Hebrew Invective Poetry: The Debate between Todros Abulafia and Phinehas Halevi Author(s): ANGEL SÁENZ-BADILLOS

Source: Prooftexts, Vol. 16, No. 1, Readings in Medieval Hebrew Poetry (JANUARY 1996), pp. 49-73 Published by: Indiana University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20689439 Accessed: 28/11/2010 18:23
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ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS Hebrew Invective Poetry: The Debate between Todros Abulaf?a and Phinehas Halevi

The Character

of the Debate

poems constituting a poetic debate between Halevi.1

a and colleagues/including seriesof thirty-five short poetryofhis friends
him and the poet Phinehas



not only his own

the poet Todros ben JudahHalevi Abulafia
compositions/ but also some samples

of the

he Neubauer thoughtthathe was also called Vidal Profiat,that owned
property near Perpignan, Abraham Bedersi.5 Such We know only that he wrote secular be certain about any aspect of his life. and that he was apparently in the court at Toledo for some time, poetry
PROOFTEXTS16 (1996):49-73 ? 1996by The Johns Hopkins UniversityPress

the Learned and Sancho IV. His life and words have reigns of Alfonso been studied frommany different points of view.2 Who was his opponent, Phinehas Halevi hameshorer? Little about him is known. He has been identified as a son of Joseph Halevi, a grandson of Zerahia Gerondi, and a member of a renowned family of liturgical poets If this identification is correct, he established in Provence and Catalonia.3 would talmudic scholar Aaron have been the brother of the notable and the author of several liturgical and halakhic poems.4 A. Halevi and that he was a friend of the Proven?al poet identifications are difficult to prove; we cannot

One of the participants in the debate is well known: the Toledo courtier and poet Todros ben Judah Halevi Abulafia (1247-1306), probably thebest andmost prolific Hebrew authorof Christian Spain during the

9Compared with thegreat lyricalcompositionsof . Schirmann observed but that they are of interest as a reflection of the atmo literary value. form in the dtw?n. 497. However. are much ability to write poetry.probablyduring thereignofAlfonso X likely that the short poems constituting this poetic debate were written and before 1280. no. we cannot establish the real order of the events. The first sixteen poems. But we cannot poets on dated offer a psychological interpretation of their relations based written materials. 482-97. The unity of thematerial is uncertain. the kind that vulgar language. the for the interpretation of its background. and inmany cases we are not sure if these superscriptions are historically accurate. these poems about trivial. It is also difficult to determine whether the series of debate poems constitutes a single poetic debate or whether it is a collection of composi tions written at different occasions. may be has been called "lyric of realism. written in a seen as a low kind of literary text. form a separate unit consisting of poems on a similar topic. Following the usage of the age. we must conclude were always shifting between friendship and rivalry.6 with the longerdebatewith Taking thisexchange of poems together dubious political behavior. the rest of the group shows a certain unity. the Golden Age and even to other major poems written by Todros Abulafia himself."10 or even of what French critics call literature" that was marginal "contre-texte.50 and probably in Todros's ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS house. Don ?ag (Isaac) executedbyAlfonso in 1280on account ofhis ben ?adoq. he wrote a long panegyric to the most important Jewof Castile.8 tion mainly on the first the What is the interest this of debate from point ofview of the history that the poems have scant poetry? H. we are dependent upon of the poems. that the poems in the long series of debate poems are more Supposing to determine or less from the same period. realistic topics. which are our atten closer in style to conventional language. We shall concentrate of Hebrew half of thedebate. 498 to that the rest of the poems."11 a kind of "underground I consider this series with respect to high literary composition. more vehement and aggressive than the remaining poems. since the chronological order of the poems is unknown. the nos. The first three poems of the series clearly form a In its separate unit consisting of poems of friendship and separation. and there are reasons for believing from no. who would be TodrosAbulafia and won a long replyby the latter. But present theOxford manuscript interrupts the debate after poem no. for when bothpoetswere stillyoung. there is no certain way whether theyprecede or follow thepoems written by both authors in ante quernis 1280/817 It is which the terminus homage toDon ?ag. sphere of theperiod. 513. The poem included some harsh allusions to that the relations between the two which we began.

480) Todros's answer. to scriptions thed?w?n. explaininghis change ofmood: he acknowledges thathe was angryand had stoppedwriting poetry. after the conquest of the cityby Alfonso VI (1085).Hebrew Invective Poetry 51 to be a representative development of poems of Hebrew poetry in Christian Spain. the influences of its The debate took place inChristian Toledo. twelve verses with the same meter and rhyme. had been living for generations in a predominantly Romance atmosphere. According to the super lord/' "the knight"). stating thathis own soul had lefthim to serve Itwas with the knight. magnifyingthe love ofhis as a soul forthe illustrious friend. Although the city inhabitants. poetrywas being written in the Galician-Portuguese language the Castilian language. the city and particularly.13 My soul.479. and it remained with him. being The first three fromthe poems of theseries are clearlydifferentiated true Andalusian friendship poems. preserves the tone of friendship and esteem. He assumes a Neoplatonic conception of the . the court. v. in The Structure and Contents of the Debate in which thereisno reply). (no. (no. by the time of our poet. depictinghis friendship resembling net to hunt hearts. and genres. but says that thearrivalof The first poem by Phinehas is a single verse couched in the poetry.12 classical language and employing the standardmotifs of poems of friendship and separation. Their analysis may uncover the new tendencies of the as a continuation what degree the period and show to poetryofChristianSpain can be seen of Andalusian patterns and how much itwas open to own times. He turns to his friend with great respect.thefirst is by Todros. he. 481. he is its lord. and prose was being written and althoughArabic was still spoken or understood by many of its retained much Under the auspices of Alfonso X. poem (no. itflew to serve you and rebelled against me. and it is serving him. was torn off and went astray. nearly two hundred years of its earlier Andalusian character even after the conquest. employing similar expressions and calling him hagevir ("the Phinehas even before the separation of the two poets: Phinehas has made him forget his complaints and return to writing rest. 3) with which soul: He plays with the words and the images. when you departed.

14 tinue to be friends as at the beginning. has the same rhyme and meter as the preceding poem. Even ifTodros is the author of the superscriptions. was well integrated into it. this poem forms an independent unit. In any case. its tone varying between festive and serious. life in this and the following reign. (v. From a formal point of view. By putting these three poems at the head of the poetic exchange.52 Iwas ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS like a deceased whose soul ascended to the heavens. ing reply between the poems: themain motif and often the words themselves are in a kind of chain. It circumstantial dialogue. the debate consists of parallel composi are old and new images together in a delicate juxtaposition: is an ancient image. homogeneity debates Competitive and Hebrew pieces or sources of inspiration?without forgetting possible Arabic or Hebrew must bear inmind that both poets were active in the court of models?we Alfonso theWise. . The tone is not bitter. about the remnants preserve substantial Arabic and unity. Each reply taken up again in successive compositions. approaches obscenity. verses. and the platonic death for the love of the beloved more recent. with each poet subtly trying to praise his own poetry and ridicule that of his adversary with invective that sometimes nor are there tragic overtones. but my corpse descended into she'ol. they con demands response. for understanding provide background The next group. 9) the rest of the poems. consisting of thirty-two poems. but there usually are in the Four basic types of classical meter are used exceptions. the poets simply mock each other and try to outdo each other with a one does not answer. Together with the two preceding dualism of body and soul.15 be sure that he has preserved the complete debate. at least. We active part in economic taking must assume that he was familiar with the language and cultural life at we searchfor to it isdifficult findparallels forthisone. represents a different. there is a verbal connection of his opponent). sometimes there are differences inmeter and rhyme that lead us to suspect that one or more have been lost. the verses of Todros followed by the correspond In most cases. we cannot exchange. starting constitutes a well-organized with a personal anecdote and touching on several different aspects of the same question: Which of them is better qualified towrite poetry? Alter nating short poems discuss the respective poets' skill in the handling of language and verse. If points of contact skills are well known poets' but in the history of Hebrew-Spanish poetry. Todros probably intended to Here tions of one to five verses. in both poetry. discussion between the two poets. mostly in groups of two poems each (according to the superscriptions. the other sophisticated play of words. and that Todros. When a We can imagine that after the debate.

