Term Paper Business Environment MGT 511 “Corruption in India”
Submitted To: Miss Kanika Jhamb
Submitted By: Amit Singh Roll No.: 32 Section: A17B1
It is a no brainer that Corruption in India is at its rampant best. There is not one section of the society that is spared from it. Corruption in the form of bribery takes the cake and given that it begins at the grass root level makes it even more difficult to monitor and control. The Corruption and Bribery Report published at track. In earlier, gives a detailed breakdown of the scale of the bribes and the reasons why bribes are given. The striking though well known findings of the report points out that close to half the bribes are requested by the Government Officials both at the state and national level. The same government personnel who are entrusted with the development of the nation are filling their own pockets. No wonder then the nation’s politicians are the most corrupt lot. However, it was only for the petty money minded officials filling their own pockets, the enormity of the bribery might be restricted to a certain level. According to Management Guru C.K.Prahalad , the cost of corruption to the country might as well exceed Rs. 250,000 crores. The total spending for the 2009 Lok Sabha elections is pegged at a whopping Rs. 10,000 crore. The breakup of this spending throws up some interesting insights too. * Rs 1,300 crore (Rs 13 billion) by the Election Commission * Rs 700 crore (Rs 7 billion) by the Centre and state governments * Rs 8,000 crore (Rs 80 billion) were spent by political parties and individual candidates 8000 crore spent by political parties and individual candidates. Where do they get hold of this kind of money to spend. Again, it comes as a no brainer that it is hugely attributed to the Private Funding that political parties attract from big pocket industrialists. The reasons why private spending of this scale happens again is rather simple Favourtism. It is a well known fact that government support is crucial for industries small and large. One favourable swing in a huge tender or a favorable policy, and all the benefits can be reaped. Given the risky nature of the investments in elections, politicians as venture capitalists, we can assume, will not settle for less than a 10-fold return. There can be infrastructure and operational costs, but they can never amount to such alarming numbers. Now, when the government is well aware of crores of amount spent on election campaigns and product like advertisements with politicians selling themselves door to door, why cant regulations be implemented to stop all this waste of money. However, accountability is something that leaves a lot for asking and barring which none of the measures to put a stop to corruption can reap rewards.
It is embarrassing that billions of dollars are being spent on electing leaders who do nothing more than succumbing to taking bribes after getting elected. Political corruption and bureaucratic corruption in India are major concerns. A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that more than 15% of the people in India had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get any type of job done in a public office. Taxes and bribes are a daily life fact, common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually US$5 billion in bribes. For 2010, India was ranked 87th of 178 countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index. As of 2010, India is amongst the most corrupt governments in the world, though one of the least corrupt in South Asia. India needs to deal with the malice of corruption and improve governance in Asia's third-largest economy, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said on 18 March 2011. Criminalization of Indian politics is a serious problem. In July 2008 The Washington Post reported that nearly a fourth of the 540 Indian Parliament members faced criminal charges, "including human trafficking, immigration rackets, embezzlement, rape and even murder". An international watchdog conducted a study on the illicit flight of money from India, perhaps the first ever attempt at shedding light on a subject steeped in secrecy, concludes that India has been drained of $462 billion (over Rs 20 lakh crore) between 1948 and 2008. The amount is nearly 40% of India's annual gross domestic product. India tops the list for black money in the entire world with almost US$1456 billion in Swiss banks (USD 1.4 trillion approximately) in the form of black money. According to the data provided by the Swiss Banking Association Report (2006), India has more black money than the rest of the world combined. Indian Swiss bank account assets are worth 13 times the country’s national debt. Indian black money is sometimes physically transferred abroad. The CEO of a Mumbai-based equity firm recently told journalists that the money is flown abroad in "special flights" out of Mumbai and Delhi airports to Zurich. Indeed Indians would be the largest depositors of illegal money in Swiss banks, according to sources in the banking industry. The estimated average amount stashed away annually from India during 2002-2006 is $27.3 billion US dollars. Independent reports have recently calculated India's traditionally ruling family's (Gandhi's) financial net worth to be anywhere between $9.41 billion (Rs 42,345 crore) to $18.66 billion (Rs 83,900 crore), most of it in the form of illegal monies. Harvard scholar Yevgenia Albats cited KGB correspondence about payments to Rajiv Gandhi and his family, which had been arranged by Viktor Chebrikov, which shows that KGB chief Viktor Chebrikov sought in writing an "authorization to make payments in US dollars to the family members of Rajiv Gandhi, namely Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi and Paola Maino, mother of Sonia Gandhi" from the CPSU in December 1985. “The recent scams involving unimaginably big amounts of money, such as the 2G spectrum scam, are well known. It is estimated that more than trillion dollars are stashed away in foreign havens, while 80 percent of Indians earn less than 2$ per day and every second
