A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Business Administration of Madurai Kamaraj University

By Aarthy.V Reg No ± A9410151 Under the guidance of Somasundaram Thiagarajar School of Management

Thiagarajar School of Management (Affiliated to Madurai Kamaraj University) Madurai ± 625 005 December-January 2011



I hereby state that the project entitled, ³A STUDY ON THE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY CONTROL IN BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED, TRICHY´ was undertaken at, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited-Trichy submitted to Madurai Kamaraj University in partial fulfillment of Master of Business Administration Degree is a record of original work done by me and no part of this project has been submitted for the award of any other Degree, Diploma, Fellowship or other similar studies.


Signature of the candidate


Aarthy.V 23 29 ± 09± 1987 

Pursuing M.B.A in THIAGARAJAR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, specialization  BSc(BIOTECHNOLOGY) from S.P. COLLEGE MADURAI, with finance as

OF ARTS AND SCIENCE, MADURAI  Schooling in Capron hall Higher Secondary School, Madurai AREAS OF INTEREST: Finance and Marketing

4 Scope of the study 1.2 Introduction of the company 1.3 Objective of the study 1. List of Tables List of Charts 1 Introduction CONTENTS CHAPTER NAME PAGE NO 1.6 Review of literature 1.1 Introduction of the study 1.Chapter No.5 Limitations of the study 1.7 Research methodology 2 3 4 5 6 7 Budget Process Budget Control Data analysis and Interpretation Findings & Suggestions Conclusions Bibliography .

M. Thiagarajar School of Management for providing support guidance and valuable ideas which helped me to complete this project successfully. Principal.Somasundaram. Thiagarajar School of Management. Faculty. . S. Sekar(Assistant Officer BHEL Trichy) for presenting me the opportunity to pursue a valuable project and facilitating me in successful completion of the project. I sincerely thank Dr. Director. Nagaraju. S.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Wilford Simon(Sr. Finally. I extend my heartfelt thanks to my friends and family members who have been a source of inspiration and support throughout the project. I express my deep sense of gratitude to MR. Manager BHEL Trichy) and Mr.N. Thiagarajar School of Management for facilitating my value addition at the institution. I am deeply indebted to Mr.Venkiteswaran. for his encouragement.

2009 Highlight ± part 1 Highlight ± part 2 PAGE NO . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Financial turnover from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Profit before tax from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Working capital 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Capital employed from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 Value added from 2004 ± 05 to 2008 ± 09 Cash inflow operation from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008.LIST OF TABLES Table DESCRIPTION No.2009 Cash outflow operation from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Yearend inventory from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Total sundry debtors 2004 ± 2005 to 2008.

2009 Cash outflow operation from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Yearend inventory from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Total sundry debtors 2004 ± 2005 to 2008.LIST OF CHARTS Chart DESCRIPTION No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Financial turnover from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Profit before tax from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Working capital 2004 ± 2005 to 2008 ± 2009 Capital employed from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 Value added from 2004 ± 05 to 2008 ± 09 Cash inflow operation from 2004 ± 2005 to 2008.2009 NO PAGE .

List of Tables: TABLES Table 1 Financial Turnover from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 2 Profit Before Tax from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 3 Working Capital from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 4 Capital Employed from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 5 Value Added from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 6 Cash Inflow Operation from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 7 Cash Outflow Operation from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 8 Year End Inventory from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Table 9 Total Sundry Debtors from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Page No 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

CHARTS Chart 1 Financial Turnover from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 2 Profit Before Tax from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 3 Working Capital from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 4 Capital Employed from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 5 Value Added from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 6 Cash Inflow Operation from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 7 Cash Outflow Operation from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 8 Year End Inventory from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Chart 9 Total Sundry Debtors from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010 Page No 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

This was the primary objective of my study apart from the objective to find out sales Budget. how much profit and profitability position. Production Budget. Cash Budget of the Company. . The report includes with a list of suggestion based on the findings from the study. profit & loss a/c various magazine and newspaper. The second data were collected from annual reports of the firm balance sheet.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The project aims to study about the Budget and Budgetary Control in BHEL ± Trichy.


It is the engineering and manufacturing enterprise of its kind in India and of the leading international companies in the field of power plant equipment.1. About the Industry PROFILE OF THE STUDY UNIT (BHEL TRICHY) Bharath Heavy electrical Limited (BHEL).1. Introduction of Company 1. is a name recognized across the industrial word. BHEL offers a wide spectrum of products and services for the core sectors of . established in 1956.

The additions have been the Auxiliaries plant at Ranipet. spread over 2908 acres of land at Tiruchirappalli and 1.64. BHEL is now well on its journey towards business excellence through Total Quality Management (TQM). Industry. systems and services at competitive prices. Oil &Gas. The wide network of BHEL¶S 14 manufacturing divisions. Transportation renewable energy.2 About the company BHEL-TIRUCHIRAPPALLI-PLANTING POWER FOR PROSPERITY The Tiruchirappalli plant of Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited was set up in 1963 for the manufacture of high pressure Boilers. .economy viz. over 100 project sites.. BHEL. with an initial investment of Rs. BHEL is truly India¶s industrial ambassador to the world.42 crores. 1. In order to meet the rapidly growing power requirements of the country.256 acres at Ranipet.. in three successive phases of expansion. four power sector regional centers. The plant was set up with technical assistance from Skoda export under an Indo-Czeck economic co-operation program. 24.. BHEL. 44. Trichy is the largest engineering and manufacturing complex in Tamil Nadu. Defense. Power Generation & Transmission. the Trichy Division has been a vast growth. etc. 8 service centers and 14 regional officers enable the company to be closer to its customer and provide them with suitable products. with an additional investment of Rs. Having obtained ISO 9000 certification.280 square meters. the piping center is Chennai and industrial valves plant at Goindwal in Punjab. The high pressure Boiler plant has a total covered area of 1. Over the year. has resulted in its being chosen as one of the µNavertha¶ public sector Enterprises (PSE) that would enjoy support from the Government in their endeavors to become global player. Telecommunication.920 square meters and Boiler Auxiliaries plant.5 crores.588 square meters. while the Seamless Street Tube plant has 37. The company¶s inherent potential coupled with its strong performance over the years. Tiruchirappalli augmented its capacity to the present level of 400 MW a year. With export presence on more than 50 countries. 57. The plant reached its rated capacity of 750 MW in recent time and the first 60 MW boilers was commissioned at Ennore in 1971..

