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Access path is path through which you can retrieve records. There are 6 types of access path is supported by SYNON. By default Synon creates 3 access path namely Physical, Update and Retrieve access paths. 1. ‘PHY’: Physical file: Arrival sequence access path defining the based-on file. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may only be one access path of type PHY - the path will automatically be created by AllFusion 2E. 2. ‘UPD’: Update: Access path used for update. Path is keyed on AllFusion 2E fields that identifythe file. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be several different access paths of type UPD, each containing a different combination of fields. A default update path containing all fields will automatically be created by AllFusion 2E. 3. ‘RTV’: Retrieval: Access path used to retrieve records from file. The key order cannot be changed. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access path of type RTV - a default path, keyed on the identifying fields for the file, will automatically be created by AllFusion 2E.Each ‘RTV’ access path has an associated 'UPD' access path. 4. ‘RSQ’: Resequence: Access path used to retrieve records from file using an alternative key order. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access paths of type 'RSQ'. 5. 'QRY' : Query: Access path used to retrieve records from file using an alternative key order which may include virtual fields. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access paths of type 'QRY'. 6. ‘SPN’: Span: Access path used to span several different files using an alternative key order. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access paths of type 'SPN'
How many ways you can pass a parameter?
You can pass a FLD, RCD, and KEY as a parameter
What are the roles of parameters?
a) Position – is equal to setll in RPG. b) Restrict – is equal to CHAIN & READE opcode in RPG. c) Vary – the length will be vary when you call user written program d) Map – it map the attribute and lengths of the target field
How many types of parameters are there?
There are 4 types. a) Input- it pass value and the final value will not returned b) Output – it won’t pass value but it receive value c) Both – it do both a & b d) Neither – it won’t pass and it won’t return any value.
The NXT context may be used only for result fields. Multiple record function (EDTFIL. We can specify 13 levels of totalling. In that. If the external source is RPG. while compiling the PGM. Detail Screen. PMTRCD) It has Standard Header. Subfile control. CUR: The CUR context contains all the fields which are in a given report format of A AllFusion 2E report function. Because USRSRC is a internal function. which specifies a complete report. which specifies a segment of a report for inclusion with in another report function. The first character to be #. Indicators should not be conflicting. etc) is to be placed onto an appropriate report total format. copy the message back to the previous PGM message queue. How is a print object function linked to a print file? A print object function is linked to a print file by typing the line command T on the panel for the print file to see the structure of the print file. MIN. Maximum of 13 print objects [PRTOBJ] can be used within a print file. followed by I [Input] / O [Output] / B [Both] that last four characters being user defined. then it should be in QRPGSRC. What is CUR and NXT contexts used in PRTFIL and PRTOBJ functions? NXT: The NXT context defines a context relative to the CUR context of AllFusion 2E report functions: the NXT context contains the fields which are in the report format one level break higher. Subfile record. SELRCD) It has Standard Header. 3. PRTOBJ is an internal function type. send error message. 3. closing the program. Single record function (EDTRCD. passing initial value to the prompt. 1. DSPFIL. commitment control.Can you pass a parameter with type = (VRY) while calling EXCUSRSRC & why? We cannot pass a parameter with VRY type when we call an EXCUSRSRC. 2. What is Print File function? Print file function allows you to print all the records from a file. 2. DSPRCD. What is the use of function option? Using this you can activate “Confirm prompt” Prompt. reclaim the resource.) It can therefore be used to specify that the result of An AllFusion 2E field function (SUM. Standard footer 2. and Standard footer . Key Screen. insert print object function using IA or IB. The parameters should be 6 characters long. MAX. Control breaks are defaulted based on the number of keys specified What are the Elements the panel design has? A panel design has been divided into 3 ways. If it is a COBOL program. bypass key screen etc How to use execute user source and to use parameters in this function? Execute user source specifies user written high level language source code is to be included within source code generated by a calling function. it may give length mis-match error will come. What is the difference between PRTFIL & PRTOBJ? PRTFIL is an external function. (See section on the CUR context for an explanation of report formats. it should be in QCBLSRC.
