketing personnel need increasingly sophisticated analysis of trends recorded in corporate data. Organizations have many users who must continue working when they do not have access to the network. These sites require data storage that is secure. Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) must be able to distribute data storage capabilities with applications targeted at individuals or small workgroups. yet tightly integrated with the Web. These users must synchronize the data on a notebook or laptop with the current data in the corporate system. get information about products. The data storage needs of a modern corporation or government organization are very complex.Fundamentals of SQL Server 2005 Architecture
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 is a family of products that meet the data storage requirements of the largest data processing systems and commercial Web sites. and then tune
. This means the data storage mechanism must be transparent to the users who purchase the application. record the results of their work while in the field. and then finally reconnect with the corporate network and merge the results of their fieldwork into the corporate data store. These systems require databases capable of storing large amounts of data and supporting large numbers of users. Organizations are implementing off-the-shelf software packages for critical services such as human resources planning. contact the service department. and inventory control. Increasing numbers of corporations are implementing large Web sites as a mechanism for their customers to enter orders. yet at the same time can provide easy-to-use data storage services to an individual or small business. This requires a data storage system that can be configured by the application. and for many other tasks that previously required contact with employees. such as traveling sales representatives or regional inspectors. They need robust Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems easily built from OLTP data and support sophisticated data analysis.
Traditional client/server applications that execute a SELECT statement process the results by fetching one row or block of rows from the tabular result set at a time and mapping the column values into program variables. specialized markup language than SGML. Both XML and the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) are derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). These new features include:
The ability to access SQL Server through a URL. all operations on the tables in the database produce a result in the form of a table. complex language that is difficult to fully use for publishing data on the Web.itself automatically so that the users do not need to dedicate database administrators to constantly monitor and tune the application
SQL Server and XML Support
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a hypertext programming language used to describe the contents of a set of data and how the data should be output to a device or displayed in a Web page. Web application programmers. SGML is a very large. Support for XML-Data schemas and the ability to specify XPath queries against these schemas. SQL Server 2005 introduces support for XML. magazine. Markup languages for electronic data perform the same function for electronic documents that can be displayed on different types of electronic gear. HTML is a more simple. so is becoming an increasingly important language in the exchange of electronic data through the Web or intracompany networks. are more familiar with working with hierarchical representations of data in XML or HTML documents. but has a number of limitations when working with data on the Web.
. Markup languages originated as ways for publishers to indicate to printers how the content of a newspaper. on the other hand.
Write XML data using the OpenXML rowset provider. The result set of a SELECT statement is in the form of a table. or book should be organized. XML is smaller than SGML and more robust than HTML. The ability to retrieve and write XML data: • Retrieve XML data using the SELECT statement and the FOR XML clause. In a relational database such as Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005.
and msdb) and one or more user databases. or an API function that changes your current database context. and sometimes a database used by a single application. only the database administrator needs to work with the physical implementation. It is not necessary to run multiple copies of the SQL Server database engine to allow multiple users to access the databases on a server. then reattach them to another instance. or even attach the database back to the same instance. subject to the defined security permissions. You are usually connected to a database defined as your default database by the system administrator. one for payroll. Each instance of SQL Server makes all databases in the instance available to all users that connect to the instance. Typically. This database is called the current database. When connecting to an instance of SQL Server. SQL Server 2005 allows you to detach databases from an instance of SQL Server. model. The physical implementation of files is largely transparent. A database is also physically implemented as two or more files on disk. If you have a
. other applications may access several databases. your connection is associated with a particular database on the server.
Each instance of SQL Server has four system databases (master. you work primarily with the logical components such as tables. Some organizations have only one user database. and users. Some organizations have different databases for each group in their organization. an organization could have one database for sales. The data in a database is organized into the logical components visible to users. procedures. You can switch from one database to another using either the Transact-SQL USE database_name statement. containing all the data for their organization. and so on.•
Enhancements to the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 OLE DB provider (SQLOLEDB) that allow XML documents to be set as command text and to return result sets as a stream
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 data is stored in databases. When using a database. For example. one for a document management application. views. Sometimes an application uses only one database. tempdb. An instance of the SQL Server Standard or Enterprise Edition is capable of handling thousands of users working in multiple databases at the same time. although you can use connection options in the database APIs to specify another database.
you can choose one of the English Query project wizards. you can turn your relational databases into English Query applications. you can refine.SQL Server database file. you can tell SQL Server when you connect to attach that database file with a specific database name.0 development environment. and then deploy it (for example. The English Query Model Editor appears within the Microsoft® Visual Studio® version 6. which allow end users to pose questions in English instead of forming a query with an SQL statement. test. After the basic model is created. to the Web). and compile it into an English Query application (*. to automatically create an English Query project and model.eqd). From there.
English Query Fundamentals
Using English Query. the SQL Project Wizard or the OLAP Project Wizard.
field names. as well as manually add and modify entities and relationships while testing questions and set other options to expand the model.Creating an English Query Project and Model
Using the SQL Project Wizard or the OLAP Project Wizard. or schema. including the database structure. You also define properties for an application and add entries to the English Query dictionary. keys.
A model contains all the information needed for an English Query application.
. you incorporate the database structure (table names. and joins) or cube information of the database into a project and a model. of the underlying SQL database or cube and the semantic objects (entities and relationships).
semantic objects are automatically created for the model. These include entities and relationships (with phrasings such as customers buy products or Customer_Names are the names of customers). Entities are usually represented by tables.Creating Entities and Relationships
With the wizards. fields.
. and OLAP objects.
products. fields. shipments."
. or idea).An entity is a real-world object. entities are usually represented by tables. for example: customers. For example. a command to a compact disc player can allow requests such as "Play the album with song X on it. thing. place. for example: customers purchase products.
Relationships describe what the entities have to do with one another. and Analysis Services objects. In databases. cities. and so forth. Command relationships are not represented in the database but refer to actions to be executed. referred to by a noun (person.
In the Web scenario.Deploying an English Query Application
You can deploy an English Query application in several ways. including within a Microsoft Visual Basic® or Microsoft Visual C++® application and on a Web page running on Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS). the interface of the application is with a set of Active Server Pages (ASP).
