1. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 2. GREIVANCE 3. DISCIPLINE 4. RECURITMENT 5. SELECTION 6. CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 7. EMPLOYEE TRAINING 8. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 9.

INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS 10. PROMOTION, TRANSFER, DEMOTION 11. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
MEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of individual¶s performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against factors such as job knowledge, quality and quantity output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health and the like. Assessment should be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspect of job performance. Performances here refer to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual¶s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but performance is always measured in terms of result and not efforts. A formal definition of performance appraisal is ³it is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.´

FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee¶s job relevant strengths and weaknesses.

The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and establish a plan of improvement.

Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan.

Performance appraisal is not job evaluation. It refers to how well someone is doing the assigned job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and there for, what range of pay should be assigned to the job.

Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization.

PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is planned, developed and implemented through a series of steps: ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD

CONNUNICATION OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

MEASUREMENT OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE

COMPARISON OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARDS

FOLLOW UP ACTIONS 1) Establish Performance Standards. Appraisal systems require performance standards, which serve as benchmarks against which performance is measured. In order to be useful, standards should relate to the desired results of each job. Appraisals must have a clear- cut criteria. Performance standards must be both to the appraiser and the appraise. The performance standards of goals must be developed after a thorough analysis of the job. Goals must be written down. They must be measurable within certain time and cost considerations.

2) Communicate the Standards. Performance appraisal involves attract two parties; the appraiser who does the appraisal and the appraise whose performance is being evaluated. Both are expected to do certain things. The appraiser should prepare job descriptions clearly, help appraise set his goals and targets; analysis results objectively; offer coaching and guidance to appraise whenever required and reward good results. The appraiser should be very clear about what he is doing and why he is doing. For this purpose, the performance standards must be communicated to appraise and their reactions are noted initially. These standards must be revised or modified as and when required.

3) Measure Actual Performance. After the performance standards are set and accepted, the next step is to measure actual performance. This requires the use of dependable performance measures, the ratings used to evaluate performance. Performance measures in order to be helpful must be easy to use, reliable and report on the critical behaviors that determine performance. Generally, managers regarding how to measure actual performance use four common sources of information: personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports.

4) Compare Actual Performance with Standards and Discuss the Appraisal. Actual performance may be better than expected and sometimes it may even go off the track. The assessment of another person's contribution and ability is not an easy task. It has serious emotional overtones as it affects the self-esteem of the appraise. Any appraisal asked on subjective criteria is likely to be questioned by the appraisers and leave him quite dejected and unhappy when the appraisal turns out to be negative.

5) Taking Corrective Action, if Necessary. Corrective action is of two types: The one, which puts out the fires immediately and the other one, which strikes at he root of the problems permanently. Immediate action sets things right and get things back or track, whereas the basic corrective action gets to the source of deviations and seems to adjust the difference permanently. Basic corrective step seek to find out how and why performance deviate.

METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:

Methods of Performance Appraisal

A) Traditional Methods Confidential report Ranking Graphical rating scale Checklists Forced distribution Critical incidents Essay evaluation Group appraisals

B) Moder n Methods 1. Human resource accounting 2. management by objective 3. Assessment centre 4. BARS( Behaviorally anchored rating scale )

Traditional methods: Confidential report method It is mostly used in government organizations. It is a descriptive report generally prepared at the end of the year, by the employee¶s immediate superior. The report highlights the strengths, weaknesses, major mistakes, merits, good work done etc. of the subordinate. The impression of the superior about the superior is merely recorded here. It does not offer any feedback to appraise. It is a narrative method of performance appraisal since the report is not made public and hence no freedom is available, the subjective analysis of the superior is likely to be hotly contested.

Ranking method This is relatively easy method of performance evaluation. In it, the ranking of an employee in a work group is against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his or her numerical rank, for example, when there are five employees (A,B,C,D,E) to be compared, then A¶s performance is compared with that of B¶s and decision is arrived at as to whose is the better or worst. Next, B is
Comment [dipali1]:

also compares with all others. Since A is already compared with B, this time B is to be compared with only C, D, and E In this evaluation is asked to rate the employees from highest to lowest on some overall criterion. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee, it is very difficult to rank the average employees.

Graphical rating scale It is the oldest and the most commonly used method of performance in this, a printed form is used to evaluate the performance of an employee. Four to twelve factors are selected, depending upon the category to which the employee belongs. Some of these factors are quantity of out put, quality of out put, initiative, integrity, dependability etc. these factors and their degrees are marked on a graph paper provided in the form. The rater has merely to check on the scale where he thinks the employee belongs.

Checklists and weighted checklists The checklist is a simple rating technique in which the supervisor is given a list of statement or world and ask to check statement representing the characteristic and performance of each employee a checklist represents a set of objective statement about the employee and his behavior. A more recent variation of the checklist is weighted list. Under this the value of each question may be weighted more heavily than others.

The following are sample questions in the checklist: - Is the employee is really interested in the task assigned? - Is he respected of his colleagues? - Does he follow instructions properly? - Does he give respect to his superiors? - Does he make mistakes frequently? Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No

A rating score from the checklist helps the manager in evaluation of the performance of the employee.

Forced distribution method It was developed to eliminate the bias and the preponderance of high ratings that might occur in some organizations. Its primary purpose is the correct tendency of the

rates to give consistently high and low ratings to all employees. This method makes those of several sets of pair phases, two of which are positive and two of them are negative and the rates is asked to indicate which of the four phrase is the most or lea st descriptive of a particular employee. Actually the statement items are grounded in such a way that the rater cannot which statement applies to the most effective employee. The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable ones earn the severest. In this the overall objectivity is increased in the employee¶s performance because the rater does not know how high or low he is evaluating the individual, as he has no access to the storing key.

Critical incident method The manager prepares test of statements of every effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding poor behavior of the employees. The manager prepares records of the critical incidents of the worker¶s behavior. At the end of the rating period, the recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers¶ performance.

Essay Appraisal Under this method the rater is asked to express the strong as well as the weak points of the employee¶s behavior. This technique is normally used with a combination of the graphical rating scale because the rater an elaborately present the scale by sustaining an explanation for his rating. In it, the rater considers the following factors: Job knowledge and potential of the employee. Employees understanding about the company¶s programmes, policies, objective, etc. The employees general planning, organizing and controlling ability. The employee¶s relation with the co-workers and superiors. The attitude and perceptions of the worker, in general.

Group appraisal In this method an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. This group consists of the immediate supervisor of the employee, other supervisors who have close contact with employee¶s work, manager or head of department or consultant. The head of department or manager may be the chairman of the group and the supervisor may act as the coordinate for the group activities. The immediate supervisor enlighten

other members about the job characteristics, demand, standards or performance etc. then the group appraise the performance of the employee, compares the performance with the standards, finds out the deviation, discusses the reasons, therefore suggests ways for improvement of performance, prepares an action plan, studies the need for change in the job analysis and standards and recommends changes, if necessary. This method eliminates ³personal bias´ to a large extent, as performance is evaluated by multiple rates. However, it is very time consuming process.

B) Modern Methods: Human resource accounting HRA is a sophisticated way to measure in financial terms the effectiveness of the personal manager activities and the use of people in an organization. It is process of accounting people as an organization resource. It tries to place a value on the organizational human resources as assets and not as expenses. This method shows the investment the organization makes in the people and how the value of these people change over a time. The acquisition of employee is compared with the replacement cost from time to time. In brief, in this method the employees¶ performance is evaluated in terms of costs and contributions of employees. Management by objectives It is the modern method of evaluating the performance of personnel. Managers ha ve become increasingly aware that the traditional performance evaluation systems are characterized by facing goals. The concept of MBO is actually the outcome the pioneering work of Drucker, Mcgreger and Odioine in management science. MBO can be described as the process whereby the superior and subordinate manager of an organization jointly identify its common goals, each individual¶s areas of operations, responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures as a guide for operating the unit and assessing the contributions of each of its members. MBO thus represents more than an evaluation process.

The MBO can be described in four steps: The first step is to establish the goals each subordinate is to attain. The goals typically refer to the desired outcome to be achieved. The goals can be then used to evaluate the employee performance

The second step involves setting of the performance standard fro the subordinates in a previously arranged time period. In the third step, the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goals agreed upon. The evaluator explores the reasons or the goals that were not met and the goals that were exceeded. This step helps to determine the training needs. It also alerts the superior of the conditions that may affect but over which the subordinate has no control. The final step involves establishing new goals and, possibly, new strategies for goals that previously not attained. At this point, subordinate and superior involvement in the goal setting may change. Subordinates who successively reach the established goals may be allowed to participate more in the goal setting process the next time. The process is repeated. Assessment center In this approach individuals from various departments are brought together to spend two or three days working on an individual or a group assignment similar to the ones they would be handling when promoted. Observers rank the performance of each and every participant in order to merit since assessment centers are basically meant for evaluating the potential of candidates to be considered for promotion, training on development, they offer an excellent means for conducting evaluation process in an objective way. All assesses get an equal opportunity to show their talents and capabilities based on merit.

Behaviorally anchored rating scale This method is also known as behavioral expectation scale. This method represent he latest innovation in the performance appraisal. It is the combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation. The critical incidents serve as the anchor statement on a scale and the rating form usually contains six to eight specifically defined performance dimensions.

360° PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents, contents to be appraised, standards of contents and who observes the employee's by performing a job. The appraisal should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. He should prepare reports and made judgments without bias. Typical appraisals are supervisors, peers. Subordinates, employees themselves, user of service and consultants. Performance Appraisal by all these parties is called 360° Performance Appraisal. Supervisors Supervisors include superiors of the employee, other superiors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager. General practice is that immediate superior appraises the performance, which in turn is reviewed by the departmental head/ managers. This is because superiors are responsible free managing their subordinates and they have the opportunity to observe, direct and control the subordinate continuously. Moreover, they are accountable for the successful performance of their subordinates. Sometimes other supervisors, who have close contact with employee work also appraise with a view to provide additional information. Peers Peer appraisal may be reliable of the workgroup is stable over a reasonably long period of time and performs tasks that require interaction.

Subordinates

In developed countries, the concept of change superiors rated by subordinates in being used in most organizations. Such a method can be useful provided the relationships between superiors and subordinates art cordial. Subordinate's ratings in such cases can be quite useful in identifying competent superiors. Self-Appraisal If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated, they are to a great extent in the best position to appraise their own performance. Also, since employee development means self development, employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated. Users of Services/Customers The customers on users of services can, better judge employee performance in service organizations relating to behaviors, promptness, speed in doing the job and accuracy. Example, students better judge a teacher¶s performance. Consultants Sometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employers do not trust the supervisory appraisal and management does not trust the self-appraisal and the appraisal done by subordinates. In such situation, the consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long periods for the purpose of appraisal.

When to appraise? Informal appraisals are conducted whenever the supervisor or personnel manager feel it necessary. However, systematic appraisals are conducted on a regular basis; say for example, every six month or annually.

PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. To contribute to the employee growth and development thought training, self and management development programmes. To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinates. To guide the job changes with help to continuous ranking. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. To provide information for making decision regarding lay off, retrenchment etc.

REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD APPRAISAL SYSTEM:

It must be easily understandable: If the system is too much complex or to time consuming, it may be anchored to the ground by its own dead weight of complicated forms which nobody but the experts understand.

It musty has support of all line people who administer it: If the line people think that there role is not very important then they will not consider the system seriously. Similarly, if the people find that the system is too theoretical, too ambitious, or that has been foisted on them by the ivory-tower staff consultants who have no comprehension of the demand then they will recent it.

The system should be sufficiently grounded in the requirement of the organization: It should reflect the value system of the organization. In fact functioning as a definition of performance, it should tell he employee what set of activities or what qualities are considered desirable by the organization. As such it should have linkage with the job description. The system should be both valid and reliable: The validity of the ratings is the degree to which they are truly indicative of the intrinsic merit of the employees. The reliability of the ratings is the consistency with which the ratings are made, either by different sectors, one by one rater at different times. Both validity and reliability result from objectivity. The appraisal system of many organizations lacks this objectivity and bunches all employees into one or two

top ranks without taking into account their merits. This raises outstanding performances but also raises doubts about the validity of the system.

The system should have built-in incentive: This means that the reward should follow satisfactory performance. Many authors however, advocate against the direct linkage between the appraisal and rewards. In their opinion, such a connection throttles downward communication of performance appraisal because superiors do not like being questioned by disgruntled subordinates.

The system should be open and participative: It should involve employees in goal-setting process. This helps in planning performance better.

The systems should focus more on the development and growth: Of the employee than on generating data for administrative decision making related to promotions, increments, etc. the system must help in identifying employee¶s strengths and weaknesses and indicate corrective actions. For example it may reveal that goals need to be modified on; there is need for classification of duties or for additional training or job rotation or job enrichment.

GREIVANCE

1) MEANING/ DEFINITION :

The concept µGrievance¶ has been defined in several ways by different authorities some of the definition are follows: Beach defines a grievance as ³any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice in connection with one¶s employment situation that is brought to the notice of the management´, where as Flippo indicate the grievance as ³a type of discontent which must always be expressed A grievance is usually more formal in character than a complaint. It can be valid or ridiculous, and must grow out of something connected with company operations or policy. It must involve interpretation or application of the provision of the labour contract.´ Jucius defines a grievance as ³any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether exposed or not, whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with company which an employee thinks, believes or even feels to be unfair, unjust or inequitable.´ A grievance is more than likely a violation of an employee's rights on the job, a right that is usually, but not always defined by the contract. In seeing a grievance in this way, we can understand better that the best place to look for a way to defend the member is in the language of the contract. So for all practical purposes, every union officer must go back to the contract first when a member comes in with a complaint or a problem. The contract provides us with the strongest ammunition in resolving the issue for our member. Is the contract the only means to resolve member's grievances? Of course not. But it is probably the strongest leg you have to stand on. Lastly, there are many grievances that fall into a large category which we say are discipline -related. The union can challenge certain rules or their application. We may argue that a member is being disciplined without "just cause" or he or she is suffering from disparate treatment. The two expressions are simply an arbitrator's or lawyer's way of saying the member is being disciplined unfairly.

So the best advice that can be offered in handling a member's problem is to check the contract first. If there is any reasonable way of dealing with the issue as a

contract violation, you ought to use it. You and your local union are only limited by the contract, the skills of the grievance representatives, and the power of the local union.

NEED FOR A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE

Grievance procedure is necessary for any organization due to the following reason: Most grievances seriously disturb the employees. This may affect their moral, productivity and their willingness to cooperate with the organization. If an explosive situation develops, this can be promptly attended to if grievance handling procedure is already in existence. It is not possible that all the complaints of the employees would be settled by first time supervisors, for these supervisor may not have had a proper training for the purpose, and they may lack authority. Moreover, there may be personality conflicts and other cause as well. It serves as a check on the arbitrary action of the management because supervisors know that employees are likely to see to it that their protest dose reach the higher management. It serves as an outlet for employees gripes, discontent and frustrations. It acts like a pressure value on a steam boiler. The employees are entitled to legislative, executive and judicial protection and they get this protection from the grievance redressal procedure, which also acts as a means of upward communication.