child is malnourished. It seems as if only the honest people are poor in India and want to get rid of their poverty by education, emigration to cities, and immigration, whereas all the corrupt ones, like Hasan Ali Khan are getting rich through scams and crime. It seems as if India is a rich country filled with poor people,” the organisers of Dandi March II in the United States said. Despite this, India is sitting on unused foreign aid of over 100,000 crore (US$22.2 billion) reflecting inadequate planning by ministries like urban development, water resources and energy, a report by government auditor Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has said. “As on March 31, 2010, unutilised committed external assistance was of the order of Rs.1,05,339 crore,” the CAG said in its report tabled in Parliament on 18 March 2011. In fact, the Indian government has paid commitment charges of 86.11 crore (US$19.12 million) out of taxpayermoney during 2009-10 in the form of penalty for not timely utilising the aid approved by multilateral and bilateral lending agencies.
The economy of India was under socialist-inspired policies for an entire generation from the 1950s until the late 1980s. The economy was subject to extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow growth. License Raj was often at the core of corruption.
The Vohra Report was submitted by the former Indian Union Home Secretary, N.N. Vohra, in October 1993. It studied the problem of the criminalisation of politics and of the nexus among criminals, politicians and bureaucrats in India. The report contained several observations made by official agencies on the criminal network which was virtually running a parallel government. It also discussed criminal gangs who enjoyed the patronage of politicians — of all political parties — and the protection of government functionaries. It revealed that political leaders had become the leaders of gangs. They were connected to the military. Over the years criminals had been elected to local bodies, State Assemblies, and even the Parliament. The unpublished annexures to the Vohra Report are believed to contain highly explosive material. According to Jitendra Singh, "in the bad old days, particularly pre-1991, when the License Raj held sway, and by design, all kinds of free market mechanisms were hobbled or stymied, and corruption emerged almost as an illegitimate price mechanism, a shadowy quasi-market, such that scarce resources could still be allocated within the economy, and decisions could get made. These were largely distortions created by the politico-economic regime. While a sea change has occurred in the years following 1991, some of the distorted cultural norms that took hold during the earlier period are slowly being repaired by the sheer forces of competition. The process will be long and slow, however. It will not change overnight." One of the major problems and obstacles to development that many developing countries face is corruption by greedy, powerhungry politicians, which is endemic in certain parts of the world.
Areas of Corruption Politics
Criminalization of Indian politics is a problem.
In July 2008 The Washington Post reported that nearly a fourth of the 540 Indian Parliament members faced criminal charges, "including human trafficking, immigration rackets, embezzlement, rape and even murder". At state level, things are often worse. In Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections 2002, candidates with criminal records won the majority of seats.
A 2005 study done by Transparency International (TI) in India found that more than 50% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually US$5 billion in bribes. A 2009 survey of the leading economies of Asia, revealed Indian bureaucracy to be not just least efficient out of Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, China, Philippines and Indonesia; further it was also found that working with India's civil servants was a "slow and painful" process..
Land and property
Officials often steal state property. In cities and villages throughout India, Mafia Raj consisting of municipal and other government officials, elected politicians, judicial officers, real estate developers and law enforcement officials, acquire, develop and sell land in illegal ways..
Tendering processes and awarding contracts
Government officials having discretionary powers in awarding contracts engage in preferential treatment for selected bidders and display negligence in quality control processes. Many state-funded construction activities in India, such as road building, are dominated by construction mafias, which are groupings of corrupt public works officials, materials suppliers, politicians and construction contractors. Shoddy construction and material substitution (e.g. mixing sand in cement while submitting expenses for cement) result in roads and highways being dangerous, and sometimes simply washed away when India's heavy monsoon season arrives.
