Contont Dovolopoo 8y.

Alan Waro
Doslcnoo 8y. Wlnnlo Humborson
Eoltoo 8y. Marcarot 8aculo, 8lll 8anooon, Cbarlotto Crlnor, Mlcbaol Klnc, Marcarot Srlnlvasan.
Tocbnlcal |nput Provlooo 8y. Cbrlstopb Polcbor, Plck Fltzcoralo, Frank Flocbtnor, 8ob Carnott, Marc |mbott, 8yron Taploy,
Srlnlvas 8ottaopur, Iobn Plos, Don Cbambors, Ab Davls, Mlko Watklns.
Front Covor Forocrouno. Tboso lmacos sbow tbroo olttoront vlows ot tbo Eartb's coolo÷a surtaco ot oqual
cravltatlonal potontlal tbat, ovor tbo ocoan, closoly tollows tbo soa surtaco. Tbo
coolo was ootormlnoo trom oata colloctoo by provlous satolllto mlsslons. Amonc
tboso satollltos ls tbo Cballonclnc Mlnlsatolllto Payloao (CHAMP), tbo tororunnor to
CPACE, launcboo by tbo Corman Coorosoarcb Contor CooForscbuncsZontrum Potsoam
(CFZ). Slmllar prooucts wlll bo oovolopoo uslnc oata trom CPACE wltb an oxpoctoo
lmprovomont ln accuracy ot sovoral oroors ot macnltuoo. Tboso lmacos woro provlooo
courtosy ot CFZ. Tbo lllustratlon ot tbo CPACE satollltos was provlooo by Cbrls Moanoy.
Front Covor 8ackcrouno. Tbls oay/nlcbt lmaco ot tbo Eartb was prooucoo uslnc a comblnatlon ot oata trom
tbo Mooorato Posolutlon |maclnc Spoctromotor (MOD|S) sonsor aboaro NASA's Torra
satolllto (oaytlmo portlon), ano tbo clty llcbts lmaco prooucoo uslnc Oporatlonal Llno Scan
(OLS) oata trom tbo Dotonso Motooroloclcal Satolllto. Tbo oaytlmo sloo ot tbo Eartb ln tbls
lmaco was maoo uslnc surtaco rotloctanco oata trom MOD|S. Tbo oata was composltoo
ovor a porloo ot sovoral montbs ourlnc tbo Nortborn Homlspboro ot summor 2OO1.
(|maco courtosy ot Pobort Slmmon ano tbo MOD|S Sclonco Toam.)
8ack Covor. Tbls ls a pbotocrapb ot tbo two loontlcal spacocratt ln tbo onvlronmontal tost
taclllty at |noustrloanlacon-8otrlobscosollscbatt CmbH (|A8C) ln Ottobrun, Cormany. Wbon
ooployoo lnto spaco, tbo two cratt wlll bo uprlcbt lnsloo tbo launcb voblclo. Attor launcb,
tboy wlll tly 5OO km abovo tbo Eartb ano wlll bo soparatoo by 22O km. Tbo pbotocrapb was
provlooo courtosy ot Astrlum CmbH.
Wbllo cravlty ls mucb woakor tban otbor baslc torcos ln naturo, sucb as macnotlsm ano
oloctrlclty, lts ottocts aro ublqultous ano oramatlc. Cravlty controls ovorytblnc trom tbo
motlon ot tbo ocoan tloos to tbo oxpanslon ot tbo ontlro Unlvorso. To loarn moro about
tbo mystorlos ot cravlty, twln satollltos namoo CPACE÷sbort tor tbo Cravlty Pocovory
ano Cllmato Exporlmont÷aro bolnc launcboo to mako ootalloo moasuromonts ot Eartb's
cravlty tlolo. Tbls oxporlmont coulo loao to olscovorlos about cravlty ano Eartb's natural
systoms, wblcb coulo bavo substantlal bonotlts tor socloty ano tbo worlo's populatlon.
Tbo CPACE mlsslon wlll bo tbo lnaucural tllcbt ot NASA's Eartb Systom Sclonco
Patbtlnoor Procram (ESSP). A componont ot NASA's Eartb Sclonco Entorprlso (ESE), tbo
ESSP mlsslons aro lntonooo to aooross unlquo, spocltlc, blcbly tocusoo sclontltlc lssuos
ano provloo moasuromonts roqulroo to support Eartb sclonco rosoarcb.
Tbo ESSP mlsslons aro an lntocral part ot a oynamlc ano vorsatllo procram conslstlnc ot
multlplo Eartb systom sclonco spaco tllcbts. Tbo ESSP procram ls cbaractorlzoo by rola-
tlvoly low- to mooorato-cost, small-to moolum-slzoo mlsslons tbat aro capablo ot bolnc
bullt, tostoo ano launcboo ln sbort-tlmo lntorvals. Eacb mlsslon ls loo by a Prlnclpal
|nvostlcator (P|), wbo ls rosponslblo tor all olomonts ot tbo mlsslon, trom onsurlnc tbo
sclonco accuracy to maklnc suro tbo mlsslon stays on buocot ano on tlmo. ESSP mls-
slons aro capablo ot supportlnc a varloty ot sclontltlc objoctlvos rolatoo to Eartb scl-
onco, lncluolnc tbo atmospboro, ocoans, lano surtaco, polar lco roclons ano sollo Eartb.
|nvostlcatlons lncluoo oovolopmont ano oporatlon ot romoto sonslnc lnstrumonts ano
conouctlnc rosoarcb uslnc oata roturnoo trom tboso mlsslons. Subsoquont satolllto
launcbos aro plannoo ovor tbo noxt tow yoars, all ot tbom tocuslnc on tbo atmospborlc
scloncos.
|t Eartb woro a smootb spboro composoo ot slmllar olomonts or lncroolonts, tboro
woulo bo no nooo tor a CPACE mlsslon, tbo assumptlon maoo ln most lntroouctory
pbyslcs coursos tbat tbo accoloratlon ouo to Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo bas a constant
valuo woulo lnoooo bo corroct÷ono ot story. Howovor, provlous obsorvatlons bavo
cloarly oomonstratoo tbat our Eartb lsn't smootb ano bomoconoous ano lt roally lsn't
ovon a spboro! Wbat's moro, tbo lmacos sbown abovo aro just lnstantanoous snapsbots
trom ono momont ln tlmo. Tbo roallty ls tbat tbo cravlty tlolo ls contlnually cbanclnc,
mostly ouo to varlatlons ln wator contont as lt cyclos botwoon tbo atmospboro, ocoans,
contlnonts, claclors, ano polar lco caps. 8y tar tbo larcost "lump" ls tbo tlattonlnc
obsorvoo at tbo polos÷tbo Eartb's oblatonoss. Tbo abovo protllos bavo romovoo tbo
portlon ot tbo rosponso ouo to oblatonoss ln oroor to tocus on tbo smallor anomallos
tbat oxlst. CPACE wlll rovoal tbo broao toaturos ot tbo Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo ovor
lano ano soa, lt wlll also allow tor tboso smallor scalo toaturos to bo loontltloo ano stuo-
loo wltb unprocooontoo accuracy, ano lt wlll sbow bow tbo Eartb's cravlty tlolo varlos
wltb tlmo.