2)CONSIDERS GOOD PRACTICE IN HANDLING DISCIPLINARY AND GRIEVANCE ISSUES : endorses the ACAS Code of Practice 1 for handling disciplinary and grievance issues summarizes the statutory procedures which came into force in October 2004 includes the CIPD viewpoint.

Summary

A summary of issues which can be addressed through the Basic Grievance Procedure include, but are not limited to, the following: All allegations of discrimination; allegations of non-compliance with the Personnel Rules; improvement of systems, practices or procedures; safety; health; working conditions; materials or equipment; supervisory practices or procedures considered improper or unfair; disciplinary actions such as suspensions of 40 hours or less, reprimands or memos of concern; or any other matters subject to the authority of the ADOA Director and for which no other method of redress is provided or prohibited in the Personnel Rules.

Restrictions

An employee may not submit a grievance challenging the following management rights, but may submit a grievance concerning the manner of their administration, insofar as these personally affect the employee: The agency's right to direct its employees; to hire, promote, transfer, assign, and retain employees; and, to maintain efficiency of government operations, and to determine the methods, means, and personnel by which these operations are to be conducted. An employee may submit a grievance concerning a specific performance factor rating by utilizing the EPAS Grievance Procedure. An employee may not submit a grievance concerning the receipt of a performance decrease, the non-receipt of a performance increase or special performance award, the amount of any increase or decrease, or the use of any job-related supplemental rating factors to determine the receipt or amount of an increase, decrease, or special performance award. An employee may submit a grievance using the Basic Grievance Procedure within 10 days of receipt of a planning EPAS or within 10 days of failing to receive, after written request, a planning document.

Non-Applicable Matters

A summary of issues which cannot be addressed through either the Basic or the EPAS Grievance Procedure, include, but are not limited to, the following: Retirement issues; life insurance or health insurance issues; suspension for more than 40 working hours, demotion, or dismissal resulting from disciplinary action; any examination, certification or appointment; any classification action; and any reduction in force

action and matters not subject to the Department of Administration control. Other avenues exist to seek redress or remedy involving these actions.

Amendments

Once a grievance is referred to any step beyond the immediate supervisor, it may not be amended. If additional documentation is submitted by the grievant after the initiation of the grievance, the reviewing official may remand the grievance to the appropriate previous level for reconsideration. It is the employee's responsibility to provide documentation to support the allegations raised in the grievance.

Confidentiality and Use of Official Authority

The preparation, submittal, review and response to a grievance are confidential. Correspondence regarding a grievance should be handled in a confidential manner, and envelopes containing grievance material should be clearly labeled "confidential." No reference to the complaint shall be included in the employee's official personn el file. Copies of written responses sent at each step of the procedure are limited to respondents at the preceding steps, the agency head or the agency head's designee unless it is necessary to notify additional personnel because the response requires another individual to take some action. No person shall directly or indirectly use any official authority or influence in any manner to discourage the use of this procedure. Any person found guilty may be subject to penalty under ADOA Personnel Rule R2-5-501.

Representation

At any step of the grievance procedure after the mandatory pre-grievance oral discussion (see below), grievant may select one representative to provide advice and/or speak for the grievant at any meetings determined necessary by management in the course of the grievance process. An ADOA employee who serves as a representative is required to request and obtain prior approval for annual or compensatory leave for any time devoted as a representative during regular working

hours. If a representative is chosen, the representative shall be identified on the grievance form

Group Grievance

Should a group of employees file a grievance, all employees of the group are required to sign the grievance and to clearly designate, on the grievance form, one member who will act as the group's contact person. The contact person will act as a speaker for the group in any meetings determined necessary by management.

Preparation Time

During the entire formal grievance process (after the oral discussion at Step I), employees are allowed up to four hours with pay to prepare the grievance and/or confer with their official representative on the grievance. Employees cannot use state equipment for this process. Employees must request and obtain prior supervisory approval for time off, which will be subject to the operational needs of the unit. The time an employee devotes to attending any meetings scheduled by management to discuss the grievance is considered work time and is not included in the four-hour limitation specified above.

Extensions

The ADOA Personnel Rules require that the agency head respond to a grievant not later than 40 working days after receipt of the grievance at the first step. Within the 40 working days requirement, the time at any step may be extended by the agency head with concurrence of the grievant. If at any step the response is not made within the prescribed time and no extension has been agreed upon, the employee may submit to the next step.

Mandatory Oral Discussion

In accordance with Personnel Rule R2-5-702.A.1, the employee is REQUIRED to have an oral discussion with the immediate supervisor prior to initiating a formal

grievance. The employee must clearly state to the supervisor the employee's intentions of filing a formal grievance, the issues involved, and the requested resolution. The purpose of the meeting is for both parties to explore the issues and the requested resolution. If the employee fails to take this step, the grievance WILL NOT be accepted through the formal grievance procedure. It is the employee's

responsibility to remember that the Step I grievance must be submitted within 10 working days after the occurrence of the action being grieved, and that these 10 days are not extended by the date on which the oral discussion takes place. The employee may select a representative at any step after the oral discussion with the supervisor.

Procedures

When an employee wants to submit a basic grievance, the employee must: Use the appropriate form; state the problem and outline all of the specific facts, circumstances and issues involved; provide all the appropriate documentation to support the allegations; state the specific resolution which is sought; of a Personnel Rule violation is alleged, the specific rule alleged to have been violated must be stated as well as an explanation of how the rule was violated; and, the employee must sign the grievance at each step and state why the response at the previous level was not satisfactor y. The employee must also meet the mandatory oral discussion requirement prior to submitting the complaint and adhere to the required time limitation for submitting a grievance. Step I The Step I responding authority is the employee's immediate supervisor. The time limit for submitting the grievance is 10 working days from the date of the action being grieved. If a suspension is being grieved, the date of the action is considered to be the first day of the suspension. The date the action occurred is not counted when determining

3)WHY

ARE

DISCIPLINARY

AND

GRIEVANCE

PROCEDURES

NECESSARY?

Disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent framework to deal with difficulties which may arise as part of their working relationship from either the employer's or employee's perspective. They are necessary to ensure that everybody is treated in the same way in similar circumstances, to ensure issues are dealt with fairly and reasonably and that they are compliant with current legislation. Disciplinary procedures are needed: So employees know what is expected of them in terms of standards of performance or conduct (and the likely consequences of continued failure to meet these standards). To identify obstacles to individuals achieving the required standards (e.g. training needs, lack of clarity of job requirements, additional support needed) and take appropriate action. As an opportunity to agree suitable goals and timescales for improvement in an individual's performance or conduct. As a point of reference for an employment tribunal should someone make a complaint about the way they have been dismissed

Grievance procedures are needed:

To provide individuals with a course of action should they have a complaint (which they are unable to resolve through regular communication with their line manager). To provide points of contact and timescales to resolve issues of concern.

The legal position

Most of the provisions governing discipline and grievances at work are to be found in the Employment Act 2002 and the detailed regulations made to implement the provisions of that Act namely the Employment Act 2002 (Dispute Resolution) Regulations 2004 (SI2004/752).

Numerous other pieces of legislation cross refer to discipline and grievance issues. Some important examples include the: Employment Rights Act 1996 as amended Employment Rights Dispute Resolution Act 1998

Employment Relations Act 1999. The statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures From 1 October 2004, the Employment Act 2002 made it a legal requirement for all organizations to follow minimum disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures in certain circumstances. These statutory procedures amount to a minimum standard that must be followed by all employers and employees.

The Main Features Of The Procedures Are:

Three step statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures which must be followed in most cases failure to follow the statutory procedures by the employer prior to dismissal will render that dismissal automatically unfair employers will pay a potential increase in compensation of between 10-50% if the procedures are not followed by the employer an employee may be prevented from presenting some types of claim in the employment tribunal if they have not followed the grievance procedure first the procedures are non-contractual until further notification by the Department of Trade and Industry unless an organization chooses to incorporate the statutory minimum into their own contractual procedures. There are two sets of procedures: standard, and modified. It is envisaged that the standard procedure will be used in all but the most exceptional circumstances. These procedures apply in a wide range of circumstances which are not limited to issues relating to the capability or conduct of the employee but, for example, to dismissals which occur on the expiry of a fixed-term contract and in a smaller scale redundancies. There are some exemptions to the statutory procedures, for example if one party reasonably believes there is a significant threat, harassment or it is not practical to go through the procedures for reasons beyond their control, or if there are issues of national
1

security.

The ACAS Code of Practice Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures provides detailed guidance for employers. CIPD endorses this Code.

CIPD members can find out more on the legal aspects of this topic from our FAQ on in the Employment Law at Work area of our website.

Top of Form

Grievance policy and practice

It is essential that grievances from employees are treated in the same fair manner. Failure to address grievances leaves employees with µresidual anger¶ and can lead to general unrest and disputes in the workplace. Employees must know to whom they can turn in the event of a grievance and the support, such as counseling or sources of advice, that is available to them. All line and senior managers must be familiar with their organization¶s grievance procedure. There are a number of additional factors to bear in mind when dealing with grievances concerning harassment. For further details see our fact sheet on

Handling grievances informally

Individuals should be encouraged to discuss ordinary, day-to-day issues informally with their line manager. This helps concerns to be heard and responded to as soon as possible. Where this has been unsuccessful, or circumstances make this route inappropriate for the individual, then matters should raised formally through the grievance procedure.

Handling grievances formally

Employees should also be aware of the formal route open to them, including: the three stages of the statutory procedure and any further elements of the organization¶s additional procedures with whom to raise the complaint and appropriate sources of support timescales within which the organization will seek to deal with the complaint details of the stages of the grievance procedure e.g. how a complaint may be raised with the next level of management if a satisfactory resolution is not reached. An employee should be given the right to be accompanied to grievance hearings by a colleague or trade union representative as explained above. As in disciplinary matters, record keeping is important

4)GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE

PROCEDURES:

THE

STANDARD

T HREE-STEP

Your employer¶s grievance procedure may have more than three steps, but it must include the following. 1. Written statement You must set out your grievance in writing (often called a µstep one letter¶). Your employer¶s grievance procedure should say who to send your letter to. If that¶s the person causing the problem, or if they¶ve ignored previous complaints, send it to the HR department or to the person¶s boss. 2. Meeting: Your grievance should be looked into in a fair and unbiased way. Your employer should invite you to a meeting (sometimes called a hearing) to discuss the problem, and you should attend if you can. If there is someone else involved, they might also be there (but you should tell your employer if you are uncomfortable with this).The meeting should be at a convenient time for you and anyone else involved. If you think you¶ve not had enough time to prepare, ask for more time. If your employer doesn¶t agree (and they don¶t have to), you should go to the hearing, but make sure that your lack of preparation time is noted. Gather your thoughts before the meeting. Don¶t be afraid to write down what it is you want to say. There is nothing wrong with reading this out at the meeting. It is up to your employer what format the meeting takes but they will normally go through the issues that have been raised and give you the opportunity to comment. The main purpose of the meeting should be to try to establish the facts and find a way to resolve the problem. The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Aces) have a code of practice which sets out how your employer should carry out a grievance procedure. If you ask your employer beforehand, you have a legal right to take a µcompanion¶ (who is a colleague or trade union representative) to the meeting with you. If no colleague is willing to accompany you, and you¶re not a union member, ask if you can bring a family member or a Citizen¶s Advice Bureau worker (but your employer does not have to agree to this). The companion can present and/or sum up your case, talk on your behalf and confer with you during the hearing. They¶re protected from unfair dismissal or other mistreatment for supporting you. The meeting must be at a convenient time for your companion. You can ask for a postponement of up to five days if necessary to get

your chosen companion there. You should be given notes of the meeting, and copies of any information given by other people. Unless they need to investigate further, your employer should tell you reasonably quickly what¶s been decided, and about your right to appeal if you¶re not satisfied. You might be told of the outcome verbally at first but it will usually be confirmed in writing. 3. Appeal meeting: If you¶re not satisfied with the decision, or you think the procedure followed was seriously flawed, you have the right to an appeal. This is usually heard by a higher level of management. If that isn¶t possible, your employer could ask an Aces mediator or other independent person to hear it. The appeal hearing is similar to the original meeting, and you have a right to a companion, as before. Your employer should give you enough time to appeal. If they don¶t, make your appeal anyway, and say that you¶ll provide more information later. If you are considering taking your issue to an Employment Tribunal you may want to appeal even if it seems pointless, because a tribunal award could be reduced if you don¶t. If you can¶t sort out the dispute, you can get help through mediation, conciliation or arbitrat ion, if your employer agrees to it.

DISCIPLINE
1)INTRODUCTION:

Discipline is required for both the organization and the individual. In the organization it is needed to regulate the behavior of people, maintain peace and channel their efforts towards organizational goal. Sad to sate, most people do not exercise self discipline and this fact makes external control necessary for brining order within an organization.

CONCEPT

Discipline is not a glamorous term. It is viewed with fear and suspicion in organization. The multiple explanation advanced by different expert in the filed have only added to the prevailing confusion.

NEGAIVE DISCIPLINE

Traditionally, discipline is interpreted as a sort of check or restraint on the freedom of person. Discipline is used to the act of imposing penalties for wrong behavior. If employees fail to observe rules, they are punished. ³Discipline is the force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective,´

POSITIVE DISCIPLINE

Employees comply with rules not out fear of punishment but out of an inherent desire to cooperate and achieve goals. Where the organizational climate is market by two-way communication, clear goals, effective leadership, adequate compensation employees need not be discipline in the traditional way. Positive discipline, according to Spriegel enables an employee, ³to have a greater freedom in that he enjoys a greater degree of self-expression in striving to achieve the objective, which he identifies as his own.´

2)DIFFEREANCE BETWEEN POSITIVE & NEGATIVE DISCIPLINE :

Point

Negative Discipline

Positive Discipline

Concept

It is adherence to established It

is

the

creation climate

of in

a an

norms and regulation, out of conductive fear of punishment.

organization so that employees willingly confirm to the

established rules

Conflict

Employees do not perceptive There is no conflict between the corporate goals as there own. individual and organizational goals. exercise self-

Supervision Require intense supervisory Employees

control to prevent employees control to meet organizational from going off the track. object ivies.