.Meta Data Services Overview
Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005 Meta Data Services is an object-oriented repository technology that can be integrated with enterprise information systems or with applications that process meta data.
available at Microsoft Web site.0 operating system. Both logs include informational messages (such as startup data). or as a storage and management service for sharing reusable models. In Microsoft Visual Studio®.A number of Microsoft technologies use Meta Data Services as a native store for object definitions or as a platform for deploying meta data. as a native store for custom applications that process meta data.0 and Windows 2005 operating systems. One of the ways in which SQL Server 2005 uses Meta Data Services is to store versioned Data Transformation Services (DTS) packages. review current error logs for information that may pinpoint the problem. events are logged to the SQL Server error log and to standard output (typically the monitor. You can also extend Meta Data Services to provide support for new tools for resale or customize it to satisfy internal tool requirements
As a starting point to troubleshooting a problem in Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2005. and both record the date and time of all events automatically. For more information. In addition. or to both logs.0 application log. as well as events in SQL Server and SQL Server Agent. When SQL Server is started from the command prompt. which provides an overall picture of events that occur on the Windows NT 4.
. events are logged to the SQL Server error log. Other current information about troubleshooting SQL Server 2005 can be found on the FAQs & Highlights for SQL Server page. You can use Meta Data Services for your own purposes: as a component of an integrated information system. to the Windows 2005 or Windows NT application log. unless output has been redirected elsewhere). see Online Troubleshooters from PSS.
When SQL Server is started as a service under the Windows 2005 or Windows NT 4. you may find the solution in one of the online troubleshooters from SQL Server Product Support Services (PSS). SQL Server events are logged according to the way you start SQL Server. Meta Data Services supports the exchange of model data with other development tools.
The error log in SQL Server 2005 provides complete information about events in SQL Server. You may also want to view the Microsoft Windows® 2005 or Windows NT® 4.
a subscription to Microsoft TechNet or MSDN® can be helpful. After the Concept Proposal is approved.. see SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server version 7. as well as pertinent Microsoft Knowledge Base articles and white papers. see:
The Microsoft TechNet page at Microsoft Web site.
Backward Compatibility Issues
If you encounter a problem regarding compatibility between SQL Server 2005 and earlier versions of SQL Server.
Viewing Web-Based Information
Numerous links to Microsoft Product Support Services (PSS) Web pages are provided in the Troubleshooting topics.5. and navigate to the correct location
System Development Methodology
1.5 and SQL Server 2005. For more information. This business need is documented in a Concept Proposal. if a link does not work. For information about a detailed list of feature changes between SQL Server 6. are also available. A Project Manager should be appointed to manage the project. . The MSDN page at Microsoft Web site.
For access to the Microsoft Knowledge Base and other current information. Every effort has been made to ensure the Web links are correct and will remain stable over time. the System Concept Development Phase begins. go to the MSDN Online Support Web page at Microsoft Web site.
. Links to the new online troubleshooters. However.0 and SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server version 6. Initiation Phase
The initiation of a system (or project) begins when a business need or opportunity is identified.
activities. security certification and accreditation activities begin with the identification of system security requirements and the completion of a high level vulnerability assessment. the approaches for accomplishing the concept are reviewed for feasibility and appropriateness.
. Everything requiring user input or approval must be documented and reviewed by the user. All requirements need to be measurable and testable and relate to the business need or opportunity identified in the Initiation Phase.
4. The physical characteristics of the system are specified and a detailed design is prepared.
Phase Functional user requirements are formally defined and delineate the requirements in terms
5. Each subsystem is partitioned into one or more design units or modules. and maintainability requirements for the system. To ensure the products and /or services provide the required capability on-time and within budget. Subsystems identified during design are used to create a detailed structure of the system. and reviews are defined. major subsystems and their inputs and outputs are defined. and processes are allocated to resources. tools. and to assess how the system will impact employee and customer privacy. schedules.
The concept is further developed to describe how the business will operate once the approved system is implemented.
The physical characteristics of the system are designed during this phase. Detailed logic specifications are prepared for each software module.
System Concept Development Phase
Once a business need is approved. The operating environment is established. project resources.2. system performance. All requirements are defined to a level of detail sufficient for systems design to proceed.
of data. Additionally. The Systems Boundary Document identifies the scope of the system and requires Senior Official approval and funding before beginning the Planning Phase.
Integration and Test Phase
The various components of the system are integrated and systematically tested. The phase is initiated after the system has been tested and accepted by the . and needed system modifications are incorporated. The system is monitored for continued performance in accordance with user requirements.
. Software shall be unit tested.
9. the system may reenter the planning phase. This phase continues until the system is operating in production in accordance with the defined user requirements.
Operations and Maintenance Phase
The system operation is ongoing. integrated. Prior to installing and operating the system in a production environment.
7. The user tests the system to ensure that the functional requirements. The operational system is periodically assessed through In-Process Reviews to determine how the system can be made more efficient and effective.
The detailed specifications produced during the design phase are translated into hardware.
The system or system modifications are installed and made operational in a production environment.
8.6. communications. and executable software. the system must undergo certification and accreditation activities. are satisfied by the developed or modified system. When modifications or changes are identified as necessary. Hardware is assembled and tested. as defined in the functional requirements document. and retested in a systematic manner. Operations continue as long as the system can be effectively adapted to respond to an organization’s needs.
The specific objectives expected include the following:
• • • • • •
To reduce the risk of project failure To consider system and data requirements throughout the entire life of the system To identify technical and management issues early To disclose all life cycle costs to guide business decisions To foster realistic expectations of what the systems will and will not provide To provide information to better balance programmatic. Particular emphasis is given to proper preservation of the data processed by the system. and cost aspects of proposed system development or modification To encourage periodic evaluations to identify systems that are no longer effective To measure progress and status for effective corrective action To support effective resource management and budget planning To consider meeting current and future business requirements
• • • •
This guidance document refines traditional information system life cycle management approaches to reflect the principles outlined in the following subsections. so that the data is effectively migrated to another system or archived in accordance with applicable records management regulations and policies.
This guide was developed to disseminate proven practices to system developers. program/account analysts and system owners/users throughout the DOJ. management. for potential future access. These are the foundations for life cycle management. technical.
