2nd MBBS Syllabus | Anemia | Infection

1

.

THE TAMIL NADU Dr.M.G.R.MEDICAL UNIVERSITY CHENNAI - 600 032.

SECOND M.B.B.S. DEGREE COURSE REVISED (NON-SEMESTER) REGULATIONS - 2005

II M.B.B.S. Non-Semester Regulations - 2005

2

CONTENTS --------------------------------------------------------------------------SL.No. Description Pg.No. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Short Title and Commencement General Considerations & Teaching Approach Course of Study Curriculum Medium of Instruction Submission of Laboratory Record Note Books Working days in an academic year Internal Assessment 04 04 06 07 07 08 08 08

9. 10. 11.

Attendance required for admission to examination Regulations for condonation of lack of attendance “University Examinations’ (1) Commencement of Examination (2) Timing of Examination (3) Exemption in passed subjects (4) Carryover of failed subjects

09 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11

12. 13. 14.

Revaluation of Answer Papers Re-admission after break of study Migration / Transfer of candidates

II M.B.B.S. Non-Semester Regulations - 2005

3

:2: --------------------------------------------------------------------------SL.No. Description Pg.No. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. Curriculum – Syllabus for i) Pathology ii) Microbiology iii) Pharmacology iv) Forensic Medicine 16. Pattern of Examinations i) Pathology ii) Microbiology iii) Pharmacology iv) Forensic Medicine 17. Marks qualifying for a Pass i) Pathology ii) Microbiology iii) Pharmacology iv) Forensic Medicine 18. 19. Community Medicine (1) Annexure I [Regulations 14 (iii)] (2) Annexure II [Regulations 14 (iv)] 30 41 49 54 55 13 14 29 39 48 53 15 31 42 50

**********

II M.B.B.S. Non-Semester Regulations - 2005

Non-Semester Regulations . Act.4 THE TAMIL NADU Dr. Medical University. 4. To avail of opportunities and engage in professional activities the graduate shall endeavour to acquire basic training in different aspects of medical care. 1987 (Tamil Nadu Act 37 of 1987).R. the Standing Academic Board of the Tamil Nadu Dr. M. promotive. Chennai.S. With a wide range of career opportunities available today a graduate has a wide choice of career opportunities. This has to be further intensified by providing exposure to field practice areas and training during the internship period. CHENNAI”.B. M.G. Adequate exposure to such experiences should be available throughout in all the three phases of graduate medical education and training.2005 . The regulations framed are subject to modification as made by the Standing Academic Board from time to time. though broad based and flexible. curative and rehabilitative aspects of medical care. M.G.B. M. This aspect of education and training of graduates should be adequately recognised in the prescribed curriculum. Degree course from the academic year 2005 . SHORT TITLE AND COMMENCEMENT These regulations shall be called “REGULATIONS FOR THE SECOND M.S. II M. 2.B. Medical University hereby makes the following regulations: 1. should aim at providing an educational experience of the essentials required for health care in our country.2006 onwards and promoted to second M.R.B.R. Graduate medical curriculum is oriented towards training students to undertake the responsibilities of a physician of first contact who is capable of looking after the preventive. Degree course. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS AND TEACHING APPROACH 1. These regulations are applicable to the students who are admitted to the First M.B. To undertake the responsibilities of various service situations.G.S. 3.B. 2.R. The training. MEDICAL UNIVERSITY.G.B.S. The aim of the period of rural training during internship is to enable the fresh graduates to function effectively under such settings. DEGREE COURSE – 2005 (NON-SEMESTER) OF THE TAMIL NADU Dr. it is essential to provide adequate placement training tailored to the needs of such services. The importance of community aspects of health care and of rural health care services is to be emphasized. MEDICAL UNIVERSITY CHENNAI REGULATIONS FOR THE BACHELOR OF MEDICINE AND BACHELOR OF SURGERY DEGREE COURSE In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 44 of the Tamil Nadu Dr.B.

13. 7. To achieve this purpose the educational process should also be community based rather than only hospital based. they are best taught in a setting of clinical relevance with hands on experience for the students to assimilate and make this knowledge a part of their own working skills. clarity of expression and independence of judgement. 14.B. Every effort should be made to encourage the use of active methods related to demonstration and first hand experience. 8. Enough experience must be provided for self learning.B. He/She shall endeavour to master the fundamental aspects of the subjects taught and all common problems of health and disease avoiding unnecessary details of specialization. The methods and techniques that would ensure this must become a part of the teaching-learning process. Non-Semester Regulations . 12. The medical graduate of modern scientific medicine shall endeavour to become capable of functioning independently in both urban and rural environment. The educational process should be placed in a historical background as an evolving process and not merely as an acquisition of a large number of disjointed facts without a proper perspective. 11. Adequate emphasis is to be placed on cultivating logical and scientific habits of thought. The importance of social factors in relation to the problem of health and disease should receive proper emphasis throughout the course.S. Students shall be encouraged to learn in small groups through peer interactions so as to gain maximal experience through contact with patients and the communities in which the patients live. 6. While the curriculum Objectives often refer to areas of knowledge of science. Lectures alone are generally not adequate as a method of training and a means of transferring information and even less effective at skill development and in generating the appropriate attitudes. II M.5 5. Clinics should be organized in small groups of preferably not more than 10 students so that a teacher can give personal attention to each student with a view to improving his skill and competence in handling of patients. Proper records of the work should be maintained which will form a basis for the students internal assessment. The importance of population control and family welfare planning should be emphasized throughout the period of training with the importance of health and development duly emphasized.2005 . The graduate medical education in clinical subjects should be based primarily on teaching in out-patient and emergency departments and within the community including should be suitably planned to provide training to graduates in small groups. They should be available to the inspectors at the time of inspection of the college by the Medical Council of India. 9. The educational experience should emphasize health and community orientation instead of only disease and hospital orientation concepts of modern scientific medical education are to be adequately dealt with. The history of Medicine with reference to the evolution of medical knowledge both in this country and in the rest of the world should form a part of this process. ability to collect and analyse information and to correlate the facts. 10.

18. A discussion group should not have more than 20 students.2005 . Every attempt is to be made to encourage students to participate in group discussions and seminars to enable them to develop personality. (b) Phase-II (II MBBS) (1 ½ years) consisting of Para clinical/clinical subjects. 3. rest of the time shall be somewhat equally divided between Anatomy and Physiology Plus Bio-chemistry combined (Physiology 2/3 and BioChemistry 1/3).B. Maximal efforts have to be made to encourage integrated teaching between traditional subject areas using a problem based learning approach starting with clinical or community cases and exploring the relevance of various preclinical disciplines in both understanding and resolving a problem. Besides 60 hours for introduction to Community Medicine including Humanities. Forensic Medicine including Toxicology and part of Community Medicine. Every attempt must be made to avoid compartmentalization of disciplines so as to achieve both horizontal and vertical integration in different phases. (2) The period of 4 ½ years is divided into three phases as follows: (a) Phase-I (I MBBS) (One Year) consisting of Preclinical subjects (Human Anatomy. To attain this objective Medical Education Units/Departments should be established in all Medical colleges for faculty development and providing learning resource material to teachers. Pharmacology. 16. expression and other faculties which are necessary for a medical graduate to function either in solo practice or as a team member/leader when he begins his independent career. The Para-clinical subjects shall consist of Pathology. II M.S. The First MBBS course shall commence in August of an academic year. Physiology including Bio-Physics.6 15. Faculty members should avail of modern educational technology while teaching the students. 17. COURSE OF STUDY (1) Every student shall undergo a period of certified study extending over 4 ½ academic years followed by one year of compulsory rotating internship. During this phase teaching of Para-clinical subjects shall be done concurrently. Bio-Chemistry and introduction to Community Medicine including Humanities).B. Non-Semester Regulations . character. To derive maximum advantage out of this revised curriculum the vacation period of students in one calendar year should not exceed one month during the 4 ½ years Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Degree Course. Microbiology.

The training in Surgery and its allied specialities will include General Surgery. Radio-therapy etc. The clinical subjects to be taught during Phase II and III are Medicine and its allied specialities. (3) The first year (approximately 240 teaching days) shall be occupied in the Phase I (Pre-clinical) subjects.S. family welfare planning etc. Anesthesia. Phase II will be devoted to Para-clinical and clinical subjects. Infectious diseases etc.B.2005 . (c) Phase-III (III MBBS) (Two years) – Continuation of study of clinical subjects from Phase II. along with clinical postings.B. Non-Semester Regulations . Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Community Medicine. Microbiology and Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine combined. No student shall be permitted to join the Phase II (Paraclinical/clinical) group of subjects until he / she has passed in all the Phase I (Pre-clinical) subjects. in various subjects. II M. 5. Radio-diagnosis. Dentistry. CURRICULUM The curriculum and the syllabi for the course shall be as specified in these Regulations. The Obstetrics & Gynaecology training will include family medicine.7 The clinical subjects shall consist of all those detailed below in Phase III. Orthopaedic Surgery including Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation. Psychiatry. Besides clinical posting the rest of the teaching hours should be divided between didactic lectures. Paediatrics. Tuberculosis and Chest. demonstrations. (1/3 Forensic Medicine 2/3 Community Medicine). The training in Medicine and its allied specialities will include General Medicine. 1 ½ years shall be devoted to para-clinical subjects. group discussions etc. Surgery and its allied specialities. Pharmacology. 4. Skin and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. Ophthalmology. Out of the time for Para-clinical teaching approximately equal time shall be allotted to Pathology. MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION English shall be the medium of instruction for all the subjects of studies and for examinations. During clinical phase (Phase III) preclinical and para-clinical teaching shall be integrated into the teaching of clinical subjects wherever relevant. seminars. After passing pre-clinical subjects.