3)SELF DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL:

Behavioral scientist view discipline as a self- control to meet organizational objectives. Megginson clarified the term thus. ³By self- discipline he mans the training that correct, moulds and strengthens. It refers to one¶s efforts at self control to certain needs and demands. This form of discipline is raised on to psychological principles. First, punishment seldom produce the desired result. Often, it produce undesirable result. Second, a self- respecting person tends to be a better worker than one who is not.´

4)PROGRESSIVE DISCIPLINE:

The concept o progressive discipline states that penalties must be appropriate to the violation. If inappropriate behaviour is minor in nature and has not previously occurred an oral may be sufficient. If the violation requires a written warning, it must be done according to a procedure. After written warnings, if the conduct of the employees is still not along desired lines, serious punitive steps could be initiated. In case of major violations such has hitting a supervisor may justify the termination of an employee immdiately. In order to assist a manager to recognize the proper level of disciplinary action, some firms have formalized the procedure.

5)THE RED HOT STOVE RULE:

Without the continual support of the subordinate, no manager can get things done. But disciplinary action against a delinquent employee is painful and generates resentment on his part. According to the Red Hot Stove rule disciplinary action should have following consequences: A} Burns immediately: If disciplinary action is to be taken, it must occur immediately so the individual will understand the reason for it. With the passage of time, people have tendency to convince themselves that they are not fault.

B} provides warning: It is very important to provide advance warning that punishment will follow unacceptable behaviour. As you move closer to hot stove you are warned by its heat that will be burned.

C} Burns impersonally: Disciplinary action should be impersonal. There are no favorites when this approach is followed.

6)JUSTICAL APPROCH TO DISCIPLINE:

The Industrial Employment Act was passed in 1946 with a view to improve the industrial relation climate. The Act requires that all establishment must define the service rules and prepare standing order. The term Standing order refers to the rules and regulation which governs the condition of employment of workers. They indicate duties and responsibility on the part of both the employer and the employees. The standing order contains rules relating to classification of employees, working hours, holidays, shift working, attendance, leave, suspension, stoppage of work, redreassal of these terms and condition may lead to misconduct or indciplpine.

7)DISCIPLINARY ACTION:

Though there is no rigid and specific procedure for taking disciplinary action, the disciplinary procedure followed in Indian industries usually consist of the following steps: a. Issuing the letter of charge : When a employee commits an act of misconduct that required disciplinary action, the employee concerned should be issue a charge

sheet. Charges of misconduct or indiscipline should be clearly and precisely stated in the charge sheet.

b. Consideration of explanation: On getting the answer for the letter of charge served, the explanation furnished be consider and if it is a satisfactory, no disciplinary action need be taken. On the contrary when the management is not satisfied with the employees explanation there is a need for serving a show-cause notice.

c. Show-cause notice: Show-cause notice is issued by the manager when he believes that there is a sufficient prima facie evidence of employees misconduct. Enquiry should also initiated by first serving him a notice of enquiry indicating clearly the name of enquiring officer, time, date and place of enquiry etc.

d. Holding of a full fledge enquiry: These must be in conformity with the principle of natural justice, that is the employee concerned must be given an opportunity, of being heard. When the process of enquiry is over an findings of the same are record, the enquiry officer should suggest the nature of disciplinary action.

8)DISCIPLINARY POLICY AND PRACTICE: -

Using the disciplinary process

There

are

two

main

areas

where

the

disciplinary

system

is

used:

capability/performance and conduct.

Capability/performance

It is inevitable that at some stage all employers will encounter difficulties with the performance of their employees in the workplace (these can stem from difficulties on the part of the organization such as insufficient training and support, or a lack of leadership or inappropriate systems of work, as well as the individual who is struggling to fulfill their responsibilities). It is good practice and also more efficient

that such issues are addressed informally, as and when they arise, by managers via discussions which clarify 'what good performance looks like', goal setting, support and timely positive feedback where appropriate. Only when these options have been exhausted and where there is no alternative should managers should enter a more formal disciplinary procedure. Situations where an individual is unable to do their job because of ill-health also fall into this category. In these instances an employee should be dealt with sympathetically and offered support. However, unacceptable levels of absence could still result in the employer making use of warnings.

Conduct

Employee misconduct could range from continued lateness, failure to follow a reasonable management instruction, abuse of the organization¶s computer system or Internet access, bullying behaviour or creating a hostile work environment, through to theft, fighting and committing criminal offences. The more grave offences may constitute gross misconduct. In all cases, even gross misconduct, an employer should attempt to follow the statutory procedures. Stages of the process If disciplinary action is to be taken, it should always have three main stages: 1] Letter 2] Meeting 3] Appeal. There must always be a full and fair investigation to determine the facts and to decide if further action is necessary.

Record-keeping

All records should be kept meticulously, as this will be vital should a case be perused at an employment tribunal. Since the burden of proof is on the employer to show that the dismissal is not unfair or unreasonable, keeping records is vital. Type of records that should be kept by employers is minutes of meetings, attendance, notes of telephone calls, copies of correspondence etc.

Handing disciplinary interviews

All line managers should be trained and supported so that they are able to carry out disciplinary meetings with their team. The HR department should be able to assist them by providing a source of independent advice on preparing for and conducting the interview, as well as sharing knowledge about similar cases in the organization and relevant legislation.

The key points to consider are:

Ensure you have investigated all the facts in advance (including consulting the individual's personal file for relevant information) and plan how you will approach the meeting. Make sure the employee knows from the letter inviting them to the meeting why they have been asked to attend and that they have a right to have a compan ion present. Make sure the individual has reasonable notice, ideally more than 48 hours; so that they have a chance to arrange an appropriate representative if they wish. Make sure another member of management can be there to take detailed notes and help.

Conduct the interview.

Never pre-judge the outcome of the interview before hearing the employee's perspective. Start the interview by stating the complaint to the employee and giving appropriate statements from people involved. Give the employee ample opportunity to put forward their side of the story and call any supporting witnesses. You can also call witnesses, but they can only be in the room for the relevant part of the interview - not the duration. Make use of adjournments: always take a break to consider and obtain any extra information you need before reaching your decision. You can also use if things become heated or people are upset during the interview.

Deliver the decision (and give reasons, taking into account any mitigating circumstances), confirm review periods and ensure you give details of how to appeal. Confirm the decision in writing. It is important that everyone involved in disciplinary action understand the importance of following the correct procedure, as even if the case against an employee seems proven, they can still be deemed to have been treated unfairly if the correct procedures are not followed. An individual is entitled to be accompanied by a work colleague or trade union official at formal disciplinary and grievance interviews, and to select a companion of their choice. It would be good practice for an employer also to offer this at any purely investigatory meeting.

No action

After the meeting, the employer may decide that no action is necessary. For example, if an employee was unclear about what was expected from them and they agree to try to resolve the issue via additional support or counseling.

Warnings

Alternatively, the employer may decide to give the employee a warning. An organization¶s policy should outline exactly what warnings will be given, but the following are likely: Recorded oral warning First written warning Final written warning. Clearly these stages represent an increase in seriousness. With the exception of extreme examples of misconduct, it would be inappropriate to 'skip stages' in the process. Ultimately, failure to reach the organization¶s standards may result in dismissal. Any warning should also specify a review period during which the individual receives appropriate support and their performance can be monitored.

Disciplinary warnings should normally have a specified 'life' after which they are disregarded when considering any subsequent warnings. Typical timescales for the types of warning are: recorded oral warning - 6 months first written warning - 1 year final written warning - 2 years. Where misconduct has been very serious, it may be appropriate for the warning to continue to be regarded indefinitely.

RECURITMENT
Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment refers to ³Discovering potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. Recruitment is a process ³To discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing, to employ effective measures for attracting potential manpower in adequate number´. Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to stimulate them to apply for the job. It¶s linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. It locates the source of manpower to meet the requirements and job specifications. In recruitment process available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit application so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection.

In recruitment, information is collected from interested candidates. For these different sources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement, employment exchange, internal promotions, etc. are used. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidate. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates (qualified job applicants) are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection.

DEFINITION OF RECREUITMENT
According to Edwin Flippo, ³Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.

OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT
The objectives of recruitment are as follows: (i) To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies, (ii) (iii) (iv) To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company, To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization, To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company, (v) To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company¶s values,

(i)(vi) To search for talents globally and not just within the company. PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT
Recruitment has three major purposes: 1) to increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. 2) To meet the organization¶s legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce.

3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills.

NEED FOR RECRUITMENT
The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/situations: (a) Vacancies due to promotions, transfers, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and labour turnover. (b) Creation of new vacancies due to growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job respecification.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
The sources of recruitment may be grouped into:

Internal sources External sources
INTERNAL SOURCES: As the term implies internal source of recruitment is for those who are currently members or the organization. Whenever any vacancy arises, somebody from within the organization may be looked into, following are the internal sources of recruitment.

1) Promotions: - In order to motivate the existing employees, management follows the policy of internal promotions. Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and salaries. Various positions in the organization are usually filled up by promotions of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of both. 2) Transfers: - Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. It may involve a promotion or demotion, or no change in terms of responsibility or status. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent, depending the necessity of filling jobs. E.g. transfer from head office to branch office.

3) Retirements: - At times, management may not find suitable candidate in place of the one who had retired, after meritorious service. Under this circumstances management may decide to call retired manager with new extension. 4) Recalls: - When management faces a problem, which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave, it may be decided to recall that person. After the problem is solved, his leave may be extended. 5) Former employees: - Individuals who left for some other job, might be willing to come back for higher wages incentives. An advantage with these sources is that the performance of the person/employee is already known.

EXTERNAL SOURCES
As the term implies the external source of recruitment is of potential workers who are not currently member of the organization. It usually includes new entrants to the labour force the unemployed and people employed in the other organization seeking the change. Company managements have to use eternal sources for the recruitment of supervisory staff and managers as and when necessary. This may be with a view to introducing the µnew blood¶ in the organization. External recruitment is one way of bringing into the organization that has new skills or abilities and different way of approaching job task. Following are the most common external source of managerial recruitment.

1) Newspaper Advertisement:-Newspaper advertisements are overwhelmingly popular source of recruitment. A message containing general information about the job and the organization is placed in various newspapers. Newspaper advertising typically generates a large applicant flow. Though costly, it provides wide choice as it attracts a large number of suitable candidates from all over the country. The best example for newspaper advertisement is the Times of India¶s Asscent supplement which comes on every Wednesday and contains both domestic as well as international jobs. 2) Campus Recruitment: - College Campuses are another very popular recruitment source. The growth of Management institutes, IIts and Regional Engineering Colleges has provided a popular source of recruitment. Private sector is able to attract many aspirants. It is an excellent source of recruiting

management trainees. The promising students get job security immediately after securing degrees due to such campus interviews/recruitment. 3) Recruitment through internet: - The Internet has quickly become a very popular source of employment advertising. This source is quickly growing in popularity. Currently employers can post their openings to any of several newsgroups for free. Most employment advertisement firms can also post the jobs on the Internet; however, they charge a fee. A large and fast growing proportion of employers use the internet as a recruitment tool. More and more organizations are placing information about open positions on the World Wide web. There are many web sites through which recruitment takes place. Some of the examples are www.naukri.com, www.monster.com, etc.

4) Job Fairs: - Job fairs are very effective. A job fair is an event sponsored by a "job fair" company who charges a fee to participating employers. The "job fair" company will typically advertise in local media to attract qualified applicants. Hiring managers can meet multiple candidates and conduct on-thespot interviews. Because the applicants may be interviewing with multiple employers, it is imperative to respond quickly with invitations for in-plant interviews of qualified candidates. If a job fair results in just one hire it is usually cost effective. 5) Employment Agencies: - The firm contacts an organization whose main purpose is locate job seekers. The company provides the agency with information about the job, which the agency then passes along to its clients. Clients may be either employed or unemployed. Agencies can either be public or private. Fees may be charged to either or both the client seeking a job and the company seeking applicants. 6) Walk-ins, Write-ins and Talk ins:- The most economical approach for recruitment of candidates is direct applications. The job seekers submit applications or resumes directly to the employer. The advertisement mentions date, day and timing during which the applicant can µwalk in¶ for an interview. Write-ins are those who send written inquiries. These applicants a raked to complete application forms for further processing. Talk-ins is now becoming popular and the applicants are required to meet the employer for detailed talks. The applicant is not required to submit any applications.

ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT
1) Internal recruitment is economical. 2) The present employees already know the company well and are likely to develop a loyalty for the same. 3) It tends to encourage existing employees to put in greater efforts and to acquire additional qualification. This means there is motivation to employee to develop and reach to higher positions. 4) It provides security and continuity of employment. 5) Internal recruitment helps to raise the morale of employees and develop cordial relations at the managerial levels. 6) It reduces labour turnover as capable employees get promotion within the organizations. 7) Internal recruitment is a quick and more reliable method. 8) People recruited from within the organization do not need induction or training.

DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECURITMENT
1) Internal promotions create a feeling of discontent among those who are not promoted. 2) It prevents the entry of young blood in the organization. 3) Promotion to certain key post may not be possible due to non-availability of competent persons. 4) The organization will not be able to attract capable persons from outside if internal sources are used extensively. 5) It may encourage favoritism and nepotism. 6) Promotions by seniority may not be always beneficial to the organization.

In brief, internal methods of recruitment should be used to extent possible but too much dependence on internal methods is undesirable and may prove costly to the organization in the long run.

ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT

1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. 2) Wide scope is available for selection. This facilitates selection of people with rich and varied experience. 3) Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available. 4) Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. 5) The management can fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged section of he society.

DISADVANTAGES RECRUITMENT

OF

EXTERNAL

SOURCE

OF

1) External recruitment leads to labour turnover particularly of skilled, experienced and ambitious employees. 2) The relations between employer and employee deteriorate leading to industrial disputes and strikes. 3) The present employees may lose their sense of security. Their loyalty to the organization may be adversely affected. 4) Employees feel frustrated due to external recruitment and their morale is adversely affected.

SELECTION

MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SELECTION

Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management of personnel. Selection is more closely related to recruitment because both are concerned with processing individuals to place them in a job. Selection is next to recruitment. After identifying the sources of human resources, searching for

prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization, the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time. ³Right man at the right job´ is the basic principle in selection. Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. It is the process of logically choosing individuals who posses the necessary skills, abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organization. Selection means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen from the applicants who have offered their services to the organization for employment. Thus selection process is negative function because it attempt to eliminate applicants, leaving the best to be selected. In the words of Dale Yodev, ³Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes ± those who are to be offered employment and those who are not´. In short, selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons. The objective of the selection decision is to chose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. The selection procedures are the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidate¶s specification is matched with the job specification and requirements or not. The selection procedures cannot be effective until and unless: 1) Requirements of the job to be filled, have been clearly specified (job analysis, etc) 2) Employee specifications (physical, mental, social, and behavioral, etc) have been clearly specified. 3) Candidates for screening have been attracted. Thus, the development of job analyses, human resource planning and recruitment are necessary prerequisites to the selection process. The breakdown in any of these processes can make even the best selection system ineffective.

IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION
The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts:-

1) Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers: - Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organization. It is in the interest of the organization in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the production. Selection of skilled personnel also facilitates the expansion in the size of the business.

2) Reduce Cost of Training and Development:- Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. They can understand the technique of work better and in less time. Further, the organization can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences, thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably.

3) Absence of Personnel Problems: - Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organization. Many problems like labour turnover, absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organization. Labour relation will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work. Skilled workers help the management to expand th e business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates, the workers with high wages, benefits etc.

SELECTION PROCEDURE
Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidate¶s qualification, experience, physical and mental ability, nature and behaviour, knowledge, aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant is or is not suitable for the job. Therefore, the selection procedure is not a single act but

is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. At each step, facts may come to light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications. Selection procedure is lengthy and time consuming particularly in the case of supervisory post. Following are the steps/ procedures of selection:

1) Job Analysis: - Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. Every organization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next step of selection.

2) Application Form: - Application Form is also known as application blank. The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. Where application forms are use, the data become a part of the employee¶s record. The information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information, Educational information, Work experiences, salary, personal details, expected salary and allowances etc.

3) Preliminary Interview: - Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of ³at the gate´ candidate. This interview usually of short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a

process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidate. If the candidate seems to possess the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance, he is given an application form for being filled out by him.

4) Screening Application Form: - Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of information given in the application blank is rejected out rightly at this stage. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected. Applications will not be accepted after the

close date. After the close date of the recruitment, the Job Expert for the hiring department and Human Resources will screen the application forms for minimum education and qualification requirements. A recruitment date may be extended if there are no qualified candidates. Recruitments can also be open until the position is filled; in this situation, applicants are reviewed and interviewed on a regular basis until an eligible candidate can be selected and appointed to the available position.

5) Written test:- The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate¶s ability in arithmetical calculations, to know the candidate¶s attitude towards job, to measure the candidates aptitude, reasoning, knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge and English language. Intelligence test measures the individuals capacity or reasoning, verbal comprehension, numbers, vocabulary, word fluency etc. aptitude test measures individuals capacity or talent ability to learn a job if he is given adequate training.

6) Final interviewing: - Final interview is usually followed by testing. This is the most essential step in the process of selection. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview. The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. It being the two way communication, the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes, about the job and the organization.

7) Reference Checks: - After completion of the final interview, the personnel department will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application forms. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate¶s academic

achievement or from the applicant¶s previous employer, who is well versed with the applicant¶s job performance, and sometime from co-workers. If reference is checked in the correct manner, a great deal can be learned about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit. A good reference check used sincerely fetches useful and reliable information to the organization.

8) Physical Examination: - The candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. This is very important because of a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. Thus, a thorough medical examination is essential.

9) Selection: - If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given he would be declared selected. A appointment letter will be given to him mentioning the terms of employment, pay scales, post on which selected etc.

MEANING AND DEFINITION OF PLACEMENT

Placement means offering of the job to the finally selected candidate. One the employee is selected he should be placed on a suitable job. According to Pigors and Myres, placement may be defined as ³the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, and his assignment to that job. It is matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can dos with the job demands(job requirements); it is matching of what he imposes(in strain, working condition) and what offers is the form of pay roll, companionship with other promotional possibilities etc.´ A proper placement reduced the employee turnover, absenteeism and accident rate and improves the morale. Placement is not an easy process. It is very difficult for a new employee who is quite unknown to the job and environment. For this reason, the employee is generally put on a probation period ranging from one year to two years. At the end of the probation period, if the employee show a good performance, he is confirmed as a regular employee of the organization. Thus, the probation period or trial period is a transition period at the end of which management has to take decision whether the employee should be made regular or discharged from the job.

PRINCIPLE OF PLACEMENT
Following principles are followed at the time of placement of an employee:

1) The man should be placed on the job according to requirements of the job. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualifications or requirements of the man. ³Job first, man next´ should be the principle of placement.

2) The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. Neither higher, nor lower job should be offered to the new employee. 3) The employee should be made conversant with the conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong.

1)4)

While introducing the job to the new employee, an effort should be

mad to develop a sense of loyalty and cooperation in him so that he may realize his responsibilities better towards the job and the organization.

CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION:The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girls studying at the college level. College students are expected to consider their qualities (physical and mental), psychological make-up, likes and dislikes, inclinations, etc. and decide what they want to be in their life. In other words, they should decide what they want to achieve in their life and adjust their education and other activities accordingly. This means they have to plan their career. In such career planning, parents, family members and college teachers offer helping hand and guide young boys and girls in selecting the most suitable career. Lot of literature, psychological tests etc. are also available on career planning. Even lectures, workshops and TV programmes are arranged for guiding students on career selection (particularly after the declaration of HSC results). Career planning enables them to use their abilities/qualities fully and make their life happy, prosperous and rich in quality. At present, even experts are available to hel p youth in their career planning. IQ and other tests are also conducted for this purpose. The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation to business organizations. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must plan the career development programmes in their organization effectively. Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to the organizations. The employees will develop new skills will be available to the organization. This type of career planning can be described as organizational career planning.

MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?):A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. According to Edwin B. Flippo ³a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a person¶s life´. Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his working life. This is described as caree r path. In the case of an ordinary worker, the career path includes the following job positions:

Unskilled worker ± Semi-skilled worker ± Skilled worker ± Highly skilled worker ± Assistant foreman ± Foreman.

Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more salary, higher status and opportunity to use knowledge, education and skills effectively. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization.

MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status, compensation payment and future promotions. From the point of view of an organization, career planning and development have become crucial in management process. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. In brief, career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. As already noted, every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality, ability, skills and so on.

NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization.

3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion.

SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:Here, efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future. In addition, the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization. b) CAREER INFORMATION:Here, information relating to career opportunities (promotions, training for self development, etc) will be supplied to employees. Supplying career information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. c) CAREER COUNSELLING:Such counselling is next to supplying career information. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible career paths. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own careers and develop themselves for career progress. d) CAREER PATHING:Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up o f employees for self development. e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:-

Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. Along with job analysis, organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees.

ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: i. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. ii. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. iii. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. It becomes possible, therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. iv. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement, resignation, death, etc. at managerial level. Therefore, it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting. i.v. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time.

DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:The main problems in career planning are as follows: i. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. Therefore, it is not suitable for a very small organization. ii. In a developing country like India, environmental factors such as government policy, public sector development, growth of backward areas, etc. influence

business and industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. iii. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor, particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. iv. In family business houses in India, members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. This upset the career planning process. v. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions, political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes.

HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. Moreover, such career development planning is a continuous activity. What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lip service and theoretical importance. If the organization wants to get the best out of their employees, it must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its organization. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. Here, the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. In order to analyze the present career situation, the following information will be required: i. Total number of employees ± their age distribution, qualifications, positions, specializations, etc. ii. Structure ± broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. iii. Personnel need of the organization. (Category wise) iv. Span of control available within the organization.

v. Field staff at head office with necessary details, and vi. Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization.

The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. 1. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION

2. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION

3.

IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS

4.

SELECTION OF PRIORITIES

5.

DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS

6. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS

7.

MANAGERIAL PLANNING

8.

IMPLEMENTATION

9.

REVIEW AND EVALUATION

10.

FUTURE NEEDS

2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:In this second step, an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:-

In this third step of career development plan, efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. It is possible to

identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization, employee potentials, and appraisal of employees). 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:-

It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i.e. through one career development plan. Naturally, there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. In addition, other factors such as technical, financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. 5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:-

This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. What is to be attained/achieved? b. The extent to which it is to be attained, c. The employees involved, d. The department in which the proposed plan will operate; e. The length of time required the achieving the goals. In order to execute the career development plan, the organization should : a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to: I. Improve their level of skill and knowledge; II. Gain wider experiences; and

III. Assume higher responsibilities. b) leave; c) Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging Establish and effectively implement a system of study

their rotation from one region to another; d) as: I. II. Providing within the organization; Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the Take positive steps to encourage career development, such

following order for:

1. 2. 3. III. IV.

promotion within the organization; Transfer within the organization; Outside recruitment. Removing artificial barriers to promotion; Establishing a register of employees for promotion

on merit-cum-seniority basis; 6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:After deciding the priorities of career development plan, the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan), procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful. 7) MONITORING PLANNING i.e. MONITORING OF CAREER

DEVELOPMENT PLAN:Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. The gap between the two (i.e. short falls) can be located quickly. In addition, suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. 8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. For effective implementation, co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. 9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:A plan needs periodical review. Such evaluation avoids mistakes, deficiencies, etc during the implementation stage. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. Such evaluation should be done by experts. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially. 10) FUTURE NEEDS:This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. Here, on the basis of the achievements of the

current plan, the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. Planning is a continuous process/activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization.

CAREER STAGES:Education is thought of in terms of employment. People go for school and college education and prepare for their occupation. Very few people stick to the same job throughout their life. Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some other organization. Chances are they change jobs, depending on available opportunity, several times before retirement. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the same job. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION:Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. From the point of view of organization, this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. 2) ESTABLISHMENT:This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE:This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called ³climbers´. There is continuous improvement in performance. On the other hand, employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job, there is marked deterioration in their performance. In other to

show their utility to the organization, employees must remain productive at this stage. ³climbers´ must go on improving their own performance. Authority, responsibility, rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and ³job hopping´ is not common. 4) LATE CAREER:This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past glory. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. They are expected to train younger employees and earn respect from them. 5) DECLINE STAGE:This career stage represents the completion of one¶s career usually culminating into retirement. After decades of hard work, such employees have to retire. Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. Others may think of ³life after retirement´.

HIGH EXPLORATION ESTABLISHMENT MID-CAREER LATE CAREER DECLINE

LOW

25

35 AGE

45

55

0 6

STAGES IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT

CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan. The terms µcareer development¶ and µemployee development¶ need to be differentiated at this stage. Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organization.

INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an individual. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on the way µup¶ may include: I. PERFORMANCE:Career progress rests largely on performance. If the performance is sub standard, even modest career goals can¶t be achieved.

II.

EXPOSURE:-

Career development comes through exposure, which implies becoming known by those who decide promotions, transfers and other career opportunities. You must undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an organization. III. NETWORKING:-

Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn striking good deals outside (e.g., lucrative job offers, business deals, etc.). for years men have used private clubs, professional associations, old-boy networks to gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions. IV. LEVERAGING:-

Resigning to further one¶s career with another employer is known as leveraging. When the opportunity is irresistible, the only option left is to resign from the current position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay, new title, a new learning experience, etc.). however, jumping the

jobs frequently (job-hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the longrun. V. LOYALTY TO CAREER:-

Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when they start their career. They do not think that career-long dedication to the same organization may not help them further their career ambitions. To overcome this problem, companies such as Infosys, NIIT, WIPRO (all information technology companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with lucrative, innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period. VI. MENTORS AND SPONSORS:-

A mentor is, generally speaking, an older person in a managerial role offering informal career advice to a junior employee. Mentors take junior employees under their protégé and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the organization. They act as role models. A sponsor, on the other hand, is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities.

ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. A variety of tools and activities are employees for this purpose. a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS:Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles, interests, skills and work attitudes and preferences. They identify career goals, develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way. Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. The first one is called the career-planning workshop. After individuals complete their self-assessment, they share their findings with others in career workshops. These workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career strategies. The second tool, called as a career workbook, consists of a form of career guide in the question-answer

format outlining steps for realizing career goals. Individuals use this company specific, tailor-made guide to learn about their career chances. This guide, generally throws light on organization¶s structure, career paths, qualifications for jobs and career ladders. b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING:Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. It is usually done through face-to-face meetings between the employee and the counselor or coach. Here discussions of employees¶ interests goals, current job activities and performance and career objectives take place. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. Sometimes outside experts are also be called in. if supervisors act as coaches they should be given clearly defined roles and training. This is, however, a costly and time-consuming process.

c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. Seminars, workshops, job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities. d) CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS:In recent years, there is growing evidence regarding dual career families developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between the family roles and work demands. When we talk of dual career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally: whose career is important; who takes care of children; what if the wife gets a tempting promotion in another location; who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy, etc. realizing these problems, organizations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. They are coming out with schemes such as part-time work, long parental leave, child care centers, flexible working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS:a) JOB PERFORMANCE:Employee must prove that his performance on the job is to the level of standards established, if he wants career progress. b) EXPOSURE:Employee¶s desire for career progress should expose their skills, knowledge, qualifications, achievements, performance etc., to those who take the decision about career progress.

c) RESIGNATIONS:Employees may resign the present job in the organization, if they find that career opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization. d) CHANGE THE JOB:Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the job in the same organization are better than those in the present job. e) CAREER GUIDANCE:And counselling provides information, advice and encouragements to switch over to other career or organization, where career opportunities are better.

EMPLOYEE TRAINING

INTRODUCTION:Training plays an important role in human resource development. It comes next to recruitment and selection. In fact, the main purpose of training is to develop the human resources present within the employees. In brief, training is the watchword of present dynamic business world. Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the industrial field. New machines, new methods and new techniques are introduced in the production, marketing and other aspect of business. Training is for developing overall personality of an employee. It also creates positive attitude towards fellow employees, job and the organization where he is working. Training is the responsibility of the management as it is basically for raising the efficiency and productivity of employees. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way. The trainees will acquire new manipulative skills, technical knowledge, problem solving ability or attitudes etc.

training is not a one step process but is a continuous or never-ending process. Training makes newly recruited workers fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for old workers, training is necessary to refresh them and enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques. In short training is the act of improving or updating the knowledge and skill of an employee for performing a particular job.

DEFINITION OF TRAINING:According to Edwin Flippo, training is ³the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job´.

PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:A sound training programme must possess the following characteristics: 1. Training programme should be less expensive. 2. Training programme should be developed for all in the organization and not for a particular group. 3. The programme should be conducted by a senior and experienced supervisor or executive of the concern or by the training director who is incharge of the training section under personnel department. 4. Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees. 5. It is not essential to follow the single method of training for all the employees. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups. 6. Training should be followed by a reward. A reward should be provided at the conclusion of the training such as promotion or a better job so that employees may be motivated. 7. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what has been learned by the employees.

MEANING AND IMPORTANCE:After an employee is selected, placed and introduced he or she must be provided with training facilities. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge an skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and

utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. In other words training improves, changes, moulds the employee¶s knowledge, skill, behaviour, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and organization. Training is the most important technique of human resource development. As stated earlier, no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organizational requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organisation. Organizational efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a greater extent depend on training. Organizational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also be achieved through training.