Under the project. Trichy has been awarded the CIF Exim Bank commendation certificate for ³strong commitment of Total quality management on the journey towards business excellence´ for the year 2003 HPBP has emerged has the only organization having more than 10. refineries. coal. MISSION AND OBJECTIVES VISION .000 employees to be followed by different units for formation and implementation of occupational health and safety system. paper.1. BUSINESS EXCELLENCE (HPBP) OF BHEL. POSITIONING FOR THE FUTURE BHEL gears up to manufacture more efficient. aluminum. sugar. The external customer satisfaction survey carries out by and independent consultant has revealed a higher satisfaction level from BHEL¶s customers both in the public and private sectors. this is an MOU project between BHEL and the Government of India. cement. steel. rubber.1675 crores and a profit before a tax of Rs. 242 crores for boilers and auxiliaries supplied. And Rs. 79 crores has been achieved by commercializing product and systems through in house R&D technology development. BHEL-VISION. 83 crores (conversion cost) placed on ancillaries and small industries.3 About the product PRODUCT RANGE The products manufactured by BHEL. An ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) project has been initiated at BHEL. it is planned to introduce and integrate operations approach for all business processes using SAP ERP software. mining etc« FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE High pressure Boiler plant. super critical higher rating thermal sets of 660 MW capacities for future mega power projects.7 crores spares and service worth Rs. Tiruchirappalli for valves product group. Petrochemicals. 158. eco friendly. Over for Rs. oil drilling. Tiruchirappalli achieved a turnover of Rs. Tiruchirappalli find wide application in Thermal and Nuclear Power Stations and in industries such as fertilizers. oriented toward acquired ISO 18001 certification.

new areas and international operations. Capital utilization and productivity and generate adequate resources to finance the company¶s growth to realize at least 30% returns (gross margin) employed.BHEL is world class. 2. 4. 3. in existing business. performance and superior customer service. efficient absorbs and adaptation imported technologies to suit needs and priorities. and provide a competitive advantages to the company. PROFITABILITY The profitability is an objective of the BHEL is providing a reasonable and adequate return on capital employed primarily through improvement in operational efficiency. CUSTOMER FOCUS To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing increased value for its money through international standard products quality. TECHNOLOGY To achieve technology excellence in operations by development of indigenous technologies. transportation industry and infrastructure. IMAGE . innovative competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total business solutions. OBJECTIVES 1. system and services in the field o energy. 5. MISSION The BHEL¶s mission is to be the leader in Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products. GROWTH To ensure a steady growth by the unchanged competitive edge of BHEL.

SSTP. WRI have won the Tamil Nadu Government industrial safety awards 20 employees have won ³UYARNTHA UZHAILPALAR VIRUDRU´ . employees. AWARDS HPBP. which the holders like government as owner.To fulfill the expectation. 6. customers and the country at large from BHEL.

Chapter 5 ± This chapter lists out the findings of the research undertaken and presents suggestions to improve the organization¶s effectiveness. Chapter 4 ± This chapter analyses the data collected from secondary sources and represents them in the form of tables. Chapter 6 ± This chapter summarizes and concludes the project. Chapter 2 .1. scope. Chapter 1 ± It gives an introduction about the industry. Chapter 3 ± This chapter presents various concepts of Budgeting and budgetary control. sources of data. etc.5 Organization of the report The following are the bird¶s eye view of the details included in the various Chapters of the study. . the organizations and the reason for choosing the project.It deals with the methodology adopted in this study highlighting the research problem.

Budget serves as a planning and controlling mechanism. To study the monitoring mechanism and control systems employees by BHEL from various departments.4 RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions of conditions for collection and interpretation of data in manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.5 Method of data collection Secondary data have been collected from the respective unit though manuals and annual reports of the company .2 Scope of the Study Budgets are regarded as the of control. 2. Budgeting is a wide term and includes not only budgetary control but also budget preparation.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. 4. Budgeting points out controlling based on a budget. To make a comparative study of the past 5 years BHEL proposals vs. To critically see the parameters considered for BHEL budget proposals. Budgeting is done mainly by top management.1 Statement of the problem 2. actual against various heads 2. 2. planning and using at budget reports. Budgetary control involves preparation of budgets and comparison of actual performance and taking corrective action to improve efficiency. To study the control mechanism of reporting in BHEL and the salient features in the budget process of BHEL as a profit making Public Sector Company. 3.

2.8 Tools for analysis Data has been collected. the objectives of study. . y Further. y Time was insufficient to carry out the research and hence its depth INTERPRETATION could not be made. the study is based on secondary data. y The results of the study will about be applicable to all the public sector organizations.7 Source of data Secondary data have been collected from the respective unit though manuals and annual reports of the company.2. y The results may be different under new environment with changes in the management policy.9 Limitations of study y The study covers only a period of five years. 2. The sources of the data are budgeted fixed and actual attained by the concern under the period of the study. analyzed and tabulated keeping in view. 2.6 Nature of Data The study is based on secondary data.

or to provide a basis for its revision´. either to secure by individual action the objectives of that policy. .REVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW OF LITERATURE Budgetary control and defined by the Institute of cost and Management Accountants (CIMA) as:³The establishment of budgets relating the responsibilities executives to the requirements of a policy and the continuous comparison of actual with budgeted results.

the task of ensuing those diverse activities are co-ordinates in to coherent packages.Managers need to be able to exercise control over the organizations they manage ± i. Budgeting is a management tool is used for planning and control. Concepts . budgeting serves two very different purposes in most organizations. Traditionally budgets have been employed as devices to limit expenditure.e. but a much more useful and constructive view is to treat the budgeting process as a means for obtaining the most effective and profitable use of the company¶s resources through planning and control. The first function is that of financial and cost and the second that of management control. to make sure that the organization is keeping to plan and that necessary action can be taken to put it back on track when needed. system managers need to take control tools to make sure that financial plans and targets are being achieved. In the same way that a thermostat will regulate and control the temperature of you central heating. Thus.