The disposition activities ensure the orderly termination of the system and preserve the vital information about the system so that some or all of the information may be reactivated in the future if necessary.10.
. project managers.
project managers. open communication. management. Maintenance. team oriented environment can aid in building a successful project and providing decision makers with the necessary information to make the right decisions at the right time. visibility level.
2. program/account analysts. Primary emphasis is placed on the information and systems decisions to be made and the proper timing of decisions. Working together in a proactive. and commitment to information systems. and to select the tools and methodologies best suited to the unique needs of each project. from senior management.
1. The IPT is composed of qualified empowered individuals from all appropriate functional disciplines that have a stake in the success of the project. The program sponsor serves in a leadership role. execution. Senior management approval authority may be varied based on dollar value. and Operation
This SDLC describes an overall structured approach to information management. Each System Project must have a Program Sponsor
To help ensure effective planning. The manual provides a flexible framework for approaching a variety of systems projects. providing guidance to the project team and securing. each project must have a clearly identified program sponsor. as appropriate. An IPT is a multidisciplinary group of people who support the Project Manager in the planning. Support the use of an Integrated Product Team
The establishment of an Integrated Product Team (IPT) can aid in the success of a project. and system owners/users to combine activities. An approval from senior management is required after the completion of the first seven of the SDLC phases. The framework enables system developers. congressional interests or a combination of these. annually during Operations and Maintenance Phase and six-months after the Disposition Phase. processes.Life Cycle Management Should be used to Ensure a Structured Approach to Information Systems Development. delivery and implementation of life cycle decisions for the project. the required reviews and approvals at specific points in the life cycle. and products. The program sponsor is responsible for identifying who will be responsible for formally accepting the delivered system at the end of the Implementation Phase.
logistics. The project management plan must describe how each life cycle phase will be accomplished to suit the specific characteristics of the project. contracts management. program sponsor. schedule. (user/customer). test and evaluation. A Comprehensive Project Management Plan is Required for Each System Project
The project management plan is a pivotal element in the successful solution of an information management requirement. and developer for purposes of management and oversight. Specific Individuals must be assigned to Perform Key Roles throughout the Life Cycle
Certain roles are considered vital to a successful system project and at least one individual must be designated as responsible for each key role. security. such as working groups or user groups. data administration. and
4. the Project Manager is accountable and responsible for ensuring that project activities and decisions consider the needs of all organizations that will be affected by the system. to accomplish the objectives of the project. allocated resources. A Single Project Manager must be Selected for Each System Project
The Project Manager has responsibility for the success of the project and works through a project team and other supporting organization structures. financial. The project management plan is a vehicle for documenting the project scope.
5. The plan is used to provide direction to the many activities of the life cycle and must be refined and expanded throughout the life cycle. quality assurance. The Project Manager develops a project charter to define and clearly identify the lines of authority between and within the agency’s executive management. Key roles include program/functional management. systems engineering. Assignments may be made on a full. and interrelationships with other projects. database administration.or parttime basis as appropriate. Regardless of organizational affiliation.3. telecommunications management.
program staff) and should be designated by the Program Manager of the program and organization
A feasibility study is conducted to select the best system that meets performance requirement. Technical Feasibility : 3.configuration management. It also determines whether it is worth while to invest the
. Economic Feasibility : 2. more than one individual should represent the actual or potential users of the system (that is. The system required performance is defined by a statement of constraints. an evaluation of candidate system and the selection of best system for he job. the identification of specific system objective and a description of outputs. For most projects. Operational Feasibility:
Economical feasibility It looks at the financial aspects of the project. It determines whether the management has enough resources and budget to invest in the proposed system and the estimated time for the recovery of cost incurred. The key consideration in feasibility analysis are :
1. This entails an identification description.
technical and operational behavior. if the current computer is operating at 80% capacity . This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle. More determine the benefits and the saving that are expressed from a candidate system and compare them costs. This is simply report-a formal document detailing the nature and the scope of the proposed solution. Economic feasibility is determines by the means of cost benefit analysis. It was observed that the organization has already using computers for other purpose.1 Economic Feasibility: Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a candidate system. For example. If benefits outweigh costs.2 Technical Feasibility: Technical feasibility center around the existing computer system hardware etc. because working in this system need not required a highly qualified professional. 2.3. The backend required for storing other details is also the same database that is Sql. Otherwise. The computers in the organization are highly sophisticated and don’t needs extra components to load the software. Hence the organization can implement the new system without any additional expenditure. The less time involved also helped in its economical feasibility. Hence. The personal cost like salaries of employees hired are also nominal. The operating-environment costs are marginal. further justification or alterations in the proposed system will have to be made if it is to have a chance of being approved.an arbitrary ceiling – then running another application could over load the system or require additional hardware. Three key considerations are involved in the feasibility analysis: economic. it is economically feasible The result of the feasibility study is a formal proposal. This involves financial
.3.money in the proposed project. The proposals summarize what is known and what is going to be done. 2.The proposed system is economically feasible because the cost involved in purchasing the hardware and the software are within approachable. and to what extent it can support the proposed addition. so that there is no additional cost to be incurred for adding this system to its computers.
and train the staff on new ways of conducting business.consideration to accommodate technical enhancements. it was time consuming and error prone. all kind of data – be it business of a company. With the advent of computer. These hardware were already available on the existing computer system.3. Today computer system have become so user friendly that even first time users can create their own application with the help of tools such as MS-Access. indexes.3 Operational Feasibility: It is common knowledge that computer installations have some thing to do with turnover.4 C h o i c e o f P l a t f o r m ? In any organization a lot of data is generated as result of day-to-day operations. If the budget is a serious constraint then the project is judged not feasible. iis.
. These tools are very visual and hence user friendly. objects such as table views. The software like Sql Server 2003.4GHz. transfers. So no 2003 as back-end tool. it is understandable that the introduction of a candidate system requites special efforts to educate.3. the task of maintaining large amount of data has undergoes a sea change.. 40 GB hard disk. retraining and changes in employee job status. They provide a point and click environment for building applications that can interact with large amount of data
It is a measure of the practically of a specific technical solution and the availability of technical resources and expertise • • • The proposed system uses Java as front-end and Sql server Oracle is a popular tool used to design and develop database The above tools are readily available. widely used for developing commercial application. Fox-Pro and SQL Server. In the past. Therefore. Since the task was performed manually. easy to work with and Hardware used in this project are. 2.net framework and operating system WINDOWS-XP’ used were already installed On the existing computer system. sell. 128 MB RAM. floppy drive.p4 processor 2. 2.
