Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- BS 8007:1987
- Lecture 12- Earth Pressure and Sturucture Rankine Theory [1]
- Earth Pressure Theory (Trenching & Shoring Manual 2011)
- Lateral Earth Pressure
- Slope stability
- Design of Concrete Cantilever Retaining Wall
- P Delta Analysis
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- Chapter 5 Retaining Walls
- Geotechnical Engineering Basics
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- A STUDY OF ULTIMATE CAPACITY OF PILES IN BANGLADESH.pdf
- Support Pressure Calculation_gtcrec10

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made environment.

• These structures were amongst the first to be

analyzed using the concepts of mechanics.

Lateral Earth Pressure – Theories of

• One of the most popular earth retaining structure is

Rankine and Coulomb a retaining wall.

• In this lecture, we’ll learn the theory of earth

Lecture No. 15 pressure that is used to analyze the stability of

November 12, 2002 retaining walls.

• It will help you a great deal if you revised the

following important concepts:

– Static equilibrium, Effective Stress, Mohr’s Stress Circle

and Shear Strength of Soils

• Active earth pressure coefficient (Ka): It is the • We will consider the lateral pressure on a vertical

ratio of horizontal and vertical principal effective wall that retains soil on one side.

stresses when a retaining wall moves away (by a • First, we will consider a drained case, i.e. the

small amount) from the retained soil. shear strength of the soil is governed by its angle

• Passive earth pressure coefficient (Kp): It is of friction φ.

the ratio of horizontal and vertical principal • In addition, we will make the following

effective stresses when a retaining wall is forced assumptions:

against a soil mass. – The interface between the wall and the soil is frictionless.

• Coefficient of earth pressure at rest (K0): It is – The soil surface is horizontal and there are no shear

stresses on horizontal and vertical planes, i.e. the

the ratio of horizontal and vertical principal

horizontal and vertical stresses are principal stresses.

effective stresses when the retaining wall does not

– The wall is rigid and extends to an infinite depth in a

move at all, i.e. it is “at rest”. dry, homogenous, isotropic soil mass.

– The soil is loose and initially in an at-rest state.

3 4

Basic Concepts (Continued..) Active Failure

• Consider the wall shown in the

• If the wall is moved away

figure on the top right. If no

movement of the wall takes from element A and

place, the soil is at rest and the towards element B, the

vertical and horizontal effective effective horizontal stress in

stresses acting on elements A

and B are:

τ element A will reduce but τ

the effective vertical stress

σ ′z = σ 1′ = γ′z will remain constant.

φ φ

σ ′x = σ ′3 = K 0σ 1′ = K 0 γ′z • Therefore, the Mohr’s circle

will expand as shown in the

K0 – Coefficient of Earth

figure at the bottom right.

Pressure at rest σ’x σ’z σ’z

• Mohr’s circle for the at-rest σ’ • When the Mohr’s circle σ’

stress state is shown in the touches the failure surface, σ’xf

figure on the bottom right. element A will undergo

• Since the soil is not at failure, the Mohr’s circle stays within active failure.

the failure surface boundaries. 5 6

τ

• Considering triangle OFC in

the figure on the right:

τ •Since the

wall is

Mohr’s circle at Passive Failure

φ

(σ ′zf − σ ′xf ) 2

moved

sinφ = (σ ′zf − σ ′xf ) (σ ′zf + σ ′xf ) φ towards B,

F

• Rearranging the above its effective

equation, we can obtain an horizontal

O C

expression for the active σ’zf stress will

earth pressure coefficient σ’ increase but σ’x σ’xf

σ’xf

(Ka) as: the effective σ’zf σ’

vertical

(σ ′zf + σ ′xf ) 2 stress will

σ ′xf 1 - sinφ

= = Ka remain

σ ′zf 1 + sinφ constant.