SS. Send status message (it gives information about the long running program’s status to the message queue) e. Maximum c. Transaction function (EDTTRN. DSPTRN) It has Subfile Standard header. Minimum d. mult & div) CONCAT (It joins 2 string with the conditions (*none = no blanks. *one = leave one blank. User What is Built in function and give some examples? Using Built in function. sub. *ADD *SUB *COMMIT *COMPUTE (Using this we can do all arithmetic operations like add. *all = leave all blanks)) *CVTVAR (It just converts the value of one type to another type) *DATE DETAILS (It gives the date details like day of week. But is derived from other fields or files. Subfile record. Send error message (using this we can pass a error message to the message queue) b. MS) between 2 given time) *EXIT PROGRAM (Leave) *MODULO (It gives only remainder value) *MOVE *MOVE ALL (Move value (even constant) to variable(s)) *MULT . day of year. leaf year etc) *DATE INCREMENT (Using this we can add quantity of a given date and find out new date) *DIV *DIV WITH REMAINDER (Remainder value will move to another value) *DURATION (It calculates duration between 2 dates) *ELAPSED TIME (It calculates time (HH. Send completion message (when a job is completed this message will appear) d.3. Using this we can. Send information message (using this we can pass a information message to the message queue) c. you can do all arithmetic operations. Execute message (Request message to be executed by the calling function) What is Function field? A function field is a field whose value is not physically stored in database. using this we can send messages to Workstation using synon/2e. using this you can concat even 2 database fields) f. *month. a. The message function has a. MM. Derived f. Count e. Retrieve message (it retrieve a message from message file to the function. SUM b. Standard footer What are a Message function and its type? It is a type of function. Control. string manipulations and control operations like Commit and rollback.
Display file j. a. Edit file k. Display record c. using this you can design the Panel (Workstations) and Report design. Execute User Source c. User functions What are the default functions created for REF and CPT file? REF File: Create object. Edit transaction n. Delete object. Edit record 2 panel h. User can write his won codes in the User point in the action diagram. Change object. Select record l. You can include these functions inside the action diagram or User written HLL. Edit record 3 panel i.*QUIT (It is like a goto statement in RPG. Display record 3 panel e. it leaves from the entire action diagram) *ROLLBACK (The changes will not be reflected when you use *ROLLBACK) *RTVCND (It specifies that the name of a given condition is to be retrieved into a function field) *SER CURSOR (It is equal to cursor position keyword in SDA) *SUBSTRING (Using this we can take a part of string from the base variable) *TIME DETAILS (It is similar to date details Built in function) *TIME INCREMENT (Using this we can add a quantity to a given time) What is User function & types? Using this function. Database functions b. a. Display record 2 panel d. Prompt record f. Edit file and Select record CPT File: Create object. Execute External Function d. Print file What is standard function and types? Standard functions specify the program and subroutines. Execute internal Function b. you can incorporate User written programs and subroutines into the Synon/2e generated applications. Change object and Delete object . Execute user program What is Device function & types? Device function is a function. Display transaction m. Edit record g. Device functions c. It has both internal and external functions. a. Print object b.
For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be several different access paths of type UPD. There are 6 types of access path is supported by SYNON. physical file and control language. What are the access paths will allow changing the key order? RSQ. Dynamic selection is less efficient than static selection. A default update path containing all fields will automatically be created by AllFusion 2E.the path will automatically be created by AllFusion 2E. ‘PHY’: Physical file: Arrival sequence access path defining the based-on file. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may only be one access path of type PHY . 1. that function will be locked temporally. b. If you want to delete. Static Selection: is built into access path. By default Synon creates 3 access path namely Physical. he can implement permanent lock What are the Access Path auxiliaries for query Access path? Access Path auxiliaries are the three different OS/400 objects used to implement a query access path. What is access path? How many types & explain each. Path is keyed on AllFusion 2E fields that identify the file. you have to remove the (REF) relations then delete.a default . but may help to reduce the number of OS/400 access paths that are required.How do you delete a access path which is referred by some other access path? We cannot delete an access path which is referred by some other function/access path. Using which access path you can define a virtual field as a key? Using QRY access path we can add virtual field as key. Dynamic Selection: is not built into the implementing OS/400 access path. 2. They are logical file. It is also called as self-reference. ‘UPD’: Update: Access path used for update. Permanent lock – if the Designer has Object Ownership authority. What is 'Access Path Selection’? Access Path Selection is the process that specifies which records from a file are included in the Access Path. Selection is made up of a number of select / omit criteria. While generating QRY access path how many members being created. 3. each of which are based on one or more conditions. QRY and SPN access path will allow changing the key order. Update and Retrieve access paths. but it is applied at run time. you can lock an access path? Temporary lock – when PGMR open the function/access path. each containing a different combination of fields. What does the term Involution mean in relationship to entities? Involutions specify whether the connection exists between the entity and itself. How many ways. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access path of type RTV . The key order cannot be changed. For mapping it creates Physical file (PF). Logical file and it creates a QRY in CL program. ‘RTV’: Retrieval: Access path used to retrieve records from file. Access path is path through which you can retrieve records.