In Government Hospitals, corruption is associated with non availability of medicines (or duplicate/fake medicines), getting admission, consultations with doctors and availing diagnostic services. There have been cases of diversion of medical supplies from government hospitals and clinics as well as supply and distribution of medicines of inferior quality Some hospitals are charging extra amounts from rich people. In India there is an unfair co-operation for medi-insurance companies and hospitals.
Grieving families are often asked in Government-run offices to pay bribes to obtain the Death Certificate.
Officials who over see transportation regulations, safety norms, traffic violations engage in rent seeking activity. Typically a lenient treatment for an offending driver or vehicle is accompanied by expectation of a bribe. India has multiple jurisdictions for vehicular laws as well as overlapping laws at the central government and state government level which worsens bureaucratic complications. This leads to facilitation payments to accelerate normal government processes.
There have been several cases of collusion of officials of the income tax department of India for a favorable tax treatment in return for bribes.[
Preferential award of public resources
As detailed earlier, land in areas with short supply is relatively common with government entities awarding public land to private concerns at negligible rates. Other examples include the award of mining leases to private companies without a levy of taxes that is proportionate to the market value of the ore.
Corruption is rampant in the judicial system of India. According to Transparency International, judicial corruption in India is attributable to factors such as "delays in the disposal of cases, shortage of judges and complex procedures, all of which are exacerbated by a preponderance of new laws".
The Indian Armed Forces have frequently witnessed corruption involving senior armed forces officers from the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. Many officers have been caught for allegedly selling defence stores in the black market in the border districts of Indian states and territories. Recent sukhna land scandal involving four Indian Lieutenant Generals has shaken public faith in the country's growing military at a time when large sums are being spent on modernising the armed forces. A string of eye-popping fraud cases has damaged the institution in recent years. The latest Adarsh land scam is another example of the nexus between the armed forces , bureaucracy and the politicians in the embezzlement of government property.
Indian Police remains amongst the most corrupt departments of government. Even basic functions like lodging a F.I.R. or reporting a theft can not be done without paying bribe to police officials. Cases are firstly not registered, victims are encouraged, even threatened for not filing an official complain. If a case somehow gets registered police doesn't takes any actions.The corrupt politicians and policemen go like hand in glove, often resulting in exploitation of the masses. Despite State prohibitions against torture and custodial misconduct by the police, torture is widespread in police custody, which is a major reason behind deaths in custody. The police often torture innocent people until a 'confession' is obtained to save influential and wealthy offenders. G.P. Joshi, the programme coordinator of the Indian branch of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative in New Delhi comments that the main issue at hand concerning police violence is a lack of accountability of the police.
In India, the corruption has also crept into religious institutions. Some of the Church of North India are making money by selling Baptism certificates. A group of church leaders and activists has launched a campaign to combat the corruption within churches. The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to the economy an unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the cost of governmentsubsidised services. The TI India study estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic services provided by the government, like education, healthcare, judiciary, police, etc., to be around 21,068 crore (US$4.7 billion). India still ranks in the bottom quartile of developing nations in terms of the ease of doing business, and compared to China and other lower developed Asian nations, the average time taken to secure the clearances for a startup or to invoke bankruptcy is much greater.
Privatization and Commercialization of Corruption Overhaul System
The Privatization and Commercialization of Corruption Overhaul System (2011) is a proposed solution to remove organized corruption by privatizing corruption overhaul system, and providing financial motivation to the private companies working in sector of Corruption finding and probing business. The solution is offered by a group of Indians named themselves as "Indian Patriots" and they are promoting this solution at their website page http://bharatswabhimanbachao.com/Our_Solution_of_Corruption.htm. The solution if drafted by the "Indian Patriots" founder and president Bharat Chovatiya and it was made publicly available on March, 15 2011.
Right to information act
The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent acts in the states, that require government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerization of services and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions have considerably reduced corruption or at least have opened up avenues to redress grievances. The 2006 report by Transparency International puts India at the 70th place and states that significant improvements were made by India in reducing corruption.
The LokAyukta is an anti-government corruption organization in the Indian states. These institutions are based on the Ombudsman in Scandinavian countries. An amendment to the Constitution has been proposed to implement the Lokayukta uniformly across Indian States as a three-member body, headed by a retired Supreme Court judge or high court chief justice, and comprise of the state vigilance commissioner and a jurist or an eminent administrator as other members.