2005 .8 6. In respect of failed candidates.B. he/she may be permitted to improve his/her performance by submission of fresh records and the students should be informed of the same by suitable display. No other materials. If a candidate desires. Assignment – 10 marks and Record – 10 marks). WORKING DAYS IN AN ACADEMIC YEAR Each academic year shall consist of not less than 240 working days.12.* 7.B. handwritten. Non-Semester Regulations .f August 2006 Examination onwards II M. b) ARREAR BATCH ENTERING II MBBS IN APRIL: The Internal Assessment Marks for those students who passed the I MBBS examination in February and entering the II MBBS in April. Practical – 20 marks. shall be sent at the end of January.S. cyclostyled or printed guides are allowed for reference during the practical examinations. The practical record shall be evaluated by the concerned Head of the Department (Internal Evaluation) and the practical record marks shall be submitted to the University 15 days prior to the commencement of the theory examinations. Orals – 10 Marks and Practical – 20 Marks) and the aggregate of final Internal Assessment marks at the end of next July for 80 marks ( Theory & Orals – 40 marks.2005 –w. Orals – 10 Marks and Practical – 20 Marks) and the aggregate of final Internal Assessment marks at the end of next January for 80 marks ( Theory & Orals – 40 marks. Assignment – 10 marks & Record – 10 marks). the marks awarded for records at previous examinations will be carried over to the next examinations. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT** a) The Internal Assessment Marks for those students who passed the I MBBS examination in August and entering the II MBBS in October. SUBMISSION OF LABORATORY RECORD NOTE BOOKS At the time of practical/clinical examination each candidate shall submit to the Examiners his/her laboratory note books duly certified by the Head of the Department as a bonafide record of the work done by the candidate. The candidate may be permitted by the examiners to refer to the practical record book during the practical examination in the subject of Biochemistry only. Practical – 20 marks. June & December for 60 Marks ( Theory – 30 Marks. December & June for 60 marks ( Theory – 30 Marks. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*XXVII SAB dated 07-07-2004 /**30th SAB dated 28.e. shall be sent at the end of July. 8.

c) A candidate lacking in the prescribed attendance in any one subject in the first appearance shall be denied admission to the entire examinations.2005 . e) Attendance earned by the student should be displayed on the Notice Board of the College at the end of every three months and a copy of the same should be sent to the University and parents of the students concerned. 9. The final Internal Assessment including Record & Assignment (Theory & Practical 20 marks. c) Internal Assessment Marks For Forensic Medicine * The Internal Assessment for 30 marks (Theory – 15 + Oral . d) Failed candidates who are not promoted to the next phase of study are required to put in minimum 80% attendance during the extended period of study before appearing for the next examination. e) The internal assessment marks (both in written and practical taken together) should be submitted to the University endorsed by the Head of the institutions fifteen days prior to commencement of the theory examinations. ATTENDANCE REQUIRED FOR ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION a) No candidate shall be permitted to any one of the parts of MBBS Examinations unless he/she has attended the course in the subject for the prescribed period in an affiliated institution recognised by this University and produces the necessary certificate of study.07.5 & Practical 10 marks) shall be sent to the University once in six months. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*35th SAB dated 20/05/2008 with effect from August 2008 examinations onwards ** XXVII SAB held on 07. b) A candidate is required to put in minimum 80%* of attendance as per recent MCI Norms in both theory and practical/clinical separately in each subject before admission to the examination.B. Record & Assignment 10 marks) shall be sent to the University. f) A candidate should obtain a Minimum of 35% of marks in internal assessment in a subject to be permitted to appear for the University examination in that subject** . d) A failed candidate in any subject should be provided an opportunity to improve his/her internal assessment marks by conducting a minimum of two examinations in theory and practical separately and average be considered for improvement.2004 II M. Non-Semester Regulations .9 The aggregate of Final Internal Assessment Marks submitted at the end of January/July for 80 marks shall be taken by the University as Internal Assessment Marks & a minimum of 35% marks is mandatory for permitting the candidates to sit for the University examinations.S. attendance and progress from the Head of the Institution.B.

Any candidate going on leave on medical grounds should report to the University as well as to the college immediately within 3 weeks for record. The Head of the Department and Head of the Institution should satisfy themselves on the reasonableness of the candidates request while forwarding the application with their endorsement to the Controller of Examinations who would obtain the Vice-Chancellor’s approval for admission to the examination. d) Any other leave the Head of the Institution deems reasonable for condonation.B.S. A candidate lacking in attendance should submit an application in the prescribed form and remit the stipulated fee 10 days prior to the commencement of the theory examination. No application would be considered if it is not forwarded through proper channel. REGULATIONS FOR CONDONATION OF LACK OF ATTENDANCE **: Condonation of shortage of attendance upto a maximum of 5 % * in the prescribed minimum attendance for admission to an examination vests with the discretionary powers of the Vice-Chancellor. Non-Semester Regulations .(The candidate should submit through the Head of the Institution. 11. c) Participation in NCC/NSS and other co-curricular activities representing the institution or University. Condonation for lack of attendance shall be taken up for consideration under the following circumstances: a) Any illness afflicting the candidate.10 10. Medical Certificate from a registered Medical Practitioner soon after he returns to the Institution after treatment). II M. (The Head of the Institution should instruct the concerned officers in-charge of the student activities in their institution to endorse the leave application). UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS (1) COMMENCEMENT OF EXAMINATIONS* : (a) August 1st / February 1st. (The parent/guardian should give in writing the reason for the ward’s absence to the Head of the Institution). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* 35TH SAB dated 20/05/2008/ ** with effect from August 2008 examinations onwards. b) Any unforeseen tragedy in the family.B.2005 .

If the date of commencement of the examination falls on a public holiday.07. b) Phase – II: Professional examination : at the end of 1 ½ years from the commencement of Phase II. c) Phase – III – Part-I examination : at the end of one year of Phase III. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* XXVII SAB dated 07. 12. REVALUATION OF EXAMINATION ANSWER PAPERS** There is no provision for revaluation of answer papers.S. retotalling is only allowed in the failed subjects. (4) CARRY OVER OF FAILED SUBJECTS (a) Passing in First MBBS Professional examination is compulsory before proceeding to Phase II training.B.11 (b) Theory examinations not to be held on Saturdays and Sundays. (3) EXEMPTION IN PASSED SUBJECTS Candidates who fail in an examination but obtain pass mark in any subject shall be exempted from re-examination in that subject.2005 . Non-Semester Regulations . the next working day will be the date of commencement of examination. d) Phase – III – Part-II (Final Professional) examination : at the end of 2 years of Phase III. (2) TIMING OF EXAMINATIONS a) Phase – I: Professional examination : at the end of one academic year.B. (b) A student who fails in the II MBBS professional examination shall be permitted to carry the failed subjects to Phase III of the MBBS course but shall not be allowed to appear in III MBBS Professional Part I examination unless he/she passes all the subjects of the II MBBS Professional examination. however passing of III MBBS Professional (Part I) is compulsory for being eligible to appear for III – MBBS Professional (Part II) examination. II M. Passing in II MBBS Professional examination is compulsory before entering Part II of Phase III(final year) of the course.2004 © Passing in III MBBS Professional (Part 1) examination is not compulsory before entering for Part II training. However.

