A Mini project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Submitted By MOUNIKA. P NARENDRA. B NAVEEN. U ANIL KUMAR. P PAVANI. K (07491A0211) (07491A0239) (07491A0241) (07491A0223) (07491A0212)

Under the guidance of
Prof. J. KRISHNA KISHORE, M.Tech. Associate Professor, HOD.

Q.I.S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (Approved by A. I. C. T. E., Affiliated to J. N. T. University, KAKINADA.) An ISO 9001:2000 Certified & An NBA accredited College VENGAMUKKAPALEM - 523272, ONGOLE. PRAKASAM (DIST.), A.P. 2007-2011


(Approved by A.I.C.T.E., Affiliated to J. N. T. University, KAKINADA) An ISO 9001:2008 Certified College VENGAMUKKAPALEM-523272, ONGOLE PRAKASAM (DIST.), A.P. 2007-2011

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the mini project report titled

“PROTECTIVE SCHEMES FOR TRANSFORMER AND MOTOR” Is the bonafied work carried out by
MOUNIKA.P NARENDRA.B NAVEEN.U ANIL KUMAR.P PAVANI.K (07491A0211) (07491A0239) (07491A0241) (07491A0223) (07491A0212)

Of B. Tech in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of bachelor of technology (B. Tech) in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (EEE) by J. N. T. University during the academic year 2010-2011

Sri. J.KRISHNA KISHORE, M.Tech Associate Professor, HOD Project Guide

Prof. J. KRISHNA KISHORE M.Tech. Head of the Department


External Examiner


We would like to express our profound sense of gratitude and indebtedness to our project guide J. KRISHNA KISHORE, HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT, department of ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING for his valuable guidance, cooperation at each and every phase of mini project work and suggestions all the way through our work. We would also express our sincere gratitude and thanks to the ASST. DIVISIONAL ENGINEER of VIJAYAWADA THERMAL POWER STATION (V.T.P.S) for allowing us to accomplish our work and other staff members of the plant VIJAYAWADA for their valuable guidance and support in every part of our work. We would like to express our thanks to all the faculty members, staff of department of electrical and electronics engineering, who have rendered valuable help in making this project a successful one.




the shape and size of protective systems are also getting major changes. protective systems are very important. Therefore in our project we studied various protective schemes that are employed for Transformer & Motor. The fundamental objective of system protection is to quickly isolate a problem so that the 1 . 2. INTRODUCTION Protective relaying is an integral part of any electrical power system. Keeping in phase with the development of advanced electronics. Therefore for reliable operation of any plant. They play a very important role in controlling and protecting various equipment in power system. Protective systems are the heart of any power system. ABSTRACT Protective systems have been undergoing improvements/modifications keep in step with the requirements of larger & larger generating stations and complexity of interactions. Static & microprocessor based relays came into existence which precisely control & protect the system from spurious faults.1.

better and adequate protective relaying. better operation and maintenance. rating of the protected equipment. however the fault can’t be entirely eliminated. • • • When abnormal conditions occur three basic objectives must always be met: All endangered equipment must be protected from damage The faulted components must be isolated and if not damaged. probable abnormal conditions. improving quality of component.unaffected portions of the system can continue to function. POWER TRANSFERORMER PROTECTION A power transformer constitutes an important and expensive component in a power system. costs etc. reenergized as rapidly as possible. its important location. therefore essential to provide an efficient protective relay scheme to protect the transformer from any severe damage which might likely to be caused by short-circuited faults with in the equipment itself or any sustained overload or fault conditions in the power systems. 3. • Faults can be minimized by improving system design. • A fault in electrical equipment is defined as a defect in its electrical circuit due to which the flow of current is diverted the intended. • The choice of protection depends upon several aspects such as type. including tolerable transients. • The protective relay senses the abnormal condition in a part of power system and given an alarm or isolate that part from the healthy system. • Service interruption must be minimized. It is. 2 . The flip side of this objective is that the protection system should not interrupt power for acceptable operating conditions.

The relaying are compact.V. When an abnormal condition occurs relay closes its contacts there by trip circuit breaker opens and faulty part is disconnected from the supply. The protective relaying senses the abnormal conditions give an alarm or isolate that part from the healthy system. auxiliary and accessories etc. The relay distinguishes the normal and abnormal conditions. 3. voltage transformers. trip circuits. its importance. Circuit breakers are switching devices which can interrupt normal and abnormal currents.Each needs certain adequate protection.  The voltage class  The M. protective relays. probable abnormal conditions. Besides relays and circuit breaker there are several other important components in the protective relaying scheme.  Method of grounding the Y-connected neutrals. cost etc. Auxiliary relays. The choice of protection depends upon several aspects such as type. self contained devices which respond to abnormal condition. secondary circuits. time delay relays.  The function it has to perform. 3 .A rating  Type of connections and number of windings. its location. rating of transformer.1 CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMERS Classification of power transformer for purpose of protective gear application would be to take into account. These include protective current transformer.Protective relaying is necessary for every power transformer. The entire process is automatic and fast. There are several transformers of various ratings.