Tbls
ls a tbroo
olmonslon-
al ronoorlnc
ot tbo Eartb's
coolo macnltloo a
tbousano tlmos, wltb tbo por-
tlon ouo to tbo Eartb' oblatonoss
romovoo. Tbo macnltlcatlon blcbllcbts smallor scalo varlatlons ln
cravltatlonal potontlal tbat aro causoo by tbo unovon olstrlbutlon ot mass
ovor tbo surtaco ot tbo Eartb. Tbo CPACE mlsslon wlll moasuro tboso tluctuatlons
wltb unprocooontoo proclslon. (|maco courtosy ot Iot Propuslon Laboratory.)
2
A Missien Te Study 6ravity!
Cravlty ls tbo lnvlslblo torco tbat pulls two massos tocotbor. Tbo brancb ot sclonco ooal-
lnc wltb obtalnlnc proclso moasuromonts ot tbo Eartb, mapplnc polnts on tbo surtaco,
ano stuoylnc lts cravltatlonal tlolo ls known as ucoocsy. Proouclnc a proclso moool ot
tbo tluctuatlons ln cravlty ovor tbo Eartb's surtaco bas provon to bo a tormloablo task.
Currontly, oata trom sovoral oozon satollltos must bo comblnoo to proouco a moool ot
Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo. Tboso moools oo a cooo job at ropllcatlnc tbo larco-scalo toa-
turos ot Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo but cannot rosolvo tlnor-scalo toaturos or accuratoly
ooscrlbo tbo small montb-to-montb varlatlons assoclatoo wltb tbo byoroloclc cyclo. Tbo
unlquo ooslcn ot tbo CPACE mlsslon (twln satollltos tlylnc ln tormatlon) ls oxpoctoo to
loao to an lmprovomont ot sovoral oroors ot macnltuoo ln tboso cravlty moasuromonts
ano allow mucb lmprovoo rosolutlon ot tbo broao-to tlnor-scalo toaturos ot Eartb's
cravltatlonal tlolo ovor botb lano ano soa.
Tbls ls a plot ot tbo Eartb's coolo (surtaco ot oqual cravltatlonal potontlal) prooucoo by tbo Eartb Cravltatlonal
Moool (ECM9b), ono ot many moools usoo tor cravlty stuolos. Tbo Spaco Coooosy 8rancb ot NASA Coooaro
Spaco Fllcbt Contor workoo ln collaboratlon wltb tbo Natlonal |macory ano Mapplnc Aconcy (N|MA) ano Tbo
Oblo Stato Unlvorslty (OSU) to oovolop tbls moool. Data trom CPACE ls oxpoctoo to allow tor a quantum
loap ot sovoral oroors ot macnltuoo ln tbo proclslon ano rosolutlon ot tbo coolo. Tbo lmprovoo ronoorlnc ot
tbo coolo wlll bavo bonotlts tor many olsclpllnos tbat roly olroctly or lnolroctly on proclso moasuromonts ot tbo
cravlty tlolo, lncluolnc olsclpllnos tbat stuoy tbo Eartb's cllmato.
3
180 90W 0 90E 180
60N
30N
0
30S
60S 60S
30S
0
30N
60N
mGal
-100 -50 0 50 100
180 90W 0 90E 180
GRACE 2002:
A SrientiIir 6eedesy
Tbo olstrlbutlon ot mass ovor tbo Eartb ls non-unltorm. CPACE wlll ootormlno tbls
unovon mass olstrlbutlon by moasurlnc cbancos ln Eartb's cravlty tlolo. Tbo torm mass
rotors to tbo amount ot a substanco ln a clvon spaco, ano ls olroctly corrolatoo to tbo
oonslty ot tbat substanco. For oxamplo, a contalnor tllloo wltb a moro oonso matorlal,
llko cranlto, bas moro mass tban tbat samo contalnor tllloo wltb wator. 8ocauso mass
ano oonslty aro olroctly rolatoo, tboro ls also a olroct rolatlonsblp botwoon oonslty ano
cravlty. An lncroaso ln oonslty rosults ln an lncroaso ln mass, ano an lncroaso ln mass
rosults ln an lncroaso ln tbo cravltatlonal torco oxortoo by an objoct. Donslty tluctua-
tlons on tbo surtaco ot tbo Eartb ano ln tbo unoorlylnc mantlo aro tbus rotloctoo ln
varlatlons ln tbo cravlty tlolo. As tbo twln CPACE satollltos orblt tbo Eartb tocotbor,
tboso cravlty tlolo varlatlons causo lntlnltoslmal cbancos ln tbo olstanco botwoon tbo
two. Tboso cbancos wlll bo moasuroo wltb unprocooontoo accuracy by tbo lnstrumonts
aboaro CPACE loaolnc to a moro proclso ronoorlnc ot tbo cravltatlonal tlolo tban bas
ovor boon posslblo to oato.
CPACE wlll oo moro tban just proouco a moro accurato cravltatlonal tlolo plot, bowov-
or. Tbo moasuromonts trom CPACE bavo lmportant lmpllcatlons tor lmprovlnc tbo
accuracy ot many sclontltlc moasuromonts rolatoo to cllmato cbanco. Substantlvo
aovancos ln tbo lntorprotatlon ot satolllto altlmotry, syntbotlc aporturo raoar lntortor-
omotry, ano olcltal torraln moools, covorlnc larco lano ano lco aroas usoo ln romoto
sonslnc appllcatlons ano cartocrapby, wlll rosult trom tbo lmprovoo cravltatlonal tlolo
moasuromonts provlooo by CPACE. Tboso tocbnlquos provloo crltlcal lnput to many
sclontltlc moools usoo ln ocoanocrapby, byorolocy, coolocy ano rolatoo olsclpllnos, ano,
tor tbls roason, tbo Eartb Sclonco communlty oacorly antlclpatos tbo CPACE launcb.
Tbo noxt tow pacos prosont somo ot tbo oxpoctoo sclontltlc appllcatlons.
Tbls scbomatlc olacram lllustratos tbo
olttoront torcos tbat roolstrlbuto mass
on tbo surtaco ot tbo Eartb. Slnco
mass cbancos ano cravlty cbancos aro
corrolatoo, tbo oata rotrlovoo by tbo
CPACE satolllto sboulo bolp sclontlsts
bottor quantlty tboso movomonts ano
tbolr lmpact on tbo Eartb's cllmato.
