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J-2 ROCKEr[ _ ENGLNE DESIGN INTORMATION

7 ..5

_ no cK E T V"_"r_I E
A OIVIIIIION OF NOIII"H AMERICAN AVIATION INC

6633 CANOGA AVENUE l

CANOGA PARK, CALI.FORNIA

Contract ;_L_,S8-19j/

PREPARED BY
L

Rocketdyne Engineering
Canoga Park

APPROVED BY

NO. OP"PAG'S 9_ & viii 7 June 190!


OATIE ............

lqlItv. IIY
5322-3/23//6 ] - ]A

Frontispiece

]{-2b(_t -PiP ii
A DIVISION OIr _,iOFt'1"1,4 AMEFIICAI',I AVIATION, INI_

Rocketdyne, a /)ivlsion ,)f No_Jh Amertcan AviaLion,

Jnc., has p_epared th_s _eport t(_ present a summary

of the charact_,tistlcs of its mod_,l ,l-2 rocke_ engine

being develtrped undt, r tht_ _ponsorshtp of the Na_,ional

Aeronautics and Space Admtnistratlon. This edition

has been prepared _,specially for Lhe information of

the bidders on Sat_rn Stage If

ABSTKACJ

Initial design characteristics of the Rocketdyne

model 3-2, 200,O00-1b-thrust oxygen-hydrogen rocket

engine are presented. Engine operating characteristics

have been estimated as completely as possible to pro-

vide a uniform basis for vehicle proposal effort..

_ Abstract)

R-2661-4P IJi
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(Jenera| Des<+/'tpt LUll 2.1

Des< Flptlon of J-2 Ro_:ket ]'2nglne 2.t

PP r ft, t marit, e 3. t

Pe r"fo rman <:e Pat.ame t t' r's "5.t

I--2 Engine Perfu£'mance at Various Alt. ttudes 3. tO

Thru,+t Variat tort Result, lllg PIOI2+ i Propellant

IPt, I I I zatl.n Valve Opt+rat r_(_t+

Influen(e C(,effL(:tent_

Sample Cai[ulation Using Table 3.2 hlf luenr:e

Coefficients . 5.1t

Op,erat ln_ CharacterJ st. its _.1

Operat t ng Chara, terlstlcs l

Operat tonal Sequen< e 1_ 1

b.'eight and Inertia 5

Weight and Inertia Data 5

,I-2 Engine Weight and Gimbaled 5 l

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A DIVI_rON t_l I" NORTH AP,II[RpCAN AVIATION. Ir_C

A(q:eleraTi.n m_d Vel_,( i_Iv 6.5

A(eeleral +on_ {[tan_lat ing) 6.5

(;tmhal In_ arld Vehtt+le I.(,a(l_ .

Thrust AI ignment 6.7

A(tuator Load_ 0.7

Aerodvtiami f Load ing 6.9

Propell_mt Sy_tem_ ?.l

PropellanL,_ and Pre_urant__ 7.t

Pt,,pel. lant and Pre_ur-ant SpeeJ f]_:at ion_ 7.1

Het tram 7.1

Pr.petlmit Pump Inlet DIJ( Is 7.3

Propel lent Durt Conne<:t+io[i Flange Loads 7.3

Duet Lot:allen Toleranf:e 7.4

Engine ('onne(.tlng Pr-pellant Due_ Seal 7.5

Propellant System Pressures 7.6

Fuel and Oxidizer Systems 7.6

Surge and Pump ]nlet Pressure 7.7

Starting Pump Inlet Pressures 7.9

Propellant System Prevalves 7.l!

Ele(:trt_ al 8.1

.J-2 Elertrl<,al. System 81

Sequence ('ontroller 8+i

Spark lgtJtt lan Systett+ 81

Powe r l_e(l,J 1 resell t+ 2

Ir]-_ t r tJme!l t at toll 91

Engtne System Instrumentation q 1

Fl]ghl Instrumentation Pr-vtslorls 91

Pump Inlet Pre.,+,_ure P_eamuremerlt 9 It

'[urbuptln}p Speed Ind lCatol 94

lt)_ t rumentat lot} Prom_ure Porl Plug., 95

R- 2t)_ I - _P _
IIOCK ETI)¥_E
A O_VlStON OF NOJqTH AM_I_AI'_ AVIATION. INC.