. which is probably the most important feature of a budgetary planning and control system. to set up detailed plans for achieving the targets for each department. 3) Clearly defines area of responsibility. 4) Provides a basis for performance appraisal (variance analysis). Advantages of budgeting and budgetary control: There are a number of advantages to Budgeting and budgetary control: 1) Compels management to think about the future. requires managers of budget centers to be made responsible for the achievement of budget targets for the operation sunder their personal control. 6) Motivates employees by participating in the setting of budgets. Forces management to look ahead.General Introduction of Budgeting Definition of budget Chartered institute of Management Accountants. has defined budget as ³A financial and or quantitative statement´ prepared prior to a defined at time of the policy to be pursued during that period for the purpose of attaining a given objective´. Departures from budget can then be investigated and the reasons for the differences can be divided into controllable and non-controllable factors. to anticipate and give the organization purpose and direction. operation and (ideally) each manager. Control is provided by comparisons of actual results against budget plan. 2) Promotes coordination and communication. London. A budget is basically a yardstick against which actual performance is measured and assessed. 5) Enables remedial action to be taken as variances emerge.

 It is difficult to reconcile personal individual and corporate goals. managers are tempted to build in slack. Managers have personal goals with regard to personal income.g. some costs are under the influence of more than one person. Budgetary slack provides for some margin of error. thus resulting in : a) Bad labor relations b) Inaccurate record-keeping  Departmental conflict arises due to: a) Disputes over resource allocation b) Departments blaming each other if targets are not attained.  Responsibility versus controlling. particularly in perception terms. conflicts between personal and organizational goals can arise.  Managers may overestimate costs so that they will not be blamed in the future should they overspend. Problems in budgeting: While budgets may be an essential part of nay marketing activity they do have a number of disadvantages.. or a cushion. 8) Economizes management time by using the management by exception principle.7) Improves the allocation of scarce resources.  Budgets can be seen as pressure devices imposed by management. BUDGETARY SLACK Because performance objectives are set during the budgeting process. In some companies. power costs. management bonus or incentive systems are linked in some way to the attainment of the budget. e. status and career path. It typically involves some discretionary fixed expenses that can be cut back quickly if business conditions or . Because failure to achieve budget can be viewed very negatively.  Waste may arise as managers adopt the view ³empire building´ in order to enhance the prestige of a department. Managers tend to formulate budgets that can be achieved readily and that meet top management¶s expectations. status and career growth with regard to personal income.

Effective budgeting systems facilitate the value creation process. usually monetary term. Slack within the company tends to grow in good years. Operating budgets may be sub-divided into various departmental functional budgets. They are an invaluable component of a company¶s planning and control efforts. In other words a budget is a systematic plan for the utilization of manpower and material resources. . The system supports responsibility accounting and reporting. the maintenance would be deferred. usually one year. A good example is maintenance. Operating Budgets Capital budgets are directed towards proposed expenditures for a new project and often require special financing. Because division profits are over budget. It is prepared In advance and is derived from the long-term strategy of the organization. documents the company¶s goals and objectives. however. In bad times. accompanied by detailed plans. covering a specific period of time. For the managers. The operating budgets are directed towards achieving short-term operational goals of the organization. The master budget. Capital Budgets 2.performance is worse than planned. The main characteristics of a budget are: 1. for instance. for example. When performance is better than budget. it is to some extent voluntarily reduced. In a business organization. the division manager may overspend on maintenance. however. Some division managers. much attention probably will not be paid to over budget maintenance expenses. Instead of having the roofs replaced. managers would have them patched. are never inclined to reduce slack. Budgets may be divided into two basic classes: 1. top management might embark on a cost-cutting campaign to encourage slack reduction. Linking the master budget to the company¶s longrange and strategic planning enhances the overall planning effort. production or profit goals in a business firm. in bad times. making some repairs and replacements that could have been postponed for a few years new roofing on all buildings. can result in conflict and can damage the budgetary process for years. Too much pressure to cut slack. The system Forces managers to plan and promotes coordination. A budget is a plan expressed in quantitative. a budget represents an estimate of future costs and revenues.

Different types of budgets are prepared for different purposes e/g/ Sales Budget. Raw-material Budget etc. 4) Flexibility: allow for changing circumstances.2.g. 3) Standards: base it on established standards of performance. which represents an overall plan of the organization Characteristics of a budget A good budget is characterized by the following: 1) Participation: involve as many people as possible in drawing up a budget. so there should be a representative from sales. It is expressed in quantitative form. . Departmental heads and executives (with the managing director as chairman). departments or cost centers. 2) Issuing of timetables for preparation of budgets. Production Budget. production marketing and so on. Function of budget committee include: 1) Coordinating of the preparation of budgets. b) Budget committee: This may consist of senior members of the organization. 5) Feedback: constantly monitor performance. 2) Comprehensiveness: embrace the whole organization. Budget organization and administration: In organizing and administering a budget system the following characteristics may apply: a) Budget centers: Units responsible for the preparation of budgets. All these Sectional budgets are afterwards integrated into a master budget.. Every part of organist ion should be represented on the committee. or both. It relates to future period for which objectives or goals have already been laid down. Administrative Budget. physical or monetary units. including the issue of a manual. A budget centre may encompass several cost centers. 6) INTERPRETATION of costs and revenues: this can be done on the basis of product lines. e.

3) Provision of information to assist budget preparations 4) Comparison of actual results with budget and investigation of variances. 3) Contains account codes for items of expenditure and revenue. 3) Ensuring that deadlines are met. d) Budget manual: This document: 1) Charts the organization 2) Details the budget procedures. 2) Dealing with budgetary control problems. c) Budget offer: Controls the budget administration. This is prepared in units of each product and also in sales value. Budget preparation: Firstly. This limits output. This is also known as the key budget factor or limiting budget factor which will limit the activities of an undertaking. material or labor. 4) Timetables the process 5) Clearly defines the responsibility of persons involved in the budgeting system. determine the principal budget factor. Methods of sales forecasting include: 1) Sales force opinions 2) Market research . 4) Educating people about budgetary control. The job involves: 1) Liaising between the budget committee and managers responsible for budget preparation. e/g/ sales. a) Sales budget: This involves a realistic sales forecast.