in good manners you are small.Hebrew Invective Poetry 53 court. equivocal language con which employs these terms with a sexual connotation. and I am small. above all. Truly. (no. who was known for his small stature.in the styleofArabic Is there sexual symbolism in these terms. 484) like "spear" or "arrow" are frequent inArabic and Hebrew fakhr?Words in the poetry of Ibn Gabir An example: l. we can observe a significant B. they are considered.16 To what is that correct? degree A. (no. or are they just a way of . Schirmann already observed that this debate was written after the style of the Proven?al tensones.17 Todros lacking good manners: According to the superscription Todros of the first poem. an eye for an eye: Know. 482) Phinehas of of Hebrew poets of the difference tonerelativeto that the Golden Age. But in Romance is also very common satirical poetry. it iswell known that your spear does not reach the place ofmy arrow. since theydid not ridicule the physical defects of theiropponents. you shall labor in vain trying to attainmy end. ARROWS AND SPEARS Todros replies: Ifyour body is tall. For these reasons. THE SHORT BED was an incidentin theirfriendship between the twopoets. 483)19 From the very beginning of the debate.and for Ifyour body has grown and you are fat. there was a deep inhis home in Toledo.18 answers in an angry mood. Phinehas tinues the image:20 praising thequality and power of his own poetry. my brother. that just as you are small. Assigned a bed that was too short forhim. as weapons for defending oneself or for attacking enemies. you lack human knowledge and intelligence. he the debate. relates that Phinehas had been a guest began thedebate bymocking his guest forbeing tall and fat. it friendship that provoked an groaned about his discomfort and made unpleasant comparison with the height of his host. poetry. the courtly Romance poetry of the time should also be taken into consideration. (no.

and it shall pierce heart and entrails. (no. . 487) ridicules his adversary for lacking the metrical technique to sustain the rhyme and meter until the end. (no. more personal (no. But I have words like arrows. and it Iwill put my eloquence on its tip. wicked one. Todros's answer opens a new way. and from the rest Iwould make one and even two arrows. (no. but at the end it is bitter as poison. 490) It is clear now that the "arrow" has sexual connotations. Even if it Iwould take forpunishing you. Ifyou made arrows from your spear. (no. How can you say that you don't miss. for the arrow. while I hit a hair with my sling and do not miss. and itwould be very dear if itwere truthfulto the rhyme and linked. 486) Phinehas answers in the typical tone oifakhr: The breath ofmy lipswill match thewings will pass like thewinds. It is sweet as nectar and honey at the beginning. feathers and ironwould be lacking. 488)21 Phinehas defends thequality of his poetry: My poem is like fine gold worn by a gazelle. the opposite Todros Pleasant is your eloquence. In his own case. "you do not have virile potency. In all your days. a half. his arrows do not attain the is true: hearts.54 How ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS can you compare my spear with your arrow? were broken. They would be like birds without wings or like corpses without spirits."23 Yellin states. You cannot aim your arrow straight at a mountain. 485) says Todros: You have not enough. your heart did not aim or throw the arrows of answers. it is like a yoke that smashes the neck. and truly I set thewords as a target. or like a golden jewel on a maiden's neck. 489J22 and more offensive: Your poetry is not like a golden jewel. the spear would be worth double. when you don't shoot like an arrow? (no.

It has to pass The son of your poetry is not suitable for taking a woman.26 but they are not infrequent in the or Galicia. with the peg sunk into him. (no. (no. SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF POETRY Phinehas replies toboth insults: It is like a golden jewel for all throats. (no.my brother. 495)29 and woe to the father Mishnah Todros answers in threeverses that the Bible (Eccles. but they are just dirty. The debate now centers itself on this new retorts. using the same images: Your daughter is a virgin. is considered to be born of woman.Hebrew Invective Poetry 55 C. Todros accepts the challenge: sphere The son of your poetry. will smash your neck.but the such allusions in Hebrew poetry. pushing the terms to extremes: throughtheritualbath inorder tobe prepared forsexual unionwith his image as Todros while that of Todros is feminine and impure. 493) manly penis. handicapped. but woe to you. own poems. son can have a daughter and two thousands. 492) Phinehas continues the debate.We are not used to finding only Jael's in Judg. no man has known her. My magnificence lies in themany sons. 12:4) and the speak of "daughters of poetry. My and he has a good name." not of "sons": Do you think that the sons beautify your poetry and do you blame themelodies as being female? . The sons ofmy poems liewith him every day. or in the invectives of Provence-Catalonia27 literary atmo of the Toledo court. but she is sick.5:26.unclean daughters. 494)28 Phinehas answers in a similar tone: The equivocal language is now absolutely clear. 491) but He rejectsthe accusation of sterility maintains thathis poem is masculine. The "peg" (m*?) is not With great might you present them as sons. and a peg for sticking in.25 How can you say.24 but it The son ofmy poetry will not join the daughter of your poetry until she goes to the bath. and in fact itsheart is a woman's heart. wounded. whose sons are females. "When she takes her bath he will join her"? He would not be able even if she were a married woman! (no. (no. and the daughter ofmy poetry is the fairestof virgins.

that Imay be well. but poetic ability is ascribed tome as to David. the image of . The structure of your poetry is ruined. alluding to something hidden: He knew that you were going towrite poems. and sons who are like daughters." and "poetry's daughter's will be humbled" before me. 497)31 D.56 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS Are they in the Bible or theMishnah "poetry's sons"? They are just "poetry's daughters." revealing a mystery. Todros appropriates "I am poetry/' "the daughters are my daughters.and they deserve to be humbled. (no. THE EDIFICE OF POETRY The debate continues in a new direction. How can you compare my poetry to yours? Are pearls to be compared to stones? The brooks of your poetry become scanty and dry. Therefore "the daughters of poetry shall be humbled"?since you are their father. and puts the quarrel in an terms of which of the poets is the better builder. a symbol of fertility: True. you join lime and limestone. inmore conventional terms. in the typicaltoneoffakhr: The new theme of the poem as building is taken up again by I join lime and carved stones. Your mind does not contain poetry. while I join pearls. (no. so he chose to disparage their golden ornaments and their good meaning. itpleads. 499) E. O Lord!" (no. It now employs images of poetry as construction. 498)32 Phinehas: epigramby IbnGabir l. and poor men and rich alike desire my edifice. thus introducing water. (no." There are daughters who are like sons. "Make me healthy. PEARLS AND WATER out of pearls rather than lime and stones. 496)30 Phinehas writes three similar verses: Solomon of old referred to poetry as "daughters. In one of the lengthiest he Todros says that builds his poems replies. Written on my heart is the law ofmy eloquence thatwas given tome at Sinai. they almost grow thistles.