Accessory Provisions 10 1

Accefl_orles 10 1

Accessory Drive Pad 10 1

Hydrogen Tank Pressurization System 10 3

Oxygen Tank Pressurization System 10 5

Pressurization System Flowrate Variation 10 5

Controls ll 1

Propellant Utilization Control 11 1

Propellant Utilization Control System 11 1

Handltn_ . 12 1

Proposed Aerospace Ground Equipment 12 1

Checkout Equipment 12 l

Handling Equipment 12 1

Test Equipment 122

Rocket Engine Maunfacturers Handbook 122

Storage 12 2

Domestic Shipping 12 3

Handling Loads 123

Engine Buildup 12 4

Handling During Installation 12 /,

Bleeds, Vents, and Drains 131

Seal and Bleed Configuration 131

Drain, Bleed, and Vent Ports 131

Customer Connections 14.1

Connect Point, s lt,.[

R- 2661- 4I'

PORla flO@-II 1 PL ATIll RIIV 1-t11


IIOCKETDYNE
A OlVIIION OI Ir NORTH AMrNICAN AVIAn'ION, IN_*_

[LLVSTRAT I0YS

F I gure

1 1 ,J-_-2 _lgtne Schedule . 1.2


t
2 1 d-2 General Arrangement 2.2

22 ,1-2 Engine, View 1 2.4

23 J-2 Engine, View 2 2.5

24 d-2 Engine, View 3 . ,. 2.6

31 Specific Impulse vs Altitude for J-2 Engine 3.5

32 Thrust vs Altitude for d-2 Engine 3,b

33 Engine Thrust. va Engine Mixture Ratio for

Variation in Propellant Utilization Valve

Positron 3.8

3.4 Engine Speeiftc Impulse vs Engine Mixture

Rat, io for Variation in Propellant

Utilization Valve Position 3,9

3.5 Characteristic Velocity Correction Curve 315

4.1 d-2 Start and Cutoff Sequence 42

4.2 ,J-2 Schematic Diagram 43

4.3 Estimated J-2 Thrust Buildup (altitude start) 47


4.4 Estimated Thrust Buildup at Sea Level 48

4.5" Estimated J-2 Thrust Decay 411

6.1 J-2 Envelope 6imbal Actuators 6zj

b.2 Lateral Acceleration vs Stage Acceleration 66

6.3 Gtmba] Angle vs Stage Acceleration 68

7.1 Number of Start Cycles as a Function of Helium

Temperature and Program Requirements at Loading 7.2

R-2661-4P vii

ffORM tOI-I.! _.AT| R|V. |.||


flOCK ETDYNE
A OIVIIION O# t NOmTM AMIAICAN AVIATION. IN¢--

81 8.h
Engine Elecuical Power Requirement Schedule

82 "Electrical System Schematic 8.5

9 l Double-Seal Vented Instrumentat}on Boss 9.6

92 Double-Seal Instrumentation Boss 9_7

93 Instrumentation Port Plug 9.8

101 Detail of Accessory to Mate With Engine

Ac('exsory Drive 10.2

10.2 Esttmaled Oxygen Pump Speed During Engine

Start Transient at Altitude lO.*i

10.3 Liquid Oxygen Heat, Exchanger Operating Line IO .6

ll.l Propellant Ut11]zat,lon Systdn Schematic II .3

13.1 ryplcal Flange Seal 13.2

l/t.l Stub Tube Length 1_,.3

lh .fi Brazed .Joint Space Requirements 1/a._

TABLES

3.1 ,.I-2 Engine Nominal Performance Parameters 3.2

3.2 ,1-2 Engine Influence Coefficients 3.7

5.1 J-2 Weight, Balance, and Inertia 5.2

9.1 Recommended J-2 Flight Instrumentation 9.2

13.1 J-2 Engtne System Seals and Bleed Routing 13.3

R-2661-hP

FOMM $01-|-! PLATE IIIV, I-II


ItOCK ETI)Y_E
A OIVIIIION OF NORTH AIt4IRICAN AVIATION. INC.