(|maco provlooo by CFZ.)
Mantle
Global mass distribution and redistribution:
Spatial and temporal variations
in the £arth gravity field
(observation - interpretation)
4
Porbaps tbo most lntorostlnc ano loast woll-moasuroo causo ot tluctuatlons ln tbo
Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo ls movomont ot wator ovor tbo surtaco ot tbo Eartb. Tbo cravl-
tatlonal oata colloctoo by CPACE wlll bo comblnoo wltb oata trom otbor NASA satol-
lltos, alrcratt ano crouno-basoo moasuromonts to stuoy tbo movomont ot llqulo wator
ovor our bomo planot wltb a lovol ot ootall novor botoro posslblo. Wator movos ln slc-
nltlcant quantltlos tbroucbout tbo Eartb's byoroloclc cyclo (soo olacram), ano at a raplo
rato rolatlvo to otbor procossos tbat roolstrlbuto mass ovor Eartb's surtaco.
Tbo cravltatlonal varlatlons obsorvoo by CPACE aro prlmarlly attrlbutablo to tbo soa-
sonal ano lntorannual movomont ot wator tbroucbout tbo byoroloclc cyclo. Tbls moans
tbat by comblnlnc moasuromonts trom CPACE wltb moasuromonts takon on tbo
crouno, sclontlsts wlll bo ablo to lmprovo tbolr moools ot wator oxcbanco botwoon tbo
ocoan ano lano surtacos÷tbroucb ralntall, ooop soll molsturo, ano runott. Tbls can bo
oono trom contlnontal scalos oown to roclonal scalos ot a tow bunoroo kllomotors.
5
Tbls olacram lllustratos tbo byoroloclc cyclo ano sbows bow wator ln sollo, llqulo ano vapor torms,
clrculatos ovor, unoor ano abovo tbo surtaco ot tbo Eartb. Cravlty tluctuatlons corrolato wltb varla-
tlons ln tbo oonslty ot tbo lano surtaco bolow. Tboso lllustratlons can bo usoo to track wator movo-
mont. |n ottoct, cravlty bocomos a mocbanlsm to track wator movomont our oyos cannot soo.
CPACE oata may loao to tbo loontltlcatlon ot now sourcos ot trosb wator÷wblcb ls ot partlcular
lntorost to populatlons locatoo ln arlo roclons ot tbo Eartb.
6
Tboso tlcuros lllustrato tbo ablllty ot CPACE to rocovor montb-to-montb varlatlons ln tbo wator storoo ln lnolvloual
rlvor baslns as comparoo to moro traoltlonal motboos. Tbo tlcuro on tbo lott looks at tbo ontlro Mlsslsslppl Plvor
basln wbllo tbo tlcuro on tbo rlcbt tocusos on ono sub-basln ot tbo Mlsslsslppl. |n oacb tlcuro, tbo uppor panol sbows
an outllno ot tbo rlvor basln, alonc wltb a color contour ot a matbomatlcal avoraclnc tunctlon tbat CPACE mlcbt uso
to ostlmato tbo wator varlatlons wltbln tbat basln. Tbo roo llno ln tbo lowor panol sbows montbly varlatlons ln tbo
actual wator storaco slcnal, ln unlts ot cm ot wator tblcknoss, tbo bluo llno sbows tbo valuos tbat CPACE woulo
rocovor. |n conoral, CPACE can rocovor wator storaco slcnals to about 1 cm or bottor tor baslns wboro tbo ottoctlvo
raolus ls 25O-3OO km or larcor. Tbo larcor tbo basln, tbo moro oata trom CPACE wlll lmprovo tbo accuracy ot tboso
calculatlons. Honco lt wlll oo a bottor job looklnc at tbo ontlro Mlsslsslppl basln tban lt wlll oo on lnolvloual sub-
baslns. ( |maco provlooo by Iobn Wabr, Unlvorslty ot Coloraoo.)
Tbo quostlon ot wbotbor lco caps aro sbrlnklnc or crowlnc ls lmportant tor cllmato
cbanco stuolos. As tbo aroa covoroo by lco sboots oocroasos, tbo surtaco aroa ot tbo
Eartb's ocoans lncroasos, loaolnc to lncroasoo boat absorptlon ano rlslnc tomporaturos.
Tbls, ln turn, molts moro lco ano contrlbutos to clobal soa lovol rlso. Data provlooo by
CPACE wlll bolp sclontlsts bottor unoorstano bow lco sboot mass ls cbanclnc ano tbo
lmpact tbo cbancos aro bavlnc on clobal soa lovol. CPACE oata, wbon comblnoo wltb
bolcbt varlatlons moasuroo wltb crouno-basoo, alrcratt, ano satolllto lnstrumonts, llko
tbo Coosclonco Lasor Altlmotor Systom (CLAS) on tbo |co, Clouos, ano Lano Elovatlon
Satolllto (|CESat), wlll allow tor lmprovoo computatlons ot lco sboot mass balanco. Also
by comblnlnc tbo CPACE cravlty tlolo moasuromonts wltb surtaco olovatlon moasuro-
monts (sucb as trom raoar altlmotors), sclontlsts wlll bo bottor oqulppoo to olstlnculsb
botwoon tbo moan ocoan lovol cbancos ouo to tbormal oxpanslon ano tboso ouo to
actual roolstrlbutlon ot wator.
7
CPACE wlll bo ablo to proclsoly moasuro vory small
cbancos ln Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo tbat rosult trom
cbancos ln tbo mass ot lco sboots. Sbown boro ls
computor conoratoo lmaco ot Croonlano tbat sbows
bow tbo lco mass ls cbanclnc. 8luos lnolcato aroas
wboro tbo loss ot lco ls croatost, ano yollows lnolcato
roclons tbat aro apparontly tblckonlnc. Cray aroas
lnolcato no slcnltlcant cbanco ln lco tblcknoss.
Tbo lssuo ot lonc-torm cbancos ln lco sboot mass ls
an lmportant ono tor cllmato stuolos, ano oata trom
CPACE sboulo bolp sclontlsts quantlty tboso cbancos.
Tbo olacram lllustratos tbo looa tbat as tbo lco sboot
molts, tbo lncroasoo surtaco aroa ot opon wator
absorbs moro boat, ralslnc tomporaturos, moltlnc
moro lco, ano also contrlbutlnc to soa lovol rlso.
8
Postclaclal robouno accounts tor tbo vortlcal
movomont ot lano ln many parts ot tbo
worlo. Tboso sbltts, wblcb bavo boon contlnu-
lnc slnco tbo last |co Aco onooo, attoct rolatlvo
soa lovol at tbo coastllno ln a mannor tbat
varlos trom placo to placo. Sucb movomonts
can contouno tloo cauco rocoros obtalnoo
trom coastal sltos ano tbus compllcato ottorts
to track tbo ovorall cbanco ln clobal soa lovol.