501) its negative Todros picks up this last image and defendshimselfby drawing out aspect: True. because your works are not strong. but Iwill only grow and inherit lands and territories. (no. I shall enter the ark before the deluge. and there is nothing between them. 500) To this. since waters will increase. (no. Phinehas answers: See. from which all the clouds draw.you speak the truth when you call my words a flood. and I'll send fountains to the gullies. I'll float over its surface Iwould not fear. like those of every ample sea. your poetry makes mud. (no.Hebrew Invective Poetry 57 Give me the gullies of your poetry. even if thewaters of abyss and of heaven were opened? They rise and subside. (no.and thewaters became sweet. indeed. 504) Phinehas replies with three verses: Iwill seek tranquillity. their But Noah would not have been safe in the ark of your verse.and I shall be another Noah. my brother. like thewaters of clouds. Human insight takes bricks and turns them into gems and necklaces. has a lie a base on which to stand? might drink? They became sweet. Todros uses in his rhymes the same words . 505) that opponenthad employed: his In a display of virtuosity. the truthofmy words! To join pearls is not truewisdom. (no. but not that the thirsty rather they became a flood. there I put it. since it looks like ankle-deep water. whose waters will increase. for I am the sea of poetry.33 Beforeme. thewaters of the sea of poetry were bitter. But the Lord showed my mind's eye the tree. 502) answers with an attack: Phinehas Your lips are falsehood. these words may have a positive meaning: In fact. while mine is like thewater of the clouds. In fact.my friend. a big sea and broad. (no. 503) For Todros.your poetry is like sea water.

Inmy speech is an ocean of nectar. they almost wash away themoon and sun in the sky. Set your lips to begging at the ground where my songs are threshed. rather. Iwill rent them a small garret forpoetry. 509) G. I drop some for them to glean. see: is there anything in them but insight? Imay be hasty. But I advise you: ifyou are weak. but examine all the poems. saying that Since he is hasty. MEAT. polished forkilling. had the flood resembled my poems. AND FIRE This elicited a new reply by Phinehas: that poetry is your legacy.58 Noah ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS and his ark would have sunk. and there I'll put foryou a table and bed. THE SPEED OF POETIC COMPOSITION Phinehas now answers in a different rhyme and meter: A fool speaks maliciously against me. but my poetry is better than yours. that Are you rightwhen you maintain language is your acquisition? . do not make contention with a mighty man. even ifyou should work on it for a century. I shall be slow and say that it is not that I lack strength. 506) so Todros provoked Phinehas seems not to have replied to this poem. thewise heart likes to be deliberate. (no.but my soul answers appropriate words at any time. my poetry's sea has no end or limit like sand. a response: him again. while the counsel of the foolhardy is rash. Their waters do not cease rising. (no. not split. GRAPES. my verses' cloud gives no rain. She may go fast. demanding Is there no word or sound left in your mouth? Are the small coins finished from your purse? Your tongue is too short. 507) F. (no.while my tongue seems like a sword. 508) Todros defends himself against this new charge: You call me foolhardy. (no.

and even thewater that is in the ditch. 513) numerous allusions to other biblical verses and to Jewish customs assure us that the poets have not forgotten their own traditions. lestmy wrath against you grow. and the songs are seasoned in the shoots of its vine. My poems can be consumed raw. (no. 511) Phinehas's final reply: Do you intend to bum the field ofmy poetry with your furorand with your stormwind? I have waters thatwould put out the fire and calm thewind. "that make bum the blaze!" (no. and that the new fashions have not replaced but have been added to traditional Hebrew elements and to Arabic technique. The wine ofmy poetry is preserved in its grapes. 512)34 Two verses by Todros conclude thedebate: Stop.while I hold whole clusters. praising himself: This poem ofmine and thesewords testifythat I am the king of poets. but there may also be a strong connection with dents a curious blend of Romance poetry. I shall roast it inmy fire.Hebrew Invective Poetry 59 I hold the balance of eloquence inmy hand. (no. or do scholars reflect the new trends of Romance poetry? Hebrew theymainly . I do not deny that both Arabic and Hebrew prece can be found. to The long reference 1Kings 18:38 at theend of thedebate and the The Debate What in the Framework of Medieval Invective Poetry Are Hebrew forerunners. (no. I eat my paschal lamb roasted. 510) Todros replies. pouring festive poems. Such a connection would signify are used to searching for the rootsof thiskind of poetry inArabic or was in which this exchange was composed? the atmosphere the poems to be considered a true heritage of Muslim Spain. but you and your family consume it raw. but yours cannot be swallowed. to consume the house of your verse and its stones. and grapes' blood. so that you can eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Your grapes are sour. and there is not beside me whose hand is steady. and bring down devouring fire frompoetry's sky. It is like ass meat.

or an imprecation. the dishonor. The trend represented by Horace a smile in the face of human defects in order to verum.35 But it is true that late indignation Latin poetry could have had direct or indirect influence on the literary atmosphere of Christian Spain. and that itwas employed an insult intended to weaken. diatribe. and humiliate weapon. personal attacks became less frequent. but satire on kufr. But in general. between satire?condemnation of the society from the point of view of an ideal?and invective?an attack on another person. between Muslims After the victory of Islam. epigram.42 Under the early caliphs. immoral. became frequent. alongside perpetu their dead. its purpose was to concentrate in a few words the insult thatwould smash the victim. as do some of themodern studies of the genre. insulting poem. invective.40 Many In a sense. would in the city of Toledo at this time. During the pre-Islamic period. authors agree in pointing to a magic pan-Semitic origin. was attacking their enemies with mockery. seeking to elicit est suturam non scribere.39 adversaries that the hij?' was originally an incantation.37 Hij?y became one of the traditional major genres of classical Arabic poetry and one of the most varied in tone and form. This was the case as long as the bedouin element was significant in Arabic poetry. Itmay be useful to distinguish. arabic Among invective poetry poetry. type. original 3 an H?/ important role in the struggles that took place played and polytheists during the life of Muhammad."38 The hij?* may have had noble deeds and dignifyingthe memory of ating the fameof the tribe's the oldest functions of pre-Islamic many variants: curse.60 these quite angel s?enz-badillos not be to search out ancient classical models of satiric or invective poetry such as Horace or Juvenal. impiety. and so on. the hijti* is seen as the poetic expression of rivalry among tribes. and serious. satire.36 author's moral exceptional We do not need different traditions. such satire was thereexisted both individual and collective hij?\ the latterbeing the . obscene. avoid thesedefects. to the coarse. a mixture that. and flippant.41 enemy. trying to hurt and destroy as a consequence of the and contempt for vice. "from the lofty. a Goldziher maintains in the battlefield as a curse. though these two poets have the embodiment of the two main tendencies in the history of become is summarized as ridentem dicere satire. it tried to stigmatize the failings of the thatwere the antithesis of the qualities glorified by mad?h. moralistic.thatrepresented Juvenalis summarizedas difficile by a. however. The poet was motivated by the desire to touch his adversary in theweakest point?his prestige.