*ALL is specified for the "Sharing" parameter. What type of Relations will have the Virtual Fields? File to File Relations: Owned by. Includes. The field redirection should be done in the referring file. Each ‘RTV’ access path has an associated 'UPD' access path. ‘SPN’: Span: Access path used to span several different files using an alternative key order. ‘RSQ’: Resequence: Access path used to retrieve records from file using an alternative key order. . What is the difference between REF and CPT files? REF file is like a master file.Implements the parent child relationship. keyed on the identifying fields for the file. Refers to . then no additional entry is created: the existing entry is shared. Qualified by: define a key attribute for a file Has: define a non-key field for a file What is the difference between Known by and qualified by? Known by . 4. How is qualified by implemented? Qualified by is a key relation.It requires exact key match. The key field of the owning file becomes a primary key of the owned file. It is used to get the nearest. then a separate entry will be added to the file for the field. will automatically be created by AllFusion 2E. previous or next nearest record based on whether *NEXT or *PREV is specified. The *PREVIOUS is implemented as SETGT and READP.path. This is the default action. Refers to and Extended by relations. Known by: define a key attribute of a file. CPT file is like a transaction file. What are the sharing options available for Owned By relation and Explain? *NONE and *ALL *NONE is specified for the "Sharing" parameter. Qualified by . 6. it will return either a previous or next value What is the difference between Refers to and Owned by relation? Owned By . It is used to qualify a file identifier by one or more variable factors. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access paths of type 'SPN'. 'QRY' : Query: Access path used to retrieve records from file using an alternative key order which may include virtual fields.the key field of the referring file become the non key attribute of the referred file.doesn't require exact key match. 5. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access paths of type 'QRY'. The *NEXT is implemented as SETLL and READ. Define File to Field relations and explain each? Field Relations is used to describe the key as well as non-key attributes of a file. For a given AllFusion 2E file there may be many access paths of type 'RSQ'.
What is a DOMAIN? The set of possible values an attribute can take is the 'domain' of the attribute. To prevent duplicate fields SYNON uses the FOR TEXT if present or the Surrogate number Types of file relations? FILE TO FILE Defined as Owned by .ATTR Extended by FILE TO FIELD Known by . REF – Reference file (Master file): The REF AllFusion 2E file type should be given to AllFusion 2E files that contain basic reference data that is used by the application. There can be more than one known by relation Owned by: Defines a parent and child relationship.How many types of files are available in Synon/2e? There are 4 types of files are available. Owned by.Key Refers to . RCD – Record file: The RCD file attribute should be given to files that define data structures for use by programs in the implemented system. Qualified by and Refers to can only have the FOR TEXT. Name 3 important design concepts of SYNON/2E? 1. Which modelling method does SYNON/2E use? ENTITY . Non.. Eg. Data Base Files: 1.Data Base Files: 3. Order header and order details (parent key will be copied to the child) .ATTR Has . STR – Structure file: The STR file attribute should be given to files that define data structures for use by functions in the implemented system. one to many or many to many.RELATION modelling method What are Virtual fields ? Virtual fields are logically present in one file and physically present in another file. Data driven design 3.based design What does the term Cardinality mean in relation to entities? Cardinality specifies whether the connection is one to one. Implementation independence 2.key Includes .ATTR Defined as: Declaration that the file exist and created implicitly by SYNON Known by: Specifies that the field is a key field. 4.key Qualified by . Object . CPT – Capture file (Transaction file): The CPT file type should be given to AllFusion 2E files that contain transaction data that is regularly captured for use by the application. 2. This is valid only for OWNED BY and REFERS TO relation types What is the Use of FOR TEXT ? It is used to further clarify a relationship.