2) Economic and political conditions. b) Production budget: It is expressed in quantitative terms only and is geared to the sales budget. c) Raw material and purchasing budget:  The material usage budget is in quantities  The materials purchases budget is both quantitative and financial/ . 3) Changes in the population 4) Competition 5) Consumers income and tastes 6) Advertising and other sales promotion techniques 7) After sales service 8) Credit terms offered. The production manager¶s duties include:  INTERPRETATION of plant utilization  Work-in-progress If requirements exceed capacity he may:  Subcontract  Plan for overtime  Introduce shift work  Hire or buy additional machinery  The materials purchases budget¶s both quantitative and financial.3) Statistical methods ( correlation INTERPRETATION and examination of trends) 4) Mathematical methods In using these techniques consider: 1) Company¶s pricing policy.

Hence.  To illustrate the financial impact of changes in management policy.  To show the feasibility of management¶s plans in cash terms.Factors influencing a) and b) include:  Production requirements  Planning stock levels  Storage space  Trends of material prices d) Labor budget is both quantitative and financial: This is influenced by:  Production requirements  Man-hours available  Grades of labor required.  To enable a firm to take precautionary measures and arrange I advance for investment and loan facilities whenever cash surpluses or deficits arises. it highlights monthly surpluses and deficits of actual cash. It summarizes monthly receipts and payments. Its main uses are:  To maintain control over a firms of cash requirements.  Wage rates( union agreement  The need for incentives e) Cash budget: Cash plan for a defined period of time. e/g change of credit terms offered to customers. Receipts of cash may come from one of the following: 1) Cash sales 2) Payments by debtors . e/g/ stock and debtors.

say. dividends or taxation Other budgets: These include budgets for:  Administration  Research and development  Selling and distribution expenses  Capital expenditures  Working capital(debtors and creditors) Having identified cost centers. n month or three months. the greater the control that can be exercised by the budget but the greater the expense in preparation of the budget and reporting of any variances . and to further break this down to shorter periods. the next step will be to make a quantitative calculation of the resources to be used. The length of period chosen is important in that the shorter it is.3) The sale of fixed assets 4) The issue of new shares 5) The receipt of interest and dividend Payments of cash may be for one or more of the following: 1) Purchase of stocks 2) Payments of wages or other expenses 3) Purchase of capital items 4) Payment of interest.

Reporting transactions in two dimensions-firstly by the nature of the expenditure. a one-dimensional description of expenditures is adequate. including account for every component of assets. execution and control. someone at the same level or at a higher level should be charged. The focus is on accounts related to expenditures. does this manager have significant influence over this cost? It the answer is no. he or she should not be charged. then largely reflects the organizational structure of the company. Final judgment should not be made until the effect of the plans can be estimated by the CEO in terms of their impact on company resources and profits. rents and taxes are very familiar. Responsibility Reporting Responsibility reporting requires that all expenditures be traceable to some manager must be able to authorize or veto each expenditure. Controllability is a matter of degree. The addition of responsibility accounting arose from the need for budgeting in terms that could be related to the managers responsible for the expenditures. Responsibility reporting parallels the requirement that all performance objectives be traceable to some manager in the organization.BUDGET PROCESS BUDGETING FUNDAMENTALS Looking at how a budget is fabricated in a medium-size business organization will give you some insight into the fundamental aspects of budgeting. fringe benefits. The question can be asked. liabilities and stockholder equity. Accounting classifications for expenditures such as salaries. Budgets and actual performance against the budgets can be reflected in separate . This dimension. judgment is used. Instead. For more complex businesses. When businesses are relatively small and simple. the controller receives the operating plans of the line managers and other department heads and translates these plans into a comprehensive projection of financial condition and operating results. Accordingly. Chart of accounts The charter of accounts represents a standardized classification of all accounting data. In practice. additional coding is needed to implement responsibility reporting. Initially. the expenditures incurred by a manager and the organizational unit under his or her control I pursuing a performance objective need to be recorded. secondly by the organizational unit responsible for the action permits management to pinpoint responsibilities for the rupee consequences of planning.

thus permitting business people to make budget process and integral part of the management function. As sales decrease. These are discretionary fixed expenses. Usually. A flexible budget is defined as a budget whose amount depends on the actual activity level achieved. This requires data on expenses by customer. shipping is a variable expense driven by sales volume. Today¶s information technology enables management to perform expense INTERPRETATION at a reasonable cost. Each of these managers prepares an operating plan for the next year and submits it to the budget director. which permits the CEO to select projects that best meet the company¶s operating and profit objectives. are budgeted as a fixed amount based on management¶s Decisions. Like all other line managers. However. With a flexible budget. including proprieties for the projects recommended. Conversely. For example. the research budget contains more proposed projects than as expected to the funded. Coding can be added to enable management to gain additional insight into how the business works. Flexible budgets make sense because most companies have costs that fluctuate with activity. such as advertising expense costs. the vice president of engineering must also prepare a program for operating the . This step is important because the decision as to how much can be spent on research must await the financial budget review procedure. Computerized sales order processing systems generally have the capability to provide reports of sales by customer. Preparation of operating programs The vice president of engineering prepares a recommended program of research and development. In months with high planned activity. a more important question is which customers are sources of high profits and which customers may be generating losses. THE PHASES OF BUDGETING The receipt of the budget planning report from the CEO by the various line managers initiates the budget preparation phase. supervisory salaries are an indirect fixed expense and are not expected to fluctuate directly with sale volume. Some costs. Flexible Budgeting Flexibility is an essential component of an effective budget program. shipments decrease and fewer supplies are used. They can change in a supervisory position is added or dropped or if a salary is raised or cut. coding revenue and expense data on customers allows and INTERPRETATION of customer profitability.statements for each block on the organizational chart. the master budget amount is higher than in months with low activity. and the flexible budget amount is a fixed amount.