In this type of feasibility check. Faster and systematic processing of user application approval. Important information such as pay-slip can be generated at the click of a button.
Data Flow Diagram Overview
. • It will help in the time saving and fast processing and dispersal of user request and applications. The technical feasibility is in employing computers to the organization. used had greater chances of error due to wrong information entered by mistake. etc. Hence the organization has not technical difficulty in adding this system.additional hardware and software were required to purchase and it is technically feasible.e. • • • User involvement in the building of present system is sought to keep in mind the user specific requirement and needs. New product will provide all the benefits of present system with better performance. Operational Feasibility The system will be used if it is developed well then be resistance for users that undetermined No major training and new skills are required as it is based on DBMS model. User support. The organization is equipped with enough computers so that it is easier for updating. the people who will use it. allocation of IDs. Improved information. better management and collection of the reports. payments. Behavioral Feasibility People are inherent to change. we come to know if the newly developed system will be taken and accepted by the working force i. User will have control over there own information.
2. The graphical representation of the system makes it a user and analyst. The main merit of DFD is that it can provide an over view of what data a system would process. this transformation includes additional modification deletion or accumulation of data. what transformation of data are done. Open ended rectangle/parallel lines.
This symbolically represents place where data is stored the data can be stored for future procession (or) it can be processed for future return any place where data is stored is called data stored. Between process File to process
. there can be expanded to a hierarchy of diagrams giving to more and more details • Square: -Source or destination of data (External or Internal)
As the name suggested does not fall within system boundary.
hence they are defined as source or destination of data. DFDs are structured in such a way that starting from a simple diagram which provides a broad overview at a glance. what files are used and where the result flows. • Rounded rectangle/Circle: Process
This can be defined at place where transformation of data takes place. data store.DFD is an important tool used by system analysts.
Data flow can take place : 1.
External entity to process Process to external entity 5. Process to file
Information Flow of Data for Testing
Error Rate Data Reliabilit y Model
Information Flow of Data Testing
Such tools are easy to use and make the scheduling methods described previously available to every software project manager
. Both PERT and CPM have been implemented in a wide verity of automated tools that are available for the personal computer. Both technique are driven by information already gathered in earlier project planning activities: Estimation of effort A decomposition of the product function The solution of the appropriate model and task set Decomposition of tasks
Both PERT and CPM provide quantitative tools that allow the software planning to determine critical path – the claim of task that determined the duration of the project establish “most likely” times estimates for individual tasks by applying statically models: and Calculation “boundary times” that define a time “window” for a particular task.PERT CHART
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM) are the project scheduling techniques that can be applied to software development.
If automated tools are used. separated it depicts a part of a software project schedule that emphasizes the concept scooping task for a new word processing software project. their planned and actual start and end dates. is generated. the planner begins with a set of tasks (the work break down structure). duration.
Once the information necessary for the generation of the Gantt Chart has been input. also called a Gantt Chart. The horizontal bars occur at the same time on the calendar. The diamonds indicate milestones. the work break down is input as a task network or task outline. Efforts. task may be assigned to specific individuals. and a verity of related information. As a sequence of this input. A Gantt Chart can be developed for the entire project. a timeline chart. the major of software project scheduling tools produce project tables a tabular listing of all project tasks. In addition. Alternatively. and start date are then input for each task.GANTT CHART
When creating a software project schedule. All project task (for concept scooping) are listed in the left hand column. Used in conjunction with the Gantt Chart project tables enable the project manager to track progress
. task concurrency is implied.
Work Flow of Music Online
as it will be reflected in the software every where. Rectification of such errors is called corrective maintenance.At this time user can view documentation or consult us for rectification & we will analyze and change the code if needed. Advances in technology (Adaptive maintenance): . Some reasons for maintenance are: (a) Error Correction: .
. after the system has. (b) (c) New or changed requirements: . Some of the maintenance applied is: -
BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE: -
The maintenance is applied when an error occurs & system halts and further processing cannot be done .MAINTENANCE
Maintenance of the project is very easy due to its modular design and concept any modification can be done very easily. Improved performance or maintenance requirements: -Changes that is made to improve system performance or to make it easier to maintain in the future are called preventive maintenance. All the data are stored in the software as per user need & if user wants to change he has to change that particular data.”
PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE: User does this maintenance at regular intervals for smooth functioning
(operation) of software as per procedure and steps mentioned in the manual. been implemented.Adaptive maintenance includes all the changes made to a system in order to introduce a new technology.When Organization requirements changes due to changing opportunities.Errors. which were not caught during testing. Example: .If user gets a error “report width is larger than paper size” while printing report & reports can not be generated then by viewing the help documentation & changing the paper size to ‘A4’ size of default printer will rectify the problem.
The security measures imposed in the software are: • • • A login password is provided in the software. User activate the application. User cannot change the password. To change password he must contact the administrator. The user/password are given through SQL Server2005. If this is installed on NT 4.0 then it is highly secured. If it is installed on Windows 98, then run in degraded mode. • • data. • • • When user tries to delete the data then this first check for its reference used by other data, if found the deletion aborted. I am also providing various securities at user level or at forms. Data security, correctness integrity is checked up before saving, update or delete if errors found the procedure is aborted. A primary key & foreign key concept is implemented for avoiding incorrect data entry or intentional or accidental delete or modification of must login to
I am giving security at LAN with the help of status Of user .
On the basis of the work done in dissertation entitled “Music Online”, the following conclusions emerge from the development. 1. This project has achieved the objective of replacing/augmenting the conventional system of arranging manpower as could be conducted by a typical telecom dept. 2. The development of this package has been achieved by using C#.NET, which is very conductive to develop the package with regard to time and specific need to the user. 3. This package is highly user friendly, required an optimal minimal input from user while providing highly relevant and focused outputs. 4. Fully automated, avoiding human intervention. Hence it provides a very rapid cost effective alternative to the conventional manual operation/procedures; the visual outputs are more reliable than the audio forms of manual communication. 5. The system can further extended as per user and administrative requirements to encompass other aspects of connection management for telecom dept.