(3) The applicant candidate shall be eligible to apply for migration only after qualifying in the first professional MBBS examination.B.S. Migration during clinical course of study shall not be allowed on any ground.A. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------** Deleted 31st SAB dated:29.06.12 13.06. MIGRATION / TRANSFER OF CANDIDATES: Migration of Students from one Medical College to another Medical College in India shall be granted only in exceptional cases to the most deserving among the applicants for good sufficient reasons and not on routine grounds. There shall be no migration on any ground from one Medical College to another located in the same city. Non-Semester Regulations . (2) Migration of students from one college is permissible only if both colleges are recognized by the Central Government under Section 11(2) OF THE Indian Medical Council Act.2006 Classification of successful candidates – deleted in 31st S.2006. which is covering for the candidates admitted from the academic year 2003-2004 onwards. 14. The number of students migrating to/from any one Medical College shall be kept to the minimum which shall in any case not exceed the limit of 5 % of its sanctioned intake in one academic year. 1956 and further subject to the condition that it shall not result in increase in the sanctioned intake capacity for the academic year concerned in the respective medical college.2005 .B. RE-ADMISSION AFTER BREAK OF STUDY A separate Regulation book is available for all the Under-graduate and Postgraduate courses of this University. dt:29. II M.B.

as the case may be. Medical Education of the State where the College/institutions including Deemed Universities to which migration is sought is situated or to the Head of the Institution in case migration is sought to a Central Government institution. The Director. the college to which migration is sought and the University to which that college is affiliated to.B.B. Non-Semester Regulations .13 (4) For the purpose of Migration. He shall submit his application for migration within a period of one month of passing (declaration of results) of the first professional MBBS examination along with the said ‘No Objection Certificates’ to the Director. lectures. shall take a final decision in the matter as to whether of not to allow migration in accordance with the provisions of these Regulations and communicate the same to the applicant student within a period of one month from the date of rece3ipt of the request for migration.S. (4) A student who has joined another college on migration shall be eligible to appear in the II professional MBBS examination only after attaining the minimum attendance in that college in the subjects. Medical Education of the State concerned or the Head of the Central Government institution. an applicant candidate shall first obtain ‘No Objection Certificates’ from the college where he is studying for the present. the University to which it is affiliated to. seminars etc. required for appearing in the examination prescribed under Regulation 12(1) Note – 1: The State Governments/ Universities / Institutions may frame appropriate guidelines for grant of No Objection Certificate or migration. Note – 2: Any request for migration not covered under the provisions of these Regulations be referred to the Medical Council of India for consideration on individual merits by the Director (Medical Education) of the State or the Head of Central II M. as the case may be. to the students subject to provisions of these regulations.2005 .

5) Migration during clinical course of study will not be considered by the University. Non-Semester Regulations .3: The College /Institutions shall send intimation to the Medical Council of India about the number of students admitted by them on migration within one month of their joining. It shall be open to the Council to undertake verification of the compliance of the provisions of the regulations governing migration by the College at any point of time.” 5. II M.14 Government Institution concerned. In order to streamline the migration of II MBBS students from one Medical following college to another Medical college.2005 .S. The decision taken by the Council on such requests shall be final.B. 3) The candidate should have passed first professional MBBS examination. Note . 2) The applicant shall submit No Objection Certificate from the college where he/she is studying for the present and the transferee Medical College. 4) The application for Migration. should be submitted to all authorities concerned within a period of one month of passing the first professional MBBS examination. complete in all respects. 6) Issue of N.C for all Migration/Transfers are subject to the approval of the Vice-Chancellor.O.B. the University has proposed the regulations for the Migration of II MBBS students:- 1) Both the Medical Colleges shall be institutions recognized by the Medical Council of India.

2005 . Non-Semester Regulations . Disturbed conditions declared by Government in the Medical College area.15 7) The candidate has to obtain and furnish a letter from the Dean of the transferee Medical college that the number of students migrating to/from the concerned Medical college has not exceeded the limit of 5% of its sanctioned intake in that particular academic year.B. Any other EXTRA ORDINARY Reason at the Discretion of the Governing Council Members of this University. d. 8) The candidates are not eligible for mutual transfer from one Medical College to another Medical College. c. Illness of the candidate causing disability. The request for Mutual transfer shall be rejected summarily.S. b. 9) The following compassionate grounds shall be considered for purpose of migration a.B. 10) Candidate seeking transfer on personal grounds or without valid reasons will not be entertained. the ******* II M. Death of a supporting guardian.

B.2005 .S.16 II M.B. Non-Semester Regulations .

mechanisms of cell degeneration. 3. (II) OBJECTIVES (A) Knowledge: At the end of the course.B. – SYLLABUS . which govern the maintenance of fluid and homeostasis. 4) Correlate normal and altered morphology (gross and microscopic) of different organ systems in common diseases. 2) Explain the pathophysiological process. to the extent needed for understanding of disease processes and their clinical significance.B. Draw a rational scheme of investigations aimed at diagnosing and managing the causes of common disorders. (B) SKILLS At the end of the course. the student shall be able to 1. Perform the simple bed side tests on blood. 3) Describe the mechanisms and patterns of tissue response to injury such that he/she can appreciate the Patho-Physiology of disease process and their clinical manifestations. urine and biological fluid samples. the student shall be able to: 1) Describe the structure of a sick cell. cell death and repair and be able to correlate structural and functional alterations.15 CURRICULUM II MBBS PATHOLOGY (I) GOAL The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate student in Pathology is to provide the students with a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanism and cause of the disease with corresponding tissue changes in order to achieve complete understanding of the natural history and clinical manifestation and to diagnose with appropriate lab investigations.S.PATHOLOGY . mechanisms of their disturbance and the morphological and clinical mainfestations associated with it. Describe the rational and principles of technical procedures of the diagnostic laboratory tests and interpretation of the results: 2. II M.

Bleeding time and clotting time – discussion. w. Total RBC counting – demonstration.) II M. r. (Physical. d. q. Tissue processing . p.B. cell count and discussion.Vaginal smear. Instruments – demonstration and discussion Examination of Urine – demonstration. h. Bone marrow charts – discussion. n. Packed cell volume Demonstration and discussion. CSF examination – demonstration of procedure. v. Chemical and Microscopic. ENAC. e. x. Seminal analysis – slide discussion. m. Introduction clinical Pathology – Demonstration of sample collection. k. c. Bone marrow biopsy – procedure and slide discussion Sputum examination – discussion. u. Peripheral smear study – discussion and practical. their relationship with different etiological factors (Social. – SYLLABUS . i. Hemoglobin estimation – demonstration and practical.B. Osmotic fragility test – Discussion – Demonstration.PATHOLOGY . t. Blood indices – discussion. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate – demonstration and discussion. Total WBC counting – demonstration.16 Understand biochemical/physiological disturbances that occur as a result of disease in collaboration with preclinical departments. b. CLINICAL PATHOLOGY LAB-CLASS SCHEDULE – PHASE II a. l. Differential count – demonstration and practical. Cytology . j. Blood grouping – practical and discussion.H&E Special stains . s. f. (C) INTEGRATION At the end of training he/she shall able to integrate causes of diseases. Coomb’s test – discussion. Economic and Environmental) that contribute to the natural history of diseases that are most prevalent in India. Reticulocyte count – slide discussion. Platelet count – Slide discussion.discussion.S. y. discussion and practical. (breast) and body fluids. g. o.

B.S. PATHOLOGY PRESCRIBED TEACHING HOURS .B.C. DISORDERS – ANAEMIAS.B.S. Collection of Samples.17 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II. DEMONSTRATION – BY FACULTY) 1. 2. CLASSIFICATION AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS (a) Theory : Iron deficiency anaemias & Megaloblastic anaemias. – SYLLABUS . Hemolytic anaemias – Congential and Acquired. Aplastic anaemias and anaemias of chronic disorders : Polythemia.B.B. Biopsy and cellular details.PATHOLOGY . (c) Demonstration: Demonstration : Bone marrow aspiration and Biopsy Instruments. (b) Practical : Perform Hb Iron deficiency anemia view the slide & record Macrocytic anaemia view the slide & record Megaloblastic marrow view the slide & record II M. (b) Practical : Clinical Pathology Introduction. M.300 hrs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SYLLABUS General Pathology & Haematology (PRACTICAL – BY STUDENTS. R. BONE MARROW HEMATOLOGY (a) Theory : Bone marrow aspiration.

C. – SYLLABUS .18 (c) Demonstrations : P. Sickle cells } Thalassemia }– Peripheral smear Reticulocytes 3. DISORDERS (a) Theory: Leukopenia.S. agranulocytosis a234nd Leukocytosis Leukemias & Multiple myeloma Myeloproliferative disorders (b) Practicals : PERFORM: Differential count and peripheral smear. (a) Theory : Laboratory investigations Vascular disorders Platelets disorders Coagulation factors deficiency II M.B.B.V. W. COAGULATION DISORDERS View Slide and Record.PATHOLOGY . study (interpretation) (c) Demonstrations and Discussions: Neutrophilia Eosinophilia and Peripheral Smear 4.C.B.

– SYLLABUS . T.Specimen Lymphoma – slides – Hodgkin’s only Secondary deposits – slide + specimen. II M. BLOOD BANKING SYSTEM AND TRANSFUSION REACTIONS Practical : PERFORM Blood group & Rh Factor Demonstration : Blood Bank working Pattern 6. Enumeration of platelets in Peripheral smear 5. BLOOD GROUP.B.B. Lymphadenitis – specimen + slide. THYMUS (a) Theory : Lymph Nodes Specific and non-specific lymph adenitis Lymphomas – Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s (b) Practical : Lymphomas .S.19 (b) Demonstration : Bleeding time.PATHOLOGY . LYMPH NODES.B. SPLEEN. clotting time.