. MASTER . Refers to. all files are closed and the program is shutdown. This is used to find out a close match (Eg. Reclaim resources: The OS/400 command RCLRSC is to be invoked when the program completes execution. In either case. 1. NXT.By choosing this option the program will run under commitment control. Program contexts: PAR. CUR. Qualified by. DB contexts: DB1 & DB2 2. Literal contexts: CON. SLAVE . Reclaim resources is valid only on external function. all files remain open and a subsequent call will be faster and perform a full program execution. RCD. Owned by. 'Y' is specified. etc. System contexts: JOB.The program does not run under commitment control.). Commit points can be added using commit built-in function 3. 3RD. If no redirection is specified it is similar to KNOWN BY Refers to: Specifies a file refers to another file (Foreign key) Includes: A file is to include all the fields that have been declared in the structure file Extended by: Declares a file to be an extension of a file relation. 2ND. CND Copy back messages? Copy back messages specifies whether any messages outstanding on the programs message queue is to be copied back to the previous programs message queue when the program terminates How to use commitment control in SYNON? Commitment control can be implemented by specifying our option in function options. There are three options available viz. No automatic start or commit points are included. If.The program will run under commitment control. This program will contain appropriate commit points which will be defined in the SYNON supplied program Y2BGCTL 2. NONE . all internal variables are initialised to blanks and zero on each call. Includes What are the different types of contexts? Types of contexts 1. WRK 5. If blank. there are no commit points. Device contexts: CTL.Qualified by: This is a key relation used to qualify a file identifier by one or more variable factors. It gives an association between one to one or one to none. data. This does not support COBOL programs . The command closed down any other program. Will work only if it is OWNED BY in the second file Has: Declares a field to be present in a file RELATION SEQUENCE AT THE TIME OR RESOLVING Defined as. rate. PGM 4. DTL. Hence. discount. Extended by. Has. Note: Physical files running under commitment control must be journalized What are function options close down program & reclaim resources? Close down program: Specifies whether the last record indicator is to be set on when the program finished execution. files that have been called and/or opened by the program thereby reallocating their storage. KEY 3.
Maximum of 13 print objects [PRTOBJ] can be used within a print file. Indicators should not be conflicting. If the external source is RPG. The field redirection should be done in the referring file. For Open query [OPNQRY] and open database [OPNDBF] you should specify a value of the *PERM to prevent closure of file How to use execute user source and to use parameters in this function? Execute user source specifies user written high level language source code is to be included within source code generated by a calling function. It is used to get the nearest. The parameters should be 6 characters long.What are the various access path maintenance methods? The various access path maintenance methods are: 1. The first character to be #. it should be in QCBLSRC. * Is implemented as a separate program * Has its own action diagram. No access paths can be attached Define execute external function? An Execute External Function: * Allows you to specify a high level program using an action diagram. No rebuilding is done. The *PREVIOUS is implemented as SETGT and READP. We can specify 13 levels of totaling. Define execute internal function? Execute internal function allows you to specify a portion of your action diagram that can be used repeatedly. followed by I [Input] / O [Output] / B [Both] that last four characters being user defined. previous or next nearest record based on whether *NEXT or *PREV is specified. * Can be attached to RTV/RQS/UPD access paths . The *NEXT is implemented as SETLL and READ. Implemented as a macro function internal source code in calling function. Print File function? Print file function allows you to print all the records from a file. Control breaks are defaulted based on the number of keys specified. IMMED updates the changes immediately. DELAYED Changes are logged and the access path updates when the file is opened. If it is a COBOL program. 2. REBUILD Access path is rebuilt when the file is opened again How is qualified by implemented? Qualified by is a key relation. The command is entered in the second level message. 3. then it should be in QRPGSRC. The message type should be "EXC". Override functions are not possible. Neither parameter is allowed. Parameter passing is normal What is execute message function? Execute message function allows a request message to be executed by the calling program. Define Execute user program? Execute user program is a connection between a HLL user written program and SYNON function. It is used to qualify a file identifier by one or more variable factors.