NEED FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING:The need for training of employee is universally accepted and practical training in the form of information, instructions and guidance is given to all categories of employees. It is a must for raising efficiency of employees. Training is necessary in the present competitive and ever changing industrial world. Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons: I. To match the employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs: Management finds deviations between employee¶s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee¶s skill, knowledge, attitude, behaviour etc. to the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs. II. Organizational viability and the transformation process: The

primary goal of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure. If the organisation does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the environment, it will lose its market share. If the organisation desires to adapt these changes, first it has to train the employees

to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the organizational efficiency and to cope with the changing environment. III. Technological advances: Every organization in order to survive and

to be effective should adopt the latest technology, i.e., mechanization, computerization and automation. Adoption of latest technological means and methods, will not be complete until they are manned by employees possessing skill to operate them. So, organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. IV. Organizational complexity: With the emergence of increased

mechanization and automation, manufacturing of multiple products and byproducts or dealing in services of diversified lines, extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries, organisation of most of the companies has become complex. This creates the complex problems of coordination and integration of activities adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations. This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and expansion. V. Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management

has changed form the commodity approach to partnership approach, crossing the human relations approach. So today, managements of most of the organizations has to maintain human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers accordingly. So training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems (including alienation, inter-personal and intergroup conflicts etc.) and to maintain human relations. I.VI. Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the

existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organisation and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines, techniques or technology.

OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:-

1) To raise efficiency and productivity of employees and the organization as a whole. This means to maintain and improve the work performance of employees. 2) To create a pool of well trained, capable and loyal employees at all levels and thereby to make provision to meet the future needs of an organization. 3) To provide opportunities of growth and self-development (career planning) to employees and thereby to motivate them for promotion and other monetary benefits. In addition, to give safety and security to the life and health of employees. 4) To avoid accidents and wastages of all kinds. In addition, to develop balanced, healthy and safety attitudes among the employees. 5) To meet the challenges posed by new developments in the field of science and technology. 6) To improve the quality of production and thereby to create market demand and reputation in the business world. 7) To develop positive attitude and behaviour pattern required by an employee in order to perform a given job efficiently. In other words, the purpose of training is to improve the culture of the organisation. 1)8) To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can

serve as personal assets on long term basis.

TYPES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:1) INDUCTION (ORIENTATION) TRAINING:Induction training is basically for introducing the organisation to newly appointed employees. It is a very short informative type of training given immediately after joining the organization. It creates a feeling of involvement in the minds of newly appointed employees. For induction training, information booklets are issued and short informative films are shown. In addition, lecture by personnel manger/HRD manger is also arranged. Induction training creates favourable impression on the newly appointed employees and this impression remains in their mind over a long period. 2) JOB TRAINING:-

Job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle. It gives information about machines, process of production, instructions to be followed, methods to be used and precautions to be taken while performing the job. This training develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently. 3) TRAINING FOR PROMOTION:-

Promotion means giving higher position. Training must be given for performing duties at a higher level efficiently. This facilitates easy and quick adjustment with the new job and also develops new insight into the duties and responsibilities assigned. For this, training is given after promotion and before actually joining the new assignment. This training is specific, precise and of short duration. 4) REFRESHER TRAINING:-

The purpose of refresher training is to refresh the professional skills, information and experience of persons occupying important executive positions. It gives information about new developments and techniques to trainees and enables them to use new methods, techniques and procedures for raising efficiency. 5) CORRECTIVE TRAINING:-

Corrective training is necessary when employees violate company rules and procedures. For example, absence without prior sanction or smoking in a ³No smoking´ area or not using safety devices while operating dangerous machines. Here, the behaviour of employee cannot be changes simply by disciplinary action. The manager should handle the problem with treatment that corrects the outlook rather than giving punishment. The manager should criticize the act and not the individual. He should motivate concerned individual to correct his behaviour.

SELECTION

OF

TRAINEES:-

Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial.

Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program.

TRAINING

GOALS:-

The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success.

METHODS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:As a result of research in the field of training, a number of programmes are available. Some of these are new methods, while others are improvements over the traditional methods. The training programmes commonly used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. These programmes are classified into onthe-job and off-the-job training programmes. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING METHODS This type of training, also known as job instruction training, is the most commonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimized as the persons learns on-the-job. Onthe-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments. a) JOB ROTATION:-

This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop job. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them. b) COACHING:The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offer him for suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee share some of the duties an responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. c) JOB INSTRUCTION:This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the job, job knowledge and skills and allow him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. d) COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS:Under the committee assignments, a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops team work. OFF-THE-JOB METHODS Under this method of training, the trainee is separated form the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job training methods are as follows: a) VESTIBUTE TRAINING:In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. M aterial, files and equipments those are used in actual job performance are also used in

training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method. b) ROLE PLAYING:It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. c) LECTURE METHOD:The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. d) CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION:It is a method in training the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions, and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of the job performance. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method, in that the discussion involves twoway communication and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.

ADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:Training is advantageous not only to the organization but also to the employees. 1. INCREASE IN WAGE EARNING CAPACITY:Training helps the employees in acquiring new knowledge and job skills. In this way, training increases their market value and wage earning power. This increases their pay and status. 2. JOB-SECURITY:-

Continued training can help an employee to develop his ability to learnadapting himself to new work methods, learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to major changes in job contents and work relationship. 3. CHANCES FOR PROMOTION:Training also qualifies the employees for promotion to more responsible jobs. 4. FOLLOW UP OF SELECTION PROCEDURE:Training is a follow up of selection procedure. It helps in choosing the most appropriate individuals for different jobs. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in selection process. 5. BETTER PERFORMANCE:Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of output by increasing the skill of the employees. Training makes the fresh and old employees more skilled and accurate in performance of their work.

6. REDUCTION IN COST OF PRODUCTION:If the employees are given proper training the need for supervision is lessened. Training does not eliminate the need for supervision but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision. A well trained employee is self-reliant in his work because he knows what to do and how to do it.

EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME:The process of training evaluation has been defined as ³any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance, and to assess the value of training in the light of that information.´ Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the training programme. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place, viz., reactions, learning, job behaviour, organization and ultimate value. i. REACTIONS:Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainee¶s reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter, depth of the course content, method of presentation, teaching methods etc.

ii. LEARNING:Training programme, trainer¶s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learner¶s ability to use or apply, the content he learned. iii. JOB BEHAVIOUR:This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. iv. ORGANISATION:This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity, quality, morale, sales turnover and the like. v. ULTIMATE VALUE:It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival, growth, profitability etc., and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social benefit.

ORGANISED TRAINING PROGRAMME IN AN INDUSTRY:It is not possible to suggest a training programme equally good for each and every organisation. Training programmes differ on the basis of many individual characteristics of the organisations and the employees usually in the organisation of training programmes. The following steps are taken to organise the training programme: 1) IDENTIFYING THE TRAINING NEEDS:Training programme should be set up only after having decided the decided the clear-cut objective in mind. A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organisation, its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out ³the trouble spots´ where training may be needed. a) ANALYSING JOBS AND MEN:If the men are less capable to perform the particular jobs they can be given training to increase their skills. Jobs and worth of the men should be analysed through job analysis and performance appraisal. b) IDENTIFYING PRODUCTION PROBLEMS:-

Production problems like low productivity, poor quality, high cost, high rate of absenteeism, labour turnover etc. should be identified to indicate the need for training. c) COLLECTING OPINIONS:Opinions should be obtained from the management and the working people through interviews or through questionnaire regarding necessary and desirable training programmes.

2) GETTING READY FOR THE JOB:Following are the steps taken in this regard: a) IDENTIFYING THE TRAINEE:Under this step it is to be decided who is to be trained. who is to be trained ± the new comer or the older employee or the supervisory staff or all of them selected from different departments. The proper selection of trainees is very important to obtain permanent and gainful results of training. A trainee should be trained for the kind of job he likes and is suitable to perform. Careful screening of candidates for training raises the effectiveness of the training work. Trainee should be given the proper background information before he starts learning new job skills and knowledge. Trainer should explain the trainee the importance of the job, its relationship with the work flow and the importance of training. b) SELECTION OF TRAINING METHOD:-

Now it is advisable to lay down which method is to be adopted fro the training. Different methods of training may be suggested for the different levels of personnel. Unskilled workers may be trained on the job. On-the-job and apprenticeship training may be awarded, to skilled and semi-skilled workers. For supervisory and executive personnel On the-job and Off-the-job methods such as role-playing, lectures and seminars etc. may be recommended. c) PREPARATION OF TRAINER OR INSTRUCTOR:-

The success of the training programme much depends up on the instructor. Instructor must be well-qualified and may be obtained from

within or outside the organization. It should be decided beforehand what is to be taught and how. He should be able to divide the job into logical parts so that he may teach one part at a time without losing his perspective of the whole. As because training must be based upon the needs of the organization therefore, the trainer must have a clear-cut picture of the objectives of training in mind. It should not be in a vacuum. Trainer needs professional expertise in order to fulfill his responsibility. He should also encourage the question from the trainees. d) TRAINING MATERIAL:-

There should always be the training material with the instructor. Training materials may include some text or written materials as a basis for instruction, review and reference. This may be prepared in the training section with the help of supervisors. The written material should be distributed among the trainees so that they may come prepared in the lecture class and may be able to understand the operation quickly and remove their doubts, if any. e) TRAINING MATERIAL:-

The length of training period depends upon the skill of the trainees, purpose of the training, trainee¶s learning capacity and the training media used. Generally no single session should last longer than two hours. The time of training whether before or after or during working hours should be decided by the personnel manager taking in view the loss of production and benefits to be achieved by training. 2) PREPARATION OF THE LEARNER:-

This step consists: i. The putting the learner at case so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact that he is on a new job, ii. In stating the importance of ingredients of the job and its relationship towards flow, iii. In explaining he is being taught, iv. In creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs,

v. In explaining why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows, vi. In planning the learner as close to his normal working position as possible, and vii. In familiarizing him with the equipment, materials tools and trade terms. 3) PRESENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE:This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question I order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job and why each step in its performance is necessary instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently. Trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations 4) PERFORMANCE TRY-OUT:Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected and if necessary some complicated steps are taken for the trainee for the first time. Then the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated. 5) FOLLOW-UP:-

On the completion of training programme trainees should be placed to the job. The supervisor should have a constant vigil on the person still facing any difficulty on the job, he must be given full guidance by the immediate supervisor and should be initiated to ask questions to remove the doubts.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

INTRODUCTION

The phrase µCollective bargaining¶ is coined by Sydney & Beatrice Webb. According to them collective bargaining is a method by which trade unions protect & improve the conditions of their members¶ working lives. Before the Industrial Revolution, the employer, more or less, enjoyed unquestioned powers on matters relating to wage, working conditions & other matters affecting employees. The week bargaining strength of employees tempted them, on occasions, to exploit the vulnerable situation to their advantage. Workers as a result became restless & widespread protests followed. Governmental intervention was of little help. Workers realized the importance of fighting jointly on all work-related matters. This collective fighting spirit is behind the back of collective bargaining. With the growth of union movement all over the globe & the emergence of employers¶ associations, the collective bargaining process has undergone significant changes. Both parties have, more or less, realized the importance of peaceful co-existence for their mutual benefit & continued progress.

OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of Collective bargaining are given below:  To settle disputes / conflicts relating to wages & working conditions.  To protect the interests of workers through collective plan.  To resolve the differences between workers & management though voluntary negotiations & arrive at a customer. 
To avoid third party intervention in matters relating to employment.

Functions of Collective Bargaining

Collective bargaining plays an important role in preventing industrial disputes, setting these disputes & maintaining industrial peace by performing the following functions:  Increase the economic strength of employees & management.  Establish uniform conditions of employment.  Secure a prompt & fair redressal of grievances.  Lay down fair rates of wages & other norms of working conditions.  Achieve an efficient functioning of the organization.  Promote the stability & prosperity of the company.  It provides a method of the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who are directly concerned about them.  It provides a solution to the problem of sickness in the industry & ensures old age pension benefits & other fringe benefits. 
It builds up a system of industrial jurisprudence by introducing civil

rights I the industry. In other words, it ensures that the management is conducted by rules rather than by arbitrary decisions.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCESS

There are two stages in collective bargaining, viz., (i) the negotiation stage & (ii) the stage of contract administration.
1. Negotiation (a) Identification of Problems

The nature of the problem influences the whole process-whether the problem is very important that is to be discussed immediately or it can be postponed for some other convenient time, whether the problem is minor that it can be solved with the other party¶s acceptance on its presentation & does not need to involve the long process of collective bargaining process etc.
(b) Preparing for Negotiations

When it becomes necessary to solve the problem through collective bargaining process, both the parties prepare themselves for negotiations.
(c) Negotiations of Agreement

Usually there will be a chief negotiator who is form the management side. He directs & presides over the process. The chief negotiator presents the problem, its intensity & nature & the views of both parties. When a solution is reached at, it is put on the paper, taking concerned legislations into consideration. Both parties concerned sign the agreement which, in tern, become a binding contract for both the parties.
2. Contract Administration

Implementation of the contract is as important as making a contract. Management usually distributes the printed contract, its terms & conditions throughout the organization. The union takes steps to see that all the workers understand the contract & implement it. From time to time depending upon changing circumstances, both the parties can make mutually acceptable amendments.

SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLIMENTATION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 

Unions should be made strong by creating awareness among workers.  Interference of political leaders should be avoided. The unions should separate themselves from politics.  Govt. should make efforts for the growth of collective bargaining. Adjudication should be used only as a last resort. Govt. can make legislation for compulsory collective bargaining before resorting to adjudication.  Management should develop a positive attitude toward unions. Much headway has already been made in this direction. Presently, managers are mostly aware of the rights of workers. They are also realizing how important cooperation between management & workers for the effective functioning of an organization. As such, they are now encouraging negotiations & amicable solutions.

INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS

All the issues refer to collective bargaining may not be settled to the satisfactions of both the parties. Such issues result in Industrial Conflicts.
DEFINITION OF DISPUTE / CONFLICT

According to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, Section 2(k), ³Industrial dispute means any dispute or difference between employers & employers, or between employers & workmen or between workmen & workmen, which is connected with the employment or non employment or term of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person.´
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS

It is not easy to identify a single factor as a cause of industrial conflicts as multifarious causes blended together result in industrial disputes. Deep seated & more basic causes of disputes can be identified through in depth probe, though surface manifestations appear to be responsible for conflicts. The relative importance of these causes, when more than presents, is often very difficult to gauge. According to Mukherjee, ³The development of capitalistic enterprise, which means the control of the tools of production by the small entrepreneur class has brought to the fore the acute problem of friction between management & labour throughout the world.´ Causes of industrial conflicts may be grouped into four categories,   Industrial factors,   Management¶s attitude towards workers,   Government machinery &   Other causes.

TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT

Strike

A strike is a spontaneous and concerted withdrawal of the labour from production temporarily. It is a collective stoppage of work by group of workers for pressuring their employer to accept certain demands. The industrial disputes act 1947 has define a strike as ³an assertion of work by a body of persons.´ employed in an industry acting in combination, or a concerted refusal or a refusal under a common understanding of any no of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment. Strikes are of several types,  Sympathetic strike When a strike is undertaken to show sympathy with workers in other industries, it is called as sympathetic strike.  General strike It is a strike by all or most of the unions in a industry or a region  Unofficial strike It is a strike undertaken without the consent of the unions.  Sectional strike It is refusal of a section of a given class of workers to perform their normal duties.  Bumper strike It is a strike when the unions plan to paralyse the industry, firm by firm, the order being chosen by the union. Such strikes are supported by the contributions of those who are still in work.  Sit down strike (also called stay-in, tool down, pen down strike) It is a strike in which workers cease to perform this duties but do not leave the place of work.  Slow-down strike Known as a µgo-slow¶ tactic the workers do not stop working but put brakes to the normal way of doing things. 

Lightning strike Out of provocation, workers may go on strike without notice or at very short notice. There is an element of surprise in such cat-call strikes.  Hunger strike To gain sympathy from the public & get noticed by the employer, workers may decide to forego food for a specified period. Small batches of workers may also go on a relay hunger strike in a sequential order. Such non-violence protests generally bring moral pressure on employers to iron out the differences with quickly.
Lock-outs

Lock-out is the counterpart of strike. It is a weapon available to the employer to close down the factory till the workers agree to resume work on the conditions lead down by the employer. The industrial Dispute Act of 1947 defined it as ³the closing of a place of an employment, or the suspension of work or the refusal of an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him´. If it is impossible to meet the demand of workers, employers may decide to go for lock-out. He may also draw the shutter down so as to bring psychological pressure on the workers to agree to his condition or face closure of the unit.
Gherao

Gherao means to surround. In this method a group of workers initiate collective action aimed at preventing members of the management from leaving the office. This can happen outside the factory premises too. The persons who are µgheraoed¶ are not allowed to move for a long time, sometimes without food or water. The National Commission on Labour, while refusing to accept it as a form of industrial protest, opined that gheraos tend to inflict physical duress (as against economic pressure) on the persons affected & endanger not only industrial harmony but also create problems of law & order.
Picketing & Boycott

In picketing workers carry / display signs, banners & play card (in connection with the dispute) & prevent others from entering the place of work & persuade others to join the strike. Boycott aims at disrupting the normal functioning of an enterprise. Through forceful appeals & negative behavioral acts, striking workers prevent others from entering the place of work & persuade them not to cooperate with the employer.

PREVENTION OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS

Prevention of industrial disputes may have different methods. These methods ³cover the entire field of relations between industry & labour & include enactment & enforcement of progressive legislation, works committees & councils, wage boards, & trade boards, profit sharing & co-partnership, education, housing, welfare work & all such measures which can bridge the gap between the employers & the employed.´ The significant preventive measures may be broadly outlined as below:

Prevention Measures of Industrial Conflicts

Labour Welfare Officer

Standing Orders

Grievances Procedure

Joint Consultation

Strong Trade Unions

Joint Consultations

Collective Bargaining

La bour Co-partnership & Profit Sharing

Labour welfare Officer

Sec. 49 (1) & (2) of the factories act, 1948, specifies that every factory wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed, at least 1 officer must be appointed, where the number of workers are in excess of 2,500, the assistance & or additional welfare officers are required to be appointed to assist the welfare officer.

Standing orders

Majority of the industrial disputes are related to conditions of employment. To prevent the industrial conflict relating to employment conditions, standing orders are formulated. It was made obligatory that standing orders should govern the conditions of employment under the industrial employment (standing orders) act of 1946. The standing orders regulate the conditions of employment from the stage of entry to the stage of exit or retirement. Standing orders act as a code of conduct for the employees during the working life of employees as they provide do¶s & do nots.
Grievance procedure

Grievances generally arise from day ± to ± day working relations. Grievances of the employees are redressed by the management. Management can prevent the occurrence of industrial disputes by solving the individual problems.
Collective bargaining

As discussed earlier, collective bargaining helps for settlement of issues & prevention of industrial disputes. Government also helps trade unions & govt. to come closer to each other & come to an agreement.
Strong trade unions

Strong trade unions have the stability of membership, sound financial position & healthy polices. Such unions think & act constructively for the mutual benefit of the employees & the management. These practices naturally prevent the industrial conflicts.
Labour co ± partnership & profit sharing

Labour co ± partnership & profit sharing create a sense of belongness among the employees & they fill that they are the partners in the company. As such, they think & act for the benefit of the company.
Joint consultations

A Joint consultation between the employees & employer are the differences between them & prevents industrial conflicts.

SETTLEMENT OF CONFLICTS

The methods of the settlement of conflicts generally include those mentions in the below
1. Investigation

This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. It may be voluntary or compulsory. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute, it is voluntary. If the Government appoints a Court of Inquiry to investigate into a dispute without the consent of the parties, it is compulsory. Investigations do not aim at bringing about the settlement of disputes directly, but by analyzing the facts, they aim at bringing about an amicable solution. When the investigation is compulsory, the strikes & lock-outs are required to be stopped & employers should not make any change in the conditions of employment. The result of investigation has no serious effect on the dispute because the general public is least bothered to make note of the dispute.
2. Meditation

Another attempt to settle disputes is Meditation. In this method, an outsider assists the parties in their negotiation. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. The mediator performs the messenger¶s job for both the parties & he neither imposes his will nor his judgment upon them. The main aim of meditation is the settlement of disputes by brining about a voluntary agreement. There may be three kinds of meditation: a. The Eminent Outsider; b. Non-Government Board; & c. Semi-Government Board. If meditation is conducted skillful & sympathetically along proper lines, it can bring about the adjustment of differences that might otherwise contribute to stoppage of work.

3. Conciliation

The main objective of a condition & arbitration is to reunite the two conflicting groups in the industry in order to avoid interruption of production, distrust etc. Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers & employers are brought together before a third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. It is the practice by which the services of the neutral third party as used in a dispute as a means of helping the disputing parties to reduce the extent of their differences & to arrive at an amicable settlement or agreed solution. It is a process of rational & orderly discussions of differences between the parties to a dispute under the guidance of a conciliator. Conciliation machinery consists of a conciliation officer & board of conciliations. The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. He plays the role of an innovator, protector, discussion leader, stimulator, advisor, face saver. He acts as a safety value & a communication link. The task of conciliation is to offer advice & make suggestions to the dispute on controversial issues.
4. Voluntary Arbitration

If the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement, either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator, who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority, whose decision, they are ready to accept. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are:    The voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitration; The subsequent attendance of witness & investigations & The enforcement of an award may not be necessary.

5. Compulsory Arbitration / Adjudication

Where trade unions are week, the method of Compulsory Arbitration is used. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement though the voluntary methods. In India, Compulsory Arbitration is enforced because collective bargaining was not used for regulating wages & other conditions of employment. It may be said that Compulsory Arbitration may be at times & under certain circumstances, necessary & desirable. The nature, scale & timing of state intervention should be suited to the needs of different occasions. The objective of state intervention in the field of industrial relations should be to do social justice & make the weaker party equally strong to enable it ultimately to stand & survive on its own & settle its differences through negations & collective bargaining. Compulsory Arbitration is one where the parties are required to arbitrate without any willingness on their part. Any one of the parties may apply to the appropriate governments to refer the dispute to adjudication machinery.

promotion

When there are vacancies in an organization, they can be filled up by the internal or external candidates. Though the organization prefers to fill up the vacancies by the external candidates through the selection procedure, the internal candidates may also apply for post and may be tested and selected for higher level job in the organizational hierarchy at par with external candidates. Is such upward movement of an employee a promotion? Or it is purely selection? It is purely a selection. If the organization prefers to fill a vacancy only by the internal candidates, it assigns that higher level job to the selected employee from within through promotion tests. Such upward movement can be said as promotion.

Definition:³Promotion is advancement of an employee to a better job- better in terms of grater responsibility, more prestige or status, greater skills and especially increased rate of pay or salary.´ Paul Pigors and Charles A. Myers.

³The upward reassignment of an individual in an organizational hierarchy, accompanied by increased responsibilities, enhanced status and usually with increased income though not always so.´ - Arun Monappa and Mirza S. Saiyadain.

Promotion is the reassignment of a higher level job to an internal employee with delegation of responsibilities and authority required to perform that higher job and normally with higher pay. Thus, the main conditions of promotion are:1) Reassignment of higher level job to an employee than what he is presently performing. 2) The employee will naturally be delegated with greater responsibility and authority than what he has had earlier. 3) Promotion normally accompanies higher pay. Promotion may be temporary or permanent depending upon the organizational needs and employee performance.

Purpose of promotion:Organizations promote the employee with a view to achieve the following purposes: 1) To utilize the employee¶s skills, knowledge at the appropriate level in the organizational hierarchy resulting in organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction. 2) To develop competent spirit and inculcate the zeal in the employees to acquired the skills, knowledge etc. required by higher level jobs. 3) To develop competent internal source of employees ready to take up jobs at higher level in the changing environment. 4) To promote employee¶s self development and make them await their turn of promotions. It reduces labour turnover. 5) To promote a feeling of content with the existing conditions of the company and a sense of belongingness. 6) To promote interest in training, development programmers and in team development areas. 7) To build loyalty and to boost morale. 8) To reward committed and loyal employees. 9) To get rid of the problems created by the leader of workers¶ unions by promoting them to the officer¶ levels where they are less effective in creating problems.

Merit as a basis of promotion:Merit is taken to denote an individual employee¶s skills, knowledge, ability, efficiency and aptitude as measured from educational, training and past employment record. The merits of merit system of promotion are: 1) The resources of higher order of an employee can be better utilized at a higher level. It result in maximum utilization of human resources in an organization 2) Competent employees are motivated to exert all their resources and contribute them to the organizational efficiency and effectiveness 3) It works as golden hand-cuffs regarding employee turnover, 4) Further it continuously encourages the employees to acquire new skill, knowledge etc. for all-round development. Despite these advantages the merit systems suffer from some demerit. They are: 1) Measurement or judging of merit is highly difficult.

2) Many people, particularly trade union leaders, distrust the management¶s integrity in judging merit. 3) The techniques of merit measurement are subjective. 4) Merit denotes mostly the past achievement, efficiency but not the future success. Hence, the purpose of promotion may not be served if merit is taken as sole criteria for promotion.

Senior as a basis of promotion Seniority refers to relative length of service in the same job and in the same organization. The logic behind considering the seniority as a basis of promotion is that there is a positive correlation between the length of service in the same job and the amount of knowledge and the level of skill acquired by an employee in an organization. This system is also based on the custom that the first in should be given first chance in all benefit and privileges.

Advantages of seniority as a basis of promotion are:
1) It is relatively easy to measure the length of service and judge the seniority. 2) There would be full support of the trade unions to this system. 3) Every party trust the management¶s action as there is no scope for favoritism and discrimination and judgment. 4) It gives a sense of certainty of getting promotion to every employee and of their turn of promotion. 5) Senior employees will have a sense of satisfaction to this system as the older employees are respected and their inefficiency cannot be pointed out. 6) It minimizes the scope for grievances and conflicts regarding promotion. 7) This system seems to reserve the purpose in the sense that employees may learn more with increase in the length of service.

In spite of these merits, this system also suffers from certain limitations. They
are:

1) The assumption that the employees learn more relatively with length of service is not valid as this assumption has reverse effect. In other words employees learn up to a certain age and beyond that stage the learning ability of the cognitive process diminishes. 2) It denominates the young and more competent employees and results in employee turnover particularly among the dynamic force. 3) It kills the zeal and interest to develop as everybody will be promoted with or without improvement. 4) Organizational effectiveness may be diminishes through the deceleration of the human resource effectiveness as the human resource consists of mostly undynamic and old blood. 5) Judging the seniority though it seems to be in the theoretical sense. it is highly difficult in practice as the problems like job seniority, company seniority, zonal/regional seniority, service in different organizations, experience as apprentice trainee, trainee, researcher, length of service not only by days but hours and minutes will crop up.

Thus the two main basic of promotion enjoy certain advantages and at the same time suffer from certain limitations. Hence, a combination of both of them may be regarded as an effective basis of promotion.

Seniority-cum-merit Management mostly prefers merit as the basis of promotion as they are interested in enriching its human resources. But trade union favour seniority as the sole basis for promotion with a view to satisfy the interests of majority of their members. Hence a combination of both seniority and merit can be considered as the basis for promotion satisfying the management for organizational effectiveness and employees and trade union for respecting the length of service. A balance between seniority and merit should be struck and a new basis is to be developed. There are several ways in striking the balance between these two basis.viz: 1) Minimum length of service and merit:Under this method all those employees who complete the minimum service, say five years, are made eligible for promotion and then merit is taken as the sole criteria for selecting the employee for promotion from the eligible candidates. Most of the

commercial bank in India has been following this method for promoting the employees from clerk¶s position to officer¶s position.

2) Measurements of seniority and merit through a common factor.

3) Minimum merit and seniority:In contrast to the earlier methods, minimum score of merit which is necessary for the acceptable performance on the future job is determined and all the candidates who secure minimum score are declared as eligible candidates. Candidates are selected for promotion based on their seniority only from the eligible candidates.

Benefit of promotion:1) Promotion places the employees in a position where an employee¶s skills and knowledge can be better utilized. 2) It creates and increases the interest of the other employees in the company as they believe that they will also get their turn. 3) It creates among employees a feeling of content with the existing conditions of work and employment. 4) It increases interest in acquiring higher qualifications, in training and in self development with a view to meet the requirement of promotion 5) Promotion improves employee morale and job satisfaction. 6) Ultimately it improves organizational health.

Problems with promotion:Though promotions benefit the employee and the organization, it creates certain problems. They are disappointment of the candidates, refusal of promotions etc.

Promotion disappointment some employees:-

Some employees who are not promoted will be disappointed when their colleagues with similar qualifications and experience are promoted either due to favoritisms or due to lack of systematic promotion policy. Employee may develop negative attitude and reduce their contributions to the organization and prevent organizational and individual advancement.

Some employee refuse promotion:There is a general tendency that employee accept promotion. But their are several incidents where employees refuse promotions. These include promotion together with transfer to an upward place, promotion that level where the employee feels that he will be quite incompetent to carry out the job, delegation of unwanted responsibilities, and when trade union leader feel that promotion causes damage to their position in trade union. The other problems associated with the promotion are: some superiors will not relieve their subordinates who are promoted because of their indispensability in the present job and inequality in promotional in different departments, regions and categories of jobs. Promotion problems can be minimized though a career counseling by the superiors and by formulating a systematic promotion policy.