Specimen and slide. (ii) Practicals : Fatty change – Liver specimen & Slide 9. Humoral and cellular participants of inflammation. B) REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY (i) Theory : Cell injury and intracellular accumulations. immunological mediators.B. – SYLLABUS .B. Pathological calcifications. metaplasia and dysplasia. Adaptation to cell injury. radiation. genetic factors and apoptosis. 8.Patterns of inflammation. influence agents. II M. A) CELL INJURY & CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS: (a) Theory : Aetiologic factors and mechanism. acute responses and chronic responses. (b) Practical : Demonstration and discussion Introduction to Histopathology and cytology.S.PATHOLOGY . oxygen derived radical injury and hypoxia. Necrosis. chemical agents.20 7. Atrophy. laboratory and museum. INFLAMMATION: Definitions :. hypoxia. hypertrophy. SPLEEN (a) Theory : Spleenomegaly (b) Practical : CVC Spleen . hyperplasia.

B. Chemical mediators. 11. 13. regulation of inflammation. vascular. Repair and regeneration (a) Theory : Components of repair and regeneration reactions.g. defect of coagulation proteins. cells of the repair process. – SYLLABUS . mechanism of repair. Karyotyping.Specimen and Slide. disseminated intravascular coagulation. (c) Demonstration : Abscess – Liver or Lung – Specimen Foreign body Granuloma . Thrombosis (b) Practicals : Venous thrombus specimen. cellular and molecular events of inflammation. GENETICS : Introduction to Medical genetics Genetic Disorders. II M. Fracture Healing (b) Practicals: Granulation tissue. E. (a) Practicals : Acute appendicitis Specimen and slide Chronic inflammation : Tuberculous granuloma . abnormal hemostasis – Vascular defects. platelet defects.Slide.PATHOLOGY . HEMOSTASIS (a) Theory : Normal hemostasis.21 10. Regeneration and healing in specific organs.B. Organisation of thrombus slide.S.Slide 12.

Squamous papilloma. 15. Metastic Deposits – Lymphnode. Etiology of Neoplasia. Primary Immuno deficiencies. Demographic and Familiar aspects of cancers – Spread of tumours. immune complex reactions. Characteristics of Neoplastic Cells. IMMUNO PATHOLOGY : (a) Theory : Immune responses. Lung. shock. Laboratory Diagnosis. Cytology – Malignant Cells in cervical smear. embolism.B. Kidney. Liver. Osteosarcoma. Leiomyoma. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Malignant Melanoma – All specimens and slides. II M. NEOPLASIA : (a) Theory : Definition & Tumour Nomenclatures. delayed hypersensitivity granulomatous reactions. CIRCULATORY DISTURBANCE (a) Theory : Edema. 16. & Transplant. Cystic Teratoma – Ovary. Lung.PATHOLOGY . hyperemia and congestion. CVC – Liver. Cytotoxic reaction. (b) Practicals: Benign – Lipoma. Adenomatous polypIntestine. capillary and cavernous angioma schwannoma. Heart.Specimen and slide. Autoimmunity and Autoimmune diseases.22 14. Chondroma : Slides and Specimens.Breast & Body fluids. Atopic and Anaphylactic reactions.B. Amyloidosis. Gangrene Intestine + Foot – Specimen. infarction and gangrene (b) Practicals : Filarial leg – Specimen. Spleen – specimen and slide. Malignant – Squamous Cell carcinoma. FNAC .S. – SYLLABUS . Infarction – Spleen.

Tuberculous lymphadenitis Tuberculosis – Lung Leprosy – Lerpromatous & Tuberculoid. Syphilis. Spleen. Vasculitis.B. Typhoid. II M. Retinoblastona. Neruroblastona. (b) Practical : Actinomycosis. 19.S. Radiation injury and Nutritional deficiencies. – SYLLABUS . (b) Practicals : Atherosclerosis – Aorta – Specimen and slide. Protozoal Diseases – Amoeba. Kidney Specimens. SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY 20. Aneurysms.g. Drug Abuse. Malaria. Aortic Aneurysms – Syphilitic and Atherosclerotic – Specimen. & Tumors. Maduramycosis Specimens and slides.. 17. Leprosy. Malarial – Spleen. CHILHOOD DISEASES: Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Tumors: For e.PATHOLOGY . 18. ENVIRONMENTAL AND NUTRITIONAL PATHOLOGY : (a) Theory: Tobacco.Liver and tuberculosis ulcer intestine. Tuberculosis. Amoebic abscess (LIVER).B.23 (b) Practicals : Amyloid – Liver. Fungal Diseases. Specimens. INFECTIOUS DISEASES: (a) Introduction : Bacterial Diseases – Gram Positive & Gram negative infections. VASCULAR SYSTEM : (a) Theory : Artheroscelerosis. Alcohol.

Myocardial Infarction.B. Secondary deposit lung – specimen. Congenital Heart Disease – Specimens. (b) Practicals: Lobar pneumonia – Red & Grey hepatization. Brochiectasis and lung abscess. polyps.PATHOLOGY . peptic ulcer.COPD Bronchial Asthma. PATHOLOGY OF LUNG: (a) Theory : Pulmonary Odema Emphysema . Infective and Non-infective endocarditis. Pericarditis. Pneumoconiosis. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases. Bronchiectasis – Lung abscess. – SYLLABUS . Interstitial Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Hypertensive Cardiac Hypertrophy – Specimens. and gastric carcinoma. Emphysema – specimen & slide.B. Myocardial Infarction. (c) Demonstration : Left Atrial myxoma specimen. Pneumonia – Bronchial & Lobar. II M. (b) Practicals: Rheumatic mitral stenosis. PATHOLOGY OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT (a) Theory : Buccal /Oral carcinoma. ulcers of small and large intestines.S.24 21. 22. Hypertensive Heart Disease. Pleomorphic Adenoma of salivary gland. Infective endocarditis. Bronchogenic carcinoma. pulmonary tuberculosis. colorectal polyps and carcinomas. PATHOLOGY OF HEART : (a) Theory : Rheumatic Heart Disease. Carcinoma esophagus. 23. Tumours of Lungs and Pleura. Aschoff Nodule – Slide.

Tumour of gall bladder. LIVER BILIARY TRACTS AND PANCREAS (a) Theory : Hepatitis. carcinoma – oesophagus – specimen. (1) KIDNEY : (a) Theory : Cystic lesions. II M.25 (b) Practicals : Pleomorphic adenoma – salivary gland specimen & slide. Pyelonephritis and Urolithiasis. Tumours of liver. Nephrotic Syndrome. Renal cell carcinoma specimen and slides Wilm’s tumour – Slide + Specimen. Glomerulonephritis. – SYLLABUS . Cholecystitis. Diabetic. Chronic Pyelonephritis – specimen and slide. Alocholic liver disease.S. Gastric ulcer and carcinoma – specimen & slide Ulcers of the small intestineTyphoid. Kidney and tumours. carcinoma large intestines. (b) Practicals : Cirrhosis – liver specimen with slides Hepatoma – specimen with slides Gall stone – specimen Liver Metastatis – specimen 25.B. Gall stone. (b) Practicals : Chronic glomerulonephritis – end stage renal disease. stones and tumours.PATHOLOGY . Urinary bladder – infections. Pancreatitis and Tumours of Pancreas. 24. amoebic ulcer.B. Cirrhosis. Tuberculosis intestine. Acute & Chronic Renal Failure.

Carcinomas Endometriosis Adenomyosis.26 26. GENITAL SYSTEM – FEMALE (a) Introduction : Carcinoma – cervix & Premalignant lesion Endometrial Hyperplasias . Leiomyomas . GENITAL SYSTEM MALE (a) Theory : Carcinoma penis and premalignant lesions. Prostate – benign hypertrophy and tumours. (b) Practicals : Carcinoma – Cervix specimen. – SYLLABUS .B.PATHOLOGY .B.S. 27. tumours of the testis. fibroid uterus slides + slides Endometrium proliferative / slide Endometrium secretory / slide Benign cystic teratomas – specimen + slide II M.Uterus Ovarian tumours Gestational Trophoblastic diseases. (b) Practicals : Carcinoma penis – specimen and slides Seminoma specimen (c) Demonstration : Seminoma – Slide BHP – specimen + slides.

goitre and tumours of thyroid Parathyroid Pituitary Adrenal Diabetes Mellitus (b) Practicals: Hypo and Hyper function Tumours Colloid goitre specimen / slide Toxic goitre – slide Papillary carcinoma specimen / slide II M. specimen & slide Infiltrating ductual carcinoma specimen & slide and FNAC 29.S.PATHOLOGY .B. Fibrocystic Disease (b) Practical : Fibroadenoma breast.27 (c) Demonstrations: Serous cystadenoma – specimen & slide Musinous cystadenoma specimen & slide 28. BREAST (a) Theory : Tumours of the breast. ENDOCRINE (a) Theory : Hypo and Hyperthyroidism Thyroid / thyroiditis. – SYLLABUS .B.