A fuse would operate whether the fault is in the transformer zone or outside the transformer zone. 4 . reverse power. the fuse protection of transformers has a limited application and is generally employed where some relaxation could be made in the degree of supply continuity and the amount of unbalanced loading. It is also not possible to accomplish simultaneous interruption of all three phases in the event of a fault in any one of the phases. temperature rise. it has many draw backs. While this method is simple and cheapest since no other costly switch gear equipment is needed.2 PROTECTION BY FUSE: Power transformer up to a limited capacity rating and voltage level can be protected by means of high rupturing capacity fuses provided on the primary side. under voltage. under frequency.g. The schematic layout adopted 3. PROTECTIVE RELAYS: Functions of Protective Relays: • To sound an alarm or close the trip circuit breaker so as to disconnect a transformer during abnormal conditions such as over-load. unbalanced load. the fuse is incapable of distinguishing faults currents from the transients magnetizing in rush currents and normal load currents. etc. In view of these limitations. short-circuit. Besides. A fuse cannot detect the low current transformer earth faults.. • To disconnect the abnormally operating transformer so as to prevent the subsequent faults. E. over-load protection protects the transformer and prevents insulation failure.

causing least disturbance to the healthy system.3 PRIMARY BACK-UP PROTECTION: Primary protection (Main Protection) is the essential protection provided for protecting an equivalent machine.• To localize the effect of fault by disconnecting the fault part from the healthy part. Voltage stresses are caused by normal voltage. ABNORMAL CONDITIONS AND STRESSES: Power transformers are used in high voltage systems for transfering large loads. The entire power-system is covered by a several protective zones and no part of the system is left unprotected. Current stresses are caused by normal current and short circuit currents flowing through the transformer windings. and it does not responds to faults beyond the protected zone. power frequency over voltage. impulse over voltages.\ 3. They effect the internal and external insulation. current stresses. The boundary of a protective zone is determined by the location of current transformer. Hence the current transformer is located such that the circuit breaker is covered in the protective zones. They are subjected to voltage stresses. Unit system is one in which the protection responds to faults in the protected zone alone. PROTECTIVE ZONE: A part of the system protected by a certain protective schemes is called protective zone or zone of protection. Each zone has certain protective scheme each protection do not have exact zone boundary. The current stresses result in: • Temperature rise 5 . thermal stresses and electromagnetic stresses during their operation. The zone can be precisely identified in unit systems.

The plates in the buchholtz relay get presses by rushing oil. The float. chemical test etc. There by the operator know that there is some incipient fault in the transformer. combustibility. This hydrogen gas being light rises upwards and tries to go into the conservator. Mechanical stress: during short circuit winding and bushings are subjected to dynamic forces. When a serious short circuit occurs in the transformer.4 BUCHHOLTZ RELAY: The incipient faults in the transformer tank below oil level actuate buchholtz relay to given an alarm. Hence transformers are to be protected from all the above abnormalities. the pressure in the tank increases. For faults above the oil level Buchholtz relay is inactive. The gas gets collected in the upper portion of the buchholtz relay. The product of transformer oil decomposition contains more than 70% of hydrogen gas. floating in the oil tilts down with lowering oil level while doing so the mercury switch attached to the float is closed and the mercury switch closes the alarm circuit. Environmental effects are caused by alternative variation in the ambient temperature. 6 . The gas accumulated in the upper portion of the relay can be trapped. There by the oil level in the buchholtz relay drops down. Buchholtz relay gives an alarm so that the transformer can be disconnected before the incipient fault grows into the serious one. The arc produced due to fault causes decomposition of transformer oil.• Electromagnetic forces. The decomposition of transformer oil starts at about 3500C. There after the transformer is removed. The gas is tested for color. The transformer is disconnected as early as possible and the gas sample is tested. The oil rushes towards the conservator and it passes through Buchholtz relay. 3. There by they close another switch which inturn closes the trip circuit of circuit breaker. atmospheric dust and pollution. The testing of gas gives clue regarding the type of insulation failure. The buchholtz relay is fitted in the pipe leading to the conservator.

4.1 Buchholz Relay Fig 3. 7 .FIG: 3.2 connection diagram of buchholz relay LIMITATIONS OF BUCHHOLTZ RELAY: • Only faults below oil levels are detected.4.

earth quakes and mechanical shocks though the pipe line etc.In protection of transformer C. 3. The CT.5 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION: The differential protection responds to the vector difference between two similar quantities .• Setting the mercury switch cannot be too sensitive otherwise there can be a false operation by vibrations.T. 8 .V. To avoid unwanted operation restraining bias coils are provided in series with pilot wires.A.T connections and C. Sparking in magnetic circuit is also detected.’s are connected at each end of the transformer. • Buchholtz relays are not provided for transformer below 500 K. This does not respond to small arcing.The C.’s secondaries are connected in star or delta and the pilot wires are connected between C.2 sec.The out of balance current I1-I2 flows through the relay operating coils. minimum operating time is 0.T ratios are such that the current fed into the pilot wires from both the ends are equal during normal conditions and it varies during fault conditions.1 sec and average time is 0. However it is an excellent relay to bring to notice incipient faults. The ampere turns provide by the bias coil or restraining coil is proportional to average of I1 and I2. A separate buchholtz relay is provided with a tap changer to detect incipient faults in tap changer. such a slow relay is unsatisfactory.T’s of each end. During the internal faults such as phase to phase or phase to ground the balance is disturbed. • The relay is slow.