Promotion policy Every organizational has to specify clearly its policy rega rding promotion based on its corporate policy. The characteristics of a systematic promotion policy are:

1) It should be considered the sense that policy should be applied uniformly to all employees irrespective of the background of the persons, 2) It should be fair and impartial. In other words it should not give room for nepotism, favoritism etc., 3) Systematic line of promotion channel should be incorporated 4) It should provide equal opportunities fro promotion in all categories of jobs, departments, and regions of an organization 5) It should insure open policy in the sense that every eligible employee should be considered for promotion rather than a closed system which consider only a class of employees 6) It should contain clear cut norms and criteria for judging merit, length or service, potentiality etc. 7) Appropriate authority should be entrusted with the task of making final decision 8) Favoritism should not be taken as a basis for promotion 9) It should contain promotional counseling, encouragement, guidance and follow-up regarding promotional opportunity, job requirement and acquiring the required skills, knowledge etc. it should also contain reinforcing the future chances in the mind of rejected candidates and a provision for challenging the managements decision and action by employee or union within the limits of promotion policy.

Types of Promotion

As already noted, a promotion involves an increase in status, responsibilities and pay. But, in certain cases, only the pay increases, and the other elements remain stagnant. In ot her cases,

the status only increases without a corresponding increase in pay or responsibilities. Depending on which elements increase and which remain stagnant, promotions may be classified into the following types:

1) Horizontal Promotion: This type of promotion involves an increase in responsibilities and pay, and a change in designation. But the employee concerned does not transgress the job classification. For example, a lower division clerk is promoted as an upper division clerk. This type of promot ion is referred to as upgrading' the position of an employee. 2) Vertical Promotion:This type of promotion results in greater responsibility, prestige and pay, together with a change in the nature of the job. A promotion is vertical when a canteen emplo yee is promoted to an unskilled job. The concerned employee naturally transgresses the job classification. 3) Dry Promotions:Dry promotions are sometimes given in lieu of increases in remuneration. Designations are different but no change in responsibili ties. The promotee may be given one or two annual increments.

Transfer
Meaning:Transfer is defined as ³ a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties, responsibility, skills needed or compensation´

Transfer is also defines as ³the moving of an employee from one job to another. It may involve a promotion, demotion or no change in job status other than moving from one job to another.´

However transfer is viewed as change in assignment in which the employee moves from one job to another in the same level of hierarchy requiring similar skill involving approximately same level of responsibility, same status and same level of pay. Thus promotion is upward reassignment of job; demotion is a downward job reassignment whereas transfer is a latter or horizontal job reassignment.

Purposes of transfer:The transfer in an organization may be due to any one of the following reasons: (1) Variation in the volume of work: Transfers are necessary due to variation in the volume of work in .different departments/sections. Shortage of employees or increase in the work in one department due to different reasons leads to transfer of employees from other departments to that department. Workers are transferred from surplus department to another department where there is shortage of staff. (2) Providing training to employees: Transfers are made for providing opportunities to employees for training and development.

(3) Rectification of poor placement: Transfers are necessary for the rectification of poor placement made in the initial period. Similarly, transfers are necessary in order to utilize the services of an employee in the best possible manner.

(4) Satisfying personal needs of employees: Transfers are necessary in order to satisfy the personal needs (personal difficulties) of the employees. They include family problems, sickness, and education of children and so on. Such transfers take place especially among female employees. F emale employees want transfer to join their husbands. This leads to transfers. Workers demand transfers when the climate of the place of work is not suitable to them. Here, transfers are basically for the convenience of employees.

(5) Meeting mutual needs of employees: Transfers are, sometimes, made in order to meet the mutual needs of two employees. It is a type of mutual exchange and is usually accepted by the management.

(6) Meeting organizational needs: Transfers are necessary in order to meet the organizational needs developed out of expansion programmers or fluctuations in work requirements existing or changes in the organizational and structure or dropping of

product lines. For

example, senior

experienced

workers and

supervisors are transferred to new plants/factories in order to manage the work smoothly.

(7) Solution to poor performance: Transfers are, sometimes, made when the worker fails to perform his job efficiently. He is transferred to a new place or post and is given an opportunity to improve his performance at a new place. Here, transfer is treated as a better alternative to outright dismissal.

(8) Avoiding fatigue and monotony: Transfers are made for avoiding fatigue and monotony of work in the case of employees. The productivity of an employee may decline due to monotony of his or her job. To break this monotony, the employee is transferred.

(9) Giving punishment for negligence: Transfers are sometimes made as a punishment for negligence and indiscipline on the part of an employee.

(10) Rectification of poor personal relations: The relations between the worker and his superior may not be smooth and cordial. This may affect the work of the department. One method to solve this problem is to transfer the worker from that department to some other suitable department. This transfer may be necessary for removal of the incompatibilities between the worker and his/her boss or between one worker and the other.

(11) Providing convenience to employees: Transfers are made to help employees to work according to their convenience. Such transfers are also called shift transfers.

(12) To provide relief and to punish employees: Transfers may be made in order to give relief to the employees who are overburdened or are working under heavy risks or tension over a long period. Similarly, on certain occasions transfers are made for indulging in undesirable activities. They may be made as a disciplinary action for serious mistakes on the part of employees. This practice is widespread mainly in government offices and police department. Problem employees are transferred to some other jobs or to remote places.

Types of Transfers
Broadly speaking, transfers may be classified into three types: 1. Those designed to enhance training and development. 2. Those making possible adjustment to varying volumes of work within the firm. 3. Those designed to remedy the problem of poor placement. Specifically, transfers may be production, replacement, versatility, shift and remedial.

1) Production Transfers:As mentioned earlier, a shortage or surplus of the labour force is common in different departments in a plant or several plants in an organization. Surplus employees in a department have to be laid off, unless they are transferred to another department. Transfers affected to avoid such imminent lay-offs are called production transfers.

2) Replacement Transfers:Replacement transfers, too, are intended to avoid imminent lay-offs, particularly, of senior employees. A junior employee may be replaced by a senior employee to avoid laying off the latter. A replacement transfer programmed is used when all the operations are declining, and is designed to retain long-service employees as long as possible.

3) Versatility Transfers:-

Versatility transfers are effected to make employees versatile and competent hi more than one skill. Clerical employees in banks, for example, are transferred from one section to another over a period of time so that they may acquire the necessary skills to attend to the various activities, at the bank. Versatile operations are valuable assets during rush periods and periods when work is dull. Versatile transfers may be used as a preparation for production or replacement transfers

4) Shift Transfers:Generally speaking, industrial establishments operate more than one shift. Transfers between shifts are common, such transfers being made mostly on a rotation basis. Transfers may also be affected on special requests from employees. Some request a transfer to the second shift or the night shift in order to avail the free time during the day to take up part time jobs, although this is not permitted by law.

5) Remedial Transfers:Remedial transfers are affected at the request of employees and are, therefore, called personal transfers. Remedial transfers take place because the initial placement of an employee may have been faulty or the worker may not get along with his or her supervisor or with other workers in the department. He or she may be getting too old to continue in his or her regular job, or the type of job or working conditions may not be well -adapted to his or her present health or accident record. If the job is repetitive, the worker may stagnate and would benefit by transfer to a different kind of work.

Reasons for transfer: Transfers are of basically of three categories, viz, employee initiated transfer, and company initiated transfer and public initiated transfers.

1) Employee initiated transfer:These transfers are also known as personal transfers. These transfers are primarily in the interest of the employee and according to his convenience and desire. Further, this transfer can be classified into temporary and permanent transfers. a) Temporary transfers: -

The reasons for employee initiated temporary transfers are: 1) Due to ill health or involvement of employee in accidents, 2) Due to family problem like taking care of old parents, 3) Due to other adhoc problem like pursuing higher education, b) Permanent transfers:There are several reasons for employee initiated permanent transfers. Employee prefers transfers: 1) Due to chronic ill health or permanent disablement caused by accident, 2) Due to family problems like taking care of domestic affairs in his native place, 3) With a view to correct his wrong placement. Employee may not be interested with the work or working condition or environment of his present job and hence may require a transfer, 4) In order to relive him from the monotony or boredom caused due to doing the same job for year together, 5) To avoid conflict with his superior. If most of the employees working under the same superior request for a transfer, the situation should be corrected by other means like developing that superior in interpersonal skills etc. rather than transferring the subordinates, 6) With a view to search for challenging and creative job, 7) With a view to search for job with opportunities for advancement to a higher level job, opportunities for advancement to a higher level job, opportunities for financial gains etc.

2) Company initiated transfer:Transfer is also at the initiative of the company. They can be classified into temporary and permanent. a) Temporary transfers: reasons for the company initiated temporary transfers are: 1) Due to temporary absenteeism of employees, 2) Due to fluctuation in quality of production and thereby in work load, 3) Due to short vacations. b) Permanent transfer: - reasons for the company initiated permanent transfer are: 1) Changes in the quality of production, lines of activity, technology, organizational structure as discussed earlier,

2) To improve the versatity of employees, 3) To improve the employee job satisfaction, 4) To minimize bribe order-processing corruption.

3) Public initiated transfers:Public also initiate the transfers generally through the politicians/ government for the following reasons: 1) If an employee¶s behavior in the society is against the social norms orderprocessing if he indulges in any social evils. 2) If the function of an employee is against the public interest. The majour drawback of public initiated transfer is the politicalisation of the issue. Some employees may be transferred frequently because of political victimization and company initiated transfer of some employees may be stopped due to political favoritism. This drawback is more severe in government departments and public sector unit.

Benefit of transfer:
Transfers benefit both the employees and the organization. Transfer reduce employee¶s monotony, boredom etc. and increase employees job satisfaction. Further they improves employee¶s skills, knowledge etc. they correct erroneous placement and interpersonal conflicts. Thus, they improve employee¶s morale. Further they prepare the employee to meet the organizational exigencies and meet the fluctuation in business and organizational requirements. Thus, they enhance human resource contribution to organizational effectiveness.

Problems of transfer:
Despite these benefit some problems are associated with transfers. They are:

1) Adjustment problem to the employee to the new job, place, environment, superior and colleageoues, 2) Transfer from one place to another cause which inconvenience and cost to the employees and his family members relating to housing, education to children etc. 3) transfer from one place to another result in loss of Mondays, 4) Company initiated transfer result in reduction in employee contribution 5) Discriminatory transfer affects employees¶ morale, job satisfaction, commitment and contribution.

However, these problems can be minimized through formulating a systematic transfer policy. Transfer policy: organization should specify their policy regarding transfers. Otherwise superiors may transfer their subordinates arbitrarily if they do not like them. It causes frustration among employees. Similarly, subordinates may also request fro transfer even for the petty issues. Most of the people may ask for transfer to risk less and easy job and places. As such organization may find it difficult to manage the transfer policy. Systematic transfer policy should contain the following items: 1) Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be transferred in the case of company initiated transfer. 2) Specification of superior who is authorized and responsible to initiate a transfer 3) Jobs from and to which transfers will be made based on the job specification, description and classification etc. 4) The region order-processing unit of the organization within which transfer will be administrated. 5) Reasons which will be considered for personal transfers their order of priority etc. 6) Reasons for mutual transfer of employees. 7) Norms to decide priority when two order-processing more employees request for transfer like priority of reasons, seniority. 8) Specification of basis for transfer like job analysis. Merit, length of service. 9) Specification of pay, Allowances, benefit etc. that are to be allowed to the employee in the new job. 10) Other facility to be extended to the transferee like special leave during the period of transfer. Special allowance for packaging luggage, transportation etc.

Generally, line managers administer the transfers and personnel managers assist the line managers in this respect.

Demotion

The remaining type of internal mobility is demotion. It is the opposite of promotion. Demotion is the reassignment of a lower level job to an employee with delegation of responsibility and authority required to perform that lower level job and normally with lower level pay. Organizations use demotion less frequently as it affects employee career prospects and morale.

Need for demotions: Demotions are necessary for following reasons:

1) Unsuitability of the employee to higher level jobs:
Employees are promoted based on the seniority and past performance. But, some of the employees promoted on those bases may not meet the job requirements of the higher level job. In most cases employees are promoted to the level of the incompetence. Some employees selected for higher level jobs may prove to be incompetent I doing that job. Such employees may be demoted to the lower level jobs where their skill, knowledge and aptitude suit to the job requirements.

2) Adverse business conditions:
Generally adverse business conditions force the organization to reduce quality of production, withdrawal of some lines of products, closure of certain department orderprocessing plants. In addition, organizations resort to economy drives. Consequently organizations minimize the number of employees. Junior employees will be retrenched and senior employees will be demoted under such conditions.

3) New technology and new methods of operation demand new and higher level skills. If the existing employees do not develop themselves to meet those new
requirements, organizations demote them to the lower level jobs where they are suitable. For example, teacher handling 10 TH class were demoted to the level of 8 TH class teachers when the syllabus were revised and the teachers were found misfit even after training in one school in Andhra Pradesh.

4) Employees are demoted on disciplinary grounds. This is one of the extreme steps
and as such organizations rarely use this measure. Though the demotion seems to be simple it adversely affects the employee morale. Job satisfaction etc. as it reduces employee status not only in the organization but also in the society in addition to reduction in responsibility authority and pay. Hence, there should be a systematic demotion policy.

Demotion policy: Organization should clearly specify the demotion policy. Otherwise the superiors demote the employees according to their whims and fancies. Systematic demotion policy should contain following items:

1) Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be demoted, like reduction in operations, indisciplinary cases. 2) Specification of a superior who is authorized and responsible to initiated a demotion 3) Jobs from and to which, demotions will be made and specification of lines orderprocessing ladders of demotion. 4) Specification of basis for demotion like length of service, merit order-processing both. 5) It should provide for open policy rather than a closed policy. 6) It should contain clear cut norms for judging merit and length of service. 7) Specification of nature of demotion i.e., whether it is permanent order-processing temporary if it as a disciplinary action it should also specify the guidelines for determining the seniority of such demoted employee.

PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

Meaning of Participative Management
The concept of participative management is closely related with the concept of industrial democracy. Employee¶s participation in management means associating workers with the decision-making process. It is a type of mental & emotional involvement of workers in industrial management. In industrial democracy, the opinion & suggestions of workers are taken into account while framing policies particularly those, which are directly connected with them or affect them directly. The concept of participative management developed in Western countries & has proved to be successful. As a result, it acquired world-wide recognition & popularity. Participation in an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company. It is a process of giving & sharing views, ideas & information in between the employer & employees through certain channels / mechanism.