– SYLLABUS .P. Rheumatoid and Osteo arthritis. discussion modules with association of corresponding clinical faculty. internal assessment test. The student’s activity includes frequent symposia. bone tumours.28 30. (b) Practicals: Basal cell carcinoma specimens and slides Squamous cell carcinoma specimens and slides Malignant melanoma specimens and slides. 32.B.PATHOLOGY . and Ewings sarcoma – Specimens and slides. giant cell tumour. II M. Post mortem demonstration – 10 can be integrated with forensic department. (b) Practicals : Osteo sarcoma. model practical. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (a) Introduction : Infections and tumours. C. MUSCULO SKELETAL SYSTEM + JOINTS (a) Theory : Osteomyelitis. viva.S. SKIN (a) Thoery : Premalignant lesions and tumours. 31. 5 separated Clinical autopsies discussed and recorded in Pathology Record. group discussion.B.C.

B.2004/ ** XXIX SAB dated 5.Systematic Pathology PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER ***: Marks 10 Short Answers Questions (10 x 2) 2 Essays (2 x 15) 10 short notes (10 x 5) Maximum = 20 marks } = 30 marks } = 50 marks } =============== 100 marks ------------------------------ – 100 marks Time/Minutes 3.8.PATHOLOGY .29 EVALUATION INTERNAL ASSESSMENT : Theory : Practical : Record : Assignment : (Any one of the following is compulsory) @ a) Symposium/Seminar b) Short project work c) Problem based learning d) Quiz on prescribed topics Total : 80 Marks * 40 Marks 20 Marks 10 Marks 10 Marks ** -----------80 Marks ------------ UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION PATTERN THEORY TWO PAPERS OF 3 HOURS DURATION .II .2004 from August 2005 onwards *** MCQ’s withdrawn from August 2008 onwards – 35th SAB held on 20.B.00 hours ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*XXVII SAB dated 7.12.7.5. – SYLLABUS .2008 II M.2005 – from August 2005 onwards @ XXVIII SAB dated 22.General Pathology & Hematology – 100 marks PAPER.100 MARKS EACH PAPER-I .S.

Breast & C.B. Bone. Endocrine. – SYLLABUS .S. VIVA: 40 MARKS 1. C. RS G. Skin.PATHOLOGY .V.S. & Liver 4.I. G. Total Marks qualifying for a pass : 50% in Theory : 50% in Theory including Viva : 50% in Practical : 35% in Internal Assessment : Total 50% aggregate : 100 / 200 120 / 240 40 / 80 28 / 80 ----------200 / 400 ----------10 marks 10 marks 10 marks 10 marks ----------40 marks ----------- II M.T.T.S.B. General Pathology 2.U. Hematology and Lymph reticular system 3.N. Muscle.30 PRACTICAL EXAMINATION : 80 Marks Practical-I Spotters (7+2+1) (Slides+Specimen+ ) - 40 Marks 10 Practical-II - 40 Marks Urine (physical & Chemical examination) Special HP Slides (2 slides) Cytology slide (FNA or PAP + Haematology) Total : 20 10 DC/PS Study Hb/Blood grouping 20 10 --Total : 40 --Practical Examination : 10 (5 + 5) ----40 ----- A maximum of 20 candidates / day of practical exam is desirable.

State or indicate the modes of transmission of pathogenic and opportunistic Organisms and their sources including insect vectors responsible for transmission of infection.250 Hrs. parasites.S. Apply methods of disinfection and sterilization to control and prevent hospital and community acquired infections. MICROBIOLOGY PRESCRIBED TEACHING HOURS . the student will be able to : 1) 2) 3) State the normal flora of the human body and describe the host parasite relationship. immune system in health and disease. M. Recommend laboratory investigations regarding bacteriological examination of food. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GOAL : The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Microbiology is to provide an understanding of the natural history of infectious diseases in order to deal with the etiology.B. identification of conditions of immunological importance. the student will be able to 1) operate and use the light compound microscope. laboratory diagnosis. SYLLABUS . 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) B) SKILLS: At the end of course.B. milk and air. II M. treatment. Acquire basic knowledge of normal immune system. abnormalities. To acquire knowledge of safe handling and disposal of infectious waste.S. pathogenesis. viruses.B. Investigation of outbreaks including collection of samples. Acquire basic knowledge of laboratory diagnosis. Describe the mechanisms of immunity to infections.31 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II. control and prevention of infections.B. OBJECTIVES : A) Knowledge At the end of the course. List the pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria. water. Acquire knowledge on suitable antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections and scope of immune – therapy and different vaccines available for prevention of communicable diseases. fungi and describe the Pathogenesis of the disease produced by them.MICROBIOLOGY . control and prevention of infections in the community. Acquire basic knowledge of microbial physiology and genetics. treatment.

(d) Prepare a smear and perform Ziehl – Neelsen stain for demonstration of mycobacteria especially from sputum. Interpret results of microbiological tests including antimicrobial testing for the diagnosis of common infectious diseases. Ova or cysts in stool samples. urine and pus specimens. 4) to perform common laboratory techniques (as given below) for the direct demonstration of microorganisms from clinical materials and interpret their findings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SYLLABUS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------General Microbiology.MICROBIOLOGY . (b) Prepare and stain peripheral blood for screening malarial parasites and microfilariae.B. These should include :- (a) Saline and iodine preparations and concentration methods for demonstration of trophozoites. control of diseases in the community by proper immunization procedures. SYLLABUS . laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY History and mile stone in microbiology Scope of Medical Microbiology II M. host response. Immunology and Systemic Bacteriology 1.B.32 2) to employ aseptic and sterile precautions while performing simple invasive procedures such as venepuncture etc. 3) collect and transport appropriate clinical materials with necessary precautions for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Report and interpretation of serological tests for diagnosis of infectious diseases C) INTEGRATION: The student will be integrated with the knowledge of Microorganisms and their pathogenicity. © Prepare a smear and perform Gram stain on body fluids.S.

MICROBIOLOGY .B. Identification of bacteria (and bacterial classification). IMMUNOLOGY Host response (immunity) Structures and functions of Immune system Cells of immune system Immune response/immunity Antigen Antibody The complement system Antigen antibody reactions Molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology Hypersensitivity Auto immunity II M.33 Microscopy Staining of bacteria Bacterial morphology and classification Nutrition and growth of bacteria Culture media and cultivation of bacteria. Normal Microbial flora Microbial pathogenicity and immunity II. SYLLABUS . Bacterial genetics Sterilisation & Disinfection Antimicrobials and Chemotherapy & Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing.S.B.

B.34 Histo compatibility complex Transplantation immunity Tumour immunity Immuno deficiency diseases Immuno hematology Immunoprophylaxis against infectious diseases III.S.B. SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY Staphylococcus Streptococcus Neisseriac Corynebacteria Bacillus Clostridium Nonsporing anaerobes Mycobacteria Actinomycetes and Nocardia Coliform Bacteria – Escherichia coli & Klebsiella Proteus Salmonella Shigella Yersinia II M.MICROBIOLOGY . SYLLABUS .

Parasitology and Applied Microbiology I. blood and tissue Mastigophora Sporozoa – Plasmodium. Mycology. Protozoology Rhizopoda.B. SYLLABUS .35 Pasteurella & Francisella Hoemophilus Bordetella Brucella Vibrio Cholerae Helicobacter. Pleisiomonas Pseudomonas and other non-fermenters Spirochaetes Rickettsiae Chlamydia Mycoplasma Miscellaneous bacteria Virology. PARASITOLOGY Introduction Classification General Principles of diagnosing parasitic infections and treatment of parasitic infections.S. Toxoplasma. Isospora Ciliate – Balantidium coli II M.B. Aeromonas.MICROBIOLOGY .Pathogenic and non – pathogenic amoebae Mastigophora – Intestinal.

MICROBIOLOGY .S. GENERAL VIROLOGY Morphology of viruses Replication of viruses Cultivation of viruses Classification of viruses Assay of viruses Identification of viruses and Lab diagnosis Genetics of viruses Pathogenesis and Host response to viral infections Antiviral agents Bacteriophage B.B. SYSTEMIC VIROLOGY DNA VIRUSES Pox viruses Adeno Herpes Papova Parvo RNA VIRUSES Picorna Orthomyxo Paramyxo II M.B.36 Opportunistic Protozoan parasites. SYLLABUS . Helminthology – Platyhelminths – Cestodes and Trematodes Nemathelminths –Nematodes Medically important insect vectors and ectoparasites VIROLOGY A.

37

Rota Viruses Rhabdo Viruses Hepatitis Viruses Arbo viruses Retro Viruses Slow Viruses / Prion Oncogenic Viruses Miscellaneous viruses Recent Advances – SARS, BIRD FLU GENERAL MYCOLOGY Economic importance and harmful effects of fungi – Mycotoxins Classifications of fungi Pathogenesis and Lab diagnosis of mycotic infections. SYSTEMATIC MYCOLOGY Superficial mycosis Cutaneous mycoses Sub cutaneous mycoses Systemic mycoses Opportunistic mycosis and common lab contaminants Antifungal agents APPLIED CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Collection, transport and storage, disposal of specimens Organ specific infections Central nervous system infections Respiratory infections – Upper / Lower Urinary tract infections Gastro intestinal infections – acute / chronic including food poisoning Infections of bones and joints, & Dental Infections

II M.B.B.S. SYLLABUS - MICROBIOLOGY

38

Genital tract infections and congenital infections Infections of the Eye, ear and skin Infection of CVS Systemic infections / Syndromes – PUO, Septicemias Zoonotic infections Environmental sanitation tests (food, water, milk and air) Hospital infections (Prevention and control) Basic molecular biology in relation to diagnosis of infectious diseases. Investigations of outbreak - As Community health officer - PHC level. Operation theatre sterility Hospital waste management Emerging & Re-emerging infections.