LIMITATIONS: This project does not Edit the date of connection or store the date of transfer in case of connection transfer. System date for the project is like as backbone for the human, i.e. proposed system is depends on system date so it must be correct. Cannot be connected to the Internet. There are some inherent problems like time, finance etc. to elaborate further study.
Glossary of My Project
Access Microsoft Access is an entry-level database management software from Microsoft, which allows you to organize, access, and share information easily. Access is very user-friendly and easy to use for inexperienced users, while sophisticated enough for database and software developers. ACID ACID short for Atomicity – Consistency – Isolation – Durability and describes the four properties of an enterprise-level transaction:
• • •
ATOMICITY: a transaction should be done or undone completely. In the event of an error or failure, all data manipulations should be undone, and all data should rollback to its previous state. CONSISTENCY: a transaction should transform a system from one consistent state to another consistent state. ISOLATION: each transaction should happen independently of other transactions occurring at the same time. DURABILITY: Completed transactions should remain stable/permanent, even during system failure.
ADO Short for Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects. ADO enables your client applications to access and manage data from a range of sources through an OLE DB provider. ADO is built on top of OLE DB and its main benefits are ease of use, high speed, and low memory overhead. ADO makes the task of building complex database enabled client/server and web applications a breeze.
Column Database tables are made of different columns (fields) corresponding to the attributes of the object described by the table. COMMIT
The data within a database can be easily accessed and manipulated trough computer program. Indexes are created for frequently searched attributes (table columns) in order to optimize the database performance.The COMMIT command in SQL marks the finalization of a database transaction. DB2 runs on a variety of platforms including Sun Solaris. Foreign Key A foreign key is a key field (column) that identifies records in a table. allowing searching and locating data quickly within a table.
. Cursor Short for Current Set Of Records in some database languages. Field See Column definition First Normal Form See Normalization definition Flat File Flat file is a data file that has no structured relationships between its records. by matching a primary key in a different table. The cursor is a database object pointing to a currently selected set of records. Linux and Windows. Index An index is a database feature (a list of keys or keywords). The term data is frequently used to describe binary (machine-readable) information. Database A database is a collection of information organized into related tables of data and definitions of data objects. DB2 DB2 is a relational database management system developed by IBM.
Data Piece of information collected and formatted in a specific way. The foreign keys are used to cross-reference tables. INSERT The INSERT is a SQL command used to add a new record to a table within a database.
Normalization involves separating a database into tables and defining relationships between the tables. MySQL is widely used as a backend database for Web applications and it' viable and cheaper alternative to enterprise database systems like MS SQL Server and Oracle. There are three main stages of normalization called normal forms. Linux and Windows (there are OLE DB and ODBC providers as well as . MySQL can be used on various platforms including UNIX.
MySQL MySQL is an open source relational database management system. Each one of those stages increases the level of normalization.
Key See Primary Key and Foreign Key definitions
Lock Locks are used by Database management systems to facilitate concurrency control. Locking mechanisms can be enforced at the record or table levels.
Normalization Normalization is the process of organizing data to minimize redundancy and remove ambiguity.NET native provider for MySQL).Isolation See ACID definition
JOIN The JOIN is a SQL command used to retrieve data from 2 or more database tables with existing relationship based upon a common attribute. Locks enable different users to access different records/tables within the same database without interfering with one another.
regardless of which DBMS is managing the data. both the application and the DBMS must be ODBC compliant meaning. which uses a subset of SQL language. a standard database access technology developed by Microsoft Corporation.
Query Queries are the main way to make a request for information from a database. the application must be capable of sending ODBC commands and the DBMS must be capable of responding back to them. As we said earlier. It can either be a normal field (column) that is guaranteed to be unique or it can be generated by the database system itself (GUID or Identity field in MS SQL Server for example). which identifies each record in the table. Queries consist of questions presented to the database in a predefined format. called a database driver. between an application and the DBMS. in most cases SQL (Structured Query Language) format. The purpose of ODBC is to allow accessing any DBMS (DataBase Management System) from any application (as long as the application and the database are ODBC compliant). Primary Key The primary key of a relational table holds a unique value.
PostgreSQL PostgreSQL is an object-oriented open source relational database management system.
ODBC Short for Open DataBase Connectivity. Primary keys may be composed of more than 1 field (column) in a table. The purpose of this layer is to transform the application's data queries into commands that the DBMS understands. ODBC achieves this by using a middle layer.NULL The NULL SQL keyword is used to represent a missing value.
Table A Table in RDBMS refers to data arranged in rows and columns. SQL SQL is short for Structured Query Language and is an industry standard language used for manipulation of data in a RDBMS. T-SQL.R
Record The record is a complete set of information presented within a RDBMS. like improved performance and separation of the application logic layer from database layer in n-tier applications. There are several different dialects of SQL like. etc. Records are composed of different fields (columns) in a table and each record is represented with a separate row in this table. Third Normal Form See Normalization definition
. which defines a database entity. ANSI SQL. which is the primary means for retrieving data from a RDBMS. Row See Record definition
Second Normal Form See Normalization definition SELECT The SELECT is a SQL command. Using stored procedures has several advantages over using inline SQL statements. ROLLBACK The ROLLBACK is a SQL command which cancels/undoes the proposed changes in a pending database transaction and marks the end of the transaction. Stored Procedure Stored Procedure is a set of SQL statements stored within a database server and is executed as single entity.
Web-based application services. The exchange of information between business and consumer (i. protected. Acrylic— Codename for an innovative illustration. Acceleration Server 2005—See Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2005. such as JScipt. B2C—Business-to-Consumer. internal.NET Common IL binaries. and interactive media. or PerlScript. SQL Server 2005. The five access modifiers in the C# language are public. ASP applications are typically written using a scripting language. Among its features. B B2B—Business-to-Business. video. Active Server Pages (ASP)—A Microsoft technology for creating server-side.
