Antimicrobialsy y y

y

People have sought ways to preserve freshly harvested fruit for later use. To accomplish long term storage and shipping New ways of food preparation have also increased the need for preservation; for example, the convenience foods, low-calorie foods, and food substitutes, often require new and different means of food preservation. Chemical additives are needed to provide the diversity of foods and food products. Examples: Sodium benzoate, bicarbonate, Sorbic acid, Calcium propionate, Sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, [preserve the pleasing red color of meat, prevent germination and growth of any botulism endospores.] y These chemicals are simple organic acids or salts of organic acids which the body readily metabolizes

Types of Antimicrobial: y Naturaly indigenous or biologically present y pepper,garlic, spices y can be destroyed by interfering factors: 1. heat application 2. pretreatments 3. addition of preservation technology Syntheticy y intentional addition Steps to application of antimicrobials: 1. Determine the characteristic of raw materials y pHIf high pH- bacteria [spoilage, pathogenic] If low pH- fungi [fermentative, spoilage, pathogenic] 2. Determine the preservation technology [dehydration, thermal, fermentation,..] 3. Determine the level of reduction [99.9%] 4. Determine the possible causes of spoilage [Deciding for appropriate packaging] 5. Conduct prototype 6. Verify level of reduction [efficiency-> piloting-> commercialization Role of chemical preservative: 1. Improvement of nutritive value

2. 3. 4. 5.

Preservation Addition of color Addition of flavor And improvement of texture

Chemical preservatives has been defined as ³any chemical that when added to food tends to prevent or retard deterioration , but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils extracted from spices, substances added to food by direct exposure thereof to wood smoke or chemicals applied for their respective insecticidal or herbicidal properties.´ y Intentional application for antimicrobial effect Preservatives are used to prevent or retard both chemical and biological deterioration of foods. y Antioxidants- Antioxidants used as food preservatives include vitamin C and the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These antioxidants are added to foods in concentrations of much less than 1 percent. -prevents free radical damage of pigments, flavors, lipids, and vitamins. y Antibrowning compounds- to prevent enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning. y Antimicrobials- primary additives used to prevent biological deterioration. A combination of preservatives to control both chemical and biological deterioration can further extend the shelf life.

Process to select proper preservation system: 1. Spoilage problems must be identified first. 2. Possible preservation system must be evaluated via model studies and studies of food product in question.

Selection of Antimicrobials: Factors: 1. Antimicrobial and chemical properties 2. The properties and composition of food product in question 3. The type of preservation systems, used in the food product 4. The type characteristic and number of microorganisms 5. The level of reduction the microorganisms (safety) 6. The cost effectiveness of the antimicrobial

1. Antimicrobial and Chemical Properties: Antimicrobials can be effective in preserving food either controlling the overall growth of the microorganisms or directly destroying all or part of the microorganisms. Whether bacteriostasis or lethality occurs depends on the reversibility of the mode of action of the antimicrobial. Mode of Action: 1. Reaction with the cell membrane, causing increased permeability and loss of cellular constituents. 2. 2. Inactivation of essential enzymes 3. Destruction or functional inactivation of genetic material Generally an antimicrobial that acts on the membrane in a non specific fashion has the widest over all spectrum of activity. Knowledge of the mode of action may also indicate if an organism has the ability to reverse the antimicrobial activity via the metabolism of the antimicrobial or by other mechanism. This will provide some indication of whether the activity would be overcome in extended storage of a food product containing antimicrobials. y May indicate possible reversibility of an antimicrobial through metabolism of the MO or, other chemical change that will render the antimicrobial inactive.
y

Mode of action studies may also indicate if organism become resistant to an antimicrobial on continued exposure to the compound

Chemical and physical properties of Antimcrobials: y Polarity of a compound, water solubility, y Lyophilic properties- allow antimicrobial to react with the membrane of the MO y Boiling point y pH y chemical reactivity- may produce off-, decreasing activity of antimicrobial 2. Properties and components of food products: May result to:

1. Loss of antimicrobial activity- if antimicrobial reacts with the food components. Resulting in the binding of the chemical to food component or breakdown, alteration of chemical structure of the AM 2. pH- can result to ionization of AM and change in activity 3. Naturally occurring compounds can also influence the activity of the antimicrobials. 3. Level and type of microorganisms: Since the AM spectra are often different for each antimicrobial the flora contamination the food product influences the choice of AM. CAUTION: not to select an AM solely to control the predominant organisms present, due to specificity may result in selecting for and creating a favorable condition for growth for other MO.

4. Influence of other preservation method: Can determine the type and number of MO present thus influencing the type and level of AM Storage conditions of food product -the ability of AM to inhibit can be overcome during extended storage. Depending upon time and temperature of storage these antimicrobials can be volatilized or directly react with other food components.
Food Irradiationo Technology that can be solely used to reduce food losses due to deterioration and to control contamination causing illness and death o All these benefits while eliminating the need for the use at many potentially harmful chemicals Principle 1. Radiation Inactivation of Microorganisms o Damaging the genetic material of the cell. y Direct collision between the radiation energy and the genetic material. y Radiation ionizing an adjacent molecule. o Affects other cell component. Mechanisms of Microbial Survival and Repair i. DNA repair 1. Excision mechanism- remove damage from cell

Radiation Sensitivity of Microorganisms y Environmental condition y Nature of food material 2. Radiation Effects on Insects y Lethality y Reduced longevity y Reduction of egg hatch y Delay in development y Reduced feeding and locomotion y Inhibition and respiration y Sterilization (reproduction) 3. Sprout control and inhibition o Due to effects on metabolism of endogenous growth hormones as well as on nucleic acid y Maturity of fruit y Storage temperature Ionizing Radiation o Produces ions---electrically charged o High energy radiation Three Types of Ionizing Radiation Sources 1. Gamma Rays o Produced by radioactive substances (radioisotopes) that continuously emit high energy gamma rays. o Used as sterilizer y Cobalt 60  95% of emitted e- is available for use  Penetrates deeply yields substantial uniformity of dose in food product  Decays to non-radioactive nickel  Needs frequent replacement  Slow treatment on food y Cesium 137  Less penetration  Longer life 2. E-Beam Generator o High energy electrons, propelled out of an electron gun- electron beam linear accelerator o Turned on only as needed o Do not require replinishments o No radioactive waste o Shallow penetration o Must be converted to x-rays for larger items. o High electric power consumption o High maintenance 3. X-rays o Caused by atomic transition o A beam of electrons particles

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