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2 The concept of the passive house is to build a house that retains heat and uses the passive heat generated in the house by its residents. and by having very limited energy consumption. food preparation.Passive houses A passive house stands out by having an incredibly warm and comfortable indoor climate. electrical equipment and sunlight so that ultimately there is no need for heat supply or a heating system. so that ultimately there is no need for heat supply or a heating system. The concept of the passive house is to build a house that can retain heat and use the heat from the sun. we get a building that is warm. comfortable and healthy to live in. COMFORT HOUSES are built exclusively to well-known principles. . Each passive house thus actively contributes to the protection of the climate. also known as passive heating. Hence the name COMFORT HOUSES. By building in accordance with the passive house concept and adding the best principles of the building physics.
90% of energy is used to keep a condition stable. From active to passive! . By building the house as a passive house. the coffee in a coffee machine. the less energy needs to be used to produce new heat. The interaction between the individual building elements means that it is possible to construct a house which uses almost no energy for heating and has a fantastic indoor climate.g. it is a relatively small step from a low-energy house to a passive house. A low-energy house needs very little heat supply – a passive house needs no heat supply. in that the more heat is retained. 3 Approx. e. This saving offsets the extra cost of construction. Starting with the principle of passive heating.Passive heating Passive heating works like a thermos flask. you can do without district heating at all.
Loss Gains Loss floor Gains Windows Ventilation . Heating energy demand The energy demand is the ”raw” number of kWh to be supplied to the air in the room to maintain an indoor temperature of e. walls. loss through structures and windows is minimised to such an extent that the combination of passive heating and heat recovery from ventilation air can provide almost all the heating. some criteria’s have been defined for the energy consumption. In an ordinary house. In a passive house. walls. the energy input represents a very substantial proportion of space heating. 10 % Criterium Criterium Recomandation Criterium Recomandation The above requirements can be verified in accordance with the Passivhaus Dientsleistung’s calculation program PHPP (Passivhaus Projektierungs-Paket . The energy demand is calculated all year round and allows for the local variations in outdoor temperature and sunlight. 0. Equipment Windows In an ordinary house the difference between heat loss and passive input is high.6 h-1 max. To maintain a fixed temperature of 20°C. >25°C) max. floor Windows Bodies Equipment Bodies Roof. Heating energy demand Airtightness Thermal load Total primary energy demand Overtemperature in rooms (temp. Ventilation Windows 4 Added energy Ventilation Added energy Roof. The figure applies whether the heating source is electricity. 120 kWh/m²/a (m² = Treated floor) max.Requirements To meet the requirements for passive heating in Germany. This leads to a high heat demand (columns 1 and 2).g. 10 W/m² (m² = Treated floor) max. 20°C.Passive House Design Package). building envelope and ventilation of a passive house. 15 kWh/m²/a (m² = Treated floor) max. as much has to go in as out. In a passive house the difference and therefore the heat demand are minimized (columns 3 and 4). natural gas or bio-fuel.
6 h-1 corresponds to 0. Bodies Equipment Windows Loss Gains Worst case: on the coldest day of the year the maximum demand on the heating system may be 10 W/m². airtightness is defined as air changes per hour at 50 Pa pressure difference. Thus the requirement for airtightness is 4-5 times more stringent than Danish requirements for new buildings. walls. Ventilation The test for airtightness is carried out in the same way as for other new buildings. This is the heat that needs to be added to the room air on the coldest day of the year. The calculation is almost the same as for the energy demand. where passive house requirements have been defined.Requirements Airtightness Airtightness describes how airtight the structure is. washing and tumble drying clothes or doing something else that contributes high surplus heat. a passive house is not heated with lightbulbs unless it is the high-efficiency type. At the same time. Heat load Heat load is the maximum permitted demand on the output of the space heating system. unless there are visitors or you are baking a cake. Added energy . Windows Ventilation floor The heat load for heating a passive house is so low that it can be provided by a lightbulb. but the requirement is 4-5 times stricter. optimal control of ventilation functions and the elimination of damp problems in the structures within the building envelope.40 l/s per m². In Denmark it is defined as l/s per m² gross floor area. The calculation needs to be carried out for both a cold sunny day and a cold. the requirement of 0. it assumes a minimum of internal heat input from bodies and equipment: that is. Converted to Danish figures. the worst case. cloudy day. The requirement for airtightness ensures reduced energy consumption. 5 Roof.320. however. The difference is that rather than an annual average it calculates a one-day average on a cold winter’s day. In Germany.
Requirements Total primary energy demand The total primary energy demand is the energy used for heating. but an absolute maximum.0 kWh/m2. existing single-family houses need 88. from solar cells. If you look at the passive houses built in the last 10 years. cooling. 6 The house must not be heated by an inefficient fridge or freezer. but excluding earth and solar heating. it looks as if the 120 kWh/m2 per year is set very high. The 120 kWh/m2 is not a target. domestic hot water. In other words: it is the total amount of energy that needs to be supplied to the property. Including for example bio-fuels and electricity from wind power. ventilation.5 kWh/m2. . A criterion for the total energy consumption including “housekeeping electricity” exists in order to eliminate any scope for cheating by heating the house with the aid of inefficient white goods and standby power loss. and none of them exceeds 108. That is why there is also a criterion for the total power demand of the household. electricity for running the building and household. On average.