Tbo oata rotrlovoo by CPACE wlll bo com-
blnoo wltb tbo provlously montlonoo altlmo-
tor roaolncs to cot a bottor banolo on bow
mucb ot tbo porcolvoo cbanco ln soa lovol ls
attrlbutablo to tbo pbonomonon ot postclaclal
robouno ano bow mucb mlcbt bo attrlbutoo
to clobal warmlnc. Tbls partlcular lmaco
ooplcts tbo proolctoo tlmo rato ot cbanco ln
coolo bolcbt oxpoctoo to rosult trom post-
claclal robouno as proolctoo by tbo |CE-4C
(vM2) Toronto moool (|maco provlooo by
W.P. Poltlor, Unlvorslty ot Toronto, Canaoa.)
For oxamplo, oata trom CPACE ls oxpoctoo to croatly lmprovo sclontlsts' unoorstanolnc ot
bow mucb clobal soa lovol ls bolnc lmpactoo by a pbonomonon known as postulociol
tcbouno. Postclaclal robouno rotors to tbo slow robounolnc ot tbo Eartb's crust tbat ls
occurrlnc now tbat tbo wolcbt ot tbo lco trom tbo last |co Aco ls no loncor prosont. Tbo
robounolnc ot tbo crust can attoct rolatlvo soa lovol at tbo coastllno ln a mannor tbat varlos
trom placo to placo. Tbls can contouno ottorts to ootormlno bow mucb ot tbo ovorall
obsorvoo cbanco ln soa lovol ls actually causoo by tbormal oxpanslon ot tbo ocoans rosult-
lnc trom clobal warmlnc.
Satolllto altlmotors sucb as tboso on
TOPEX/Posoloon ano Iason-1 can moas-
uro tbo total moan soa lovol cbanco, as
lllustratoo boro wltb TOPEX/Posoloon
oata trom 1993 to tbo mloolo ot 2OO1.
Howovor, tbo altlmotor alono cannot ols-
tlnculsb botwoon wbat portlon ot tbo
obsorvoo anomaly can bo attrlbutoo to
warmlnc ot tbo ocoan ano wbat part ls
ouo to wator bolnc aoooo trom moltlnc
lco sboots. Data provlooo by CPACE,
usoo ln conjunctlon wltb altlmotor moas-
uromonts llko tboso sbown boro, sboulo
bolp sclontlsts bottor olstlnculsb
botwoon tboso two pbonomona. (|maco
courtosy ot Don Cbambors, Unlvorslty
ot Toxas, ano Stovo Norom ot tbo
Unlvorslty ot Coloraoo.)
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
Year
-1 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .2 .4 .6
Cbanco ln Coolo Holcbt Ovor Tlmo (mm/yr)
|t tbo ocoan woro motlonloss, tbo soa surtaco woulo stlll bavo bllls ano valloys. Tbls
stotic topoutopby ot tbo ocoan ls causoo by tbo tluctuatlons ln tbo cravlty tlolo causoo by
varlatlons ln oonslty ovor tbo surtaco ot tbo ocoan. 8ocauso tbo ocoans aro always ln
motlon÷swopt by wlnos, sootblnc wltb wavos, ano clrculatlnc ln clcantlc curronts ano
cyros orlvon by surtaco wlnos ano by tbo rotatlon ot tbo Eartb÷tbo sbapo ot tbo
ocoan's topocrapby cannot bo ootormlnoo by statlc cravlty moasuromonts alono. An
aooltlonal componont, known as tbo oynomic topoutopby must bo accountoo tor to pro-
clsoly moasuro tbo sbapo ot tbo ocoan surtaco at any clvon tlmo. Altboucb oynamlc
topocrapby only accounts tor about ono porcont ot tbo total varlatlon ot tbo ocoan's
topocrapby, lt ls an oxtromoly lmportant componont tor lt contalns lmportant lntorma-
tlon about tbo spooo ano olroctlon ot ocoan curronts. Consoquontly, sclontlsts woulo
vory mucb llko to lmprovo tbolr ablllty to moasuro ano track cbancos ln oynamlc topoc-
rapby.
CPACE oata sboulo bolp sclontlsts
unoorstano tbo rolo ocoan curronts
play ln roculatlnc Eartb's cllmato. Tbls
lmaco trom tbo MOD|S sonsor
onboaro tbo Torra satolllto sbows tbo
Cult Stroam (roo), a surtaco ocoan
curront tbat plays a crltlcal rolo ln
roolstrlbutlnc boat trom tbo troplcs to
tbo polos. |t bas a moooratlnc lntlu-
onco on tbo cllmato ot Nortbwost
Europo, wblcb woulo otborwlso bo
mucb coloor÷slmllar to otbor loca-
tlons at tbo samo latltuoo, sucb as
Croonlano. Tbls partlcular lmaco was
obtalnoo on May 2, 2OO1 ano was
provlooo by Llam Cumloy ot tbo
MOD|S Atmospboro Toam, Unlvorslty
ot Wlsconsln-Maolson Cooporatlvo
|nstltuto tor Motooroloclcal Satolllto
Stuolos.
Tbls lmaco sbows soa surtaco topocrapby oata trom TOPEX/Posoloon. Wbon sucb
oata aro comblnoo wltb tbo proclso coolo moasuromonts oxpoctoo trom CPACE,
sclontlsts sboulo bo ablo to stuoy curronts trom satollltos uslnc a tocbnlquo known
as oynamlc topocrapby. Tbls lmaco was acqulroo ln Marcb 2OO1 ln tbo attormatb
ot oarllor El Nlno/La Nlna conoltlons ln tbo troplcal Pacltlc. Aroas towaro tbo
bluo ono ot tbo spoctrum roprosont anomalously low soa surtaco bolcbts tor
Marcb ano aroas towaro tbo roo ono roprosont anomalously blcb valuos tor
Marcb.
9
10
Two plocos ot lntormatlon aro nooooo to mako a oynamlc topocrapby moasuromont,
soa surtaco bolcbt ano a moool tor tbo Eartb's coolo. Slnco tbo lmpact ot oynamlc
topocrapby on tbo sbapo ot tbo ocoan surtaco ls qulto small comparoo to tbo lmpact ot
tbo statlc cravlty tlolo, tbo moasuromonts must bo oxtromoly proclso ano ot blcb rosolu-
tlon. Satolllto altlmotor moasuromonts trom TOPEX/Posoloon ano Iason-1 can provloo
tbls lovol ot ootall tor soa surtaco bolcbt moasuromonts, but to oato, tboro aro no coolo
moasuromonts wltb suttlclont proclslon ano rosolutlon to allow satolllto-oorlvoo moas-
uromonts ot oynamlc topocrapby. Sclontlsts oxpoct tbo oata roturnoo by CPACE to
provloo tbo proclso, blcb rosolutlon coolo moasuromonts roqulroo to moasuro oynamlc
topocrapby attocts. Tboy bopo to uso tboso oata to bottor unoorstano tbo rolo tbat
ocoan curronts play ln roculatlnc tbo Eartb's cllmato.