UPDATE The UPDATE is a SQL command used to edit/update existing records in a database table
. Exchange Server 2005. Access modifiers—Language keywords used to specify the visibility of the methods and member variables declared within a class. The exchange of information between business entities. private.e. Host Integration Server 2005. ASP first appeared as part of Internet Information Server 2. Included in this suite are Windows 2005 Server. and protected internal.. painting and graphics tool that provides creative capabilities for designers working in print. Abstract IL (ILX)—A toolkit for accessing the contents of .0 and was code-named Denali.Transaction Transaction is a group of SQL database commands regarded and executed as a single atomic entity.Net Framework Glossary
A A1—The bundle of Microsoft antivirus and antispyware development lines. web. customer) entities. Internet Security and Acceleration Server 2005. BackOffice Server 2005—A suite of Microsoft servers applications used for B2B and B2C services. it lets you transform the binaries into structured abstract syntax trees that can be manipulated.
BizTalk Server is a key B2B component of the . Boxing is implicitly performed by the CLR at runtime. Casting—Conversion of a value from one type to another. C# was created by Anders Hejlsberg (author of Turbo Pascal and architect of Delphi).NET Enterprise Server product family. invariant checking. automation. the output or return value) of the call are available. Typically. Behave!—A project for building tools to checking things such as deadlock freedom. methods are called in a synchronous fashion.e.0.. C# (C-Sharp)—An object-oriented and type-safe programming language supported by Microsoft for use with the .e. It is similar in syntax to both C++ and Java and is considered by Microsoft as the natural evolution of the C and C++ languages. See Derived Class. Classes may be used to create other classes. Callback Method—A method used to return the results of an asynchronous processing call. See Unboxing. boxed) to a new object in heap memory before they can be manipulated as objects. Inheritance.Object).NET Framework. converting an integer to a string). Scot Wiltamuth. message-passing programs.
.g. This is a combination of research projects that were formally known as polymorphic C# and Xen (and X#). Built-in Types—See Pre-defined types. and Peter Golde. and then sometime later a callback method is called to return the actual results..NET Framework.g. C# (pronounced "see-sharp") was created specifically for building enterprise-scale applications using the . The callback method itself contains program statements that are executed in response to the reception of the results. Also referred to as a callback function under the Win32 API. These server applications are now referred to as the . functions. BizTalk Server 2005—A set of Microsoft Server applications that allow the integration.
C Cω (C-Omega)—An experimental programming language — actually an extension to C# — that focuses on distributed asynchronous concurrency and XML manipulation. A class that is used to create (or derive) another class is called the base class or super class.and Systems Management Server 2. C# is defined by the standard ECMA334. System. Implicit casting is performed silently by the compiler when the casting would not cause any information to be lost (e. Base class—The parent class of a derived class. and message-understood properties in behavior properties of asynchronous. Boxing—Conversion of a value type to a reference type object (i. The methods.. and events of the new object are invoked to perform operations on the value (e. and management of different applications and data within and between business organizations. See Event. An asynchronous method call returns prior to the results. Value types are stored in stack memory and must be converted (i.NET Enterprise Server product family.e. where the call does not return until the results (i..
g.ch. Deployment—The process of installing an application. such as System Management Server. Enterprise Instrumentation Framework (EIF)—A feature that expands the program execution tracing capabilities found in the initial release of the . However. D Data provider—A set of classes in the . and diagnostic information can be monitored and reported for immediate.NET. A . Traditional COM components can only perform interprocess communication across process boundaries on the same machine. can also be used. This is necessary when the use of a value would cause a possible loss of data (e. A class that needs to raise events must define one delegate per event. while function pointers can only reference static methods. errors. Delegate—A mechanism used to implement event handling in . More complex deployment applications. service. E ECMA (European Computer Manufactures Association)—The ECMA (known since 1994 as ECMA International) is an industry association founded in 1961 and dedicated to the standardization of information and communication systems.NET Framework that allow access to the information a data source. EIF allows the use of configurable event filtering and tracing by integrating . The C# and CLI specification were ratified by the ECMA on December 31.NET Framework code.NET applications with the event log and tracing services built into the Windows operating system. 2001 as international standards. Support for EIF will be included in the next release of Visual Studio.NET Framework.ecma. DCOM was first made available in 1995 with the initial release of Windows NT 4. Types that use the class must implement one event handler method per event that must be processed. or any any type of database server or network resource. The data may be located in a file.converting a 16-bit integer to a 32-bit integer value). Delegates are often described as a managed version of a C++ function pointer.. in the Windows registry. DCOM uses the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) mechanism to transparently send and receive information between COM components (i.NET data provider also allows information in a data source to be accessed as an ADO. See Installer Tool.NET. or collected and stored for later use by technical support personnel. clients and servers) on the same network.
. Warnings. and assigned to them the ECMA standards designations of ECMA-334 (C#) and ECMA-335 (CLI).. Programmers may also author their own data providers for use with the . or content on to one or more computer systems. In . Explicit casting is coded by the programmer using the particular language's cast operator.NET Framework. These standards are available at www. deployment is performed using XCOPY or the Windows Installer.e. See Managed providers. and Technical Report TR-84. delegates can reference both instance and static (also called shared) methods. business events.NET DataSet. converting a 32-bit integer to a 16-bit integer value). DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model)—An extension of the Microsoft Component Object Model (COM) that allows COM components to communicate across network boundaries. runtime analysis by developers.
NET Framework.g." An event may be fired (or raised) in response to the occurrence of a pre-defined action (e.g. A Finalize method is not needed when only managed resources are used by the object.Event—A notification by a program or operating system that "something has happened. This is useful for operations that must be performed regardless if an exception was thrown or not (e. a timer indicating a specific interval of time has passed. G Garbage Collection (GC)—The process of implicitly reclaiming unused memory by the CLR.. Stack values are collected when the stack frame they are declared within ends (e. a user clicking a button. a window getting focus. Also called a finalizer. an event handler is called. and text.
. The hash is used to insure that only the proper version of a module is loaded at runtime.. Finally block—A block of program statements that will be executed regardless if an exception is thrown or not. and as a separate installation for Windows 2005. NT. GDI+ (pronounced "gee dee eye plus") provides a set of APIs for rendering 2D graphics. etc). In response to an event. when a destructor is defined in a class it is mapped to a Finalize method. The Finalize method is primarily used to free up unmanaged resources allocated by the object before the object itself is removed from memory. GDI+ is found natively in Windows XP and the Windows Server 2003 family. which are automatically freed by the garbage collector.