Requirements Overtemperature in rooms The recomandation for overtemperature in rooms is max. 10%. Ventilation U-value 0.12 W/m2K . A recomandation for maximum overtemperature has been imposed so as to ensure that the house is not made unbearably hot to come home to in an attempt to build as much passive solar heating as possible into a design.1 W/m2K No thermal bridges U-value 0.7 W/m2K U-value 0. 15 kWh/m2 a U-value 0. The 10% is the calculated proportion of the time of usage when the room temperature exceeds 25°C.1 W/m2K 7 Airtightness Heating energy demand max. The calculation does not take into account whether you open windows yourself to let in cool air. In practice you would naturally adjust the room temperature in this way when you are at home.
the principles should be checked which ensure that the house retains heat. Finally. there are some important.Realisation The architect’s options when building a house with passive heating are limitless. Heat retention is first and foremost realised through: increased thermal insulation elimination of thermal bridges airtight construction energy-efficient windows heat recovery and controlled ventilation . preferably with 40% of the windows area placed in the southfacing facade out of the shade of other buildings. The architect’s hands are free but. its surface structure – without unnecessary projections – and the boundary of the heated area of the house. as always. 8 Planning The first step is to set out the house in the best possible position on the plot. hills or woods preferably with a compact layout The next step is to plan the method of building the house. recommended steps to follow in the planning phase so that everything goes according to plan.
the insulation must be thicker than in normal structures. 300 mm in walls and 450 mm in roof and floor. 9 More thermal insulation To retain the heat. and the insulation must as far as possible form an unbroken layer round the whole house so that thermal bridges are avoided. In a passive house.1 W/m2K.Realisation Attic unheated 1st floor heated Ground floor heated Garage unheated Basement heated Basemant unheated In black and white it can be hard to see where the heated boundary of the house is. for single-family houses the U value should be under 0. The insulation must envelope the house. so it is important to highlight the sections that are included in the heated area. the insulation of the building envelope must be thicker than normal. . i. corresponding to approx.e.
. insulation should be inserted to give the heat as long a route out of the house as possible to eliminate heat loss at the thermal bridge. Thermal bridges lead to 10-15% of the heat loss in a traditional structure. or where there is a step in the insulating layer. a solution must be found to reduce the cold bridge as much as possible.Realisation Avoid thermal bridges Wherever the insulation is interrupted or penetrated. Geometrical thermal bridges can be avoided if the external insulation is appropriately designed and is continuous. a thermal bridge arises. The best way to locate thermal bridges is to review the floor plan. To ensure that the building needs no added heat at all. cross-sections and detail drawings to find possible gaps in the external insulation. it is therefore necessary to avoid thermal bridges. Anywhere that a step occurs in the insulation thickness or where the insulation is broken. Colour the insulation yellow. 10 At each thermal bridge. then every break in the yellow line thermal indicate a potential cold bridge.
The line must enclose the heated area. . Joints between materials must be planned at each detail point. It is therefore necessary to avoid penetrating the damp-proof membrane and where necessary to ensure that any penetrations are made good and sealed. must be made airtight. for example between wall and windows and between wall and ceiling. and the line must be intact all the way round. Air flows in a leaky house Air flows in an airtight house Airtightness of the structure also ensures that ventilation can be controlled correctly and that the air passes through the heat exchanger.Realisation Airtight construction Airtightness of the structure is a precondition for a good thermal balance and indoor climate. 11 The red line indicates where the airtightness plane is located in the building. This means that connections between various building elements.
9°C Indoor temperature 22°C External wall 21.85 W/m2K for the built-in window ensures that there is always a thermally comfortable indoor climate in the room. East-. External wall 18. west-. . but the windows should ideally not be directly affected by sunlight in summer. and north-facing windows should only be as large as necessary to achieve optimal light entry. Triple glazing with a thermally insulating window frame Orientation of the house and location of the windows in the building can be very significant to the total energy that can be supplied to the house. Even without a heating system.5°C Windows 9. 12 Heat loss U-value Indoor Solar heat gain g-value Triple glazing which retains the heat in the room while solar heat is permitted to enter through the pane. the sun’s rays must hit the windows in winter when there is a need for heat input.1°C Indoor temperatur 22°C Traditional house Outdoor temperature -10°C Passiv house The requirement for a U-value of under 0.4°C Windows 19. so the windows must use low-energy glass and thermally insulated frames. This is achieved by having the large glazed panels facing south and building them under a wide overhang.Realisation Energy-efficient windows The windows must retain heat and let as much solar energy enter the house as possible. the internal surface temperature of the window should not be less than 17°C on a cold winter’s day. To make the best possible use of passive solar heat gain.
For the ventilation to be correctly controlled. It is important at the planning stage to find the shortest duct runs. Heat from the used indoor air is used to heat the new fresh air that is drawn in. in the form of compact units that resemble a cupboard. Hot water Hot water comes from a heat pump that uses waste heat from ventilation air. bathroom and toilet are extracted while fresh air is supplied to the living rooms. Schematic of venting in a passive house. even air renewal in the house. the house must be airtight. supplemented in some cases by earth heating and a solar collector. The heat pump can also provide the requisite additional heat. This means that all connections between the various building elements must be airtight. . Moist air from the kitchen.Realisation Heat recovery and controlled ventilation The ventilation system ensures good. 13 Compact systems The system is available in several versions.
but can open a window when you please. pollen and particles and the automatic extraction reduces moisture and dust so that you do not need to spend time airing the rooms every day. 14 Good indoor climate Controlled ventilation also has a number of advantages for the indoor climate: the air is purified of dust. airtight structures and energy-efficient windows result in an even surface temperature throughout the room.Comfortable advantages Always warm and comfortable Well-insulated. and it is possible to sit near the window all year round and enjoy the view and daylight without discomfort from draughts or cold. .
15 Cost Building in accordance with the passive house principle costs more than an ordinary house: experience shows that the cost is about 8% higher. it is cheaper than a low-energy house and eliminates the worries about rocketing energy prices.Comfortable advantages Quiet Efficient insulation and good windows give the house better sound insulation so there is less noise pollution from the surroundings. . However.
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