These budget summaries usually show operating results for each month of the budget year. which the CEO may now review in a comprehensive way. the budget director consolidates them into operating and financial budget summaries I a form identical to that normally used when reporting operating and financial results. As a result of the work involved in the preparation of these summaries. and indicate sources of additional financing if required. when the budget department has completed its work. except that the figures represent budgets for the next year instead of actual results for a completed period. cash flow statements are also presented for such month of the year. The budget director sets as an analyst and a catalyst but does not make operating decision or plans. director submits the budget summaries to the CEO with comments and recommendations. The treasurer and controller also complete programs for the operations of their departments. The manufacturing vice president prepares the inventory and manufacturing plans. the budget director must be furnished with details of the financial programs for the year. the budget director has had an opportunity to gain a real insight into the operating plans of the various managers and has determined the consequences in financial terms. The sales vice president prepares the sales projections and the operating plans for the various sales activities and advertising campaign.engineering and the research and development departments. Normally. it has a product that looks exactly like the monthly operating and financial reports often business. The capital investment programs required by the various line managers to accomplish their operation programs also must be furnished to budget director for the capital expenditures budget. to management In other words. The treasurer must prepare projection of cash requirements. Preparation of financial programs In addition to the operating plans of the various heads. . but other balance sheet items may be shown on only a quarterly or semiannual projected basis. a program that will become the basis for those departments operating cost and expense budgets. The effective budget directors helps the CEO analyze the plan and develop possible alternatives if he projected results appear unsatisfactory. Management Review At this point. A good budget director has the ability to point out why the projected result is or is not satisfactory and when the CEO can do to change the situation if he or she so derides. Consolidation Having completed the preparation of the individual department budgets. preferably in the form of cash flow statements.

corporate restructuring has . the programs are resubmitted to the budget director who then makes changes. percent increase in earnings per share. If the company¶s strategy is growth. increased attention is being given to better planning and control techniques. In addition. percent increase in market share. the use of sound budgeting techniques is becoming more prevalent. percent return on the total assets employed. The resulting master badger will be used in planning and controlling the company PERFORMANCE MEASURES As stated earlier. Value creation: Percent increase in common stock value per share. After the line managers have made the suggested changes. Consequently. Approval and publication Final approval and publication may not be immediately forthcoming realizing the importance of the budget. Further adjustments of programs and corresponding budget summaries may be required before eh CEO feels that the company¶s operating plan has been stated adequately in the form of a master budget. percent return on owner¶s equity.Adjustments When the financial consequences of the initial plans are not satisfactory. the operating and financial programs included in the budget requests are returned to the originating line managers with specific suggestions for change. This process is sometimes called cycle-up. The profit earned must provide a sufficient return on the capital employed to satisfy shareholders. cycle-down. the CEO again performs the management review process. The basic economic mission is to earn an acceptable return on investment over the long run. the desired profit level and return on investment level are commonly established planning goals. the CEO or budget director asks the line managers and department heads to adjust their programs in specifies ways to accomplish the desired profit and return on investment goals. an alternative set of measurements would be required. EFFECTIVE BUDGETING Due to the growing complexity of business and business problems not because of t his movement toward decentralization in large enterprises. profits must provide a sound and continuing basic for growth. Growth Percent increase in sales. If the company¶s strategy were to be lowest-cost producer. In effect. Some widely accepted measures of performance are the following: Profitability: Percent return on the net sales. the programs are resubmitted to the budget director who then makes the corresponding financial adjustments and resubmits consolidated operating and financial budget summaries to the CEO for final approval and publication.

Production costs are measures by appropriate controls over material costs. accounting. Costs incurred for materials are controlled through standards. Manufacturing overhead expenses are controlled by reporting actual expenditures compared with variable or fixed budgets in terms of the individual who participated in planning the budgets and who had report ability for the expenditures made. An effective budgeting system facilitates control. today it is not uncommon to have the budget function report to levels of management above the controller. and manufacturing overhead expenses. The budgeting system must form the company¶s operational control needs.resulted in a trend toward placing the responsibility for budgeting at higher levels in the organization. and materials utilization is measured by charging excess issues of productive materials to the departments responsible for spoilage and comparing the charges with variable budget allowances. . The company use budget committees. The budget committee typically is composed of representatives from most operating areas. the budget committee can perform the very useful role of encompassing and reconciling the many diverse interests that make up a modern business. EFFECTIVE BUDGETING SYSTEMTS IN PRACTICE Top executives are able to control every part of the organization through a system of budgetary planning and control reporting by responsibility area. Control over service of auxiliary departments. Selling expenses are controlled by the budgeting. and variances are reported in terms of department forepersons responsible for the variances. the trend toward reporting to a higher level is recognition of The need to have the budget function broadly based I all operating areas of the business. over general overhead expenses is affected by comparing just costs (in terms of departments and of individuals incurring the costs) with expenditures previously land and approved levels or required service or for programs adopted. labor cost. price variations are segregated. Sales and profit contribution are compared with precious plans thus lower or higher than planned results are readily determined. In earlier days it was customary to find the budget function buried deeply in the accounting operation. Productive labor costs are measured against standards. and reporting personnel are responsible for the expenses. Although it is still useful for the budget director to report to the corporate controller. Yardsticks of performance are provided for all productive and service areas. and results of operations are accumulated and reported in terms of these yardstick at all supervisory levels. This composition promotes coordination. If properly administered. Measurements of sales and selling expenses result in the effective control of income.

The system pinpoints responsibility for all controllable costs by individual integrates standard cost reported what the company¶s budgetary control. The reporting system is designed as a tool for all levels of supervision to control their operations and their costs. Reports are prepared for all levels of management.Responsibility in budget preparation and in cost control is a major feature of BHEL¶s control system. from the operating forepersons and service department supervisors to the CEO. . It emphasizes information that is useful to the individual manager.