F Fields—Same as member variables. deallocating unmanaged memory. 98. The hash number is based on the actual code in the module itself. writing to a database. A finally block is typically associated with a try/catch block (although a catch block need not be present to use a finally block). GDI (pronounced "gee dee eye") is found on all version of Windows. See Dispose. images.. or a program starting up or shutting down). when a method returns). GDI (Graphics Device Interface)—A Win32 API that provides Windows applications the ability to access graphical device drivers for displaying 2D graphics and formatted text on both the video and printer output devices. GDI+ is the currently the only drawing API used by the . Heap objects are collected sometime after the final reference to them is destroyed. See GDI+. and ME. Finalize—A class-only method that is automatically called when an object is destroyed by the garbage collector. GDI+ (Graphics Device Interface Plus)—The next generation graphics subsystem for Windows. In C#.g. and adds new features and an improved programming model not found in its predecessor GDI. closing a file. H Hash Code—A unique number generated to identify each module in an assembly.
I Identifiers—The names that programmers choose for namespaces.. The JIT compiler in the CLR compiles MSIL instructions to native machine code as a .NET platform and applications with non-Microsoft operating systems and hardware (e. which is the communications portion of Longhorn that is built around Web services.g. data stores (e. ACF/2 and RACF). In . messaging patterns. HTML (HyperText Markup Language)—A document-layout and hyperlink-specification language. HTML also enables a document to become interactive with other documents and resources by using hypertext links embedded into its content.NET languages. security.NET application is executed. is compiled using the Microsoft IDL compiler (MIDL). Temp_Count) when naming identifiers. This communications technology focuses on providing spanning transports.. The compilation occurs as each method is called. and more. MIDL generates both type libraries and proxy and stub code for marshaling parameters between COM interfaces
J Just In Time (JIT)—The concept of only compiling units of code just as they are needed at runtime. reference types are allocated on the heap.g.. See XHTML.. Unix and AS/400). DB2). events. "Indy"—The code-name for a capacity Planning tool being developed by Microsoft. images. See Stack.. and transaction environments (e. ILDASM—See MSIL Disassembler. parameters. and variables. In C# and VB. HTML is used to describe how the contents of a document (e.g. HTML is the standard content display language of the World Wide Web (WWW). Microsoft's IDL.. called COM IDL. and is typically conveyed between network hosts using the HTTP protocol. Interface Definition Language (IDL)—A language used to describe object interfaces by their names.g. CICS and IMS).g. Microsoft no longer recommends the use of Hungarian Notation (e. See Qualified identifiers. security systems (e. Host Integration Server 2005—A set of Microsoft server applications use to ingrate the . nMyInteger) or delimiting underscores (e. but is speculated to ship earlier. and graphics) should be displayed on a video monitor or a printed page. encoding. Indigo —The code name for for Windows Communication Foundation (WCF). Heap—An area of memory reserved for use by the CLR for a running programming. strMyString. types. type members. methods..NET. identifiers must begin with a letter or underscore and cannot be the same name as a reserved keyword. and return types."Hatteras"—Codename for Team Foundation Version Control tool. A compiler uses the IDL information to generate code to pass data between machines. ILASM—See MSIL Assembler.g. networking and hosting.g. This is the new version control in Visual Studio 2005. text. the JIT-
. This was originally a part of Longhorn.
This version is to unify the Windows CE. class.NET programming tool (nmake.
M "Magneto"—The code-name for Windows Mobile 5.NET include Boolean.
. Make Utility—A . From the time an object is instantiated to the time it is destroyed by the garbage collector.exe) used to interpret script files (i. back to top L "Ladybug"—Code-name for product officially known as the Microsoft Developer Network Product Feedback Center where testers can submit online bug reports and provide product suggestions via the Web. This platform includes a new user interface. Keywords may not be used as identifiers in program code.e. The C# language defines about 80 keywords. Managed ASP—Same as ASP. Although identical in name and purpose these two tools are not compatible. PocketPC. Function. See Lucent nmake Web site. Managed C++—Same as Visual C++ . Event. better keyboard support. and SmartPhone platforms..NET. metadata) to allow the CLR to locate methods encoded in assembly modules. and access a source code control system. such as bool. and WithEvents. Public. License Compiler—A . Local assembly cache—The assembly cache that stores the compiled classes and methods specific to an application. resolve file dependency information. and more. makefiles) that contain instructions that detail how to build applications. store
. Managed code provides information (i. The 160 or so keywords reserved in VB.e. namespace.exe) used to produce that can be embedded in a CLR executable. Microsoft's nmake program has no relation to the nmake program originally created by AT&T Bell Labs and now maintained by Lucent. improved video support. Managed code—Code that is executed by the CLR.licenses files
Lifetime—The duration from an objects existence.compiled code is cached in memory and is never recompiled more than once during the program's execution.NET programming tool (lc.0. K Keywords—Names that have been reserved for special use in a programming language. Each application directory contains a \bin subdirectory which stores the files of the local assembly cache..NET. static. and while.