•Hence, the Mohr’s circle will first contract and then

7

expand as shown in the figure. 8

Passive Earth Pressure Coefficient (Kp) Slip Planes for Active and Passive Failure

τ τ Element B φ

• Considering triangle OFC in the φ Element A φ θp = 45 −

figure on the right: 2

F

sinφ = (σ ′xf − σ ′zf ) (σ ′zf + σ ′xf ) [w.r.t. horizontal]

• The above

equation

(σ ′xf − σ ′zf ) 2 (90 + φ)

(90 – φ)

can be θp

rearranged O C σ’xf

O

to obtain an

expression

σ’x σ’zf σ’ σ’zf σ’

for the Pole for

passive

θa Pole for

earth

(σ ′zf + σ ′xf ) 2 active passive

failure failure

pressure

coefficient σ ′xf 1 + sinφ 1 φ

(Kp) as:

= = Kp = θa = 45 + [w.r.t. horizontal]

σ′ zf 1 - sinφ Ka 9 2 10

• Much larger

rotation is

required to

produce slip

planes for

passive

failure as

compared

to the

active

failure as

• There are always two sets of slip planes – one for shown in

positive shear stress and the other for negative • The soil mass at the back of the wall is

the figure

shear stress. assisting in failure while the soil mass

on the left.

in the front of the wall is resisting

11 failure. 12

Variation of Lateral Earth Pressure with Depth Lateral Stresses due to Groundwater

• If groundwater is present,

the pore water pressure

must be added to the lateral

earth pressure. z

Pw zw

• DO NOT multiply the pore

water pressure with a zw/3

coefficient of earth pressure.

• If the groundwater table is γwzw

located at a height zw from • The lateral force P

w

the bottom of the wall, the due to groundwater

• Since the vertical effective stress varies linearly with depth, the

active, the lateral earth pressure also vary linearly with depth.

hydrostatic pore water is given by:

• Only in case of a surcharge (figure(d)), the lateral earth pressure is given by:

2

pressure is constant with depth. Pw = 12 γwz w

• A vertical wall retaining saturated soil on one side must resist u = γw (z − z w )

both lateral earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure. 13 14

• Surface stresses, such as a

qs • Determine the active lateral qs = 50 kPa

uniform surcharge qs as

earth pressures on the

shown in the figure on the frictionless wall shown in the

right, also impose lateral

Pq figure. The retained soil γsat = 20 kN/m3

earth pressures on retaining z

carries a uniform surcharge of φ’ = 30°

walls. 50 kPa at the surface. 5m

z/2

• Depending on whether the Calculate the resultant lateral

retained soil is under active, force per meter length on the

at-rest or passive condition, Kqs wall and its location from the

a uniform surcharge qs will • The lateral force Pq base of the wall. The

impose a uniform lateral due to the surcharge groundwater within the

earth pressure of Kqs where is given by: retained soil is at hydrostatic

K is the earth pressure condition. [This example will be solved during the class.]

coefficient. Pq = K ⋅ qs ⋅ z

15 16

Lateral Earth Pressure – Key Points Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory

• The lateral earth pressures on retaining walls are

related directly to the vertical effective stress • Coulomb (1776) proposed that a condition of limit

through the active (Ka) , at-rest (K0) and equilibrium exists in the soil mass retained behind

passive (Kp) earth pressure coefficients. a vertical wall and that the retained soil mass will

• Ka < K0 < Kp and Ka = 1/Kp. slip along a plane inclined at an angle θ to the

• Only a small movement of the wall away from the horizontal.

soil is required to mobilize full active earth • The critical slip plane is the one which gives the

pressure in the soil mass. maximum lateral pressure on the wall.

• Substantial movement of the wall towards the • Limit equilibrium describes the state of a soil

soil is required to mobilize full passive earth mass that is on the verge of failure, i.e. the

pressure in the soil mass.

applied stresses are equal to the available

• Rankine’s earth pressure coefficients are only strength along the slip plane.

applicable to a frictionless, vertical, rigid wall

retaining a homogenous soil with a horizontal

ground surface.