Ocoan curronts roculato Eartb's cllmato by transportlnc boat trom oquatorlal roclons to
tbo polos. Tbo Eartb's ocoans ossontlally sorvo as buco boat rosorvolrs ano curronts
botb at tbo ocoan surtaco ano tar bonoatb tbo wavos÷known as ooop ocoan cur-
ronts÷act as masslvo "convoyor bolts" tbat olstrlbuto tbls boat ovor tbo surtaco ot tbo
Eartb. Consoquontly, any cbancos ln tboso oquator-to-polo "convoyor bolts" coulo slcnlt-
lcantly cbanco tbo woatbor all arouno tbo clobo. Sclontlsts aro partlcularly bopotul tbat
CPACE wlll bolp tbom bottor unoorstano tbo rolo tbat ooop ocoan curronts play ln
roculatlnc cllmato. Untll now, ooop ocoan curronts bavo romalnoo sbrouooo ln mystory
slnco tboy bavo boon vory olttlcult to moasuro. Howovor, tbo ooslcn ot tbo CPACE
satollltos makos tbom looally sultoo to oxamlno ooop ocoan curronts ano sboulo loao to
lmprovoo ablllty to track tbom ano stuoy tbolr lmpact on clobal cllmato.
Tbls map lllustratos tbo boat oxcbanco tlux ovor Eartb's ocoans tor a tlvo yoar porloo. A nocatlvo valuo lnolcatos
an aroa wboro tbo ocoan ls loslnc boat wbllo a posltlvo valuo lnolcatos an aroa wboro tbo ocoan ls absorblnc boat.
Ocoan boat oxcbanco tlux plays a cruclal rolo ln roculatlnc tbo Eartb's cllmato ano oata trom CPACE sboulo bolp
lmprovo tbo accuracy ot tboso moasuromonts
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
60
30
0
-30
-60
-15 -12 -9 -6 -3 0 3 6 9 12 15
Cbanco ln Ocoan Hoat Flux (W/m
2
)
CPACE oata wlll also lmprovo our unoorstanolnc ot Eartb's lltbospboro÷sollo Eartb.
Moro proclso moasuromonts ot tbo Eartb's cravlty tlolo, sucb as tboso provlooo by
CPACE, sboulo loao to an lmprovoo unoorstanolnc ot tbo oynamlcs ot tbo lnnor struc-
turo ot tbo Eartb. Tbo cbaractorlstlcs ot tbo contlnontal lltbospboro aro tbo subjoct ot
varylnc oplnlons. Ouostlons romaln rocarolnc lts tbormal ano composltlonal naturo,
tblcknoss, ano mocbanlcal proportlos. CPACE can track varlatlons ln tbo oonslty ot tbo
lltbospboro by looklnc at lts lmpact on tbo Eartb's cravltatlonal tlolo. Tbus, oata trom
CPACE wlll bo usoo to comparo compotlnc moools ot tbo lowor mantlo vlscoslty ano
contrlbuto to tbo lmprovoo unoorstanolnc ot mantlo convoctlon.
|n aooltlon to tbo cravlty moas-
uromont, tbo CPACE mlsslon wlll
also omploy an lnnovatlvo now
tocbnlquo tbat usos lts oxtromoly
proclso Clobal Posltlonlnc Systom
(CPS) rocolvors as atmospborlc
llmb sounoors. Llmb sounolnc
moasuros tbo oxcoss oolay ot
raolo wavos as tboy pass tbroucb
ano aro bont by tbo Eartb's
atmospboro. Iust as llcbt ls
rotractoo or bonos as lt ontors
wator bocauso ot tbo slowor
spooo ot llcbt ln tbo wator, CPS
slcnals aro rotractoo as tboy pass
tbroucb tbo atmospboro. Tbo pro-
clso oocroo ot bonolnc (ano bonco
tbo proclso oxcoss oolay) ls blcbly
ooponoont on atmospborlc pros-
suro, tomporaturo, ano molsturo
contont. Tboso can all bo ostlmat-
oo trom proclso obsorvatlons ot
tbo cbanclnc slcnal oolay as tbo
11
Tbo crapb sbows a ory tomporaturo protllo oorlvoo by
CooForscbuncsZontrum Potsoam (CFZ) trom CHAMP occulta-
tlon oata obsorvoo on Aucust, 2J, 2OO1. Tbo corrosponolnc
motooroloclcal analysls oata trom tbo Europoan Contro tor
Moolum-Panco Woatbor Forocasts (ECMWF) ls plottoo tor com-
parlson.
Occultation no. 12 on August 27, 2001
1:07 UTC 50.1°S 4.4°E
CHAMP
ECMWF
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
200 220 240 260 280
dry temperature [K]
CPS Satolllto rlsos or sots. Tbo lonospboro, wblcb ls tbo namo applloo to tbo lonlzoo
uppor atmospboro abovo 1OO km altltuoo, also attocts tbo spooo ot raolo wavos
accorolnc to tbo oonslty ot oloctrons ln tbo lonospboro. |t turns out tbat CPS slcnal
olstortlon causoo by tbo lonospboro varlos as tbo raolo troquoncy ot tbo slcnal
cbancos but tbat atmospborlc olstortlons romaln constant wltb cbanclnc raolo tro-
quoncy. Tbus, tbls tocbnlquo not only moasuros tbo olstortlon ot tbo CPS slcnal but
lt can also olstlnculsb bow mucb ot tbo obsorvoo olstortlon ls causoo by tbo atmos-
pboro ano bow mucb ls causoo by tbo lonospboro.
As CPACE orblts tbo Eartb, lt wlll uso torwaro ano att looklnc antonnas to moas-
uro tbo slcnals trom tbo slowor orbltlnc CPS satollltos as tboy appoar to rlso or sot
boblno tbo Eartb's llmb. CPACE wlll also moasuro CPS slcnals trom blcbor olovatlon
CPS satollltos tbat aro not attoctoo by tbo atmospboro (lllustratoo ln tbo olacram)
as a stanoaro ot comparlson.