5. magnetic circuit during short-circuits conditions: 9 .S on either side differs during these conditions.’. The difficulty is over come by connecting adjustable resistors in series with the pilot wires .T. But during short circuit conditions the primary current are unduly large .the ratio errors of C.These are adjusted on size to obtain the equi potential points.T. The difference in pilot wire lengths: The current transformer and machine to be protected are located at different sites and normally it is not possible to connect relay coil to equi potential points. C.Fig 3. Saturation of C. Ratio Errors During short circuits: The current transformers may have almost equal ratio at normal currents.1 Differential Protection of Transformer DIFFICULTIES IN DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION: The differential protection may operate wrongly due to the following causes even when there is no internal fault in the transformers.T.

To avoid this difficulty harmonic restraint is provided for the differential relay. Magnetizing currents in rush in Transformer while switching in Tap Change: When the transformer is connected to supply a large current in rush takes place (6 to 10 times the full load current).6 OVER CURRENT PROTECTION: 10 . This aspect is taken care of by biased differential relay. for each phase. The connections are such that.CONNECTIONS: The percentage differential relay for 3 phase transformer has 3 operating coils and 3 restarting coils.T. This certainly causes operational of differential relay though there is no fault in the transformer . The differential protection provides the instantaneous protection (less than 1. The connections of the C. In both the cases three current transformers are required at each side of the protected transformer. 3. the differential current (I1-12) flows through the operating coil. The relay may lose its stability through these faults. Phase to ground faults.Due to these causes the relay may operate even for external faults.Ratio do not match with the new tap setting resulting current in pilot wires even during healthy conditions. C. no current should flow through the relay operating coil. There by the C. TAP CHANGING: The tap changing causes change in the transformation of the transformer. • • Phase to phase faults. These are connected to pilot wires on the secondary of the current transformer.’s secondary are such that during normal conditions and for external faults.T.0 seconds and no internal time delay) within the protective zone.T. It does not detect the faults and a high speed over relay is required for this purpose.

Its limitations are the danger of relay failure during internal faults when harmonic components and dc of sets could also be generated due to CT saturation arcing at the point of fault. in such case over current protection is employed as main protection against phase faults. 11 . For transformers above 5MVA over current protection is used in addition to differential protection because the latest can not respond to through faults and if this through faults persists for longer duration it creates stresses in the transformer.7 RESTRICTED OVER CURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION: Over current and earth fault protection is provided as main protection for medium transformers where differential protection is not provided. 3. Differential protection is generally uneconomical for the power a transformer below 1 M.A. if differential protection is used as main protection over current protection is used in addition as backup for sustained through faults.Differential protection is uneconomical for power transformer below 5MVA. For the transformer above 1 M.In such cases over current protection is employed as main protection against phase faults. HARMONIC RESTRAINT: In this method the predominant harmonic currents present in the inrush current are filtered out from the operating coil circuit by means of tuning and utilize for applying a blocking feature to the differential current relays at the time of transformer energization. Earth fault protection is provided in addition to phase fault protection.A. For small distribution transformers over current protection is provided by means of fuse on HV side..V.V.

1 Combined Restricted & Earth fault protection 3. Very often only two phase relays are provided instead of three because in case phase faults current in any at least 2 phases must increase.8 COMBINED EARTH FAULT AND PHASE FAULT PROTECTION: It is convenient to incorporate phase fault and earth fault relay in a combined phase fault and earth fault protection. two relay units are enough.Fig 3.7. Earth faults on secondary side are not reflected on the primary side.T’s give protection against earth faults on the delta or unearthed star connected winding of transformer. when primary winding is delta connected or has unearthed star point. The earth fault relay is residually connected.9 RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION: Earth fault relays connected in residual circuit of line C. 3. The increase in current of phases causes corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. Hence. In such cases an earth fault relay connected in residual 12 . The secondary current flows through respective relay unit.

T’. Higher over loads are permissible for a shorter duration.circuit of 3 C. Hence the practice is to set the relay such that it operates for earth fault current of the order of the 15% of the rated winding current. external faults and switching surges. When fault occurs very near to the neutral point of the transformer the voltage available for driving earth fault current is small. it has too sensitive and would therefore. Such setting protects restricted portion of the winding. Restricted earth fault protection may be use high speed tripping for faults on star connected earthed secondary winding of power transformer protection. Hence faults current would be low. If the relay is to sense such faults.1: Restricted earth fault protection scheme OVER LOAD PROTECTION: The permissible over load and their duration depends upon the type of cooling and insulation class of transformer.s on primary side operates on internal earth faults on secondary side do not produce zero sequence currents on primary side. Permissible duration of over Load Over load % : Duration (In minutes) : 125 125 150 45 175 15 200 10 300 1 13 . Fig 3.9. operative spurious signals.

