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Original Title: Six, Lies, And Calculators

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Author(s): R. M. Corless

Source: The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 100, No. 4 (Apr., 1993), pp. 344-350

Published by: Mathematical Association of America

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2324956 .

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Six,Lies,and Calculators

R. M. Corless

tently otherwise

leftafterreadingYves Nievergelt's paper[1].In particu-

excellent

lar,thepresentarticleshowsthatin a certainsense,theanswersprovidedbythe

fora verylargeclass

as usefulas theuniqueexactsolution,

calculatorar precisely

of problems,en whenthe calculatorsolutionsare notat all close to theexact

solution.It is furthershownthat even the exact answerby itselfis usually

of the problemunderconsideration,and

fora completeunderstanding

insufficient

thatsomesortof sensitivitanalysis(suchas computing thecondition numberof

the problem)is also required.It is also sho thatunexpectedbehaviourof a

computedsolutioncan be extremely usefulpedagogically.

The behaviour ofthecalculator is byno meansunique.All othercomputers and

softwarepackagesexhibitsimilarly usefulquirks.Further,the behaviouris not

restrictedto the solution of linear equations, holding true also for function

the solution of differentialequations, and many other

evaluation, rootfinding,

practicalproblems.There is a strongconnectionwiththe theor of chaotic

dynamicshere,whichmay also be of interest.

happenswhenyou tryto solvethe linearsystemAx - b, givenbelow,on the

HP28S.

888445 887112] 1

887112 885781 0

Severalmethodsare tried,and onlyone producestheexactanswer.

ProfessorNievergelt corectlypointsout thatthematrixA is ey close to a

singularmatrix, and thusis extremely havinga conditionnumber

ill-conditioned,

greaterthan 1012, A succinctand accuratealgebraicdefinition of condition

numberis givenin [1] (and henceis notrepeatedhere),and Professor Nievergelt

also pointsout thatthedefinition,

meaning, and use ofthecondition numberare

not sufficientlywell knownoutsideof the numericalanalysiscommunity, and

shouldbe taught morewidely. I agreewhole-heartedly withthis.

In factthis

should

be easy,because thereis a strongconnectionbetweenthe conditionnumberin the

moregeneralcomputational offirst

and differentials

situation yearcalculus,andso

in some sense the teachingof the of

"conditioning" a problemis a simple

ofpartofmainstream

application calculus.

Of coursethereare manytextbooks whichdiscussconditionnumberin the

contex of numericallinear algebra and findingrootsof polynomials(e.g. [2]), and

numberof function

othersthatdiscussthecondition (e.g. [3]),and still

evaluation

othersthatdo so for equations(eg. [41).

differential This paper attemptsan

overview.

introductory

344

LIAS, SIX, AND CALCULARS [April

ERRORS IN MODELLING, ERRORS IN DATA, AND ERRORS IN COMPUTA-

TION. The key rationale for having to deal with condition numbers is not

numericalanalysisand the problemof computationalerror.A verylarge number

of mathematicalproblemsare derivedfrom"real-world"origins,and containboth

modellingerror(e.g. neglectedtermsin the equations) and data or measurement

error.These are unavoidable,while computationalerroris avoidable, at least in

principle,ifyou wishto pay the price fordoingexact arithmetic,

forexampleusing

a symbolicmanipulationpackage such as Maple [5].

It is a veryuseful featureof numericalanalysisthat the techniquesused for

monitoringthe effectsof computationalerrorscan oftenbe used to monitorthe

effectsof modellingerrorand measurementerror.

The basic principle is Wilkinson'sidea of backward erroranalysis: a good

numericalmethodwill giveyou the exact solutionof a nearbyproblem.This very

powerfulidea reduces the studyof computationalerrorsto the studyof modelling

or measurementerrors,whichwe have to studyanyway.

This principlewas firstelucidated in the contextof the solution of linear

systemsof equations and in the contextof polynomialrootfinding.Instead of

repeatingdetailsof these,I urgethe readerto examinethe technicaland historical

discussionsin [2]. Examinationof Figure 1 at thispoint may make the basic idea

more clear.