Whistleblowers play a major role in the fight against corruption. India currently does not have a law to protect whistleblowers, which was highlighted by the assassination of Satyendra Dubey. Indian courts are regularly ordering probe in cases of murders or so-called suicide of several whistle blowers. One of the latest case of such murder is of V Sasindran Company Secretary of Palakkad based Malabar Cement
Limited, a Government company in Kerala and his two minor children, Kerala High Court ordered CBI probe on 18th February 2011. Initially, CBI showed its unwillingness for probing into such cases citing over-burden as a reason.
Creation of Anti-Corruption Police and Courts
Some have called for the Central Government to create an anti-theft law enforcement agency that investigates and prosecutes corruption at all levels of government, including state and local level. Special courts that are more efficient than the traditional Indian courts with traveling judges and law enforcement agents are being proposed. The proposal has not yet been acted upon by the Indian government. Certain states such as Andhra Pradesh (Andhra Pradesh Anti-corruption Bureau) and Karnataka (Lokayukta) have similar agencies and courts.
Civil sector initiatives
Several new initiatives have come up in the civil sector to raise awareness about Corruption related issues and to build anti-corruption platforms. 5th Pillar is one such organization that is promoting the use of Zero Rupee Notes to fight corruption by shaming the officials who ask for bribe. Another popular initiative Jaago Re! One Billion Votes from Tata Tea has now changed its focus from voter registration to fighting corruption. nobribe.org is another platform for corruption free India and advocates the use of direct and regular measurement of corruption to force the hands of the leadership into dealing with corruption related issues. Another platform is http://www.indiaagainstcorruption.com India Against Corruption is a movement created by concerned citizens from all spheres, and professions, who've come together to fight corruption in India. http://www.ipaidabribe.com is one such site. People For Lok Satta has taken the initiative to lead the National Campaign Against Corruption and Dandi March II. Another site which has recently sprung up is www.ekakizunj.com. It is inspired byG. R. Khairnar, the erstwhile Mumbai Municipal Deputy Commissioner and intend to create a database of all the corrupt in India.
Indian Corruption and Bribery report
The above numbers clearly suggest that Bribery in India is at a grass root level with close 86% demands were done for $5000 or less (2,50,000 rupees or less, out which more than half were for $26 (Rs. 1300) or less. Because, corruption takes place at such a grass root level, it is extremely difficult to contain it. Having said that, 14 people out of 100 taking bribes are for amount more than $5000 (Rs. 2,50,000). Actually, if you look at the top officials are even more corrupt. I will tell you why I say that – The number of big bosses is merely 1% to 2% of all officials, yet according to the report 14% of bribes are of huge amounts, showing that big bosses are involved even more compared to low level officials who are taking bribes. On a sidenote, China’s number is much higher with 24% of reported demands were for amounts between $5,001 and $50,000, 6% of reported demands were for amounts between $50,001 and $500,000, and 6% were for amounts greater than $500,000. IN A modern mixed capitalist system the basic framework has to do with how the economy performs with a wide range of instruments at its disposal (like taxation, public spending, state participation in production, direct controls, regulations, legislation, monetary and debt policy). The functions of the state are very much affected by the kind of ground rules under which the private economy operates. In turn, all of us are constantly affected by the economic and other decisions of the government. In its wide connotation, government or state has three important and mutually dependent components: voters, legislators and administrators (or bureaucrats). They have strong relationships with one another. Voters express their preferences with relation to public decisions,
which may or may not be honoured by the legislators who take eventual decisions. The decisions are implemented by the administrators who may or may not be effective. The role of information and of interest groups is crucial to these inter-linkages. The functioning of the economy, and the roles of individuals in their capacity as voters, legislators, and administrators get distorted, amongst other things, by corrupt and immoral practices called ’rent-seeking’ and ’directly unproductive profit seeking’ activities in the terminology of the ’New Political Economy’ implying, apart from other things, dishonest and improper use of one’s power or position for purposes of making illegal money or enhancing one’s power and influence The purpose of this write-up is to briefly analyse the corruption scenario in India as compared to other Asian countries and also to suggest ways and means to combat it in terms of the experience of other countries. In economic literature there is enough proof to show that 1. There is a positive correlation between pervasive (widespread) and individual-level corruption basically due to upward and downward linkages amongst the stakeholders leading to trickle-up and trickle-down effects;
2. The actual level/degree of corruption is beyond any direct measurement, and hence one has to rely on:
i. Proxy instruments based on written documents (like press reports, opinion polls, court proceedings and judgements, judicial records, records from anti-corruption agencies), and even television talk shows and inside stories and also on limited amount of scattered survey data, if any. ii. Certain indices like the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), as used and published by Transparency International. The Business International Index (BII) as used by Business International, a subsidiary of the Economist’s Intelligence Unit, and the Global Competitiveness Report Index (GCRI) as based on a survey of firm managers who were queried on the extent of corruption relating to various aspects of business. The three indices as mentioned in ii) above, and others that can possibly be formulated in a similar way are in fact ’robust’ indices in the sense of reliability, and also because they capture, by and large, several close and remote proxy variables directly or indirectly linked with various kinds of corrupt practices. The CPI reflects the level at which corruption is perceived by people working for multi-national firms and institutions having a direct impact on economic, social, and commercial life. The BII takes into account business transactions involving corrupt practices and questionable payments. The GCRI is more comprehensive and is based on questions relating to import and export
permits, business licences, exchange controls, tax assessments, police protection and loan applications. There are no indices, whatsoever, to measure the level of corruption emanating from the functioning of political systems and bureaucratic mechanisms. For all the three indices lower score means less corruption, and higher score implies more corruption. In terms of these indices about a decade back, Singapore was the least corrupt country, but for other countries, the three indices, taken together, presented a mixed picture: the BII ranked Thailand and Indonesia, the CPI ranked Bangladesh and the GCRI identified Indonesia and Philippines as the most corrupt countries. In this kind of situation, the best thing is to rely only on indices like GCRI that are relatively more comprehensive capturing corruption in different spheres, and in different shades. In terms of these indices, India was ranked quite high in the given Asian countries at number four both in terms of BII and CPI and at number three in terms of GCRI. According to the CPI for the year 2000, India, once again, fell in the most corrupt countries of the world having 69th position among the 90 surveyed countries. In fact, the corruption scenario in India is highly dismal and is growing worse. There is another fact in terms of rent-seeking losses to India’s national income that substantiates this high level of corruption in the country. These losses amounted to between 30 percent and 40 percent in 1980 and 1981, and looking at what is happening in the country both in terms of commitment of political leadership and anti corruption measures, it can easily be maintained that, over the years, corruption levels with their pervasiveness and individual portraits have gone up. Given the perceived high levels of corruption in India and also the fact that it has been in a way institutionalized, leading to unauthorized leakages of monetary and other resources1, it is a pity that neither our political leaders nor our administrators ever talk of corruption, its levels and its minimization or reduction as an overall strategy of either the various plans, or the annual budgets or other such programs. In the matrix of anti-corruption strategies, as based on the level of commitment of political leaders and the adequacy of anti-corruption measures, India perhaps falls in the ’Hopeless’ strategy cell indicating weak political commitment and inadequate anticorruption measures, whereas a country like Singapore falls in the ’Effective’ strategy cell indicating strong political commitment and adequate anti-corruption measures.
Corruption in India is a consequence of the nexus between Bureaucracy, politics and criminals. India is now no longer considered a soft state. It has now become a consideration state where everything can be had for a consideration. Today, the number of ministers with an honest image can be counted on fingers. At one time, bribe was paid for getting wrong things done but now bribe is paid for getting right things done at right time.
Effect of corruption
Indian administration is tainted with scandals. India is among 55 of the 106 countries where corruption is rampant, according to the Corruption Perception Index 2004 Report released by Transparency International India. Corruption in India leads to promotion not prison. It is very difficult to catch ‘big sharks’. Corruption in India has wings not wheels. As nation grows, the corrupt also grow to invent new methods of cheating the government and public.
Causes of corruption
The causes of corruption are many and complex. Following are some of the causes of corruption. · Emergence of political elite who believe in interest-oriented rather than nation-oriented programmes and policies. · Artificial scarcity created by the people with malevolent intentions wrecks the fabric of the economy. · Corruption is caused as well as increased because of the change in the value system and ethical qualities of men who administer. The old ideals of morality, service and honesty are regarded as an achronistic. · Tolerance of people towards corruption, complete lack of intense public outcry against corruption and the absence of strong public forum to oppose corruption allow corruption to reign over people. · Vast size of population coupled with widespread illiteracy and the poor economic infrastructure lead to endemic corruption in public life. · In a highly inflationary economy, low salaries of government officials compel them to resort to the road of corruption. Graduates from IIMs with no experience draw a far handsome salary than what government secretaries draw. · Complex laws and procedures alienate common people to ask for any help from government. · Election time is a time when corruption is at its peak level. Big industrialist fund politicians to meet high cost of election and ultimately to seek personal favour. Bribery to politicians buys influence, and bribery by politicians buys votes.