the following aspects need consideration. These are connected to a bridge circuit. The over load protection for such transformer is also given the requisite time delay. an alarm is sounded. Motor transformer). THERMAL OVER HEATING PROTECTION OF LARGE TRANSORMERS: Thermo couples or resistor temperature detectors are kept near each winding.Hence for substation transformers over load protection is generally arranged to initiate alarm in unattended stations. When temperature increases above safe value. Enough time delay should be provided as for the application. The fault current on primary side and secondary side of power transformer are different for phase-phase faults. Primary full load current should be considered while setting the over current relay. The transformer with utility equipment is prone to sudden over loads. If measures are not taken. Same set of current transformers should not be used for differential protection and over current protection. (Furnace transformer. While selecting the over current protections of transformer. This setting is generally adequate to take care of magnetizing current inrush. over load protection is arranged to trip the breaker after request time delay. Instantaneous over current relays should high set to avoid mal operation. The setting of inverse over current relay is generally 125% of transformer rating to take care of normal over loads. Magnetizing current inrush: inverse relays are not affected by the current inrush as they have enough time lag. the circuit breaker is tripped after a certain temperature. Some typical settings for oil temperatures are as follows Switch of fans : 60oc 95oc 120oc 14 Alarm : Trip : . The setting of instantaneous over current relay on primary side should be more than asymmetrical value of fault current for 3 phase fault on secondary side of transformer. Lower value should be selected for setting over current relays.

The reading of hot spot thermometer is related to actual thermal condition of transformer than that of oil temperature indicator LEAKAGGE –TO-FRAME PROTECTION: Leakage-to –frame protection is a very simple system suitable for small power transformers . The bulb is also heated by a small heater connected across CT secondary. These percentages will vary for each design and are dependent upon the actual ambient above 30oc and higher at ambient under 30oc. The device is matched with heating curve of the transformer winding. Alarm contacts used in conjunction with an oil thermometer are adjustable but are typically set in a sequence that brings fans at liquid temperature of 600c and actuate a switch contact should the temperature reach 90oc.It consists of a current transformer slipped over the earthen-connection of the power transformer casing with single-pole over current relay connected directly across the secondary through a setting –resistor. which is similar for all oil filled transformer. the fans are brought in to operation at about 90 percent rated load where as the alarm is given at about 130% rated load. An oil thermometer. HOT SPOT THERMOMETER (Winding Temperature Device): The thermometer bulb is located in a pocket near the winding. Its location is such that it naturally monitors the hottest fluid that exists in the transformers.Oil temperature indicated by a thermometer.thus energizing the current transformer and operating the relay 15 . There by the heat given to the bulb is a function of load current as well as the temperature of oil near winding. can be consider as a partially effective protective device when equipped with alarm contacts connected to give remote warning of abnormally high temperature. The same thermometer is often used to start fan motors on transformers equipped with automatic air blast to increase the name plate KVA rating. For a typical design at 300c ambient. The power –transformer is mounted on concrete are similar base so that it is lightly insulated from earth .an earth fault in either winding of the power transformer causes current to flow through the main earthling connection .Switches are usually capable of readjustment through a range of 10oc.

9. Over fluxing relay is provided with enough time lag. SAFETY DEVICES AND FITMENTS WITH POWER TRANSFORMERS: 16 .Fig 3. B is proportional to V/F. i. The voltage drop across the resistance is a function of V/F. The flux density (B) in the transformer core is proportional to the volts/HZ of supply voltage. Over fluxing protection is provided for generatortransformers and feeder transformers where it is a possibility of over-fluxing due to sustained over voltage. Over-fluxing causes over heating of core and insulation failure.2 frame leakage protection scheme OVER-FLUXING PROTECTION (High magnetic flux protection): Increase in power frequency voltage causes increase in working magnetic flux. where V is the line to earth voltage and F is the frequency.e. The magnetic flux in the transformer core is a function of V/F. The core and core bolts get heated and the lamination insulation is effected. This voltage is fed to the volts ‘per hertz’ relay. there by increase the iron loss and magnetizing current. hence the relay senses magnetic flux condition. The resistance and capacitance are connected to secondary of VT.

C relay and o. The feedback is prevented by operation of directional over current relay of faster setting. 7) Hot Spot Temperature Indicator 8) Gas Temperature Indicator 9) Combustible limit relays 10) Conservator 11) Breather.B is quickly tripped and the feed back from the healthy section is prevented. a power transformer can be provided with the following safety and monitoring devices. 1) Fluid level gauge 2) Vacuum gauge 3) Pressure / Vacuum switch 4) Sudden Pressure Relay 5) Pressure Relief Value. relay on secondary side may be connected in series.The electrical protection systems can sense the abnormal condition by measuring current/voltage. 1) Over current protection 2) Earth-fault protection 3) Direction over current and directional earth fault relays on secondary side to prevent the healthy section feeding in to faulty section. Besides electrical relays.c. the corresponding C. The current coils of O. PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMER IN PARALLEL: The following protections are necessary in case of transformers operating in parallel. 17 . By operation of this directional over current relay. 6) Fluid Temperature Indicator.