patrons and others. hi)Wis followedby passages of of the zajal authors.inordernot to spoil it. In summary.Hebrew considered practiced Invective Poetry 61 practice was extended to include diatribes among the princes of poetry. and may be closer to zuhd especially when it descended to the level of personal than to hij?\ It is true thatIslamic societyopposed hi?' to some degree. and so on. this entourage toproclaim their glory and attacktheir to be contrary to the teachings of the new religion. Sometimes. century. Even though themore popular atmo to sphere that gave rise to the zajal would likely have made concessions themost representative satire.After670. The theorists restricted the subject matter of the genre to defects of a moral order. none is found in the d?w?n of Ibn Quzm?n. and ab? T-Q?sim al-Sumaysir wrote many poems of this type. a group. why some anthologistsdid not includeexamples of it in their probably Western poets like al-Yakk?. InMuslim Spain. al-Abyad. lowly origin. the only object is to exaggerated . Ibn Bass?m stated that he did not include works. not physical defects. insult. invective became crude and obscene observations. there is no doubt the humiliate theadversary. The great poets Ibn Ab? Tamm?m. Such indecent hijtf fell into eclipse in the ninth enemies. But they were not popular Arabic literary tradition did not West. the include satirical debates in the form of long dialogues. including al-Andalus. using century. are so for the truth.Butminor thatmany Arabic precedents exist for invective poetry thatmight well be appropriate models for the composi in theMuslim tions we are discussing here. but itwas the sovereigns had poets in their nevertheless. accusing them of avarice. In the West. means of sustenance.45 Ibn Hazm's regret in his latter years for having written satirical in his youth is probably representative of the dominant attitude poems toward satire in theMuslim West. Dhakh?ra. and al-Mutanabb? wrote virulent epigrams to al-R?mi. Also common was blame of Destiny and themen of the generation (dhamm al-zam?n wa-abn?yih). Sometimes especially that no one takes them seriously. the obscenities. Besides. a For such poets. hij?' was never among the most commonly cultivated genres. and so on. during the period of neoclassical poetry. and that is Renowned and Ibn al-R?m? were blamed poets like Ab? Nuw?s forhaving written obscene satires.44 advice to the harshest collective or Hija" ranges from moralizing individual satire. but this type of impersonal satire is very different from true personal invective. the any hijtfinhis anthology. a Among the characteristics of invective poetry is complete disregard the words.46 Frequently. sometimes full of obscenities. fakhr in the same composition.43 the eighth recalling the shameful past of During therewere poets who earned a reputation for foul speech. satire and invective poetry were held in low regard.

The vagabond poet Isaac Ibn Khalfun wrote harsh satires against the world and destiny.56 a sharp sword.62 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS .mercilessly attacking his father-in-law when to divorce his wife. the poems of Hebrew didactic debate poems. those of and Yehudi ben Sheshat. Dunash. Ibn Sheshat's mockery of his name.. and even more rarely does it touch on physical to cruel and obscene language. since they would not have been in character for him.we lwrote some satirical poems against themen of Solomon Ibn Gabir his time in general52 (as was common in Arabic poetry). which he calls "colder Some of the expressions and than the snow of the Sierra Nevada. rejoicingat their death.51 or cificfoes such as Ibn cAbb?s Ibn ab? M?s?.50 Also series of short verses describing an apple included in the well-known d?w?n. of political ormilitary adversaries (Samuel Hanagid).58 or compares his poetry to knowwhom he is attacking. such as the general complaint about Destiny and themen of the genera tion. as when he speaks of throwing lances.48 trying has some very intense verses directed against spe Samuel Hanagid must in danger as long as these that his own life was bear in mind enemies were alive.g. playing on the Latin and Romance meaning reveals a harshness that is not deterred from resorting to personal insults rant and arrogant (Moses Ibn Ezra in his exile period). he did write harsh satires against the rich and ignorant men of Seville. e. The best example of invectiveisprobablyhis ."57 can be found in Ibn Gabirol's used by Todros and Phinehas images poems.HEBREW SATIRE AND INVECTIVE Hebrew Andalusian satire follows many Arabic literary traditions. that seems to reflect profound problems in the poet's soul.49 He directed invective also against abuses within the Jewish community. of Ibn Kapron. of Dunash.53 plagiarists. of the igno in order to disqualify the adversary.60 critical remark against Samuel Hanagid's poetry. a We would not expect to find invectives among Judah Halevi's poems. far from the earthy humor of the debate with which we are concerned. of or plagiarists. But it rarely goes as far as personal insult.of contemptible envious people (IbnGabir l). we already encounter harsh invectives. It includes themocking of personal enemies (as in.54 it is not easy to and bad poets.47 defects or descend In the first Andalusian Ibn Khalfun). the disciple the disciples ofMenahem. as in his satire of an ignorant master of talmudic in this connection is the to be taken into consideration studies. But during his stay in al-Andalus. almost cosmic element.59 In all these satires is tragic.55 In some of themore concrete passages. But he went beyond that. as well as against themen of his generation in general.

(ibid. I did not practice them very much. (ibid. like love poetry.. they are outside the little that can be called good and they are within the much that can be considered mischievous.Hebrew Invective Poetry 63 the sixth part of his cAnaq to twenty-four Moses Ibn Ezra dedicates of friends and of Destiny. 57r) . a consequence of the uncontrolled release of the choleric temperament thatmay be observed in poems by Ibn Gabir l. However. and I do not like to recall them. as is obvious to that came to his mind. 57r) However. these must be classified as satires rather than as true invectives. since it is easier to destroy than to build. he As for invective and mocking poetry. or Ibn Sahl. itwould have been much better forhim. were similarly criticized [But he was] a man whose pride affected his philosophic nature and the balance of his character: nobody escaped his snares or avoided all the insults worst manner. his choleric soul had uncontrollable His uncontrolled temper led him to insult the power over his intellect. Ibn Balcam. all thosewho plagiarize and abuse literature. Though a phi losopher by nature and knowledge. against In describing their attitude. 40r-40v) About Ab? cAmr Ibn Sahl. he said: He wrote satirical poetry. mighty and to offend them. and did so in an original way. and muwashshafy?t. (ibid... he When writing his Kit?b al-muh?dara wa-'l-mudh?kara in his later years.pretending to be poets. 38r) he now Other poets. such as Ibn Balcam for inclining toward invective: of Toledo. 41v) Recalling says: the poetry that he himself had written in earlier times. even though it is an easy thing. In his exile. invective: he maintains that he has not written any personal None against any particular individual has ever passed my lips. ifhe had restrained himself. but let absolutely free. he exposed them in the anyone who reads his works. he wrote: He could move one to pain with his elegies and hurtwith his satires. he made people laugh and evoked mirth as he uncovered their lies. satirical poems on the wickedness wrote many complaints against his fate and about the ignorance of he also themen of his generation.. They may be seen as a juvenile mistake. Of Ibn Gabir l. saw satire as a kind of excess. which felt ashamed for having composed. In hij?\ He directed itabove all he did not control his passions.(ibid. (Kit?b al-muh?dara wa-'l-mudlt?kara. some witty poems. and in some of his own poems. without excusing their faults.

they in a different direction. they did that aspect of Arabic literature during the Golden Age. In his case. on the other hand. the court of Alfonso the Learned was visited by many Proven?al and still more by trou troubadours. alongside Muslims.64 and joglars from Galicia. However. we are not able to see in the Andalusian tradition a direct model for the debate between Todros and Phinehas.63 In any case. which became the language of lyric poetry in Castile and Leon. invective poetry was not particularly cultivated in al-Andalus. and the Galician-Portuguese center in the northwest. About the origin of Proven?al poetry. there was a majority of Christian settlers. Hebrew Even if theHebrew writers ofMuslim Spain were able to find examples of invectives not imitate poetry. particularly that of theMuslim East. But we never find anything similar to the chain of poets kindwe findis seriesof wordplays thatallow thepoet todisplayhis skill. Two centers must be considered Romance the sources of court: Provence. though local poets also contributed with their own literary genres and traits. Though models ued many of thetraditions the of also soughtother preceding epoch. ROMANCE INVECTIVE POETRY Santiago de Compostela. with its already long tradition of influence on Alfonso's troubadour poetry in the language of Oc. who were living fully according literature. theHebrew authors of thirteenth-century Christian Spain contin inArabic and like the various descriptions of the apple made by Samuel Hanagid or the his guests. this seems to reflect his personal attitude and nonconformity with respect to the characters that appear in his poems the society of his time.62 This second center doubtless came into being and Proven?al of noblemen to thanks to the pilgrimages troubadours . are of men rather than specific individuals. on Plato and other ancient Greeks rather than on Torah. general types Ifwe seek series of poems in Andalusian Hebrew poetry. to the current fashions of and Jews. and other literary competitions inwhich Judah Halevi were involved. The king wrote his own poetry in badours Galician. Mozarabs. he also referred to it as a desecration of the holy tongue. C.61 Abraham Ibn Ezra iswell known for his satirical wit.64 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS He based his critique of hijtf on general ethics rather than on religion. there has been and continues to be a significant debate among scholars as to whether itsmodels were Arabic or Latin poetry. where the debate between Todros and Phinehas took place. the only invectives found in Todros's d?w?n. personal attacks and mutual Hebrew poetic Therefore. in this The Romance poetry that was heard and written in Toledo also had an important tradition of satire and invective poetry that period In Toledo.