Features of Participative Management
1. Higher status to employees: In participative management, employees are given higher status with power of participate in the decision-making & running of their business enterprise. 2. Provides psychological satisfaction to employees: Participation is an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company. As a result, some management decisions are as per the expectations of employees. This gives psychological satisfaction to employees. They feel that they are given better status & treatment & not treated merely as wage earners. 3. Special attention to view of employees: The views of employees are given special attention in regard to following matters: y Social Matters: Hours of work, work rules, welfare facilities, safety, sanitation, health, etc. y Personnel: Recruitment, promotions & transfers, settlement of grievances, work distribution, holidays, etc. y Economic: Automation, lay-offs, production schedule, production methods, etc. 4. Universally recognized concept: It is introduced in different countries in different forms. 5. Participation is indirect: Employees participation in the management is indirect i.e. through the representatives of employees. Works comities, etc. 6. Brings employees & management closure: It facilitates meaningful communication between management & employees, which ensures cordial industrial relations. 7. Beneficial to both parties: The participative management will be beneficial to both parties only when company¶s management is professional or progressive. 8. Revolutionary concept: It is a powerful tool, which can make industrial democracy a reality. 9. Concept has limitations: Employees will not be allowed to participate in financial & other decisions of the management. It is restricted to those aspects of management where employees are directly involved. E.g.

Objectives or Purposes of Participative Management :
  To create uniform approach of employer & workers.   To establish cordial industrial relation.   To raise industrial productivity.   To workers in confidence.   To introduce industrial democracy.

Needs of Participative Management:
1) Giving higher status & psychological satisfaction to workers: Employees are important & that their views are being taken into account while taking decisions on the matters relating to them. Such participation satisfies the urge of self-expressions. Even for maturity & personality development of workers. 2) Cordial labour-management relations: The participation of the workers in management can act as an effective means for preventing industrial disputes. So there needs to establish cordial labour-management relations through mutual understanding. 3) Creating uniform approach of employer & workers: This avoids possible disputes.

4) Raising industrial production: As workers generally take interest in their work when they are given due importance, respect & opportunity of selfexpression. 5) Creating platform for direct negotiations: It is needed in order to create a platform for direct negotiations & collective decisions. 6) Creating responsible approach among workers: To make workers more responsible, disciplined & constructive in their approach in relation to the activities of the company. 7) Encouraging communication between employer & workers: It enables management to understand the workers point of view at the time of decisionmaking. It removes suspicion among workers. 8) Raising employee¶s morale: For raising the morale of employees & in order to use their knowledge, skills & talents for the benefit of the company. 9) Introducing industrial democracy: Workers participation acts as a means for achieving the dream of industrial democracy. They are consulted as equal partners in the production process. This leads to industrial democracy, which is one useful supplement of political democracy.

Methods of participative management
Participative management is possible by creating suitable agencies, forums or platforms through which effective communication between workers and management will be possible and joint decision will be arrived at the methods of Participative management are different alternative. Employees and workers can select any one of the method popular and also purposeful. This is the nature as the method selected is not important but the result oriented Participative is important. The method used is means while effective participation is the end.

1. Works committees: The industrial disputes act 1947 provided for the setting up of a work committees consisting of representative of management and employees in every undertaking employee 100 or more employees. The committees are for the removing the causes of friction between employers and the workers in the day to day working in factory

level. This joint consultative committee meets frequently for discussion on common problem before workers and the company. After discussion, joint decisions are taken and such decisions are binding on both the parties. Matters like wage payment, bonus, training, discipline, welfare facility, working conditions etc. are discussed in such meetings.

Workers committees are extremely popular and effective in France and England. In India, there is statutory provision for the establishment of worker committees under the industrial disputes act, 1947. Such committees are constituted in large number of industrial unit. Meeting of such committees are also arranged. However, they are neither effective nor popular in India. As a result, participative management through this mechanism is not effective or purposeful in India. Many managers feel that such committees have only a nuisance value. In addition to works committee, many other committees are formed. However, they are not effecti ve as agencies of participative management.

2. Joint management councils (JMCs): These council are similar to works committees with equal representation to employer and employees. Workers express their views, problems such as welfare facility; discipline, training, removal of workers, common grievances, holidays,

rationalization, expansion programmes, etc. are discussed in the meetings of JMCs. Such joint consultative committees exist in UK and Sweden. In India, participative management is mainly through joint management councils.

JMCs are in addition to works committees which are statutory in nature. Unfortunately, the JMCs are not operation effectively in India due to limited interest and initiative in their functioning by managements and workers. They are not used for exchange of information, views, suggestions, etc. but for quarrels and heated exchanges between the representatives of management and workers. Absence of cordial industrial relations in spite of JMCs indicates their overall failure. JMCs are mostly consultative bodies and this type of workers participation is of loose type. The suggestions put forward by representatives are not binding on the management. Such councils serve no useful purpose. They only provide platform for discussions.

3. Co-partnership ( Participation through ownership) : In co-partnership, workers are converted into shareholders of the company (by offering equity shares to them) and are allowed to participate in the management like other shareholders. The company may give financial assistance to workers to purchase equity shares. They can elect their representatives on the Board of Directors. Workers are also allowed to attend meetings of the company and participate in the discussions. Voting rights are also given to employees.

In this method, employees participate in the management as co -owners i.e. shareholders. This gives them an opportunity to participate in the decision making and policy framing of their company at the highest level. Co-partnership is also a method for introducing industrial democracy. Here, workers are given higher status. They work in two different capacities as workers and as co -owners.

In India, the experiment of co-partnership is not popular. Workers show limited interest in purchasing shares of their company as and when offered. Very few workers purchase the shares and join the company as members. Naturally, the participation of workers in the management is weak and ineffective.

Many companies in India offer their shares to employees but the response of the employees is not encouraging. This suggests that co-partnership as a method of participative management is not effective / popular in India.

4. Employee Directors: Here, two or three representatives of workers are taken on the Board of Directors of the company. The employee directors / workers directors are elected by workers and they express the views of workers in the meetings of the Board. Here, employee directors act as connecting link between workers and top level management. Such participation ensures cordial industrial relations. The representative of workers can put the views of workers before the directors and can also safeguard the interests of workers. As a result, the personnel policies will be fair and favourable to workers. Unfavourable decisions to workers will be avoided and better treatment will be ensured to them.

This mechanism of workers participation is now used extensively in the public sector undertaking in India as per the initiative taken by the government. Workers directors are now appointed in companies like Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd., and HMT Ltd. This scheme also exists in the case of nationalized banks, co-operative banks. DCM, Tatas and some more companies from the private sector.

This method of participative management has many limitations. Representation on the Board does not substantially enhance the participation of workers in the management of the company. In addition, the worker director may not be able to play a constructive role due to limited knowledge and experience. The worker director may enjoy the status on par with other directors but will feel inferior to others due to his shortcomings. His contribution may not be satisfactory for the workers and also for the management. Finally, Workers representatives on the Board are minority. They may not be able to protect the interests of workers as decisions are taken on the basis of majority vote.

5. Suggestion Programme / Scheme: Under suggestion programme, workers are asked to give their suggestion to the management on various administrative and other matters such as machine utilization, waste management, energy conservation and safety measures. Their suggestions are considered by a joint committee representing workers, heads of departments and technical experts. The suggestions which are suitable are accepted. Such suggestions are for improvement in the existing organizational setup. Suitable suggestions relating to production activities, cost control, quality improvement, working conditions, etc. are promptly accepted and executed. In addition, rewards are also given to those who make constructive suggestions. For collecting suggestions, suggestion boxes are kept in all departments.

Suggestion scheme of participative management encourages workers to think (individually or collectively) and participate in raising the efficiency of the organization. In India, Tatas, DCM and other industrial groups have introduced suggestion scheme. On May occasions, workers directly connected with work give creative and practical suggestions which are useful to the management in different ways. They may raise productivity or reduce the cost of production. Suggestion

scheme will give good results if workers are encouraged to think and make concrete suggestions. This idea of participative management is now put into operation through quality circles which are popular in Japan and now function in may Indian Companies.

6. Workers co-partnership / Auto Management: In this extreme form of labour participation, workers take over the industrial unit and manage it completely on co operative basis. Naturally, the entire management is by the workers themselves. This method is called ³Auto-management´. One example in India under this category is that of Kamani Tubes Limited. This leading unit was closed down in 1985 due to sickness. Workers suffered heavy loss. Now, workers have contributed to its capital and have become its owners. The Kamani Employees¶ Union took initiative in starting this unit with the co-operation of financial institution form 6th April, 1989. The Supreme Court also allowed the workers to run the unit. This is the first example of participative management in the manufacturing sector in India. It is one significant constructive development in the field of trade unionism in India. The Government of Maharashtra has taken a decision to hand over sick industrial units to workers for regular functioning on co-operative basis.

7. Quality Circle: Quality circle consist of a small number of employees who comes together on voluntary basis with one item on the agenda i.e. to improve quality or to raise productivity or to avoid wastages, etc. this form of participation is voluntary. As a practice, meetings are held once in the week lasting for about as hour. Member of quality circle is given free hand to solve problem related to the quality, if they fail they can request to management to depute an expert to sort out the problem. This circle highly proved to be highly successful because the problem is solved by member themselves through two way communication and brainstorming seriously and studies them effectively and promptly. The suggestion should be implemented, if found suitable.

8. Collective Bargaining:

Collective bargaining is the process in which the representative of the employer and employer and employees meet together to negotiate a contract government both the parties. It results into signing an agreement thereby restricting each party that it cannot take unilateral decision harming the interest of the other party. This sort of joint meeting can bring fruits proved barraging is done in the right spirit with positive attitude. Participation brings both the parties together and improves the understanding thus making the way for the two way dialogue to sort out the problems. Collective bargaining is a better alternative to strike and industrial disputes. It is peaceful and democratic method for solving the problem and demands for workers through direct negotiation between the representative of workers and management. A strong trade union can protect the interest of worker can more effectively through direct negotiation and consultation rather than through disputes and strike which are normally harmful to workers, employer and society at large.

9. Empowered Team: When the authority is delegated to the employees its called empowering. In this sense, employment takes place when employees enjoy power and they experience a sense of ownership and control over the jobs. Employees when empowered, understanding that the job belong to them. As they are competent to speak on the job, they feel responsible. This happens to motivate them and they go out of the way to work. Employees become quality conscious and contribute to quality improvement in product and services. Information is shared at every level le ading to improved performance.

10. Job enlargement and job evaluation: Job enlargement is the process of increasing the scope of the job by adding more tasks to it. As tasks are related, employees to get the opportunity to make grater use of their mental and physical skills.

Job enrichment is designing a job in such a way that it provide the employee grater autonomy for planning and control his own performance. Job enrichment makes the jobs more interesting and challenging.

The main objective of job enrichment and job enlargement is to force the worker from boredom which occurs because of excessive specialization. Both the job enrichment and job enlargement are considering method of participative management as they provide freedom to each employee to use his judgment. This freedom is course limited and restricted. The basis purpose of above noted scheme of participative management is to associate the worker with the decision-making process. Difference methods are use in the different countries as per the situation available. The method used for workers participation is not impotent. Workers participation in management may be voluntary or statutory. Voluntary participation is always better and more effective. Statutory labour participation is not effective as it is mechanical and also imposed on both the parties by force.

PRE-REQUISITES MANAGEMENT
1. Strong trade unions:

OF

PARTICIPATIVE

Existing of strong trade with creative and enlightened leadership is necessary for participative management. Workers and their union must have genuine desire and interest in such participation. They also need information, proper training and ability to participate in the discussions in an effective manner. Workers participation will be ineffective if these pre-request are absent. Politicisation and multiplicity of trade union defeat the very purpose of participative management

2. Favourable attitude of management: The attitude of the management should be progressive and democratic. He must be mentally willing to associate with his workers on equal level and discus the problem freely and frankly with them. The conservative and autocratic outlook of management will defeat participative management in practice. Management have to accept due importance of employees and their status as their partners and not merely as wage earners. Management should not feel that its position it¶s threatened by such participation.

3. Mutual trust and confidence: Existence of atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence is the sine quo non of participative management. Fair participation is not possible when the mutual confidence is absent. Both parties are agree to stay together in an atmosphere of understanding. This facilitates participative management in practice.

4. Genuine urge for co-operation: Genuine desire on the part of employer and worker to discuss, understand the views and come to certain acceptable decision is necessary for success of participative management. This must be supplemented by desire to genuine desire to share authority and responsibility in mutually agreed to sphere. The outlook of employer and worker must change and become favourable for mutual trust and understanding.

5. Peaceful atmosphere: Labour management relation should be a cardinal or at least there should be a no tension in the relation. Active participation of workers in management is possible under such peaceful atmosphere. It is just not possible when there are disputes and strike in the industrial unit.

6. Clear understanding of objective: Employers and workers must understand clear the objective of such participation. The objective must be clearly define and complementary in characters. Employer should not take such participation as an imposed liability and worker should not use it merely for expressing there grievances and demands. Participation should be for achieve the objective which are accepted by both the parties and also beneficial for both the parties.

7. Meaningful sharing of information: Worker representative should have adequate technical, financial and managerial knowledge and information. This will make labour participation effectively. For this, a suitable training needs to be given to the workers re presentatives. Management should also provide all relevant information to employees for their consideration. There must be a free flow of information and communication between management

and worker. This avoids suspicion and distrust and ensures purposeful participative management.

8. Participation of supervisory staff: Supervisory staff should be given a place on the join management council. Similarly, subject earmarked for collective bargaining must be kept outside for the joint

consultation. Participative management will be effective if the entire labour force covered by such participation. In addition, the representative of the worker must be drawn from themselves. The participation of trade union leaders should be discourage as the approach of such leaders may not be positive or fair. Real representative of workers can put forward the views of all workers with confidence.

9. Education and training of workers: Workers education and training should be make significant contribution to meaningful participative management. Trade union and government should provide such education and training to the workers. This will make the concept of participative management among popular among the workers and will ensure its success.

10. Voluntary character desirable: Participative management should not be made compulsory but should be kept voluntary in character. It should not be government sponsored. It will not work fruitfully if it is imposed on the both the parties. Thus voluntary condition character is one pre-condition for the success of participative management. The need of such participation must be felt by both the parties and they should introduce the scheme of participation on voluntary basis.

Importance of participative management:

The importance of participative management is universally accepted and efforts are being made for introducing such participation through suitable agencies and

methods. Participative management has wider socio-economic importance as it given various advantages to workers, employers and society at large. Such participation gives higher status to workers and enable them to think and express their view on the working of their company. Industrial peace and cordial industrial relation are also established through participative management. In addition, workers¶ participation brings industrial democracy in reality. Participative management is important it satisfies the psychological needs of self expression of workers. Even the process of decision making is made democratic through the workers participation. It bring human element in industrial management.

Participative management introduces a new set of volume for the workers and employers in which power is to be replaced by persuasion and compulsion by cooperation. Employee participation is useful for raising industrial production and productivity. It helps consumer in an indirect manner. The national economy also gets certain benefits when industrial peace and harmony exits over a long period. In brief, the concept of participative management is important because of economics, social and human values connected with it.

The ILO has given morale support to employee¶s participation and has advocated its adoption in all countries. Efforts are being made in all countries in this regards. In the countries of west, this experiment is reasonable successful while in developing countries including India, the progress is not satisfactory even when consultative machinery exists in many countries.

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