Measures to combat corruption
Is it possible to contain corruption in our society? Corruption is a cancer, which every Indian must strive to cure. Many new leaders when come into power declare their determination to eradicate corruption but soon they themselves become corrupt and start amassing huge wealth. There are many myths about corruption, which have to be exploded if we really want to combat it. Some of these myths are: Corruption is a way of life and nothing can be done about it. Only people from underdeveloped or developing countries are prone to corruption. We will have to guard against all these crude fallacies while planning measures to fight corruption. · Foolproof laws should be made so that there is no room for discretion for politicians and bureaucrats. The role of the politician should be minimized. Application of the evolved policies should be left in the hands of independent commission or authority in each area of public interest. Decision of the commission or authority should be challengeable only in the courts. · Cooperation of the people has to be obtained for successfully containing corruption. People should have a right to recall the elected representatives if they see them becoming indifferent to the electorate. · Funding of elections is at the core of political corruption. Electoral reforms are crucial in this regard. Several reforms like: State funding of election expenses for candidates; strict enforcement of statutory requirements like holding in-party elections, making political parties get their accounts audited regularly and filing income-tax returns; denying persons with criminal records a chance to contest elections, should be brought in. · Responsiveness, accountability and transparency are a must for a clean system. Bureaucracy, the backbone of good governance, should be made more citizen friendly, accountable, ethical and transparent. · More and more courts should be opened for speedy & inexpensive justice so that cases don’t linger in courts for years and justice is delivered on time. · Local bodies, Independent of the government, like Lokpals, Lokadalats, CVCs and Vigilance Commissions should be formed to provide speedy justice with low expenses. · A new Fundamental Right viz. Right to Information should be introduced, which will empower the citizens to ask for the information they want. Barring some confidential information, which concerns national and international security, other information should be made available to general public as and when required. Stringent actions against corrupt officials will certainly have a deterrent impact.
Corruption is an intractable problem. It is like diabetes, can only be controlled, but not totally eliminated. It may not be possible to root out corruption completely at all levels but it is possible to contain it within tolerable limits. Honest and dedicated persons in public life, control over electoral expenses could be the most important prescriptions to combat corruption. Corruption has a corrosive impact on our economy. It worsens our image in international market and leads to loss of overseas opportunities. Corruption is a global problem that all countries of the world have to confront, solutions, however, can only be home grown.. Until we will not take step forward to remove corruption from root, the word developing country will always be attached with our country INDIA . So we the common man are solution for removing corruption from our INDIA and hence we will be also helpful in making our country developed. I used the sentence “we the common man are the solution” because we are the only reason why corruption is so popular in INDIA. We are the person who are motivating corruption to be successful. We support corruption that is why it exit . Since we are the only person who elect ministers that are supporting corruption in INDIA . We know that a particular candidate is not fit to be a minister but then also we vote for him in election , and that particular minister does not work hard for leading INDIA at first position , he do not perform his duty well . The main goal of these type of minister is to vacant INDIAN treasury so that there own treasury can be filled . The money which comes from government of INDIA for development of society is not used by the ministers for the purpose for which it came for instead of all this it used up by the ministers in filling their own treasury . So from all the above stated reason we can conclude that are accept that we the common people who are supporting corruption to exit and hence we are only reason why our country INDIA is not an developed country yet. If this will be the situation for the coming years also then the time taken by INDIA to be a developed country will be increased by some years more. So I here thereby end with a promise from you people that you will be working against corruption to remove it from root . Common citizen of INDIA let us start working from now onwards with common goal of removing corruption from INDIA . Think the day when we will achieve our goal and whole world will say “INDIA IS AN DEVELOPED COUNTRY” how much glad we will be feeling . Then only sacrifices of our freedom fighters will achieve their goal .
We Have Tolerated Corruption For So Long The Time Has Now Come To Root It Out From Its roots .
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Wikipedia.org Combating Corruption By Sunil Sondhi www.merinews.com www.articlebase.com www.mylot.com