Name any two function field types related to PRTFIL? CNT. MAX Name any two PRTFIL related contexts? TOP. PRTOBJ is an internal function type.What are the two types of indentation specifications for PRTF functions? 1. How many report heading formats can be defined per print file? Of those. Normally the number of level headings is equal to the number of fields of the key sequence of the access path on which the PRTFIL is based on. how many can be dropped? Only one report heading format is defined in a print file. But should start from the primary key. 2. 2. MIN. The report heading format cannot be dropped. CUR & NXT What is the maximum number of PRTOBJ functions that can be added to one PRTFIL function? 13 How is a print object function linked to a print file? A print object function is linked to a print file by typing the line command T on the panel for the print file to see the structure of the print file. What are the access paths on which Print file can be based on? Retrieval Access Path (RTV) Re-sequence Access Path (RSQ) Query Access Path (QRY) What is the difference between PRTFIL & PRTOBJ? PRTFIL is an external function. In that. insert print object function using IA or IB. which specifies a segment of a report for inclusion with in another report function. Absolute Can you pass a parameter as restricted for a print file? Yes. which specifies a complete report. Relative 2. Can a print object function be embedded within another print object function? (True/False) True What is the maximum number of Level heading formats and Level total formats that can be defined in a print file? A maximum of 13 levels of heading & totaling can be defined in a print file. . SUM.
instances of fields available from various system values What is the context in SYNON/2E? instances of a field that are available for use at a particular processing step . System Contexts . Execution Message function 5. 1. specifying different message files for the message. When using open functions this utility lets us save the contents of a diagram to a work area and copy those contexts elsewhere What are the different condition types? 1. Value Condition type 2. specifying substitution variables and changing message identifiers. Completion Message function 3. System Context 5. Value List Condition type 3.Name A FEW SYNON built in functions *MULT *CONCAT *MOVE *MOVE ALL *ADD *DIV *CVTVAR *QUIT *MODULO *SUB *EXIT PROGRAM *ROLL BACK *RTVCND *SET CURSOR *SUBSTR What are Message Functions? What are the different types of message functions? Means of defining messages of various types. Device Context 3. Range Condition type What are the different types of contexts available? 1. Status Message function 2. Function Context Explain Context Database Contexts . Information Message function What is Notepad technic in SYNON/2E? The notepad utility allows us to copy constructs from one action diagram to another. Error Message function 4. Compare Condition type 4. Data base Context 2.instances of same database field available in more than one file Device Contexts . Literal Context 4.instances of field available from literals like condition etc.instances of same device field available in more than one format Literal Contexts .
IA. H. Built-in functions execute common low-level functions such as arithmetic operations. MAX. Iterative What are the user points? User points are places where we can insert logic into the action diagram to add processing that is specific to that function. The combination constructs are: 1. Eg. Retrieve Object (RTVOBJ) . These programs consist of either a Panel design or Report design and an Action Diagram What are the different Database (dB) functions? 1. SUM. Sequential 2. IO. M. How will you insert a case construct? We can insert a case construct by typing ICF in the line command. Change Object (CHGOBJ) 3. II.What are constructs? Constructs are the basic building blocks of action diagrams. I*F. A Function field is a field whose value is not physically stored in a Database. Define 'Function Field'. IB. but is derived from other fields or files. By combining different types of constructs we define the procedural logic of an action diagram. character string manipulation and control operations such as Commitment Control and Program exit. Give any 4 line commands that can be used in the action diagram panel? ICF. Create Object (CRTOBJ) 2. MIN etc. F. CC. What is a Device function? Device functions specify interactive programs and Report Programs. What is a Message function? Message functions define messages that have to appear at a workstation using SYNON/2E facilities. Z. IAF. C. Delete Object (DLTOBJ) 4. S How can you view an action diagram of a given function? We can view the action diagram of a given function by typing F at the edit database relations panel against the required relation. MM. What is User function? User functions provide a means of incorporating user programs and subroutines into SYNON/2E generated applications. Mention few points about Built-in functions. Conditional 3.