 It helps to co-ordinate the activities of the organization. Types: There are four types of responsibility centers: a) Revenue centers Organizational units in which outputs are measured in monetary terms but are not directly compared to input costs.  Any differences (variances) are made the responsibility of key individuals who can either exercise control action or revise the original budgets. c) Profit centers: Where performance is measured by the difference between revenues (outputs) band expenditure (inputs).BUDGERARY CONTROL METHODS a) Budget:  A formal statement of the financial resources set aside for carrying out specific activities in a given period of time. i. Inter-departmental sales are often made using ³transfer prices´. b) Expense centers: Units where inputs are measured in monetary terms but outputs are not. ROI. Budgetary control and responsibility centers: These enable managers to monitor organizational functions: A responsibility centre can be defined as any functional unit headed by a manager who is responsible for the activities of that unit. d) Investment centers: Where outputs are compared with the assets employed in producing them.e. . b) Budgetary control:  A control technique whereby results are compared with budgets.

Are reasonably capable of fulfillment/ this is also termed in µPrincipal Budget¶ or µLimiting´ or µGoverning¶ Factor. It is a sort of commitment or a target which the management seeks to attain on the basis of the forecasts made. Different costs of production budgets will also be prepared on the basis of the production budget. Production budget will be prepared on the basis of the sales budget and also age taking in to consideration the available productive capacities. the usual pattern is as follows: 1.Budget procedure: After the establishment of budget organization and fixation of the budget period. sales. Forecasts are made regarding sales. production cost and the financial requirements of the business. Preparation of budgets On finalization of the forecasts the budgets will be prepared. Physical quantities as well as monetary values are estimated separately 3. purchases cash. Consideration of alternatives combinations of forecasts Alternative combinations of forecasts are considered with a view to obtain the most effect overall plan so as to maximize profits. Making of forecasts Forecasts mean an estimate about the probabilities for a given period of time. the forecasts should be regarded as being finalized 4. When the largest combination of forecasts is selected. Financial budget will be prepared on the basis of sales forecast and production budget. The procedure followed in designing and operating a budgetary control system largely depends upon the nature of the business. the actual work of budgetary control begins. However. 2. Determination of key factor: Key factor is that the extent of whose influence must first be accessed in order to ensure that functional budgets (relating to different functions of a business. production. All these budgets will be combined and coordinated into one master budget. Budget is an operating and financial plan of a business enterprise. These . e/g. It differs from budget.

They are generally prepared in physical as well as in monetary units. The following are the most common basis of classification: 1. a) Long term Budget: A budget designed for a long period (generally for a period of 5 to 10 years) is termed as a long term budget/ this budget s are Concerned with planning of the operations of a firm over a considerably long period of time. the budgets can broadly be classified into three categories. CLASSIFICATION OF BUDGETS: Budgets can be classified into different categories form different points of view. According to flexibility Classification According to Time: In terms of time. d) Rolling Budgets Some companies follow the practice of preparing a rolling or progressive budget/ In case of such companies there will always be a budget for a year in advance. A new budget is prepared after the end of each month/quarter for a . According to time 2. They are generally prepared in terms of physical quantities. They are essentially short term budgets adjusted to current conditions or prevailing circumstances. c) Current Budget These budgets cover a very short period say month or a quarter.budgets may be revised from time to time taking into account the current developments. According to function 3. b) Short term Budget These budgets are designed for a period generally not exceeding 5years.

The Their number depends on the size and the nature of the business. etc. items. d) Purchase Budget: The budget forecasts the quantity and value of purchases required for production. areas. Separate budgets are prepared for different elements of costs such as direct materials budget. direct labout budget. It gives quantity wise. factor overheads budget. selling and distribution overheads budget etc. c) Cost of Production Budget The budget forecasts the cost of production. f) Research BudgetThe budget related to the research work to be done the improvement in quality of the products or research for new products. . following are the usual functional budgets a) Sales Budget The budget forecasts total sales in terms of quantity. Classification According To Function: Budgets can be classified on the basis of functions they are meant to perform. value.full year ahead/ the figures for the month or quarter which has rolled down are dropped and the figures for the next month or quarter are added. areas. periods. etc b) Production Budget The budget is based on sales budget. This may be further split up between direct and indirect personnel budgets. it forecasts quantity of production in terms of items. These budgets are therefore also termed as function al budgets. money wise and period wise information about the materials to be purchased e) Personnel Budget The budget anticipates the quantity of personnel required during a period for production activity. office overheads budget. period.

It does not change with the change in the level of activity 2. i) Master budget It is a summary budget incorporating all functional budgets in a capsule form. Flexible budge 1. Fixed budget 2. Ti interprets different functional budgets and covers within its range the preparation of projected income statement and perfected balance sheet.g) Capital Budget The budget is a forecast of the cash position by time period by time period for a specific duration of time. Fixed budget A budget prepared on the basis of a standard or a fixed level of activity is called a fixed budget. Classification according to flexibility On the basis of flexibility budgets can be divided into two categories 1. h) Capital expenditure Budget The budget provides a guidance regarding the amount of capital that may be required for procurement of capital assets during the budget period. It states the estimated amounts of cash receipts and cash payments and the likely balance of cash in hand at the end of different periods. Flexible budget A budget designed in a manner so as to give the budgeted cost of any level of activity is termed as a flexible budget .


No. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 .  Remaining three years are in opposite trend. When such production is measured in monetary terms is called as financial turnover.2009 2009-2010 TABLE . (in lakhs) 363271 353589 455092 460656 540106 555399 720207 746031 950228 1000853 Variances in Rs.2006 2006 .FINANCIAL TURNOVER FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 This system refers to sales.2008 2008 . . (in lakhs) -9682 5564 15293 25824 50625 INTERPRETATION The variation in financial turnover programme between budgeted and actual is due to  Non materialization of anticipated order (for first two years).  Variation in expected and actual level contracts execution (for first two years). S. which actually implies the production. (in lakhs) Rs.2007 2007 .1 Budget Actual Rs.  Inability to meet the dispatch target (for first two years).