ModelingProcess

"Nearby" Problem _\

, ~~~~~~Exact

Solution { odel

SpecifiedProblem A

is, fromknowingboththe questionand the answer.If whatthe computerproduces

is the exact solutionofjust as good a modelof the physicalsystemas was originally

writtendown,we can get just as much insightfromthe computersolutionas we

can fromthe exact solutionof the originallyspecifiedproblem.

The idea of allowingthe calculatoror computerto change theproblem,albeit

not byverymuch,in some norm,is upsettingto manymathematicians, because one

of the most powerfulideas in mathematicsis that the irrelevantdetails of the

physicalcontextof a problemcan be ignored.However,mostpeople will have to

deal eventuallywiththe fact that mathematicalproblemsencounteredin science

and engineeringare usuallymerelyone representative class of

out of an infinite

mathematical modelsforthephenomenon in question,and furtherthattheinput

data to the modelwill usuallybe of low accuracycomparedto the precision

availableon mostcomputers In suchcases,fanatical

or calculators. obsessionwith

accuratelysolvingthe specifiedmodel problemis neithernecessarynor appropri-

of the inputdata and/orthe

ate, whileanalysisof the effectof perturbations

modelis essential.

I remarkthatsometimesthe methodor the programor the computerwill

changetheproblembya largeamount, way.

orbya smallamountin a nonphysical

For example,the computermtaynot preservethe physicalinvariants of the

problem.In suchcases,we say thatthe numericalmethodis at faultand must

searchfora bettermethod.

errorsintothecontextof modelling

is to putcomputational errors.However,no

examplewas givenin [1],so whatfollowsis

contextforNievergelt's

44real-world"

speculative.

Perhaps,then,A aroseas

and A is symmetric.

The elementsof A are integers,

the normalequationsfromsome least-squaresproblemwherethe entriesof

the(possibly

rectangular) We found

matrixB whereA = BTB werealso integers.

thatif

[666 6651

B 667 666j

thenA = BTB. Theremaywellbe othersuch B (of different dimensions), as an

exhaustive searchwas not carriedout. (The occurrence of the digit"6" in the

entriesof B is one reasonforthe"Six" in thetitle,bytheway.)

It is well-known in numerical analysiscirclesthatusingthe normalequations

can increasethe conditionnumberdrastically, makingthe problemmuchmore

sensitive the case herethatA is muchmore

thanit need be, and it is certainly

ill-conditioned thanB.

On theotherhand,det(B) = det(A) = I and theentriesare integers, so itmay

be thattheproblem wascombinatorial inorigin.In thiscase,nothingshortofexact

arithmetic sinceno perturbation

is sufficient in thedata is allowed.The factthat

Cramer'srulegottherightanswerforthisproblemin [1]was accidental: Cramer's

ruleis unstable, evenforthe2 by2 case [6].We notethatthereare manydifferent

waysof doingexactcomputations on computers nowadays, includingthe use of

symbolic manipulation programs suchas Maple,or perhapsinterval arithmetic.

We nowlooka bitmorecloselyat theapparently randomdigitsoftheanswers

producedbythevariousmethodstriedin theNievergelt paper.Notethatafterthe

resultsof thedifferent methodsweregiven,thequestionwas asked:

"Whatmightinstructors and textbooks tellstudents,whocarefully copydown

theirsupercalculator's resultswithouteversuspecting thattheyare copyingran-

domdigits?"

If we computetheratiox/y foreach of thesolutions produced,including the

exact solution,we get x/y = - 0.9984996258,for all solutionsexceptthesingular

value decompositionsolution.The solutionsare not randomdigits!What,then,are

ofsomeunit

a multiple

they?Clearlythevector[x y] producedis to highaccuracy

value

vector.Whatunitvector?The answerlies in a detailedlookat thesingular

decomposition.This mightbe beyondwhatis desiredto teach,at least in an

course(see [7] forsomedetailsoftheuse oftheHP28S at Western).

introductory

However,it is instructiveto pursue this here. We firstnote that if the singular

value decomposition(see [8]) of B is B = UYVT where U and V are orthogonal

and I = diag(o1, o2) where a, > a2> 0, then A = Vi2VT and the singular

values of A are the squares of the singularvalues of B. We can writethe solution

to Ax = b in terms of these singular values as

values were computedby MATLAB [9], and separatelychecked by hand and by

Maple [5].