PRACTICALS Staining – Smear preparation Grams stain Special Stains – Acid fast staining, Ponders, and Capsule (Demon only) staining. Demonstration of Hanging drop Demonstration of culture media / methods Demonstration of sterilization techniques Applied Exercises Systematic – Identification of the pathogen from the given clinical material based on Staining property, cultural characters, biochemical and serological tests. Immunology – Interpretation of the given Immunological test, Agglutination – Slide, tube and Passive agglutination (Latex etc.) Precipitation – VDRL Gel diffusion

II M.B.B.S. SYLLABUS - MICROBIOLOGY

39

ELISA Mycology – Identification of the given fungus by cultural morphology and wet mount preparation / staining. Virology – ELISA Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition Parasitology – Stool examination for ova and cyst, Saline and iodine preparation, Direct and concentration techniques. Blood smear for malarial parasite, Microfilaria and other parasite. Identification and interpretation of the parasites (Adult and larval forms). Demonstration of unconventional parasites by special staining methods.

EVALUATION INTERNAL ASSESSMENT : Theory : Practical : Record : Assignment : (Any one of the following is compulsory) @ a) Symposium/Seminar b) Short project work c) Problem based learning d) Quiz on prescribed topics Total : 80 Marks * 40 Marks 20 Marks 10 Marks 10 Marks

**

-----------80 Marks ------------

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION PATTERN THEORY Two papers of 3 hours duration - 100 marks each. Paper I – General Microbiology, Immunology & Systematic Bacteriology – 100marks Paper II – Virology, Mycology, Parasitology & applied Microbiology – 100 marks --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*XXVII SAB dated 7.7.2004/ ** XXIX SAB dated 5.8.2005 – from August 2005 onwards @ XXVIII SAB dated 22.12.2004 from August 2005 onwards

II M.B.B.S. SYLLABUS - MICROBIOLOGY

2006 II M.5.B.2008 ** 31st SAB dated 29. Viva : 40 marks ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* MCQ’s withdrawn from August 2008 onwards – 35th SAB held on 20. ) 50 ---100 ---- (3 hrs) Practical Examination : 80 marks Gram Staining (Pus/Urine/CSF) Sputum for AFB Parasitology (Stool) Spotters (10x2)** (2 Marks per spotter i. one mark for identification and one mark for two salient features about the spotter) Total : Practical Examination : 20 marks 20 marks 20 marks 20 marks ----------80 marks ----------- Maximum of 20 candidates / day of practical is desirable.e.40 PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER * : Marks Time/Minutes 10 Short Answer Questions (10 x 2) 2 Essay questions (2x15) 10 Short Notes (10x5) Total : 20 30 (3 hrs.B.6. SYLLABUS .S.MICROBIOLOGY .

41 Marks qualifying for Pass : 50% in Theory 50% in Theory including Viva 50% in Practical 35% in internal assessment Total 50% aggregate : : : : : 100 / 200 120 / 240 40 / 80 28 / 80 ----------200 / 400 ----------- ******** II M. SYLLABUS .MICROBIOLOGY .B.S.B.

S. the student shall be able to: (1) Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of essential and commonly used drugs: (2) List of indications.B. (10) Integrate the concept of rational drug therapy in clinical pharmacology. contraindications. (9) Indicate causation in prescription of drugs in special medical situations such as pregnancy. infancy and old age. PHARMACOLOGY PRESCRIBED TEACHING HOURS : 300 Hrs.B. (6) Describe the pharmacokinetic basis. II MBBS Pharmacology . diagnosis and management of common poisonings. OBJECTIVES : A) KNOWLEDGE : At the end of the course. (7) List the drugs of addiction and recommend the management. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GOAL: The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Pharmacology is to inculcate a rational and scientific basis of therapeutics. (12) Evaluate the ethics and modalities in the development and introduction of new drugs..42 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II M. interactions.syllabus . clinical presentations. (11) State the principles underlying the concept of “Essential Drugs”. (8) Classify environmental and occupational pollutants and state the management issues. lactation. and adverse reactions of commonly used drugs: (3) Indicate the use of appropriate drug in a particular disease with consideration to its cost efficacy and safety for (4) Individual needs (5) Mass therapy under national health programmes.

the student shall be able to : (1) Prescribe drug for common ailments.---PHARMACOLOGY SYLLABUS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. (2) Recognize adverse reactions and interactions of commonly used drugs. DRUGS ACTING AT SYNAPTIC AND NEURO EFFECTOR JUNCTION a) b) c) Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs Adrenergic and adrenergic blockers Drugs acting at Neuromuscular Junction and autonomic ganglia. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. C) INTEGRATION : Practical knowledge of use of drugs in clinical practice will be acquired through integrated teaching with clinical departments and pre-clinical departments. perinatal pediatric and geriatric pharmacology. Ethics and modalities of new drug developments Adverse reactions to drugs and common drug interactions. 2.43 B) SKILLS : At the end of the course. 3. DRUGS ACTING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM a) b) General anesthetics Local anesthetics II MBBS Pharmacology . bio-assay and interpretation of the experimental data. GENERAL PRINCIPLES a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Principles of therapeutics Concepts of essential drugs and rational drug therapy Special aspects of drugs in pregnancy. OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY 4. (4) Scan information on common pharmaceutical preparations and critically evaluate drug formulations.syllabus . (3) Observe experiments designed for study of effects of drugs. Gene therapy.

CHEMOTHERAPY a) b) c) d) Chemotherapy of microbial diseases Chemotherapy of parasitic infections Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases Antiseptics and disinfectants II MBBS Pharmacology . DRUGS AFFECTING GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION 11. 6. Thrombolytic and antiplatelet drugs 8. 5 HT and their antagonists Lipid derived autacoids Analgesic – antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. heart failure Anti arrhythmic drugs Anti hypertensives Lipid lowering drugs Drug Therapy of shock Haemopoietic agents (growth factors. DRUGS ACTING ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM INCLUDING BLOOD a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Drugs used for treatment of Myocardial ischemia.44 c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Hypno sedatives Drugs and treatment of psychiatric disorders – psychosis.syllabus . 5. minerals and vitamins) Anticoagulants. AUTACOIDS a) b) c) Histamine. depression and mania Drugs in the therapy of epilepsies Drugs in the therapy of migraine Drugs in central nervous system degenerative disorders Opioid analgesics and antagonists Drug addiction and treatment. Bradykinin. DIURETICS AND OTHER AGENTS AFFECTING RENAL CONSERVATION OF WATER 7. DRUGS ACTING ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM a) Pharmacotherapy of cough b) Pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma 9. THERAPEUTIC GASES 10.

ENZYMES IN THERAPY 16. e) Critical evaluation of drug formulations f) Dosage calculations g) Pharmaco economic problems h) Interpretation of clinical pharmacology data i) Knowledge of basic principles of Pharmacy and drug delivery systems II MBBS Pharmacology . VITAMINS 17. b) Heavy metals and antagonists c) Non metallic environmental toxicants. DRUGS USED FOR IMMUNOMODULATION 14.45 12. d) Observation of experiments designed for study of effects of drugs.syllabus . TOXICOLOGY a) Principles of toxicology and treatment of poisoning. and antidiabetic drugs Agents that effect bone mineral homeostasis 15. SYLLABUS IN PRACTICAL PHARMACOLOGY a) Prescription writing for common ailments b) Prescription audit c) Patient Oriented Problems relating to common adverse drug reaction and drug interactions. DERMATOLOGICAL PHARMACOLOGY 13. ENDOCRINE PHARMACOLOGY a) b) c) d) e) f) Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones Thyroid and antithyroid drugs Adreno corticostreorids and their antagonists Gonadal hormones and inhibitors Pancreatic hormones.

eye. To demonstrate how to give an IV injection.40 Marks PRACTICAL . ear etc. Objective Structural Practical Exercise (OSPE) 20 Designed to test the knowledge in Selection. d. 3. c.I – 90 MINUTES Marks 1. e.II – 90 MINUTES 1.46 PHARMACOLOGY PRACTICAL EXAMINATION DESIGN PRACTICAL : 80 Marks A) PRACTICAL . Maximum of 20 candidates / day of practical is desirable. Qualitative/Quantitative experimental pharmacology charts 10 Interpretation of Clinical pharmacology problems/data 10 ----. OSPE Examples a. To interpret experimental observations and results. b. ORAL (VIVA) EXAMINATION : 40 Marks. II MBBS Pharmacology . administration and effects of drugs/Observation of Experiments designed for study of effects of drugs in animals. Prescription writing Prescription audit/critical evaluation of drug formulation Clinical problem solving exercises (Therapy oriented problems of adverse reaction and interaction of commonly used drugs) Dosage calculation including Pharmaco-economics 10 10 10 10 ---. nose. 4. To prepare for administration of a test dose of penicillin To demonstrate an inhaler's use. 3.syllabus . To demonstrate instillation of drops . 2.40 Marks ----------Total Marks 80 Marks ---------- 2.