LOW OIL LEVEL-FLUID LEVEL GUAGE: Low oil level is a harmful condition because internal insulation clearance. Its position may be improper. bushing and tanks are left in air when the oil drops below the specified level. between loads. When the oil level drops down. The other three relays provide protection against faults in the grounding transformer. it may be a false alarm and level indicator needs checking.T secondary is data connected. Earth fault protection is provided by residually connected relay. The level indicator has a float ended arm. Both low and high level alarm contacts are provided.PROTECTION OF GROUNDING TRANSFORMER: The C. The time settings of this relay are selected to coordinate with thermal rating of the earthing resistor (if used) or with time setting of other fault relays. 18 . it is an indication that the oil is not circulating in the cooling tubes and oil level has dropped below the desired level. Buchholz relay is also is used. This scheme while being simple can’t be generally recommended for the large transformers as the time delay can result in severe damage to the transformer during internal faults. THE DELAY RELAYS: Here an intentional time delay 5 to 8 on 50 Hz basis is introduced in the relay operating time to over side the short time inrush current. The zero sequence currents circulate in this delta. the float tilts the arm there by closing the alarm contacts. Low oil could result from 1) initial mistake to full sufficient oil up to the 2) leakage of the oil through the tank. The float is suspended in the oil. The cooling tubes are warned and level indicator gives an alarm. The earthing transformer is disconnected by opening the circuit breaker. The job instantaneous relays set between 25-50% of continuous current rating of grounding transformer. If the cooling tubes are partially cooled or nearly at ambient temperature. on persistent earth fault. An over current relay with time lag is inserted in the delta. creepages etc.

The dynamic pressure squeezes the bellow and operates the micro19 . The alarm contacts are closed. The main pressure sensing element is a pressure actuated micro-switch mounted inside a metallic bellow.UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY ACROSS THE RELAY OPERATING COIL: The under voltage relay contacts which are closed when the transformer is de energized. It responds only to rate of rise pressure resulting from internal arcing. A tripping suppressor device is connected in the circuit for the relay to operate when there is a fault while energizing. When the pressure is inside the tank increases above a certain value. The main limitation with the scheme is the possible delay by the timer for the 10 current internal faults which affects the voltage. PRESSURE RELIEF AND PRESSURE RELAY: This is different from rate of rise of pressure relay. TRIPPING SUPPRESSOR DEVICE: Here the under-voltage relay contacts are connected in series with the differential relay operating contacts and they open out if the transformer is healthy at the time of energeization. Static pressure doesn’t squeeze the bellow. Pressure relay and pressure relief device is mounted on transformer tank. open out after the transformer is reconnected to the supply. It releases gas pressure to the atmospheric during 1) 2) 3) High overload peaks Prolonged overloads Arcing faults within oil. The pressure relief valve is spring loaded and has a seal-seat. the force on movable sub-assembly exceeds the spring force and the valve operates. but slightly. For this the under voltage contacts are connected in series with differential relay operating contacts. After release of pressure the valve may be manually reset. RATE-OF-RISE PRESSURE RELAY: Rate of rise pressure relay doesn’t respond to static pressure.

In some designs.F.F. Large internal faults: Phase to phase Phase to ground. Buchholtz relay for tap change also Percentage differential protection used for transformers of rating above 5 MVA For important generator transformer with bus bar protection For transformers of and above 5 MVA a)instantaneous restricted E. Below oil level Fault in tap changer Protection Buchholtz relay sounds alarm (gas actuated relay) Remarks Buchholtz relay used for transformers of rating 500 KVA and above. 1)over fluxing protection 2)over voltage protection 1) differential protection 2) Earth fault relay. faults between phases & earth. Rate of rise of pressure relay is generally arranged to trip the transformer. It can mount on the tank. Saturation of Magnetic circuit Earth faults Through faults (external faults) Over loads High voltage surges due to lighting. 1) grade time lag over current relay 2) 2) HRC fuses 1) thermal over load relays 2) Temperature relay Buchholtz relay slow And less sensitive. Abnormal condition Incipient fault below oil level resulting in decomposition of oil. Buchholtz relay Trips the circuit Breaker 1)percentage differential protection 2) High speed high set over current relay.switch.relay Protection of distribution transformers Small distribution transformers up to 500 KVA Generally temperature indicators are provided on the transformers Temperature increase is indicated on control board also. oil pressure itself squeezes the bellow filled with special oil. Fans started at certain temperature Not favored for important transformers. switching 1) Horn Gaps 20 .Relay b) Time lag E.