Internal the function is implemented as source code within that of a calling function.What are 4-different Categories of standard functions? 1. 2. Has Relation 2. 2. 3. 1. 3. Define term 'File Type' and list various file types. List various data types in SYNON/2E CDE Alphanumeric code field TXT Descriptive Text VAL Monetary Value DTE Date . Standard functions. Device functions. What are the four different function types? 1. VAL 2. The various file types are Structure (STR). What are the 2 condition types used in SYNON/2E? 1. 4. What is 'FUNCTION' in SYNON/2E? A function defines a process that operates on files and fields in the database. Refers to relation Define the term 'Relation' in SYNON/2E. Database functions. The SYNON/2E Relations establish the relationships between fields and files and files and other files. LST Define the term 'Condition' in SYNON/2E. Built-in-functions. Message functions. Owned by relation 4. Known by relation 3. Reference (REF). File type is the description of how the file will be used. List various SYNON/2E Relations. What are the 2 ways of implementing Functions in SYNON? External the function is implemented as a separate HLL Program. and Capture (CPT). 4. Function fields. Re-synchronization is the expansion of relations to rebuild the file entries for all files in a model. User functions. Built-in functions. Condition is a value that specifies the circumstances under which an action or a set of actions is to be executed Define the term 'Re synchronization'.
DB attribute fields (ATR) and various function field usages. PHY Physical Access Path 2. and The order of the Key fields. . UPD Update Access Path 3. which defines the type of the data that the field represents. What is the purpose of Access Path? The purpose of an access path is to retrieve. The several categories of usage are DB keys (CDE). implemented as an OS/400 physical or logical file. in a given key sequence. Selection is made up of a number of select / omit criteria. physical file and control language.TME Time STS Status QTY Quantity What is field usage? Field usage is given when referring to a field with a relation. Name the access paths created automatically for every REF or CPT file. The key fields for the Access Path. Immediate 2. They are logical file. What are the Access Path auxiliaries for query Access path? Access Path auxiliaries are the three different OS/400 objects used to implement a query access path. RTV Retrieval Access Path What is 'Access Path Selection’? Access Path Selection is the process that specifies which records from a file are included in the Access Path. The different field types are CDE. It must have a name and type. What is a field in SYNON/2E? A field is a description of an item of data. What are the various types of 'Access Path' maintenance? 1. Which Access Path is needed for PRTFIL and PRTOBJ functions? QRY access path. sequence. NBR and QTY. filter or update data in physical or logical files What is an access path in SYNON 2/E? An access path is a view of data in a physical file. Rebuild What are 'Access Path’ format entries? Access Path format entries list The fields that are present in the Access Path. What is a field type? List the 3 field types Field type is an assigned type. 1. each of which are based on one or more conditions. Delay 3.
The Synon products were first re-branded as CA's COOL:2E and COOL:Plex technologies and later Advantage 2E for iSeries 400. As the dominant tool for the AS/400 platform. In 1998. Synon also built the Obsydian product. Inc. Larkspur. in turn purchased by Computer Associates in 2000. In 2004. an object-oriented PC-based environment that is used to develop C++ code for Windows clients and RPG code for AS/400 servers.. it provided an upper and lower CASE environment that generated COBOL and RPG code.What is a Virtual field? A virtual field is a field that is logically present but physically not present on an access path. they became AllFusion 2E and AllFusion Plex. Founded in England in 1983 by Simon Williams. Synon was acquired by Sterling Software. CA (derived from and pronounced "sign on"). . What is differentiation? Differentiation is the process in data modelling of creating new entities by splitting a current entity into two separate entities. What is device design? Device design is a panel or report design associated with a function What is Assimilation? Assimilation is the process of retrieving existing externally described OS/400 file definitions to SYNON/2E design model An integrated development environment for AS/400s originally introduced in 1988 by Synon.
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