"75 Pero da Ponte mocks the same Eanes. between age in Toledo during the reign of Alfonso the Learned. a series of burlesque compositions two poets attacked each other in interchanging strophes. the language is still in comparison with the usual obscenities and rudeness of the moderate several kinds of poetic genres. In both traditions. when Todros was a young courtier."72 It has been observed that the ten??o had its golden exchange that is. as was it was usual the case in in theirsatireand insult. but often the authors were aristocrats who used the form as a way of "cantigas de burla" of this time. apparentlyemploy thesame tone found in the to anyone who been unknown the intellectual air of the age. Itwas probably a spontaneous outgrowth of jogral prac tices. classical Greco-Latin poetry since antiquity.74 Derision ofminstrels for lack of poetic talent was frequent in the thirteenth century.where thekinghimselfandmany ofhis nobles cultivatedthis two poets' verses. both mock a minstrel who cannot sing or play the lute. but itwas usually not under four. and all doubted that he could really be its author. concluding with two shorter strophes called tornadas. a one of his verses that had a saying that minstrel read good rhyme.73 debates vary.70 The number of strophes was not fixed. Looking at the corresponding form in Galician-Portuguese "the ten??o is a poem in dialogue form.67 We must recognize that although this poetry reaches a level of impudence that is not usual inHebrew poetry. or moral problems. and. but most frequently reduced to an a exchange of opposing views at very personal level.71 Though the contents of such In a ten??o between Joan Perez D'Avoin and Joan Soarez Coelho. since he "nunca cantar eguai nen rimou. and never had poets any talent.66 It is very likely that the most immediate models for this poetry may be found in the Galician so important a role in the court of that played poetry Portuguese kind of poetry. they oftenincludea discussion of therelative qualityof the expressing their longing for freedom. ifnot outright to an of insults. 1250 and 1280. to express rivalry in poetic debates. saying that "non sab' el muito de trobar. literary.Hebrew could not have breathed Invective Poetry 65 lived at the court and thatwe are discussing. The poems Alfonso X. literature. like its model.69 The closest model for this kind of continuous debate including inwhich would be the Proven?al tens?. the words of which could include obscenities. historical.65 They also have many elements in common with the Galician-Portuguese cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer. Alfonso Eanes do Coton ridicules Suer' Eanes.68 The poetry of the troubadours knew Proven?al-Catalan personal sirventes and in the literary sirventes that often include debates among the troubadours. debates."76 The Portuguese minstrel Louren?o was often ridiculed . in essence to a discussion devoted of political. which frequently included attacks against other poets. derived from the Proven?al tens?.

82 An important aspect of the Proven?al and Catalan satires and invec tives is that even when the poets insulted one another mercilessly (?s in the case of Guerau de Cabrera to theminstrel Cabra). there was not real was a kind of amicable play. with itsmagic character.81 Pero Garcia says to Louren?o: que de trobar nulha rem non sabedes.83 The same occurred in Galicia. for its real objective language was to arouse laughter.78 In another ten??o. The rude animosity. On In these ways. themes of lack of talent and the corresponding with the poet Rodrigu' Eanes. But the against possibility cannot be excluded that this since no clear model of such a debate can be found debate. the whole mockery was not meant to be taken too seriously.85 Romance invective poetry. e te farey o citolon na cabe?a quebrar!79 In a new ten??o. we are far from the original world of invective. the latter says to Louren?o: with Joan Garcia de Guilhade. poys mal i enten?as. but he was very much appreciated the court of Alfonso X. Ves. Louren?fo].77 In one ten??o. ora m'assanharey. in the Hebrew poetry of al-Andalus. it is easy to find a single person writing pious hymns and as a kind of literary fashion or verses that are satirical or obscene entertainment. a Portuguese nobleman. the Hebrew during old poetry of the bedouin type may still be in the background of the . our debate seems to be close to considerations? the old Arabic weapon Where arewe toplace our poetic debate in the light thepreceding of the one hand.66 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS in for trying to become a troubadour. we would have to explain how the Hebrew poets of thirteenth-century Christian Spain could receive an old into Hebrew Arabic influence that had not been incorporated poetry the Golden Age of al-Andalus. nin rrimades nen ssabedes iguar. Joan Soarez Coelho says to Louren?o: e tu dizes que entenz?es faes que poys non riman e son desiguaes.84 Among the poets of Galicia. On the other hand.80 Joan d'Avoin says to the same Louren?o: ben tanto sabes tu que ? trobar ben quanto sab'o asno de leer. too. and he wrote many ten?aos using thewell-known insults. Nevertheless. Louren?o disputes disparaging his poetic ability and praising his own. poetry here is not a an enemy.

. small number of accentual-syllabic contrast with the comparatively debate thatwe have analyzed here seems inmany ways to be closer to the Romance type of invective than to the Arabic one. pp. The poems are quoted Abu-l-c?fiah) Gaster edition by Moses in Yellin's to their numbers edition. The formal differences are signifi their use of verse cant: the metric techniques of Todros and Phinehas.after a (You don't know anything about composing poetry). Inhis edition. Mizrah uma'arav 4 (1930): 94-104." Prooftexts 1 for example. which are different from tions follow their own manners those of this particular Hebrew debate. Schirmann.Zion 2 (1937): 19-55.e. . Targarona. The research for this article was made possible by a grant from the Direcci?n General was merely a facsimile the of manuscript. Are you speechless?)87 Universidad Complutense de Madrid Department? de Hebreo NOTES de Investigaci?n Cient?fica T?cnica of theSpanishMinisterio de Educaci?n y Ciencia. I y R. 2. we cannot exaggerate the similarity of our debate with the extant types of tensones or ten??os inRomance poetry.Hebrew Invective Poetry 67 composi may be sim?ar and the invectives may be alike. Yedi'ot Lehmann. 366-448. 1 HaHvrit (1936).. 479-513). Brody. pp. The exchange of poems had been editedwith 90-100. strophes used by contemporary We can only describe our present debate as a hybrid type of composi tion. representing the polycultural ambience of Toledo at that time. see J. since the previous according and for his excellent 1. 1960). suggestions son of Yehuda Tadros ed. has not been systematically and Satire in the Poetry of theMaimonidean "Polemic Controversy. all denote Andalusian origin. TelAviv. short Yellin and provides invective to the poems.86 In these rhymed short compositions the poems continue to be faithful to their literary roots. H.. Tarbiz2 (1931): notes by I.2. studied.1. H. the Can we imagine a young Jewish poet in the court of Alfonso Learned saying to another Jewish poet: "de trobar nulha rem non sabedes"! if.Y. the Romance and usages. S?enz-Badillos. Gan nameshalim vehahidot (DTw?n of Don here (Jerusalem. Cf. Though the tone minstrels and troubadours is very clear. No wonder y*i ysn i?ni ("Is no word or sound silence. HelmanHca36 (1985):195-210. he would reply: left in your mouth?" i. J. Nevertheless. 22-30 (nos.1-94. 1932). (1981):133-51. Yellin. The topic of Jewish satire important notes and commentaries For a specific case of it. and the quantitative meter in numerous mono patterns and rhymes. 2. H. The respects. of revision this wish toexpress paper my gratitudetoProfessor Scheindlinforthestylistic for its improvement. "War and Peace" [Hebrew]. S. Bernstein. D. hashirah hamakhon leheqer uveProvans Hashirahha'ivntbiSfarad [Hebrewpoetry inSpain and Provence]Oerusalem and A. Baer.Davidson.