17 18

frictionless wall of height equilibrium of the soil

H, supporting a dry, wedge in the x- and z-

homogenous soil mass directions:

with an angle of internal ∑F x = Pa + Tcosθ − Nsinθ = 0

friction φ, as shown in the

figure on the top right. ∑F z = W − Tsinθ − Ncosθ = 0

N.tanφ cotθ

½γH02cotθ

soil wedge above the slip • Solving for Pa, we get: Pa = 12 γH20cotθ ⋅ tan(θ − φ )

plane are shown in the • Differentiating the above expression w.r.t. θ and

figure on the bottom equating the derivative to zero, we can obtain

right. critical value of θ that gives maximum Pa:

• For a dry soil, γ’ = γ.

φ φ

θ = θcr = 45o + Pa = 12 γH20tan2 45o - = 12 K a γH20

19 2 2 20

Coulomb’s Theory (Continued..) Coulomb’s Theory (Continued..)

• The expression for lateral force due to active earth • On the other hand, an analysis from the

pressure is the same as that obtained earlier using consideration of static equilibrium of stresses

stress equilibrium considerations (Mohr’s circle). usually results in a failure load smaller than the

• The solution obtained using a limit equilibrium true failure load. Such a solution is called a

analysis always results in a failure load that is lower bound or safe solution.

greater than the true failure load. This solution • For the fortuitous case when both these analyses

is called an upper bound or an unsafe solution. give the same solution, we have a true solution.

• The main reason for this is that the soil will always • In general, Coulomb’s earth pressure theory gives

be able to choose a failure mechanism that is more an upper bound estimate and Rankine’s theory

efficient than the assumed failure mechanism gives a lower bound estimate of lateral earth

(shape and location of slip plane). pressure.

• The accuracy of a limit equilibrium analysis • For a vertical, frictionless, rigid wall retaining a

depends on how realistic the chosen mechanism is. horizontal homogenous soil mass, both these

theories give the same solution.

21 22

Rough Wall and Sloping Backfill Rough Wall and Sloping Backfill (Continued..)

• Poncelet (1840) used • Following expressions for active and passive earth

Coulomb’s limit equilibrium pressure coefficients were obtained by Poncelet:

approach to obtain the

active and passive earth cos2 (φ − η)

K aC =

pressure coefficients for 2

sin(φ + δ )sin(φ − β )

cases where cos2ηcos(η + δ )1 +

– wall friction δ is present cos(η + δ )cos(η − β )

– wall face inclined at an angle

η to the vertical, and cos2 (φ + η)

KpC =

– the backfill is sloping at an 2

sin(φ + δ )sin(φ + β )

angle β to the horizontal cos ηcos(η − δ )1 +

2

cos(η − δ )cos(η − β )

• Following Coulomb’s approach, Poncelet also used a

linear slip plane inclined at an angle θ with respect • Unlike the Rankine earth pressure coefficients, KaC

to the horizontal. is not equal to 1/KpC.

23 24

Rough Wall and Sloping Backfill (Continued..) Error due to Curvature of Slip Plane

• The critical inclination of the slip plane w.r.t. the • The curvature of the slip

horizontal is given by: surface for the active state is

small in comparison with that Pa

1 sinφ ⋅ cosδ

θ = tan

−1

± tanφ for the passive state as shown

cosφ sin(φ + δ ) δ

in the figure.

• In the above expression, positive sign refers to the • For the active condition, the

active condition (θa) and the negative sign refers to error is negligibly small. Active Condition

the passive condition (θp). • However, the value of the

• Please note that the presence of wall friction passive earth pressure

results in a curved slip plane for both the active coefficient is overestimated.

and the passive condition and therefore, Poncelet’s δ Pp

• For the passive condition, the

coefficients are not 100% accurate. error is small only if δ<φ/3. In

practice, however, δ is

Passive Condition

generally greater than φ/3.

25 26

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