For small u2, the solutionis clearlydominatedby the second term,and hence

the near-constantratioof the computedsolutionsobservedearlier.However,if o2

is smallcomparedto o1, thenthe matrixis ill-conditioned, and perturbationsin the

data will change the value of o-2 drastically.The singular-value decomposition

solutionobtained in [1] is just the firsttermabove, on the other hand, and it is

robustunder perturbations.

It is remarkablethatthe solutionproducedby the HP keysdirectlycorrespond

to the above with Or2= 1/1601, while usingGaussian eliminationas programmed

gives o-2 1/1413, and the eigenvalue approach gives u2 1/1332.13, whereas

the exact solutionhas 0U2= 1/1332.00075075.

MORAL 1: Each method gives the exact solution for a slightlyperturbed

matrix,all withsmall U2. Each solutionis just as good as the exactsolution,in view

of the possibilityof data error.Note particularlythat this problemdoes not go

away ifyou use anothersoftwarepackage, even if it givesthe exact solution.

MORAL 2: Explaining the unexpected behaviour of the calculator involves

more seriousmathematicsthan(perhaps)was anticipated.This seems to be one of

the better argumentsfor using such equipmentin a classroom setting,in that

usingthe calculatorcan enrichthe mathematicalcontentof the course.

behaviour of computationalequipment is quite general. The idea of condition

numbercan be used in any computationalproblem,to assess (to firstorder) the

effectsof perturbationsin the model or the data. This is a good idea, even ifyou

have the exact solutionto yourproblem,and providesan excellentmotivationto

studyperturbationtheory.I give some examplesbelow.

effectof a smallchange Ax on y. Of course thisleads to the firstorderexpression

Ay (xf'(x) Ax

y f(x) jx

denoted by C (see e.g. [3]). Note that this is just an applicationof the theoryof

a standardtopic in mostcalculus courses.

differentials,

This numberC is an appropriatenumberto look at if x is not zero and f(x) is

not zero, in which case absolute errors,as opposed to relative errors,are the

quantitiesof interest.Here, we look at onlytwoexamples,the tangentfunction, for

whichC = x/(sin(x)cos(x)), and the exponentialfunction,for which C = x. Con-

sider the exponentialfunctionfirst.If x = 100, then C = 100. If we know x only

to two figures,how accuratelycan we know y = exp(x)? The relativeerrorin y is

on the orderof 1. That is, we are not sure of anyfiguresof our answer.Note that

the precisionused to calculate exp(x) is almostirrelevant,and in particulargoing

to "double precision"doesn't help. The difficulty is that data erroris amplified,

not thatcomputationalerrorsare amplified.

Now consider r/2 which is 1.57079632680to the precisionof the calculator.

The calculated value of tan(7/2), using the calculator in radians, is

- 195948537906.This result shows that someone took fanatical care with the

programmingof the calculator, because it is correct to all figures given the

assumptionthat we wanted the tangentof 1.570796326800000000... and not

tan(&/2). In degree mode, takingtan(90) givesTAN Error: InfiniteResult,with

the infiniteresultflagset. What is the conditionnumberof tan(x) near x = 7/2?

-T 1

C ( - /2) - 1 - - (x - w/2) + O((x - 7/2)

to data

In the lightof thisextremesensitivity

givingclear evidenceof the difficulty.

error, what purpose is served by getting 12 figures correct for

tan(1.570796326800000000... )? The assumption that all the unknown figuresare

zero is simplynot always tenable.

In some sense, the paper [1] contendedthatthe HP28S is not precise enough.