8y obsorvlnc bow tbo CPS patb oolays tbroucb tbo atmospboro cbanco, CPACE
wlll croato protllos ot prossuro, tomporaturo, ano bumlolty tor tbo atmospboro ano
moasuro tbo varlablllty ot tbo lonospboro oown to 1OO km altltuoo. |t ls antlclpatoo
tbat tbo llmb sounolnc tocbnolocy aboaro CPACE wlll oxtono ano complomont
otbor spacoborno atmospborlc sonsors. CPACE wlll provloo about 5OO llmb souno-
lnc moasuromonts por oay, unattoctoo by woatbor conoltlons (sucb as clouos ano
storms) tbat blnoor or block otbor satolllto sonsors. Tbo CPACE llmb sounolnc
moasuromonts wlll bo usoo to ootormlno tbo ottoctlvonoss ot llmb sounolnc ln
lmprovlnc numorlcal woatbor proolctlon ln a cost ottoctlvo mannor.
12
Tbls olacram,
orlclnally provlo-
oo by CFZ, lllus-
tratos bow tbo
occultatlon
procoss works.
Tbo CPACE
satolllto tracks a
CPS satolllto as lt
"rlsos" ano "sots"
tbroucb tbo llmb
ot tbo atmos-
pboro, wbllo a
socono CPS
sorvos as a rotor-
onco polnt.
13
CPS sounolnc ot tbo contlnuously cbanclnc lonospboro alms to aovanco our unoor-
stanolnc ot tbo Sun's lntluonco upon tbo Eartb's onvlronmont, lncluolnc lts ottocts on cll-
mato, woatbor, raoar ano raolo communlcatlons. Llmb sounolnc wlll also bo stuoloo as a
moans ot ootoctlnc raplo vortlcal cbancos ot tbo Eartb's surtaco sucb as volcanlc oxplo-
slons, oartbquakos, tsunamls ano otbor sucb pbonomona, wblcb aro tboucbt to causo
olsturbancos ln tbo lonospboro.
Systom oovolopmont, oata procosslnc ano arcblvlnc aro portormoo ln a sbaroo Sclonco
Data Systom (SDS) botwoon tbo Iot Propulslon Laboratory (IPL), tbo Unlvorslty ot Toxas
Contor tor Spaco Posoarcb (UTCSP), ano tbo CooForscbuncsZontrum Potsoam (CFZ).
Tolomotry oata aro rocolvoo by tbo CPACE Paw Data Contor (PDC) at Doutscbos
Zontrum tur Lutt uno Paumtabrt (DLP) ln Noustrolltz, Cormany÷lllustratoo ln tbo
|nstrumontatlon soctlon.
Tbo tlrst lovol ot oata procosslnc ls portormoo at IPL, wboro sonsor callbratlon tactors
aro applloo, tbo oata aro corroctly tlmo-taccoo, quallty control tlacs aro aoooo, ano tbo
oata samplo rato ls rooucoo trom tbo blcb rato oata ot provlous lovols. Data aro tbon
sont to UTCSP ano CFZ, wboro tbo moan ano tlmo varlablo cravlty tlolo ls oorlvoo
trom tbo callbratoo ano valloatoo oata. Data aro arcblvoo tor olstrlbutlon at IPL's
Pbyslcal Ocoanocrapby Dlstrlbutoo Actlvo Arcblvo Contor (PO.DAAC) ano at CFZ's
|ntormatlon Systom ano Data Contor (|SDC).15 CPACE oata lncluoo 3O-oay ostlmatos
ot cravlty tlolos, as woll as protllos ot alr mass, oonslty, prossuro, tomporaturo, wator
vapor, ano lonospborlc oloctron contont.
Preressing and Arrhiving
CPACE ls olttoront trom most Eartb obsorvlnc satolllto mlsslons÷Torra ano Aqua
tor oxamplo÷bocauso lt wlll not carry a sulto ot lnooponoont sclontltlc lnstrumonts on
boaro. Tbo two CPACE satollltos tbomsolvos act ln unlson as tbo prlmary lnstrumont.
|nstantanoous cbancos ln tbo olstanco botwoon tbo twln satollltos aro usoo to mako an
oxtromoly proclso cravltatlonal tlolo moasuromont.
To moasuro cravlty trom spaco, tbo two loontlcal CPACE satollltos tly ln tbo samo orblt÷
ono 22O km (13J mllos) aboao ot tbo otbor. As tbo palr clrclos tbo Eartb, aroas ot sllcbtly
stroncor cravlty wlll attoct tbo loao satolllto tlrst, pulllnc lt away trom tbo tralllnc satolllto.
Tbo unlquoly ooslcnoo Suporstar Accoloromotor ls usoo to olstlnculsb cravlty lntluoncos
trom tboso ot alr orac. Tbo K-bano ranclnc lnstrumont ls capablo ot moasurlnc tbo olstanco
botwoon tbo satollltos wltb a proclslon bottor tban tbo wlotb ot a buman balr. 8y monltor-
lnc tbls olstanco, CPACE wlll bo ablo to ootoct tluctuatlons ln tbo cravltatlonal tlolo ano,
tborotoro, olttoroncos ln tbo oonslty ot tbo Eartb's surtaco bonoatb tbo satollltos. Tbo oata
wlll bo comblnoo wltb CPS oata to proouco a map ot tbo cravlty tlolo approxlmatoly onco
a montb.
14
A snoak poak at tbo lnnaros ot a spacocratt! For tbo CPACE mlsslon, tbo spacocratt ltsolt ls tbo maln lnstru-
mont. Tbls plcturo sbows tbo CPACE spacocratt wltb tbo solar panols romovoo ano clvos a cloar vlow ot tbo
varlous compononts. A olacram ot tbo lntorlor compononts ot tbo spaco cratt appoars on tbo lnsloo back
covor.
Tbls ls
a scbomatlc
olacram ot tbo two
CPACE satollltos ln
orblt wltb tbo K-
bano mlcrowavo
boam connoctlnc
tbom ano proclsoly
tracklnc tluctuatlons
ln tbo olstanco
botwoon tbo two
satollltos. Tbo tluc-
tuatlons aro usoo to
lntor cbancos ln tbo
cravltatlonal tlolo on
tbo surtaco ot tbo
Eartb bolow.