1 FINANCIAL TURNOVER FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 BUDGET ACTUAL .CHART .

TABLE ± 2 PROFIT BEFORE TAX FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 Budget Actual Variances in S.2009 190174 165311 -24863 5 2009-2010 245896 281319 35423 INTERPRETATION In the year. It is favorable trend. (in lakhs) Rs. (in lakhs) 1 2005 . 2006-07. on account of increase in miscellaneous expenses. Slight fall in PBT for the year 2008. . 2007-08 Profit before tax actual figure is more than budgeted figure. on account of favorable exchange rate variation.2008 110106 151226 41120 4 2008 . due to increase in value of production.No. (in lakhs) Rs.09 is due to on account of increase in personal payments.2006 27762 39684 11922 2 2006 . Years Rs.2007 45854 87228 41374 3 2007 . decrease in materials and fabrication cost.

2 PROFIT BEFORE TAX FROM 2005± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 BUDGET ACTUAL .CHART .

.2006 2006 .TABLE . (in lakhs) 5676 -10719 -34176 -87502 19280 Variances in Rs.2007 2007 .2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs.3 WORKING CAPITAL 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 S. y Advance payment are received from the customer y It will be done after 5 years only so variances are goes down. (in lakhs) -43612 -62479 -35176 -9777 -8055 INTERPRETATION The large variation between budgeted and actual in the year 2005 ± 2010 and a negative result in 2006-07 and 2008 ± 09 is due to y Increase in provision for doubtful debts y Increase in current liabilities.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 .2008 2008 . (in lakhs) 49288 51760 1000 -77725 11225 Actual Rs.

3 WORKING CAPITAL 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 60000 40000 20000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 -20000 ACTUAL budget -40000 -60000 -80000 -100000 .CHART .

4 CAPITAL EMPLOYED FROM 2005-2006 TO 2009-2010 S. there is a dip in working capital leading to unfavorable variance. This because of investment in fixed asset was minimum. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 .2006 2006 .TABLE .2008 2008 .2007 2007 .2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs. 2007-08. .No. (in lakhs) 41764 67456 43432 -13163 41347 Actual Rs. (in lakhs) -22698 -66373 -65805 -51433 -24797 INTERPRETATION The decrease was Significance during the year 2005-06. (in lakhs) 19066 1083 -22373 -64596 66144 Variances in Rs.2008-2009 and 2009-10. 2006-07.

CHART .4 CAPITAL EMPLOYED FROM 2005-2006 TO 2009-2010 80000 60000 40000 20000 BUDGET 0 ACTUAL 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 -20000 -40000 -60000 -80000 .

No. This because of change in work in progress and finished goods. (in lakhs) 6636 34265 37874 -14206 23423 INTERPRETATION Comparing the budget with actual the value added of HPBP shows a favorable or unfavorable trend. Slight fall in the value added for the year 2008-09 is due to  Material cost exceeding budgeted figures (it means cost was increases so the profit is less). S. \ .  Material procurement for anticipated order.TABLE .2006 2006 .5 VALUE ADDED FROM 2005± 06 TO 2009 ± 10. In the year 2005-06. (in lakhs) 97143 139233 203474 299268 453505 Actual Rs.2007 2007 .2008 2008 .2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs. (in lakhs) 103779 173498 241348 285062 430082 Variances in Rs. due to increase in sub contracts payments. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 . 2006-07 and 2007-08 shows unfavorable trend.

500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 BUDGET ACTUAL .CHART-5 VALUE ADDED FROM 2005± 06 TO 2009 ± 10.

(in lakhs) 9993 51604 88460 42430 33498 INTERPRETATION In the year 2005-2010 the actual exceeds the budgeted. (in lakhs) 380312 454932 567489 821849 895856 Actual Rs.2007 2007 . y Increase in business y Advance received against new order. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 .2008 2008 .No.2006 2006 . (in lakhs) 390305 506536 655949 864279 929354 Variances in Rs.6 CASH INFLOW OPERATION FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009.TABLE .2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs.2010 S. .

CHART - 6 CASH INFLOW OPERATION FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009- 2010 in years

1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010


TABLE- 7 CASH OUTFLOW OPERATION FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 - 2006 2006 - 2007 2007 - 2008 2008 - 2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs. (in lakhs) 340150 399046 460597 600419 691104 Actual Rs. (in lakhs) 341936 397896 504030 656460 715117 Variances in Rs. (in lakhs) 1786 -1150 43433 56041 24013

INTERPRETATION In the year 2005 ± 10 the actual outflow is more than budgeted figure. This was mainly because of y Increase in business volume. y Increase imports y Increase personal payments. y Increase in power and fuel and other industry expenses.

CHART- 7 CASH OUTFLOW OPERATION FROM 2005± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010

900000 800000 700000 600000 500000


300000 200000 100000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010

(in lakhs) 116732 138509 231209 305672 303080 Variances in Rs. hence the variance is high. .2008 2008 .2007 2007 . (in lakhs) 22827 37775 82874 114275 -78080 INTERPRETATION The variation in budgeted and actual is due to  Material procurement for anticipated order.2006 2006 .8 YEAR END INVENTORY FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 S.  Increased buffer stock level to meet fresh order. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 .TABLE .2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs.  Procurement to meet the short term delivery commitment.No. (in lakhs) 93905 100734 148335 191397 225000 Actual Rs.

CHART--8 YEAR END INVENTORY FROM 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009 ± 2010 350000 300000 250000 200000 BUDGET 150000 ACTUAL 100000 50000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 .

(in lakhs) 68121 62249 79150 164854 267074 INTERPRETATION The major reason for such variances is shortfall of cash collections from which was forecasted.2008 2008 . 1 2 3 4 5 Years 2005 .2010 S. .TABLE .2007 2007 .9 TOTAL SUNDRY DEBTORS 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009. (in lakhs) 180822 230500 316792 455944 629869 Variances in Rs.2006 2006 .2009 2009-2010 Budget Rs. (in lakhs) 112701 168251 237642 291090 362795 Actual Rs.No.

9 TOTAL SUNDRY DEBTORS 2005 ± 2006 TO 2009.CHART .2010 700000 600000 500000 400000 BUDGET 300000 ACTUAL 200000 100000 0 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 .