The above exampleshowsthatin fact,it is too precise,at least forsome problems.

some polynomialroots to verysmall changes in the polynomialcoefficients. I will

not repeat the analysis here of the now-famousWilkinsonpolynomialp(x) =

(x - 1)(x - 2) ... (x - 20), exceptto note thatmanypeople take the sensitivity

of

an input polynomialroot as a motivationto use higherprecisionin rootfinding,

perhaps even using arbitraryprecision. The sad truthis that if the roots are

ill-conditioned,then small changes in the inputdata can drasticallychange the

roots,irrespectiveof thesolutionmethodused.

equations. These, too, have conditionnumbers,and not surprisingly we findthat

some ill-conditionedd.e.'s are of great interest:all chaotic problems are (by

definition)exponentially ill-conditionedas initial-valueproblems.It turnsout that

a systemis chaotic if the trajectoriesare bounded but C exp(At) for some

A > 0. In fact,A is preciselythe largestLyapunovexponent.This means thatfora

chaotic problem,data errors(i.e. in the initialcondition),modellingerrors,and

computationalerrorsare amplifiedat an exponentialrate.This impliesthata good

approximatesolution,good in the sense of being close to the "exact" solutionof

the specifiedproblem,is impracticalto compute,since good accuracyat the end of

the range of integrationrequires exponentiallyhigh precision for the initial

conditions(regardlessof the solutiontechnique-this would hold even ifyou knew

the exact solution).However, in the contextof modellingerrors,and given the

point of view that a good numericalmethodwill giveyou the exact solutionof a

nearbydifferential equation (i.e. just as good a model of the underlyingphysical

problem as the specified model), much insightcan still be gained from such

numerical computations,even though the computed solutions are practically

guaranteedto be nothinglike the exact solutions.See [11] fordetails.

So whatdoes thisall have to do withthe calculator?This materialis almost

certainly too advancedfora firstcoursein calculus,afterall. However,thereis an

exampleofa differential equationthatdoes comeup in anyfirst yearcourse,and

the HP28S even has a keyfornumerically solvingit. Of course,thisis the d.e.

y'(t) = f(t)-that is,computethedefinite integralf,'Iffr)dr. The performance of

thiskeyis quiteremarkable, and iftheHP28S is used in class,thestudents likeit

verymuchindeed.The following example(perhapsevenmorehorrifying thatthe

linearalgebraexampleof [1] at firstglance)providesan excellentpedagogical

opportunity.

Problem:compute, on thecalculator,

JJ(dr/r).

The calculatorwilltakemorethanan hour,almostregardless oftheinputerror

tolerance,to returnits answer22.82... -which, of course,is nothinglike the

correctanswerofinfinity.

Thisexampleis accessibleto studentsveryearlyon inthecurriculum. Manyare

extremely startledby the peculiarbehaviorof the calculator.Of course,the

calculator an errormessage(albeitintheverycryptic

returns andeasilyoverlooked

formof a negativereported estimatederror),so it is notquiteas bad as it seems.

However,thisexampleprovokesa verydesirabledegreeof skepticism in the

student,and givesstrongmotivation for the studyof improperintegrals(and

analyticintegration).

The observation

thatthecalculator is in factgiving

themthe

exactanswerto f1(dr/r)+ fJO(r)forE = 10-10and Kr) = 10-12 provides them

withwelcomereliefand understanding ofwhatthecalculator has done.Afterthe

reliefcomesthe realizationthatmostof the area of the figurelies nextto the

whichis a valuablepedagogicalpoint.

singularity,

Conclusions.The point of view of backwarderroranalysis,i.e. that a good

numerical methodgivestheexactsolutionto a nearbyproblem, is veryhelpfulin

explaining the unexpectedbehaviourof calculatorsand computers on sensitive

problems. Thispointofviewis nota panacea,as someproblemcontexts preclude

thenecessary changesin theproblem.In particular, ProfessorW. Kahancautions

thatbackwarderroranalysisis intendedonlyas explanation and not as justifica-

tion,andwarnsthatthereare problems forwhichbackward erroranalysisfails.A

simpleexampleis composition offunctions-ifwe havea wayofcomputing f(x)

withgoodbackward error,and a wayofcomputing g(u) withgoodbackward error,

thenit is notnecessarilytruethatwe can compute(g of)(x) withgoodbackward

error.But,thereis no questionthatbackward erroranalysisdoeshelpwitha large

classofpracticalproblems.