V. Protection of Generator Transformer Together Generator protection Generator. Rotor earth fault protection Temperature sensors in slots Over current relays in stator and rotor circuits Lightening arresters generator over voltage protection Differential protection Restricted earth Fault protection Buchooltz Relay Over current protection Winding and oil temperature sensors Over flux protection H.V Restricted Earth Fault protection Buchholtz Relay Winding and oil temperature sensors Lightening arresters on H.Transformer over all differential Protection Generator differential protection Stator earth fault protection Negative phase sequence Protection Against unbalanced loading Interturn fault Reverse power protection Field Failure Protection. MOTOR PROTECTION 21 .Lightning arresters In addition to LA for incoming lines.side Over fluxing protection Continuous monitoring of outlet temperature of gaseous of liquid coolants Flow monitors Low boiler Pressure alarm /trip Lubrication oil failure Emergency oil failure Emergency trip Low vacuum Protection of Unit Auxiliary Transformer Protection of main transformer Preventive measuresSound alarm on Control panel 4.V over current protection H.

Generally induction motors are used. If the motors are left unprotected it leads to loss of generation. and type of load. motor thermal rating. phase to earth faults or open Circuit faults.Every thermal power station has a number of motors to perform various functions for running of the plant. 4) Starting failures: prolonged starting of the motor 5) Rotor failures: blocked rotor 1. The induction motor rating in a thermal plant of 210MW capacities starts from few KW to of the induction motors depends not only upon the rating and voltage but also others such as power rating. speed. EXTERNAL FAULTS FROM SUPPLY SYSTEM: 22 . The two basic protections provided for every motor are: 1) Thermal Overload Protection 2) Short Circuit Protection Switch gear used for motor protection are: 1) Contactor starters with HRC fuses and thermal over current relays-for small motors below 150HP 2) Circuit breakers and associated relays for large motors ABNORMAL CONDITIONS: Typically the following abnormal conditions may be observed in an induction motors: 1) Overloads: sustained or momentary overload 2) Supply failure including loss of all the 3-phase or 1-phase 3) Motor internal faults: phase to phase faults. So the motor in the plant also should be protected from faults.

The motor is connected to 3-phase supply through fuse. themal relay and contactor. isolating switch.1 PROTECTION OF SMALL MOTORS: Up to 30 H. D) Bearing failures.C fuses. There by supply to the motor cut off. the motors are protected by H. rated motors.R. over current trips or bimetallic thermal relays and under voltage relays are in-corporate in the stator contactor circuits.P. 4. When the contactor is closed through the closing circuit the motor gets 3phase supply and motor starts. E) Loss of synchronism due to over loads in case of synchronous motors. During overloads the thermal relay operates and there by control circuit is disconnected and the contactor opens the contacts. F) Rotor earth faults in case of synchronous motors. 23 .A) Unbalanced supply voltage B) Under voltage C) Single phasing D) Reversed phase sequence and loss of synchronism 2) INTERNAL FAULTS: A) Stator winding faults B) Motor earth faults C) Winding failure due to over loads due to the faults in the driven equipment. In the system single phasing is the worst situation during which the protection arrangement fails to recognize the situation. Since the substantial back emf is available on the faulted phase terminal to prevent the dropping of the voltage relay.

range. With special temperature detectors with the facility of measuring the rate of rise in temperature. unbalance supply voltages and will be very severe during the operation of single phasing. the bearings can be protected.1 protective scheme of small motor 4.HRC fuses provided repaid short circuit protection. The life of the insulation drastically gets reduced i. OVER HEATING OF MOTOR WINDINGS: Over heating of winding can occur on mechanical over loading.W. Sleeve bearings with oil lubricators are used for motors above 500K.1. Motor should not be allowed to operate above the 40 – 50 minutes. if it is over loaded up 24 . Fig 4.. The protection of the motor can save the motor from destruction.2 PROTECTION OF LARGE MOTORS: Bearings: Ball and Roller grease and lubricated bearings are used to the motors of about 500 K.e. The protection of bearings is not possible to this type of protection.range Failure of ball or roller bearings results in over loading of the motor due to motor coming to a stand still position on account of enormous friction in the bearings.W. Current is cut off even before it reaches peak values. reduced to 50 % of its life for every 8oc rise in temperature.

Over voltage and under frequency protection. Protection against sudden restoration of supply. Field over load thermal protection. Under power and reverse power protection. After 0. Result is that the lower of the back emf traces as spiral. If the supply voltage is restored before 0. Hot starts should be avoided unless the motor is specially designed to withstand restarts when hot. LOSS OF SUPPLY: When the supply is removed from and induction motor. Pull out protection in case of synchronous motors. its back emf will decay exponentially and disappear in a few 110 %.4 sec the voltage between the applied voltage and back emf is greater than the applied voltage and the short circuit current would be correspondingly greater. During that time interval there is a decrease in speed so that the phase of back emf moves away from the position which occupied before the supply of removal of the supply. The protection scheme should also envisage against the following: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Stator and rotor protection against winding faults. 25 .4 sec in 20 cycles. Reverse rotation. STALLING PROTECTION: Motors can be protected against stalling of rotors either by thermal over load relays or separate definite time over current relay. then the voltage applied to the motor would be less than the system voltage because of the back emf and the current would be less than the short circuit current.