3." See G. P. See P. against c. merubbe: 492. 5. see nos. 910) includes son.68 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS Halevi Abulafia: HebrewPoet inChristian A Todros Spain [Hebrew]. 482-90. and it is unnecessary. 157 and p." Revue des ?tudes juifs6 (1941/45): f. / who Physique or Blamed for Their Evil Qualities. Galician-Portuguese poet. pp. sirventes or in the satirical cantigas of Galicia. 1994) (inpress). about the stones and the waters. 207ff. 508. era manco of his great body and his lack of musical talent. Schirmann. 10. 74) or hear (no. p. Remember I am because small" in H. derides on account d'escarnho (Coimbra. 1989. Iehouda Hal?vi 26 Aboulafia.1984). 507. l said about himself: "I am despised in your eyes Solomon Ibn Gabir l: Secular Poems Brody and H. en la Espa?a Medieval a sirventes 1971). 50. Alfonso him. the Cantiga no. 449-53. Dronke. reply. 495-501. However. Rodrigues galego-portugueses. 6. 19. M. 489. 494." 13. mocking a a minstrel called Saco p. the arrow. 1185-87. Fern?n P?ez de Tamalancos. about 4. 505-6. into five parts: 1. Schirmann. 482-513 the son and daughter of poetry. mahir: 484. inmy paper "Poetas menores 7.. 60. Hashirah 11. 1991). In the dTw?n of Ab? there is a subdivision of the chapter on hij?3 . "Contribution ? l'?tude du divan de Todros IV Congreso Internacional "Encuentro de las tres culturas" (Toledo. "Der Dichter Pinehas ha-Levi. 8. 4: ona^ pearls.. Hashirah. 485. 18. 1974). 493. Mocking the opponent's to most literatures. Bertr?n de Born wrote (Madrid. who was already dead by that time: "Due to the defects of the crippled. Ben 135-46. hijtf against poets Nuw?s prepared tradition. [Hebrew] (Jerusalem. 491. frequent in old Arabic in his Kit?b al-zahra a chapter entitled "On Those al-Isbah?n? (d. 483. Cf. 19. 507.pp. p. 103 of the same d?a perna e ?opegava del? muito". Hashirah 2. 510-13. S?tira e invectiva Proven?al Scholberg. ? poetry. 2. Ibn D?w?d Reviled for The Bad and Their Ugly it is not difficult to find parallels in the index on p. Hazan. PoetryandHalakha [Hebrew] (Ramat Gan. pp. See no. about who has written better poems. pp. pp.1977). In his notes. to prove such a supposition. p. mishqal hatenu'ot: 490. "before that time. Lapa 1965). for being thin. See E. "que cannot see refer to someone who (no. Yellin approche du contre-texte was burning against Ti?n. v. J. such ridicule was invective poetry. 507-13. 34. 16. 57. 27?. cf. my wrath that in cases when a poem in the dTw?n consists of a single verse. Burlesque 12. 501-6. 502-4. a severe illness" (no.R. II of Aragon. it suggests There is no way may be that the dTw?n preserves only the first verse of a longer composition. cf. 397 and Todros's 2.no. 132-33 of the Cantigas e de mal dizer dos cancioneiros medievais ed. Ibn Shoshan 17. Schirmann. pp. See . 105)well. 2. p. On in the Arabic by Hamza al-Isfaham. Bee. 509. Schirmann. Against the accepted the rhyme on this occasion. 449. A. 475). Poetry(Hija') inClassicalArabic Literature Ugly:Attitudes is directed against a lawyer. 2d et obsc?nit? nun chez les troubadours: Pour une m?di?val(Paris. 64. he changes lack of poetic faculty is common 21. about (2. Yellin 2. 14. 1988). Yellin. B. 5. etc. 126 ff. 499-500. 3. 76. 20. On the other hand. 398. 449. We refer to this edition below as B-S. 29) divides nos. 15. what Ibn Gabir collection others the TowardInvective (Leiden."MGWJ 20 (1871): no. no. I declare improper the himself is small. See ibid. p.pp. 1988). See the line by the aristocrat David against Todros and his father. 486-88. 1. van Gelder. (Cambridge. among other things. I have discussed these panegyrics de la corte Alfonsi/' en la "El mundo cultural Internacional sobre la Cultura Hispano-Judia Espa?a Congreso judio alfonsi"(TelAviv. usage. about 9. 482. Doron. 455-59. The Medieval Lyric. 2. 4. van Gelder. . Shalem: nos. ed. Chapira. 491-98. 7ff.

saying: saps viular e pitiz chantar . Laud. See Scholberg. 14: nvmr* mirais.. See Guide of the Perplexed 3:8. 29. for the sun.but italso recallsan Arabic verse by says: "Being for themoon. already mentioned. Scholberg. In the second half of the twelfthcentury. University." several this topic. seen as a matter of personal the latter died. ms.but thebasicmeaning is the readings that 25. inobscene expressions. non sabs balar ni two verses answering Todros's four. cf.. (Cambridge. and that faculties that as it therefore should not be employed inappropriately. v. le perdeu todo o cantar por?n.p. 363 and 379 deride ridicule. 27 f.KingAlfonsoX..v. the the Oxford ms. and this new series was following poems belong one." p. Mirsky (Jerusalem. "The SatiricalPoetry ofAlfonso :A X Castile. presents in this verse some textual T. A few decades earlier. Snow. 28. 142v. See his note in Yellin. 1221-1284: 110-31. 33. see P. 101-4. Zuhayr: verse A well-known by al~Mutanabbl a matter of pride being masculine are one step higher than women. see van Gelder.Hebrew dedicated ensenhamen to such compositions against Invective Poetry 69 poets.Cf. no. Harvard 1984. The first is full of images from the includes a clear quotation the second from Judg. sperm. says "q'ei classical mocks en cotilos la pel. 225 published by Rodrigues Lapa the sexual impotency of Domingo Caorinha. A. the poet this time was offense. 11." About Qur'?n 2:228. Marquez Villanueva Mass. van Gelder. 20:16. Maimonides maintained that languagewas one of the 26. Bee. ed. Ibn Khalfun. particular object of Fern?n Diaz's homosexuality." 24. inArabic invective poetry. p. feminine is no blemish See van Gelder. 1961). s. Only to the joglar Cabra. 87. Themotif appears in the Talmud. See thedescriptionof thebishop of Urgel writtenby Bergadan.131. 46f. p. The Cantiga no. ina cantiga mal dizer. trasgitarguiza de juglar 22. Bodl.1. Cf. nor is recall that "men this topic. Proven?al compositions. f. See also Rodrigues F. On de Bergadan and Galicia. . The same is true in Provence he included his homosexuality. among the insults that Guillem p. 2. Cantigas was d'escarnho e de mal dizer. As the ?1 Hisn are men or women. period. J. xm&ytb. arbitrarily joined to the preceding will be humbled" (Eccles. to a different series on a similar topic." See Scholberg. invective poetry since 28. see also "e de mais ? pre?o que nunca erra / de dar gran con seu colpe tragazeite no. designate urine. Hebrew is called "The Holy Language" because has been set to the act of generation. 30. where it is said about Fernando Escalho "ouve sabor defoder. however. and sometimes 27. According in it no word to him." 31. "obscenity. who types of obscene analyzes convincingly pp. with tibe passive nos. but when a consecrated pp. nos. See Rodrigues Lapa. 232. either the male or the female organ of copulation. The Oxford same. 12:4). de weapons of aMuslim and his playswith the sexual 17 November An International Symposium. wwm in Itzhak Ibn Khalfun: Poems [Hebrew]. distinguishinghim fromanimals.116. Or. pp. which by wrote against his neighbor Pons de Mataplana." See Rodrigues Lapa. Possibly. p. pp. this accusation partner being a frequent. "mal In Romance it is also frequent. Lapa. 1990). 22. or excrement. Sank 100b. was given to human beings. In the Galician-Portuguese planto to him. 29 f.. 377. the Learned Look at ItsRelationship to the 'Cantigasde SantaMaria'." in Alfonso of organs: [small might be preferableto thoseadopted by Yellin. spear]. Sexual expressions language and obscene index of subjects. 16. "The daughtersof poetry .theCatalan noble poet Guerau de Cabrera addresses an a guascon" See Scholberg. King. Abbasid times.p. whether "I do not know.. Homosexuality had been a very common topic of Arabic to be the active partner was a motif of pride.ed. 155.. known in his sirventes against the non a In Romance literature: Bergadan. including many obscene details. 115. efodeu. bishop of Urgel. ends the debate at this point.. are well 23. Cf.