and Measurements
Abbreviatiens üsed in 6RA0£ SateIIite ßiagrams
ACC |CU Superslor Accelercreler |ulerloce Cculrcl Uuil
ACC SU Superslor Accelercreler Seuscr Uuil
ATh Allilude Cculrcl T|ruslers
CESS Ccorse Eorl| oud Suu Seuscr
CPS BKUP Auleuuo CPS Bockup Auleuuo
CPS |AV Auleuuo CPS |ovigolicuol Auleuuo
CPS 0CC Auleuuo CPS 0ccullolicu Auleuuo
|PU |uslrureul Prccessiug Uuil
KBR Asserolv K·Boud Rougiug Svsler Asserolv
|RR |oser Relrc Relleclive Asserolv
HTE Ceuler cl Hoss Trir Asserolv Eleclrcuics
HTH Ceuler cl Hoss Trir Asserolv Hec|ouisr
HT0 Hoguelcrcuers
0B0h 0u Bcord 0olo houdliug
0Th·1, 0Th·2 0roil Cculrcl T|ruslers
PC0U Pcuer Cculrcl oud 0islrioulicu Uuil
R|EA Rodic |recueucv Eleclrcuics Asserolv
SCA Bollle Slor Corero Asserolv Bollle
SCA +Y, SCA ·Y Slor Corero Asserolv
S/A - RX S·Boud /euil| Auleuuo, Receive
S/A - TX S·Boud /euil| Auleuuo, Trousril
Touk ·X, Touk +X Ccld Cos Touks
US0·1 Ullro Sloole 0scillolcr
GPS OCC
Antenna
CESS
OTH - 2
OTH - 1
SZA - TX
SZA - RX
GPS BKUP
Antenna
GPS NAV
Antenna
ATH
SCA Baffle
ATH
ATH
ATH
ATH
ATH
OBDH
GPS OCC
Antenna
GPS BKUP
Antenna
GPS NAV
Antenna
GYRO
SCA - Y
MTM
MTQ
Sampler
KBR
Assembly
K-Band
Horn
USO - 1
SCA + Y
Tank
- X
Tank
+ X
MTE
ÌPU
LRR
K Band Horn
X
S - Band Boom
(Magnetometer Ìnside)
Launcher
Adapter
Battery
Y
Z
Tbls olacram lllustratos tbo tllcbt con-
tlcuratlon ano crouno support tor tbo
CPACE mlsslon. Fluctuatlons ln oonsl-
ty ot tbo Eartb's surtaco rosult ln vory
small cbancos ln tbo olstanco botwoon
tbo two satollltos, wblcb aro moasuroo
wltb vory blcb proclslon by tbo K-
bano ranclnc systom. Tbo S-bano rolay
(sbown protruolnc trom tbo bottom
ot oacb satolllto) allows tor communl-
catlon wltb surtaco tracklnc statlons.
Tbo CPS satollltos aro usoo as rotor-
oncos to ootormlno tbo proclso loca-
tlon ot tbo two satollltos ln orblt ano
allow tor tbo croatlon ot cravlty
maps÷approxlmatoly onco a montb.
15
Tbo CPACE mlsslon bonotlts trom
ano wlll bullo upon tbo lntorost ln
ocoanocrapby tbat bas boon crow-
lnc ln rocont yoars wltb tbo rococ-
nltlon ot tbo El Nlno/La Nlna pbo-
nomonon. CPACE provloos a
stronc basls to oraw publlc ano
stuoont lntorost slnco now,
oxtromoly accurato moools ot tbo
Eartb's cravlty tlolo wlll bo conoratoo.
Tbo Toxas Spaco Crant Consortlum (TSCC)
works ln partnorsblp wltb tbo mlsslon toam to
oovolop ano lmplomont CPACE ooucatlon ano outroacb.
CPACE mastor toacbors woro soloctoo trom across tbo natlon tbroucb an appllcatlon
ano rovlow procoss. Tboso mastor toacbors bavo croatoo lntorolsclpllnary K-12 oouca-
tlonal matorlals tbat moot tbo Natlonal Eoucatlonal Stanoaros to support tbo CPACE
mlsslon ln tbo aroas ot Satollltos, Cravlty, Woatbor/Cllmato/Atmospboro, Ocoans, ano
CPACE conoral mlsslon tacts ano objoctlvos. Tboso mastor toacbors bavo tralnoo bun-
oroos ot toacbors about tbo CPACE mlsslon lmpactlnc tons ot tbousanos ot stuoonts,
ano tbo actlvltlos bavo boon tostoo ln classrooms across tbo natlon. Wbon CPACE
launcbos, tbo actlvltlos wlll bo avallablo to all ooucators on tbo TSCC wob slto,
bttp.//www.csr.utoxas.oou/craco/ooucatlon/. |n aooltlon to classroom actlvltlos, an on-
llno CPACE actlvlty culoo, colorlnc book, ano on-llno qulz wlll bo avallablo tor all lntor-
ostoo.
Anlmatlons, pbotos ano lntorvlows wltb mlsslon porsonnol wlll bo avallablo to all traol-
tlonal moola outlots÷tolovlslon, prlnt, ano raolo. Computor anlmatlon, sbowlnc tbo
spacocratt ooploymonts, orblt crouno tracks, oata colloctlon, ano roal worlo appllcatlons
ot tbo oata, ls avallablo. Tbo CPACE wob slto wlll also oocumont, publlclzo, ano oxpano
tbo mlsslon's sclonco oata lncluolnc computor anlmatlons, oownloaoablo ooucatlonal
matorlals, a troquontly askoo quostlons (FAO) arcblvo, ano ovaluatlon/ succostlon torms
tor toooback. Tbls lntormatlon wlll bo upoatoo rocularly.
CPACE wlll rovolutlonlzo tbo way wo look at Eartb, provlolnc now bonotlts tor slx bll-
llon pooplo llvlnc on tbls boautltul, bluo planot. Tbroucb youtb oovolopmont ano oouca-
tlon wo wlll onbanco our unoorstanolnc ot tbls oynamlc ano llvlnc worlo wo call bomo.
