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Useful Formulae in Advanced Level Physics

2 µ0 NI
A1. a = vr = ω2 r centripetal acceleration C17. B= magnetic field inside long solenoid
A2. a = − ω2 x simple harmonic motion µ0 I 1 I 2
C18. F= force per unit length between long
2πr parallel straight current carrying
A3. L = Iω angular momentum of a rigid body conductors

A4. T=
dL torque on a rotating body C19. T = BANI sin φ torque on rectangular current carrying
dt coil in uniform magnetic field

A5. E = 1 Iω2 energy stored in a rotating body C20. E = BANω sin ωt simple generator e.m.f.
velocity of traverse wave motion in a
C21. Vs / Vp ≈ N s / Np ratio of secondary voltage to primary
B1. v= T voltage in a transformer
m stretched string
C22. E = − LdI / dt e.m.f. induced in an inductor
E velocity of longitudinal wave motion
B2. v= ρ in a solid
C23. E = 1 LI 2 energy stored in an inductor
B3. n = tan θ p refractive index and polarising angle
C24. X L = ωL reactance of an inductor

d = λD fringe width in double slit interference

XC = 1
B4. a C25. reactance of a capacitor
B5. d sin θ = nλ diffraction grating equation
C26. P = I V cos θ power in an a.c. circuit
B6. f = f  v − uo  Doppler frequency RL
s C27. ∆V out /∆ V in = − β voltage gain of transistor amplifier in
R B the common emitter configuration
 I2 
B7. 10 log definition of the decibel
 I1  C28. V o = A o (V + − V − ) output voltage of op amp (open-loop)

Gm 1 m 2
C1. F= Newton's law of gravitation C29. A= −
gain of inverting amplifer
r2 Ri

C2. V = − GM gravitational potential Rf

r C30. A= 1+ gain of non-inverting amplifer
C3. r 3 / T 2 = constant Kepler's third law
D1. pV = nRT = NkT equation of state for an ideal gas
E= _
pV = 1 Nm c 2
C4. electric field due to a point charge
4πε 0 r 2 D2. 3 kinetic theory equation

C5. V= electric potential due to point charge
4πε 0 r D3. E k = 3RT = 3 kT molecular kinetic energy
2N A 2
C6. E= V electric field between parallel plates
E= F x
macroscopic definition of Young
d (numerically) D4.
Q ε A
C7. C= = 0 capacitance of a parallel plate D5. E = 1 Fx energy stored in stretching
V d capacitor 2
C8. Q = Q 0 e −t/RC decay of charge with time when a D6. F =− relationship between force and
capacitor discharged dr potential energy

C9. Q = Q 0 (1 − e −t/RC ) rise of charge with time when a D7. E = k/r microscopic interpretation of Young
capacitor is charged modulus

C10. E = 1 CV 2 energy stored in a capacitor D8. P + 12 ρv 2 + ρgh Bernoulli's equation

= constant
C11. I = nAvQ general current flow equation
D9. ∆Q = ∆U + ∆W first law of thermodynamics
C12. R= resistance and resistivity
A D10. E n = − 13.6 eV energy level equation for hydrogen
n2 atom
C13. F = BQv sin θ force on a moving charge in a
magnetic field D11. N = N 0 e −k t law of radioactive decay

C14. F = BIl sin θ force on a moving conductor in a D12. t 12 = ln 2 half-life and decay constant
magnetic field k
1 mv 2 = h v − φ
C15. V = BI Hall voltage D13. Einstein's photoelectric equation
nQt 2 m

µ0 I magnetic field due to long straight wire D14. E = mc 2 mass-energy relationship

C16. B=