1-105. L.D." Dialogues J.pp. E. 92 ff. 31:43 and Eccles. biblical quotations Jer..Reinick and H. many of the satires have been written themetrical whatever in verse. followingIbn Jan?h). for instance.. pp. itdiffers of is not . HE. 22:5. Cf. For the sexual and moral that appear aspects in Islamic society. Al-Sayyid-Marsot. the Hebrew Debate and Medieval Near see W. 3ff. de la litt?rature Arabe des origins ? la du XVe fin der Hig?-P sie. On the Medieval Arabic Literature (Princeton. 1964)." Popular pp. "Truesatire impliesthecondemnation a societyby reference an ideal. content is invariably prosaic. we meet with parody inJewishliterature. ha-Nagid: Poemas. cf. Cf. 1971). 1896). 23-42. though attitude. 133ff. See. 1975). See van Gelder. C. me that "it MiddletonMurry. in Dispute Poems and in theAncient Europe. and . Hebrew (1984): 21-43. Cf.: seems to prose is of most famous Here again." and pp. Histoire si?cle de /. Still. Tacit for a moment the nature of the personal from invective comedian abyss between to 36. the adversary. 60. mentions 47." Murry. Muslim Society. Scholberg. Bellamy.70 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS frame the poem: Gen. Worcester. there is a meaning to consider itworthwhile indignatio versus. the ancients_Nevertheless.Van Bekkum. The in that it is not an attack aimed by a particular at a particular. 77-90. SiruTatayn. in the well-known tag of Juvenal.Vanstiphout (Leuven. 38. van Gelder.. 1990)." ed. "Observations debates. (repr. . 4. (Paris. "Sex and Society in Islamic "The Sexual Mores of the Common People." Literature.C Pellat. 417ff. the reality and his dream. 214ff. 43-62. (Leiden and London.pp. I.1932)...pp. Pellat. See van Gelder. Cf. . "Desde S?enz-Badillos and Judit Targarona Borras (Cordoba.2 the sons of Earth el campo de batalla Granada. in the basis resentment. 42. Far?s. Ezek. there is an impassable [T]he satirist is indignant because indignant. their consideration Society and the Sexes in Islam (Malibu.TheArt of Satire (New York. 59 ff. 11. Ibid.states.-C. L'honneur chez les Arabes avant l'Islam: "Hidj?\" in the debate. . See S?mu'el trans. 2:380."Miscel?nea de 33.TheProblem Style(London. J. H?mori. .Abhandlungen arabischen PhilologieI (Leiden." indignation of this kind. Ibid. Blach?re. p. of 3:352ff. 1979). R." he "It isonly in the twelfth and centurythat first Abraham Ibn Ezra's epigrams and other parodies in prose and verse from that But of of century.new ed. 1991). 46. 47:3.pp. his definition parody as an imitation a grave or dignified writing thatis method of treatment made ridiculous by the leads him away from the typeof invective under on discussion here. J. "Hidj?'. zur 40. pp. This work among "Fiction and Reality: Sources for the Role of Sex inMedieval F. I. Medieval other contributions: Calif. 33. p. Goitein.A. On medieval inMedieval East. Exod. pp. J. Three and 34. 1960).p. Rosenthal. thehistorical fact is that thepropervehicle of satire. which makes versus is true But personal satire_Tacit indignatio enough. see A. in bnn "?3D. S."Ueber die Vorgeschichte humiliate sees it more as an invective meant todishonor and de ?tude sociologie (Paris.p. as water understood that covers 33.Davidson inhis Parody inJewish Literature New York. pp. of the satire. 12:4 in the first the ankles verse. p.1965). 17:14 in the last. . 44. 1. 3:572ff. G. 3-22. 41. J. A. 30 ff. 1963). L. 39. probably meaning 32. just 35. 43. pp." pp." Encyclopaedia Islam.pp. 45. al-'Askar?. (Yellin's interpretation. theeditionbyMirsky. 686ff. I. includes. Horace form no more makes and Juvenal among the satire of Horace-The the form may be. 105. Seemy article "Yishaq ibnJalfun Semuel ibn y Nagrella ha-Nagid. Angel 48. 1038-56. Recall the harsh satire against Estudios Arabes y Hebraicos 49. ed. Satire is not a matter of Art of 37.Goldziher. does not suffice for the real satirical but of impersonal condemnation. D.