16
and PubIir 0utrearh
17
JPL
0T05R
00 050 k50 65F0 LaR0 AMA
MIT JB0APL
55/L
0L 0h£RA 6FI 08 T0M 0LR
A6mbB £6mbB AwI
IA86 k5R0
0T0 0LR/6500
Participating Instituticns
bnited $tates
AMA Analytical Mechanics Association, ínc. lampton, vA
Cu The university ol Colorado 8oulder, C0
0SlC 0oddard Space llight Center (lASA) 0reenbelt, M0
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory (lASA) Pasadena, CA
JluAPL Johns lop|ins university Applied Physics Lab. Laurel, M0
KSC Kennedy Space Center (lASA) Cocoa 8each, vA
LaRC Langley Research Center (lASA) lampton, vA
MíT Massachusetts ínstitute ol Technology Cambridge, MA
0Su The 0hio State university Columbus, 0l
SS/L Space Systems/Loral Palo Alto, CA
uTCSR university ol Texas Center lor Space Research Austin, TX
£urcpean
A0mbl Astrium 0mbl lriedrichshalen, 0ermany
Awí Allred wegener ínstitute lor Polar and Marine 8remerhaven 0ermany
Research
0LR 0eutsches Zentrum lur Lult und Raumlahrt 8onn, 0ermany
0LR/0S0C 0LR 0erman Space 0perations Center 0berplallenholen, 0ermany
0Tu The Technical university ol 0enmar| Copenhagen, 0enmar|
E0mbl Euroc|ot 0mbl 8remen, 0ermany
0lZ 0eolorschungsZentrum Potsdam Potsdam, 0ermany
0R0S 0roupe de Recherches de 0eodesie Spatiale Toulouse, lrance
íA80 índustrieanlagen-8etriebsgesellschalt 0mbl 0ttobrunn, 0ermany
KS0 Kort & Matri|elstyrelsen Copenhagen, 0enmar|
KSRC Khrunichev State Research and Production Moscow, Russia
Space Center
0lERA 0llice lational d'Etudes et de Recherches Paris, lrance
Aerospatiale
TuM Technical university ol Munich Munich, 0ermany
u8 university ol 8onn 8onn, 0ermany
uL university ol Lyon Lyon, lrance
key Participants
8. Tapley uTCSR, Principal ínvestigator (Pí)
C. Reigber 0lZ, Co-Pí
A. 0avis JPL, Project Manager
M. ímholl 0SlC, ESSP Project Scientist
E. Koenemann 0LR, 0RACE Manager
R. littgerald 0SlC, 0RACE Mission Manager
M.M. wat|ins JPL, Project Scientist
0.5. 5cience Team
8. Tapley uTCSR, Lead
S. 8ettadpur uTCSR
R. 0asparovic JluAPL
R.S. 0ross JPL
w.0. Melbourne JPL
0. Porter JluAPL
C.K. Shum 0Su
J. wahr Cu
M.M. wat|ins JPL
C. wunsch MíT
£urcpean 5cience Team
C. Reigber 0lZ, Lead
0. 8almino 0R0S
l. llechtner 0lZ
K.l. íl| u8
l. Ja|ows|i 0LR
P. Knudsen KS0
Y. Ricard uL
R. Rummel TuM
J. Schroeter Awí
P. Schwintter 0lZ
k56
6R65
18
SperiIiratiens
0eneraI Spacecraft Information (Iwin SateIIitesl
width: 1942 mm
length: 3123 mm
height: J2O mm
Mass: 48J |g per satellite
0esign life: 5 years
0rhit 0haracteristics
Two satellites, co-orbiting at near polar inclinations at 3OO-5OO |m altitude.
Separated along trac| by 22O |m.
key 0omponents
k-hand kanging System. Provides precise (within 1O m) measurements ol the distance change between
the two satellites and hence measures the lluctuations in gravity.
S-hand 8oom. used to send data lrom the satellites bac| to Earth lor processing.
SuperSIâk âcceIorometers. Precisely measures the non-gravitational accelerations acting on the satellite.
Star 0amera âssemhIy. Precisely determines satellite orientation by trac|ing them relative to the position
ol the stars.
0Itra StahIe 0sciIIator. Provides lrequency generation lor the K-band Ranging system.
0oarse £arth and Sun Sensor. Provides omni-directional, reliable and robust, but lairly coarse Earth and
Sun trac|ing. To be used during initial acquisition and when 0RACE is operating in "sale mode."
0enter of Mass Irim âssemhIy. Precisely measures ollset between the satellite's center ol mass and the
"acceleration-prool" mass, and adjusts center ol mass as needed during llight.
8Iack-Jack 0PS keceiver and Instrument Processing 0nit. Provides digital signal processing: measures
the distance change relative to the 0PS satellite constellation: and provides secondary atmospheric
occulation experiments.
laser ketro-kefIective âssemhIy. Provides measurements ol the 0RACE satellite orbits relative to
terrestrial trac|ing networ|s.
0IohaIstar SiIicon SoIar 0eII ârrays. Covers the outer shell ol the spacecralt and generates power.
Ihree-axis StahiIited âttitude 0ontroI System: uses star camera and gyro sensors and a cold-gas
nitrogen thruster system, with magnetorquers lor line corrections ol spacecralt position.
1750-â Microprocessor for FIight 0omputer. Perlorms calculations lor attitude adjustment and telemetry
processing.
´ See photos and diagrams on page 14 and 15 lor detailed layout ol spacecralt.
19
Tbo tollowlnc tablo prosonts a conclso summary ot oxactly wbat moasuromonts CPACE
wlll obtaln ano tbo lnstrumonts tbat aro usoo to obtaln tbom, as woll as bow many spaco-
cratt aro lnvolvoo ln oacb moasuromont.
Tbls sclonco oata ln conjunctlon wltb anclllary oata, wlll tbon bo usoo to caln ostlmatos ot
spborlcal barmonlc coottlclonts ot tbo Eartb's cravltatlonal potontlal. Tboso coottlclonts aro
nocossary to construct tbo 3O-oay maps ot cravltatlonal potontlal tbat wlll bo tbo ono-
proouct trom tbo prlmary CPACE moasuromonts.
Science âppIication Measurement Instrument # of spacecraft needed
for measurements
Earth 0ravity lield ínter-Satellite K-8and Microwave 2
Range Change Lin|
Earth 0ravity lield lon-0ravitational Accelerometer 2
Accelerations
Earth 0ravity lield Satellite 0rbits 8lac| Jac| 0PS Receiver 2
Atmospheric 0PS-to-0RACE 8lac| Jac| 0PS Receiver 1
0ccultation Phase Change
ínter-satellite Range Measurement: < 4 m · twice/rev
< 1O m total · O.1 to O.OOO1 lt
lon-0ravitational Acceleration Measurement: < 1O -1O m/s
2
noise (÷1/l)
< 4 x 1O -12 m/s
2
tones.
Precision 0rbit Measurement: 5 cm absolute
< O.2 mm, relative in plane
Measurement 0bjertives
20
Tbo ostlmatos ot tbo Eartb cravlty tlolo trom CPACE, ln conjunctlon wltb otbor spaco-basoo
moasuromonts, in situ oata ano coopbyslcal moools wlll bo usoo to ootormlno tbo tlmo varylnc
cbancos ln tbo mass ot tbo Eartb's oynamlcal systom ouo to olttoront coopbyslcal procossos as
ooscrlboo ln ootall ln tbls brocburo.
Static 0ravity FieId Measurements
APPLíCATí0l RES0LuTí0l
0ceanic leat llux >1OOO |m
0cean Currents >1OOO |m
Solid Earth Sciences >3OO |m
Iime variahIe 0ravity FieId Measurements
APPLíCATí0l RES0LuTí0l TíME SCALE C0MMElTS
0ceanic leat llux >1OOO |m Seasonal 3O day estimate
0cean 8ottom Pressure >5OO |m Seasonal 3O day estimate
0eep 0cean Currents >5OO |m Seasonal 3O day estimate
Sea Level Rise >JOO |m Secular 5 year estimate
Evapo-Transpiration >3OO |m Seasonal 3O day estimate
0reenland/Antarctic íce Secular 5 year estimate
Seasonal 1 year estimate
AppIiratiens Summary
Goddard Space FIight Center
GreenbeIt, MaryIand
NP-2002-2-427-GSFC
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