Adj & others Inventory Inventory held under AMA Imports (CIF) Capital expenditure non planned Economic value added Man power 2004 .05 366648 2005-06 349246 BE 2006-07 463900 Actu.HIGHLIGHT . 2006-07 815423 37098 BE 2007-08 667930 32247 1241284 237642 71398 111566 18988 35700 148335 135706 Actu. 2007-08 997526 3995 1708201 285612 104886 135217 16509 29000 169017 119668 B 200 91 678406 133253 55868 56166 21219 752559 200871 83258 80126 37487 879711 185361 68585 99182 17594 1189279 253613 115930 111214 18556 7913 197 29 10 13 1 4 82718 116732 100734 1375 138509 65947 19 39643 74417 88238 19 62 2694 9099 755 16304 8966 910 23219 9677 4704 53639 8819 16596 62607 8996 15649 96962 8855 19068 87605 8743 5 12 .part I Order receipts .non -bhel Order outstanding (bhel) Order o/s . 2007-08 1019561 6625 1810431 316792 144915 138717 20850 12310 231209 120086 R.E.non -bhel Total debtors Collectible debtors Defferred debtors Special deferred debtors Unbilled dispatches Valn.

00 % 0.50% 4.67 1.00% 68.60% 3.20% 120 198 207 89.90% 70.20% 71.90% 110 164 206 89.2% 76.00% 85.4% 63.3 57.BE HIGHLIGHT .20% 2728% 2863.90% 82. 2007-08 R.5% 71.00% 69.62 1.70% 4.20% 6.E.0% 122.0% 6.86 19.50% 34.60% 60.00% 85.9% 3.6 53.90% 5.9 64.60% BE 2008-09 28.00% 60.00% 3.20% 80.8 54.50% BE 2007-08 18.4 57.00% 105.6% 73.00% 7777.00% 102.4% 32.80% 7.05 2005-06 13.7% 45.20% Actu.00% 27. 2007-08 21.05 1.70% 79.00 % 109.10% 81 114 149 -444% 109.9% 76.00% 112.0% 9.0% 208.40% 97 128 150 .10% 21.3% 137 122 221 84.00% 11.matls+fb+trans in GTO-ED Imports(CIF) as % of GTO-ED Cost of purchase resold turnover (%) VA-as % of GTO less ED VA-per rupee of personal payments VA .9 68.00% 20.80% 6.57 1.00% 18.50% 2.00% 66.7% 61.00% 254.5% 29.end) Power & fuel /GTO-ED PBIT/Capital employed PBT/capital employed Gross billing/turnover (non-bhel) Net billing/g.9% 2.00% 24.00% 30.2% 152 214 213 4.20% 70.70% 110 154 190 5.9% 8.60% - Actu.7% 17.0% 200.60% - 20.30% 44.45 22.00% 21.90% 75.00% 26. 2006-07 30.40% 100 136 170 -1403% 108.2% 8.8% 64.00% 10.15 33.part II Growth in turnover (net fo BAP) Growth in turnover Shop turnover to total turnover% Turnover per rupee of gross block D.30% 77.2 27.26 1.billing (non-bhel) PBT/turnover Inventory(days) Inventory(days of shop turnover) Book debts (days) 2004 .0% 2.49 27.per employee (yr.00% 95.43 14.81 11.00% 64.70% 7.40% 2006-07 45.00% 247.60% 5.90% 6.39 1.00% 8054.5 53.84 1.2% -646% -676% 112% 89% 27.30% 22.

Collectible debts(days) Networking 93 11 86 6 55 42 92 -8 51 9 97 -22 20 -16 52 -39 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS .

This ensures healthy competition between various production groups which enables the unit management to achieve the objectives. Trichy following observation are made: 1. The order book position. 4. suggestions & recommendations After a thorough study and INTERPRETATION of the budgetary control system of BHEL. inventory management. customer satisfaction are taken into account while preparing the budget. order book. There is a well defined budgetary control system. physical turnover. manpower planning. productivity improvement. 5. There is a well defined product oriented division in the organization in each product group functioning under a product manager. The yearly budget is further divided into monthly budget and the monthly targets are accumulated to the down level. and cash management. order booking division and BHEL. Tricky. Further possible savings due to large scale economy in material requirement. 2. 6. The corporate is giving suitable guidelines in setting up parameters for achieving goals in the budget year especially the areas of financial turnover. services requirement and also the tax benefits are given due importance while making the budget. global competition and also the quantity improvement. 3. technological growth. sundry debtor¶s management.Findings. so that the total efforts for all employees¶ . There is a close co-ordination between the corporate office. the importance of which is understood by all levels of management and workers in BHEL.

However the increase in debtors is a cause for concern. 9. . debtors. Cash budget is made meticulously and most of the budget parameters are split into product level targets with monthly break-up. The process needs to be strengthened in such a way that the variance is the lowest minimum. setting up of unrealistic targets and issues beyond the control of the unit management. While each one of the employee know their well defined role in achieving the targets. 7. Variation is seen between targets and actual in key parameters like inventory. To achieve the desired production and budget and to solve problems.organization are coordinated and put in the right direction towards achieving the organizational goals. This may be due to. Periodic reviews are taking place at appropriate levels. timely action is taken in the course of various services meetings at the unit level management. 11. faced by the product areas. 8. 10. PBT. the unit level management has derived many incentive schemes by which the employee are rewarded for increased performance. The success of the organization depends on the effective budgetary control system.


Commitment from individuals needs to be built up. 6. . a committed tartest is better than a forced target. Involvement of everyone in the budgeting process is not evident. Inventory variance should be reduced. The works committee may be constituted consisting of representative of workers to get help for developing cordial relationship. 3. quality. Such as timely. delivery. This management should try to secure full cooperation of the workers for making budgetary control more effective. Display boards may be thought of to slow each product manager as to the past performance. 5. The guidelines should be framed aiming to minimize cost at each level. target and actual. Although soft targets are to be avoided.Conclusion 1. 2. 4. The customer satisfaction measures should also be ensured properly. and reasonable price. Profitability parameters at a product level are not transparent.

5. Maheswari S. Management Accounting ± Sharma R. and Gupta 10th edition.N ± Management Accounting and Financial control sultan chand and sons New Delhi. Dr.BHEL.K. Annual Report of BHEL ± Trichy. 2.COM . 1992. 3. Website of BHEL ± WWW.BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Departmental procedure manual. 4.

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