m. by routing in a current that is proportional to the square of the load current of the motor. 1) Overloads 2) Single phasing 3) Continuous overloads The following conditions are sensed by embedded thermometers.4 THERMAL OVERLOADPROTECTION: The purpose of thermal overload protection is to protect the motor insulation from excessive thermal stresses. During abnormal conditions the temperature of the winding 26 . decays fast. electromagnetic relays and static relays.3 OVERLOAD PROTECTION OF MOTORS: The overload protection devices use over current sensing devices namely bimetal relays.8 seconds. 4. 4. This means. By using either attracted armature type relay with time delay features of induction type relay. there is a loss of supply to all motors and the motors will be contributing current to the fault and the back e. less than 0. thermostats etc. For this reason under voltage relays are employed in large machines and are disconnected when the loss of voltage exceeds say 0. 1) Temperature due to high ambient temperature 2) Failure of cooling medium The overload protection protects the motor against the overheating when running on load.8 sec the short circuit would be one and half times normal. During the system fault.f. the mechanical forces exerted on the rotor would be over twice the normal starting force and could damage the rotor structure. The principle is based on the fact that a thermal model of the motor is created in the relay.If the voltage was restored after 0.5 seconds.

reaches excess of the safe limit and the life of insulation reduced. The unbalanced protection provided should prevent prolonged unbalanced conditions but should not disconnect the motor for permissible unbalance of short duration which depends on % of unbalance. The secondary currents of CTs are fed to negative phase sequence filter. the output of the negative phase sequence filter is fed to an over current relay unit of a static detector. 4. The embedded thermistors give alarm when temperature of winding exceeds.5 PROTECTION AGAINST UNBALANCE: Unbalanced voltage by itself may not be harmful but the negative sequence currents caused by it results in rotating magnetic field revolving in opposite direction. this field induces double frequency current in the rotor body and conducts giving rise to heat due to copper losses. The setting is passed on Z1/Z3 ratio and also permissible time for percentage unbalance of the supply voltage.6 PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION: 27 . 4. The unbalanced voltage protection an be based upon the following 1) Bimetallic relay for faster trip 2) phase unbalance relay For small motors single phase prevention is provided and unbalance d current relays are provided.

then there is a danger that the supply is restored the motor may be out of step and therefore an under voltage relay is required to the machine.3 sec. the same as that for induction motors. The setting is made by adjusting knurled knob against a calibrated scale. Instantaneous positive sequence (I1): This unit gives protection against motor terminal faults and has a setting range of 6 to 12 times of the normal current. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS: The protection for synchronous motors i. So this relay will not act for starting current.e. Fast over current relays are provided for phase to phase short circuit protection. out of slip relay will detect and has to trip out the motor during the slip cycle. this setting is kept at “6” assuming the motor starting current to be ‘5’ times the rates current. Pole slipping occurs due to sudden severe over-loads and stator current increases and the power factor decreases. The setting of instantaneous over current relays should not be set below the starting current.Phase to phase faults short circuit in stator winding causes burn out of coils and stampings. 28 . It is most sensitive and quick protection for phase faults. The setting of instantaneous over current relays should not be set below the starting current. The relays giving short circuit protection should not act during starting. Normally. Other protective devices are under-power and reverse-power relays. Hence the motor should be disconnected from supply very quickly. The setting should be just above the motor starting current. For large motors such as boiler feed pump motors biased differential protection is provided. During this time.but with the addition of relay to detect the loss of synchronism and loss of supply. The supply to synchronous motor is interrupted for more than say 0..

Since our 415 v system and 6.B. Time delayed positive sequence unit I1(t): This unit gives protection against stalling.T. The element is provided with an external stabilizing resistor 0-27 ohm for 5 amps rated relay and 5-500 ohms for 1 amp rated relay.C.56 seconds. When the element is connected to a C. Timers setting is 0. Earth fault unit (Io): This unit gives protection against Earth Faults. (single phase stalling) and has a pick up setting range of 30 to 630 with time setting of 0.B.6K. in case of 415 volts motors it is residually connected and for 6.. A. B: External unbalanced faults which may permit the motor to act as generator and feed negative sequence current into the faults.T.V. For 1Amp C.A for 5 A C. Amps. A part of the output from the filter taken for I1 is taken through a timer for obtaining time delay and given to the relay element I1 (t).B.T. Io element is not connected to trip.V. systems are unearthed systems. T. it is through C. secondary currents due to saturation during motor starting. motors.06 to 7.C.Negative sequence unit (I2): This unit gives protection against single phasing i.6. and 50 m.C. The current range is from 10 m. but only to alarm and the current setting is set at 20m.e.T. Amps to 160 m. K.06 to 7.A to 800 m. These settings may be limited by the following considerations.56 seconds. A setting of half the normal 3 phase starting current will protect the motor against single phase stalling and initial setting of one third of the starting current is recommended. 29 . the pick up setting should be selected to suit the CBCT and the primary operation current.T. A: Unbalanced in C. The `Io` unit can be residually connected or through a C.