4. 5. 10 Marks 10 Marks Endocrine Pharmacology Enzymes in therapy Vitamins Toxicology TOTAL = --------40 Marks --------- II MBBS Pharmacology . 6. Drugs used for immunomodulation Examiner 4:Topics : 1. 3. 3. Dermatological pharmacology 3.Vascular system including blood. Autacoids Diuretics and other agents affecting renal Conservation of water Drugs acting on cardio . 2. 10 Marks Examiner 2:Topics : 1. 4. Drugs acting on respiratory system Therapeutic gases Drugs affecting gastrointestinal function 10 Marks Examiner 3:Topics : 1.47 Examiner 1:Topics : General Principles.syllabus . Chemotherapy 2. 2. Drugs acting on Central Nervous System. Ocular Pharmacology. Neuro effector junction and drugs action at synaptic.

48 EVALUATION INTERNAL ASSESSMENT : Theory : Practical : Record : Assignment : (Any one of the following is compulsory) @ a) Symposium/Seminar b) Short project work c) Problem based learning d) Quiz on prescribed topics Total : 80 Marks * 40 Marks 20 Marks 10 Marks 10 Marks ** -----------80 Marks ------------ UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION PATTERN UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION PATTERN : Two papers of 3 (three) hours duration .2004/ ** XXIX SAB dated 5.2008 II MBBS Pharmacology .2005 – from August 2005 onwards @ XXVIII SAB dated 22.8.syllabus . Both papers to be set by the same examiner to avoid repetition of questions. Paper – I Paper – II : Pharmacology I : Pharmacology II 100 Marks 100 Marks Note : No segregation of syllabus for each paper.5. PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER ***: Marks Time/Minutes 10 Short Answer Questions (10x2) 2 Essay questions (2x15) 10 Short Notes (10x5) 20 } 30 } (3 hrs) 50 } ---Total : 100 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*XXVII SAB dated 7.100 marks each.7.12.2004 from August 2005 onwards *** MCQ’s withdrawn from August 2008 onwards – 35th SAB held on 20.

Marks qualifying for a pass : 50% in Theory : 100 / 200 120 / 240 40 / 80 28 / 80 ----------200 / 400 ----------- 50% in Theory including Viva : 50% in Practical : 35% in Internal Assessment : Total 50% aggregate : II MBBS Pharmacology .49 PRACTICAL EXAMINATION : VIVA (Oral) : 80 Marks. 40 Marks.syllabus .

(INCLUDING MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE AND TOXICOLOGY) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GOAL : The goal of teaching Forensic Medicine to undergraduate student is to impart knowledge of legal procedures involved in practice of medical profession and to apply the knowledge of medical science for the purpose of executing justice in courts of law. (B) SKILL 1) To conduct autopsy on medico-legal cases and issue postmortem certificate. age. Sexual offences. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SYLLABUS FORENSIC MEDICINE-INCLUDING MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE AND TOXICOLOGY -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. (C) INTEGRATION The student will be able to integrate and apply knowledge of Anatomy. Practice medicine in the society following medical ethics and etiquette as prescribed by the Indian Medical Council. To examine cases of wound (Assault. religion.50 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------FORENSIC MEDICINE PRESCRIBED TEACHING HOURS – 100 Hrs. IDENTIFICATION Definition and data to establish identity-race. external peculiarities. anthroprometry. sex. stature. Surgery and Obstetrics & Gynaecology for the purpose of legal procedures and execution of justice. OBJECTIVES : (A) KNOWLEDGE At the end of the course the student shall be able to: appear in a court of law as a Registered Medical Practioner and give evidence in cases of Homicide. Physiology. Microbiology. Further the teaching will help the students to know of medical ethics and etiquette to be followed during the practice of medicine. Homicide etc. Alcoholic intoxication. II MBBS SYLLABUS FORENSIC MEDICINE .. Biochemistry. Assault. complexion and features. Drug dependence and other cases requiring medical opinion. Pathology. and poroscopy-superimposition technique-Forensic odontology-Medico-legal importance of age and sex.) at the hospital and issue required medico-legal certificate (wound certificate) 2) To treat cases of poisoning and issue certificate to court and police. dactylography. Medicine.

Medico. Sterilization and Artificial insemination and their medico-legal importance. Firearm wounds by different firearms and their medico-legal importance – Bomb explosion Wounds. DEATH DUE TO COLD. ANAESTHETIC AND OPERATIVE DEATHS. Stab wounds and Lacerated wounds and their medicolegal Importance. Strangulation by ligature Throttling. Simple and Grievous injuries – causes of death from wounds 8. Contusions. THANATOLOGY (DEATH) Types of death-modes of death and their patho-physiology-causes of death. PREGNANCY AND DELIVERY Definition. Choking.Abrasions. 7. HEAT. Drowning and Sexual asphyxia 5. Incised wounds. mimmification. embalming-Estimation of post mortem interval (time of death)-Presumption of death and survivorship. Superfaelation Legitimacy and Paternity and their medico-legal importance. 6. Burking. classification and medico-legal aspects of natural death 3. Firearms classification and cartridges. and medico-legal importance. Overlaying. Chop wounds. 9. Homicide & types of homicide. MECHANICAL INJURIES (WOUNDS).51 2. ELECTRICITY AND RADIATION.legal aspects of wounds – Issue of medico – legal certificates for legal purposes. Super fecundation. causes. POST MORTEM CHANGES Signs of death and changes following death and their medico-legal importanceAdipocere. VIOLENT ASPHYXIAL DEATHS Classification-Hanging. Smothering. Gagging. Regional injuries on the body and medico-legal importance. diagnosis and medico-legal importance. VIRGINITY. II MBBS SYLLABUS FORENSIC MEDICINE . Pseudocyesis. Classification and mechanism of wound production . IMPOTENCE AND STERILITY Definition. 4.

examination of victim and the accused – Incest. Restraint of the insane. 12. SEXUAL OFFENCES Classification. ORGANISATION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE LABORATORY Locard’s principle. Lucid interval Classification of unsoundness of mind and medico – legal aspects. INFANTICIDE Definition. Exhumation. concealment of birth. Hallucination. TOXICOLOGY General consideration-Law on poisons. 17. Illusion. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act. Obsession. Hypnosis. Narcoanalysis. 13. classification. Sexual Perversion – types and their medico-legal importance – Indecent assault. Battered baby syndrome. Technique. methods of procuring abortion. General principles of treatment of poisoning II MBBS SYLLABUS FORENSIC MEDICINE . Cot death. Examination of seminal fluid. EXAMINATION OF BLOOD STAINS AND HAIR AND SUSPECTED BIOLOGICAL AND FIBRES STAINS. Examination of set of bones.52 10. Duties of the medical practitioner in suspected case of poisoning. classification of poisons. Diagnosis of poisoning in the live and dead. Delirium. still birth. Unnatural sexual offences. dead birth and live birth signs of live birth and autopsy in suspected case of infanticide Causes of death and medico-legal importance. 14. 15. ABORTION Definition. MEDICO-LEGAL AUTOPSY Protocol. Impulse. 11. medico-legal questions arising in suspected cases of abortion. Abandoning of infants. Postmortem report. types and their medico-legal importance. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY Delusion.Rape – definition. 16. diagnosis and evidences of abortion. Lie detection.

spinal poisons. 19.53 Corrosive poisons. Drug dependence and Addiction. Conium. vicarious responsibility consent. someferous poisons. Inebriants. Procedure of Criminal trial. subpoena. Organic irritant poison. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* MCQ’s withdrawn from August 2008 onwards – 35th SAB held on 20. functions. war gases Curare. Insecticides and weed killers. Metallic poison. Euthanasia. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS Laws governing medical profession :Indian Medical Council and State Medical Council organisations. DUTIES OF MEDICAL PRACTITIONER Doctrine of Reipsa Loquitor. cardiac poisons. types of witness. Aspyxiants. Marks 20 10 ----------30 Marks ----------- Theory & Practical : Record & Assignment*: Total : UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION PATTERN THEORY : One paper of 3 hours duration and 100 marks. Infamous Conduct. PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER:* 10 Short Answer Questions (10x2) 2 Essay questions (2x15) 10 Short Notes (10x5) Marks 20 30 Time/Minutes (3 Hours) 50 -------------Total 100 marks 3 hours. Record of evidence. Medical evidence. 18. MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE Legal Procedure – Inquests. Non-metallic poisons. EVALUATION INTERNAL ASSESSMENT : 30 Marks. Contributory negligence. food poisoning. and powers – Rights and privileges of Registered Medical Practitioner. types of evidence.5. Conduct money. Professional negligence (malpractice) 20. Deliriants.2008 II MBBS SYLLABUS FORENSIC MEDICINE .