Orcas—The code name for the version of Visual Studio . P Palladium—Former code name for Microsoft's Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (NGSCB) project. Pinning is
. Analogously. This follows the release of Visual Studio . and walk the program stack. handle exceptions.NET Whidbey. Also called object code and machine code. Native code for a specific family of CPUs is not usable by a computer using different CPU architectures (c. "Pheonix"—A software optimization and analysis framework that is to be the basis for all future Microsoft compiler technologies. Intel x86 and Sun UltraSPARC). if a class is a cookie cutter then the cookies are the objects the cutter was used to create. Managed code can access both managed data and unmanaged data. typically at the time of garbage collection. For example. identifiers) used within a program.f. A class defines an object. This version will follow Windows Mobiles 2005 (code-named "Magneto"). The name used for any identifier may only appear once in any namespace. System.Object) that all other . OLE (Object Linking and Embedding)—A Microsoft technology that allows an application to link or embed into itself documents created by another type of application.. Native code—Machine-readable instructions that are created for a specific CPU architecture. A programmer defines multiple namespaces as a way to logically group identifiers based on their use..and retrieve security information.Drawing and System. COM and OLE are two separate technologies. However. Common examples include using Microsoft Word to embed an Excel spreadsheet file into a Word document file.e. "Photon"—A feature-rich upgrade to Windows Mobile that includes features such as battery life. because COM was released as part of OLE2. OLE is often confused with the Component Object Model (COM). Also called name scope. or emailing a Microsoft Power Point file as an attachment (link) in Microsoft Outlook. O Object—The instance of a class that is unique and self-describing. Blocks of memory are normally moved at the discretion of the CLR. realization of the class. Pinned—A block of memory that is marked as unmovable.NET Framework types are derived from. Object type—The most fundamental base type (System. and an object is the functional.Windows are two namespaces containing each containing types used for for different purposes. A namespace only contains the name of a type and not the type itself.NET to be released near the time Microsoft Longhorn is released. N Namespace—A logical grouping of the names (i.
Secure Execution Environment (SEE)—A secure. multimedia) and software. Saturn—the code name for the original ASP.NET Web Matrix product. Reference types—A variable that stores a reference to data located elsewhere in memory rather than to the actual data itself.NET application at runtime without the need to recompile the code. See Value types. Only namespace declarations use qualified identifiers (e.necessary for managed pointer types that will be used to work with unmanaged code and expect the data to always reside at the same location in memory. class. Q Qualified identifiers—Two or more identifiers that are connected by a dot character (. managed-code. Reference types include array.Forms).). so it must be pinned to its initial location. runtime environment within the Microsoft Longhorn Operating System that helps to protected against deviant applications.g.NET Services Installation Tool. Seamless computing is being realized with the improvements in hardware (voice. Satellite assemblies are created by compiling .resource files using the Assembly Linking Utility. This is a part of Microsoft's "Trustworthy Computing" initiative
.. Register Services Utility—Same as . and loaded into a . The hardware and software within a system should work in an intuitive manner to make it seamless for the user. If the buffer were to be moved in memory. Pointer types. System. Satellite assemblies are typically used by . ink. Pre-JIT compiler—Another name for the Native Image Generator tool used to convert MSIL and metadata assemblies to native machine code executables.NET application to store localized data. S Satellite assembly—An assembly that contains only resources and no executable code. Satellite assembles can be added.Windows. the pointer reference would become invalid. modified. Seamless Computing—A term indicating that a user should be able to find and use information effortlessly. back to top R R2—The codename for the Windows Server 2003 Update due in 2005. and interface. Register Assembly Tool—Same as Assembly Registration Tool. delegate. A common example is when a pointer is used to pass a reference to a buffer to a Win32 API function.
Windows CE 4. Version number—See Assembly version number
W Web Form—A . Value types have the minimal memory overhead and are the fastest to access. See Finally block. Trustbridge—A directory-enabled middleware that supports the federating of identities across corporate boundaries. Discovery. U UDDI (Universal Description. See Reference types.Object) to its value type instance. floating point number. which is stored elsewhere in memory. Unboxing must be explicitly performed in code.).. See Boxing. Programmers can also programmatically force an exception to be thrown by the use of the throw statement. Also used by Web service providers to advertise the existence of their Web services to consumers. The type of the variable determines what kind of data it can store. Try/Catch block—An exception handling mechanism in program code. etc. See Windows form. character. Unboxing—Conversion of a reference type object (i. Simple value types include the integer. See Types. A try block contains a set of program statements that may possibly throw an exception when executed.a. array elements. and Integration)—An XML. usually in the form of a cast operation. the CLR generates an exception as an alert that the condition occurred."Talisker"—The pre-release code name for Windows CE . V Value types—A variable that stores actual data rather than a reference to data. See Exception Handling. Pointer types. Multiple catch blocks may be defined to catch specific exceptions (e.e.and SOAP-based lookup service for Web service consumers to locate Web Services and programmable resources available on a network. The associated catch block contains program statements that handle any exception that is thrown in the try block.. decimal. overflow.NET (a. System. Examples of variables include local variables. parameters.g. divide by zero. and boolean types. Throwing—When an abnormal or unexpected condition occurs in a running application.k. The exception is said to be thrown.x). static fields and instance fields. Variable—A typed storage location in memory.
.NET Framework object that allows development of Web-based applications and Web sites.
directory.NET development that was released as a community project. and SOAP. Longhorn applications can be created by using XAML for the interface definition and managed procedure code for other logic. The most recent version—The Web Matrix Project (Revisited)—can be found here. Applications requiring more complex tasks to be performed during installation require the use of the Microsoft Windows Installer.The Web Matrix Project—A free WSIWIG development product (IDE)for doing ASP. XDR (XML Data-Reduced)—A reduced version of XML Schema used prior to the release of XML Schema 1. XML. data and functionality) to other Web-based applications (i..NET and the CLR. most . This tool can also generate runtime classes.NET Framework and the Visual Studio .0.. SQL Server 9). XML Schema Definition Tool— A . Web service—An application hosted on a Web server that provides information and services to other network applications using the HTTP and XML protocols.a. Y Yukon—The code name for the release of Microsoft SQL Server 2003 (a.k.g.NET programming tool (Xsd. Because . X XAML—(Extensible Application Markup Language) The declarative markup language for Longhorn that allows an interface to be defined. XML Web services—Web-based . or DataSet classes.NET assemblies are self-describing and not bound to the Windows registry as COM-based application are..NET applications.e.) to another. or from class information in an assembly. Yukon offers a tighter integration with both the . XCOPY—An MS-DOS file copy program used to deploy .NET applications that provide services (i.exe) used to generate XML schemas (XSD files) from XDR and XML files. allowing . Web service consumers). from an XSD schema file.e. machine. etc. A Web service is conceptually an URL-addressable library of functionality that is completely independent of the consumer and stateless in its operation. XML Web services are accessed via standard Web protocols and data formats such as HTTP. CD-ROM.NET IDE.NET applications can be installed by simply being copied from one location (e. Yukon will include full support for ADO.NET languages to be used for writing stored procedures