1 can be used to prelude this facility. the stailing protection is always service while in the controlled mode the stailing protection is primed by an external device like a speed switch. This also lights up the pre-trip alarm L. Controlled mode operation is generally used when the staling time characteristic of the motor faults with the starting characteristics. In the permanent mode. 50 or 75 seconds. This unit is I th (a) can be set at 70 to 100% of the Thermal Trip Setting. 30 . Timer setting ranges from 0 to 60 seconds.5 times and the timer setting is kept depending upon the motor to with stand the load characteristic.7 to 1.5 to 6 times normal current.D. When the current in the motor exceeds the sorting on the rotary switch.E.3 I. An extreme position marked 0. This unit has a fixed time delay of 25. The primary is done by a read relay RR1 mounted inside the relay and the positive of the d. There is a mode switch either to include or bypass the relay for some time or permanently. (Light Emitting Diode) Thermal Setting: Thermal Setting on the relay is provided by two potentiometers which are calibrat6ed from 0.c voltage is extended to the Read Relay through the contacts of the speed switch. The two positions of the switch are permanent and controlled. Thermal Unit (I th): Pre-Trip Alarm Unit: A Pre Trip Alarm unit is provided on the relay which can be set by rotary switch provided on the front panel.The current setting ranges from 1. Both the potentiometers should be kept at the same position for the correct operation of the relay. Normally the current is set at 1. the timing is started and after the set time elapses a Read Relay is energized which can be used to initiate alarm.

The relay characteristic can be matched to a wide range of motor ratings.Primary Current (Amps) I min is effective pick up current required.T. The thermal units begin to operate when the current exceeds 105% of the setting current. Thermal reset push button is provided to reset the thermal element. the relay setting current is adjustable by means of two potentiometers.R motors 100 % full load.seconds (A) 100 × 1.M.T. Totally enclosed motors: 110 % Open type motors: 125% TESTING OF MOTOR PROTECTION RELAY: 31 .05 × C. C.1 1a 2 2a 3 3a : : : : : : 4 sec 6 sec 8 sec 12 sec 16 sec 24 sec There will be three characteristics in each relay and depending upon the motor characteristics the curve can be chosen. I min as % of motor full load current. Thermal status is retained by the relay even with auxiliary supply failure for several minutes. Ith setting Amps = I min × motor full load current × C.

MODERN TRENDS IN TRANSFORMER PROTECTION Micro-Processor Based Relays: The increased growth of power systems both in size and complexity has brought about the need for the fast and reliable relays to protect major equipment and to maintain system stabilility. though successfully 32 . 2) The thermal unit equivalent operating current I eq sqrt (sq (I1) + 6*sq (I2)) This reduces to sqrt (7/3)* IL For an I eq = 5*setting current =sqrt (7/3)* I L Or I L =sqrt (7/3) *5* I s 5. high operating time. contact problems etc.1) UNDER Single phase conditions positive sequence: I1 =negative sequence= I2 Line current IL = sqrt (3* I1) = sqrt (3* I2) Thus for testing instantaneous I1 and I2 units the line current must be 3 times the required unit currents. The electro magnetic relays has several drawbacks such as high burden on the instrument transformers.

of desired relaying characteristics such as over current. inadaptability to changing the system conditions and complexity. directional. Digital system 100 % Stator Protection Electro Mechanical System IAV Comments IAV protects 90-95% choice of 27TN and 64G in digital system for 100% stator ground protection. The cost of protective scheme should be about of 1% of the cost of the equipment to be protected. Complete over Excitation Two set point over Digital system better coordinates Protection excitation protection with transformer and generator capability curves. mho quadrilateral. Digital relays are user-friendly. The main features which have encouraged the design and development of micro processor based relays there are economic compactness. of disadvantages such as inflexibility. reliability. has evolved during past to decades. The protection function shall operate over the range of 31-79 Hz with same accuracy at normal system frequency. impedance. But their cost is 15 to 20 times more than that of conventional protective relaying schemes. A high degree of dependability and security shall be provided by extensive self diagnostic routines and an optical redundant D. The primary protection for the A.C generator shall be an integrated digital protection system including protection functions such control monitoring.used the static relays suffer from a no. elliptical etc can be obtained using the same interface. flexibility and improved performance over conventional relays.C supply. The concept of digital protection employing computers which show much promise in providing improved performance. diagnostic and communication capabilities. Digital computers can easily fulfill the protection requirements of modern power system with out difficulties. A no. Unbalanced Armature INC77 currents Protection 33 More sensitive protection for negative sequence current .

Increased reliability due to self checking. With the Increase of generation. High level of flexibility. Loss of excitation (two Generally one zone of Possibility of false trip with one zones) protection zone protection during power swing. Reverse Power Lack of sensitivity for Digital system some applications sensitivity. High speed. 34 . User friendly yet higher capable.condition. the generation also increased. In order to maintain The system stability and reliability. 6. the system stability has become a main problem. offers better Advantages of Micro Processor Relay: • Ability to combine a large no of protective and monitoring functions in single relay unit. • • • • • Measured values of variables are processed digitally by micro processor. CONCLUSION: With the increase of demand day by day. various protective schemes were introduced.

Gupta     pictures history and briefing theory theory 35 . Motor for reliable operation and survival of the equipment at VTPS. References & Bibliography: www. B.googlesearch. we have observed various protective schemes for major electrical equipment like www.B.So. Theraja J.

Wadwa  theory 36 .C.L.

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