3) Examination of a case of drunkenness & issue of drunkenness certificate. drowning & other Related Forensic Medicine Subject).II : 35 Marks 1) Fetal Examination & opinion or Postmortem certificate & opinion 2) Accident Register copy 3) Viscera packing 4) Opinion on Sexual offences 5) Photograph & opinion (hanging. injuries. 4) Examination of given cluster of Bones & issue of Medico legal certificate. TOTAL (PRACTIAL – I + PRACTICAL – II) VIVA : 20 Marks Marks Qualifying for a Pass: 50% in Theory 50% in Theory & Viva 50% in Practical 35% in Internal Assessment : : : : Total 50% aggregate : *** 50 / 100 60 / 120 25 / 50 11 / 30 ----------100 / 200 ----------- II MBBS SYLLABUS FORENSIC MEDICINE . 2) Age estimation by Radiological examination. PRACTICAL . 6) Spotters a) b) c) d) Pathology specimen Forensic specimen Instruments / Weapons Toxicology seed / Chemical Poison e) Toxicology plant - 5 marks 5 marks 5 marks 5 marks 5 marks - 10 marks ------------35 marks ------------= 50 Marks.54 PRACTICAL – I : 15 Marks 1) Age estimation by Dental examination.

Monitoring Air Pollutants. Tse-tse fly. 22 hrs. Mosquito Control Measures. 4 hrs. Levels of prevention & Intervention. Ticks and Mites. Housing standards. Sources of Water Pollution. Control and prevention of pollution. 2 hrs. 12 hrs. Rodents and Disease. Housefly. Indices of Thermal Comfort. Natural History of Disease. Good Lighting and standards.55 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II MBBS–COMMUNITY MEDICINE PRESCRIBED TEACHING HOURS– 200 Hrs. Control measures. Insecticides. ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH 10 hrs. II MBBS COMMUNITY MEDICINE SYLLABUS . Entomology demonstrations. (INCLUDING 8 WEEKS POSTINGS OF 3 Hrs. Fleas. 11 hrs. Air temperature Measurement. Practicals Total 4 hrs. WHO – Standards. Surveillance of Drinking Water quality. Noise pollution and control. Ecology of Health. Lice. Radiation sources and control. Humidity precipitation. Solid wastes. Functions of a Community Physician. 9 hrs. Standards of ventilation. Water sampling. Determinants Of Health. Cyclops. Indicators of Health. Health situation in India. Water Purification. Harrock’s Test. Bionomics of Mosquito. Positive Health. WHO. Concepts of Disease Control. Modern sewage treatment 2. Disposal Excreta disposal methods. Water quality. Heat streets Indices. 2. EACH) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SYLLABUS SEMESTER 3 TO 5 Lectures 1. Air Pollution. Right to Health. CONCEPTS IN COMMUNITY HEALTH Health Dimensions. effects and Control cold streets. National Health Policy. Introduction to environment. Disease Cooling System. MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY & PARASITOLOGY Anthropoid Borne Diseases and transmission. Control measure. Flea indices.

Health Problems of India. Proximate Principles. Anemia. 5. 2 hrs. Bilateral Agencies. Deficiency Diseases. 6. PEM. LBW. 10 hrs. IDD. Functions. 5 hrs. National Health Programmes 7.G. Nutrients. Food adult iteration National Nutrition Programmes Nutrition Assessment schedule. Dietary Goals. National Health Policy. Nutritional Surveillance. Requirements. 3 hrs. INTERNATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEMS Historical development of Health Organisations. Food Surveillance. Fluresis. Nutritional Status indicatory. Food toxicants. Structure. Health care systems. II MBBS COMMUNITY MEDICINE SYLLABUS . Prevention. U. 10 hrs. PHC-Elements. - 2 hrs. Nutrition problem Exercises. N. Levels of Health Care. Food Borne diseases. 9 hrs. Objectives.56 3. HEALTH EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION Definition. PHC-Community Health Centre. Agencies. Administrations and Organizations in India. Recommended Daily Allowance. Voluntary Health Agencies. Protein assessment. Agencies. Primary Health care in India. Nutrition Profile of Foods. Prevention. NUTRITION AND HEALTH Definitions & concepts.N. Energy and Requirements. 2 hrs. PRIMARY HEALTH CARE Concepts. Planning & Evaluation. Ecology of malnutrition. 6 hrs. Principles. 4 hrs. Approaches and Principles of Health Education Practices Of Health Education. Nutritional Status Assessment. Assessment. Growth Monitoring. Health Insurance. Sources. Community Nutrition Problems. WHO-objective. 19 hrs. Health for All Goals. Health Education Demonstration in a community.

Food Poisoning. Distribution. Trachoma 8 hrs. Clinical epidemiology. Epidemiological methods. Elementary Statistical Methods. PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Aims. Measures of dispersion. Yellow fever. KFD. 23 hrs 2 hrs. Malaria. Population Health Data Surveys. Charts. 9. Immunizing Agents.57 8. 11 hrs. uses. Rubella. Chi-Square Test. Epidemiological problems. 21 hrs. Amoebiasis. Rabies. Cholera. Acute diarrhoea Diseases. experimental Epidemiology. 9 hrs. SCREENING FOR DISEASES Concepts. Measles. Basic measurements in Epidemiology. Investigation of epidemic. Uses of Epidemiology Immunity. Determinants. Menigitis. 10. Japanese Encephalitis. services. Typhoid. Disease prevention and Control. Rates and Ratios Standardisation. Epidemiological problems. 20 hrs. Dengue. Brucellosis. Analytical. 11. Disease frequency. Association and causation. Dracunculosis. Statistical problems. Normal Distribution. Viral Hepatitis. 2 hrs. Borderline problems. Sensitivity Specificity. Uses. 31 hrs. Human Salmonellosis. Components. II MBBS COMMUNITY MEDICINE SYLLABUS . Plague. 18 hrs. Pertusis. Small Pox Eradication. Infectious Diseases Epidemiology. Poliomyelitis. Tabulation. Tuberculosis. Influenza. Statistical Averages. Description. Diphtheria. Criteria. Filaria. Ascariasis Ancylostamiosis. MEDICAL STATISTICS Health information systems. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Chicken Pox. Disinfection. 15 hrs. Acute Respiratory infections. 10 hrs. Correlation and progression. Mumps.

6 hours . Entomology specimens demonstration 03. Leishmaniasis. Meteorological instruments 07. STD.6 hours .3 hours .3 hours ..C. Taeniasis.3 hours .. End post evaluation – Practicals Total Block Posting I BLOCK POSTING – II (IV SEMESTER) TOTAL 72 HOURS 01. Survey * and Community diagnosis - 21 hrs. 144 hrs. Hytatid Diseases.. 05. Insecticides... Epidemiological exercises. 21 hrs. Community Survey in urban population 08. Demonstration – Vaccines cold chain equipment 03.6 hours ..H.... Clinic-Social Case studies Family Health Survey. End posting evaluation – Theory 15. 21 hrs. Leprosy. 21 hrs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 05.3 hours ..3 hours .6 hours .. Environment Health Model and Demonstration 02. Typhus Ricke tsiat. Community Survey 13.6 hours .72 hours 01. Bacteriology specimens 04.. Nutrition specimens 06. Yaws. Pure statistics methodology 14.6 hours . Visit to a sub-centre 06.6 hours .. 56 hrs. Statistical and Epidemiological problems 04. Water and Nutrition problems 09.. Disinfectants and Rodenticides.6 hours . AIDS.3 hours .No Exercises . Zoonosis. Health education demonstration in urban slum population 07.. 200 hrs. Visit to a P... Demography and statistical problems 02.6 hours . Parasitology.6 hours . BLOCK POSTINGS – I (III SEMESTER) – TOTAL 72 HOURS Sl..6 hours II MBBS COMMUNITY MEDICINE SYLLABUS . Introduction to Clinico-Social case studies 11. Epidemiological exercises 10.3 hours ..3 hours .....6 hours . Data Analysis and write up . Environment Health and statistical problems 08.6 hours . Methodology and Community diagnosis 12.. Family Health Survey.3 hours .6 hours .58 Tetanus.

Diarrhoeal disease. STD.59 09. Diabetes. Post Polio Paralysis Hypertension. 3 hours .15 hours.72 hours *** II MBBS COMMUNITY MEDICINE SYLLABUS ... protein-energy malnutrition. Fungal infection.12 hours . Obesity. Filariasis. Scabies. Medical termination of pregnancy case. End posting evaluation – Practicals 12. Tuberculosis. leprosy. .... Project report analysis and preparation 11.. Upper respiratory infection. PNC. family planning case counselling 10. Cancer early stage. Clinic Social Case studies – ANC.. 3 hours . End posting evaluation – Theory Total Block posting – II .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.