63. v. 56. s?lective critique du occitane moyenage: Bibliographie litt?rature (Toronto see and On Galician-Portuguese literature.. Scholberg.B-S no. trans. D. 167. 54. For instance. rompimiento. See my article "Selomoh ibn Gabir l y S?mu'el ha-Nagid: de la amistad al 182. 94ff. pp. p. 1984). 65. (Oxford. 55. 1977). See Yehuda ha-Levi: Poemas. en 64. 252ff. point in time?then the however. 191. Cf. which she distinguishes from his "complaintsagainst tohis "satiricalpoems" (pp. 114 f. 58. against Destiny vol. 43. complaint alluding mainly section of her book and themen of his generation. 81. pp." Destiny ") 53.a group of thirty-eight poems called ^tvj row. 67. 65 f. Provence is doubtless the better known. in his introduction to E. B-S no. 62. Among therecent The Arabic Role inMedieval Literary History:A Forgotten Heritage (Philadelphia. defendersof the"Arabichypothesis. . pp.He admits. 1975).devotes a fewwords to IbnGabirol's satirical poems. 102. 37 (1977): 317-26. In r?KWK B-S no. 234. p. ten??o AlfonsoXwith Pai Gomes Charinho inno.R. of 66. Angel S?enz-Badillos nbw. 1977-78).Pagis. pp. 181ff. 575-601. Jarden. 56ff. d^ano for instance in nrbpw ib 54. In mon 59. the introduction bibliographyby Pilar V?zquez inDiez Borque. B-S no. D. See my article "Cinco poemas Sefarad as row nnp four poems of ironic of the d?w?n.1977). 110. 1. vrab m nn btmv.This tendency poetry indialogue continuedduring of Middle Ages in the literature conflictus. 2d ed. La See. hanagid:ben tehilim. p. -poti^"u. v. As inTheocritusor Virgil. 54). that they must from outside. See ?. 501 ff.Historiade las literaturas Hisp?nicas no castellanas(Madrid. writes: "Innumerable from the Arabs. 1994). Taylor. 2.for instance.Mart?n de Riquer 1:58. 113. See C. Dronke. pp. lpt1*nn\ -? "wmp. Alvar. distinguishes. Jarden." 50. Bee. B-S no. in his edition The SecularPoetryofRabbi SolomonIbnGabir l [Hebrew] (Jerusalem. 1980). p. A. 5. Romero's anthology and poems of self-praise. 133ff. pp. v. 52.Hebrew Invective Poetry 71 his edition 2d 1985]. B-S no. de Riquer. ed. p.no. See van Gelder. B-S no. Cf. See . 1.' Western European in of whole of thischapter isevidence to thecontrary"(p. 154. p. * and (Madrid. that "there were and Romance Spain . R. Romero devotes a whole 57. 97. See. most scholars see in Latin literary traditions themain explanation Latin and the Rise of European Love-Lyric. B-S no. of the origin of However. Ed.). TPn 60.pp. vol.pp. 303 of the collectionofRodrigues Lapa. etc. forinstance. 152. 95. 1978). La lyrique fran?aise et and Buffalo. Los Trovadores: Historia Martin m?di?vaux (Paris. 115. Medieval that writing poetry of amour courtois is a scholars have claimed 1968). Such a claim and the rest of Europe borrowed that Provence convention involve a number that its notions Europe secular of very different things-If and motifs and images means it so that amour courtois is a 'new occur and suddenly mysteriously that basically the character culture.pp. have been borrowed. ^ . 68. La poes?a trovadoresca Espa?a y Portugal (Madrid.."seeMaria Rosa Menocal. P. pp. on his departure from Saragossa. 50)." pp. 274ff.). in Corollas Philologicas in honorem Iosephi Guillen Caba?ero (Salamanca. 43. Judit Targarona Borr?s 61. 79 ff. ? des au moyen age: contribution une typobgie genrespo?tiques literaria y textos (Barcelona. by another songs is detenrdned fruitful interchanges between Arabic at one particular poets in or thatsome of thepoets north of the Pyrenees could have had a certain amount of acquaintancewith Arabic songs" (p. 13. 1987). In de Semuel ha-Nagid. pp. for instance. vmw. 1983). Bec. Jarden includes ("poems Selomo Ibn Gabir l: Poes?a Secular (Madrid. as a to "wu ira. B-S no. may feeling. For instance. [Jerusalem. 226ff. 63. 74ff. p. the the of 67.. 630ff. P. mockery") (D?w?nShemuel 51. that poetry.

II. and cobla tensonada. 103 ff. 195-210. In the tornejamen. dans laquelle chaque "La tens?n est un pi?ce dialogu?e. Scholberg. . humor" (p. 50). on by our analysis dovetails nicely with that of Prof. troubadours kind of dialectical play. C. p. As Men?ndez Pidal said. shirei ezor no. 161: "Exemple de refoulement la aristocratique plupart de nos contre-textes?" and V. gallegos. 86. 97. Tavani. aunque luego muy See Poes?a de las literaturas rom?nicas. La poes?a Urica medieval celles de son adversaire" 73. Scholberg. Or. Scholberg. 64 ff. "You trobar [composing p. "That you don't know Tavani. p. troubadours. 48. 52. 1985). Brody. 74. Bee. as Rodrigues Lapa says. Scholberg.72 ANGEL S?ENZ-BADILLOS 69. 78ff. Ibid. Jones. Earliest The Portuguese Lyrics(1978). de Riquer l:53ff." Actas delW Congreso "Las moaxajas 136. by the Proven?al aw . 83. his virility. The poem was published H. know say that you p. Yellin. cobla. See also D. See p. partim?n. As iswell p. Cf. The closest of the other types is the partim?n. 2. 161f. rudas. 56. 44 ff. 6th ed. 85. 23. "G?r of Alphonso by Todros made anything about trobar [composing poetry]: not how tomake or how tomake rhyme regular verses.see ibid. pero juglar despiadadamente. and rhyme knows I will 1964).written 1 (1933): 92-93. 78. and 67. "Como constante dessa poesia. individual.p. 135. Cf. G. 84. G?mez Moreno. See Bee. 92. sempre ou directa ou mais ou menos as regras do bom conforme estocada velada." 81. pp." Helmantica36 (1985): Internacional de Todros AbuTafiah. 1934): de nature satyrique. reading. 76. F. known. comme d'ailleurs 71. (Madrid. p. J. 126. 75. as a position take part. 70. (Madrid. Both Dichtung authors recognize that this is not a muwashshah. 1987). Beltran. See Scholberg. which he for his poem nan adopted X. Scheindlin the stories of Jacob ben Eleazar." 82. 1957)." Mitteilungen des Forschungsinstitut ?r hebr?ische Levi Abulafia. Tavani. ten??o. [Hebrew] . 80. 72. . and D. Burlesque. opinion exprime the (p. Alvar pp. Jensen. Gan hameshalim. son muy en uso entre los trovadores las veremos amistosas. xi). R. Cf. p. see his in Between Arabic and Romance" article "The Love Stories of Jacob ben Eleazar. Louren?o. See P. another thirteenth-century Toledan Hebrew writer. La tens?n proven?ale (Paris. "Todros ben Yehudah ha See J. Alvar (Madrid. 77. 111. Antolog?a de la poes?a gallego-portuguesa and A. S?enz-Badillos. in these compositions. pp. Cf. 61. Louren?o: Poesie e tenzoni (Modena. "See. inwhich on a topic to debate and on the to be defended two agree in advance by each." Tavani. several . "Encuentro The result reached telgedichtedes Todros Abu-rAfija. distinguishes tornejamen. 1:67. and A. "el trovador zahiere e insulta a su no supone la menor Estas burlas el desprecio animosidad. p. pp. insulting 75. Pedr' Amigo de Sevillewrites a cantigatoPero d'Ambroa pp. de las Tres Culturas (Toledo. "And you Tavani. about compose ten??os that do not have poetry] as much as the same the ass or the about same meter. also C.Targarona. p. p. now Iwill be angry since you are a very bad 79. 114. de Riquer five different kinds of debate poetry: tens?. un poeta hebreo en la cortede Alfonso X el Sabio. in honor other attempts to imitate the strophic forms used as in the case of the cane?. 1988). making break your instrument on your head!" Cf. interlocuteur son et sur les m?mes rimes que dans des copias altern?es de m?me mesure." juglaresca y or?genes a p.

1. Proceedings theEleventh of Eleazar. He comes to the conclusion to quite a different genre from the one that concerns which belong . are a Division C. 3 (Jerusalem. 507. v. As reflect the spirit of Romance they nevertheless Todros says in poem no. having clearprecedents in though al-Andalus. World Congressof Jewish Studies. literature. vol. 16-20. that the narratives cultivated 1994). Arabic andHebrew literature of kind ofhybrid literature. pp. 87.Hebrew Invective Poetry 73 by Jacob ben us here.

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