Thispaperechoesthecallof[1]fortheteaching ofthetheory ofconditioning of

problems. Sincethisis merely an application or thefirsttermin a

ofdifferentials,

Taylorseries,or the firsttermin a perturbation expansion, thistaskis actually

desirableforseveralreasons.

In essence,thispaperhas shownthatthedifficulties exhibited in [1] werenot

the faultof the calculator, but ratherthe faultof the problem,in some sense.

Further,these difficulties actuallyprovidemotivation forthe studentto learn

sensitivityanalysisand the use of differentials,

norms,perturbation series,and

othermore sophisticated mathematical topicsthan thosejust to "solve" the

problem.In viewof data error,thesetopicsshouldbe learnedanyway. It has also

been made clear that the theoryof conditionnumbersis not restricted to

numerical linearalgebra,butis in factofwidepracticalutility.Thisusefulness is

onlyenhancedbytheexistence bywhichmanyofourstudents

ofsupercalculators,

are exposedtoverypowerful

and sophisticated

environments

forscientific

compu-

tation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. I wouldliketo thankMs. AmandaConnellforprogramming assistancein

B. Figure1 was preparedby Professor

finding GeorgeCorliss.Doug Moseleyand ProfessorChris

Essextogether

suggested

thetitle.

REFERENCES

MONTHLY, VOl98,no. 6, pp. 539-543,June-July 1991.

2. D. Kahaner,C. Moler,andS. Nash,Numerical Methods andSoftware, 1989.

Prentice-Hall,

3. G. DahlquistandAkeBj6rk,Numerical Methods, 1974.

Prentice-Hall,

4. U. Ascher,R. M. M. Mattheij,andR. D. Russell,Numerical Solution

ofBoundary ValueProblems

forOrdinaryDifferential

Equations, 1988.

Prentice-Hall

5. B. Char,K. 0. Geddes,G. H. Gonnet,M. B. Monagan,and StephenWatt,TheMapleReference

Manual,5thed.,WATCOM 1988.

6. G. W. Stewart,"Cramer'sRule,"USENET posting to sci.math.num-analysis,

No. 249,Message-

ID:(42829?mimsy.umd.edu), 12 Nov91.

in

and P. A. Rosati,Use of theHP28S Supercalculator

7. R. M. Corless,C. Essex,P. J.Sullivan,

FirstYear Engineering Mathematics Courses,Proc. 7thCanadianConference on Engineering

Education,

Toronto, June1990.

8. G. Goluband C. Van Loan,MatrixComputations, JohnsHopkins,1983.

9. The MATLABReference Guide,The MathWorks, 1989.

10. J.H. Wilkinson,Rounding ErrorsinAlgebraicProcesses, 1963.

Prentice-Hall,

11. R. M. Corless,"Defect-ControlledNumerical Methodsand Shadowing forChaoticDifferential

Equations",PhysicaD, vol.60, 1992pp. 323-334.

DepartmentofAppliedMathematics

of WesternOntario

University

London, Canada N6A 5B9

London,the Council of TrinityCol-

has removedProfes-

lege,Cambridge,

sor BERTRANDRUSSELLfromhis lec-

tureshipin logic and principlesof

mathematics on accountof his having

been convictedunderthe defenseof

the realmact forpublishinga leaflet

defendingthe "ConscientiousObjec-

tor" to servicein the Britisharmy.

ProfessorRussellis wellknownin this

countrythroughhismathematical writ-

ings.

Monthly

-AmericanMathematical

23,(1916)p. 317

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