INTBODUC'[ [ON

The use of rocket engines with high specific impulse offers advantages

in both over-all system weight and performance. A requirement for a

200,O00-1b-thrust oxygen-hydrogen engine has been established by the

National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the second-stage

propulsion of the Saturn vehicle.

In response to this requirement, Rocketdyne has applied its rocket engine

and liquid hydrogen experience to the design of a large high-energy

engine with high reliability as required for space missions. This

activity resulted in a NASA-sponsored program to develop the engine,

designated the J-2, through PFRT in February 1963 and Qualification in

May 196_ (Fig. 1.1).

Although the J-2 engine has been designed primarily for operation at

high altitude (vacuum), the engine can be operated at sea level for

test or calibration in simple test stands which do not have altitude

simulation equipment.

The following sections of this report present a summary of the design

and operating characteristics of the J-2 rocket engine as they appear

in the early phase of development. Engine operating characteristics,

especially start and cutoff, are determined from a mathematical model

of the propulsion system. These estimates are the most accurate now

available, but, must be understood to be preliminary and subject to

change when engine test results become available.

R- 2661 - _P 1.1

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ItOCKETDY_E
A OiVIIiiON Oi i_ NOMTH AM_MICAN AVIATII_N, iN t_

GENI:JO.L I)ESCRIPT ION

DESCRIPTION OF ,1-2 ROCKET I_NGINE

The ,1-2 rocket engine is a 200,000-1b-thrust, high-energy, upper-stage

propulsion system utilizing liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as pro-

pellants. 'rile engine is designed to be used singly or in clusters.

Haxtmum performance is obtained in a configuration optimized from the

standpoint of size and weight to be an engine with an envelope 8n-in.

in dla and ll6-in, long (Fig. 2.1). h complete listing of performance

characteristics is presented in Table 3.1. A listing of influence

coefficients for computing performance under various conditions ia pre-

sented in 'Fable 3.2. A breakdown of engine weight is presented in

Table 5.1.

The J-2 engine features a tubular-wall, bell-shaped thrust, chamber, in-

dependently driven direct-drive turhopumps for liquid hydrogen and liquid

oxygen, each operating at the most favorable speed, powered in series by

a single gas generator utilizing the same propellants as the main thrust

chamber. Engine contact with fluids is limited to the propellants and

helium. _here is a complete absence of lubricants or any other fluids

which could freeze at low temperatures. A schematic is presented in

Fig. 4.2.

An electrical control system sequences the engine start and shutdown.

The sequencing operation is accomplished with solid-state logic elements

because of their inherently high reliability.


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l, lexlble inlet bellows to the turbopumps are provided for attachment to

rigid v(.hlcle plumbxng inlet bellows characteristics are given in

se(.tit, ri 7.

h high-speed, direct-drive, power takeoff is provided at the oxygen

pump turbine. The pad characteristics are given in Fig. IO.1.

Flow measuring devices of the turbine meter type, for determining propel-

lant tlowiate, are provided tn the high-pressure ducting downstream of

each propellant pump.

A simplified propellant utilization system consists of a single, small,

electrically operated valve bypassing propellant around the liquid oxygen

pump Characteristics of the propellant utilization valve servomotor are

given in section II.

Extensive use of welded and brazed joints has minimized the number of

3otnts with seals, reducing possible leak points, and increasing system

reliability. Dual seals with an intermediate bleed to a low-pressure

IegJon are used where seals are necessary.

_[he engine tncludes a gimbal bearing at the center of the injector dome

for thrust vector control as described in section 6.

1_he Frontisplenc_ and Fig. 2.2, 2.3, and 2.h are general views of the

J_2 engine

2.5
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Figure 2.2. J-2 Engine, View I

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Figure 2.PJ. J-2 Engine, View 3


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'2.6
1:1.0 (_ i/_ E T DY r'_ E
A, D_VIS_Of_ 0@" NORITH A_41CF_C,AN AVtATIOP,*I, INC..

PERFORK_CE

PERFORHANCE PAR._MET ERS

The nominal performance parameters for the J-2 engine are presented in

Table 3.1. The values are for nominal conditions during mainstage only.

Curves are presented in Fig. 3.1 and _.2 defining the variations in

specific impulse and thrust with altitude. These curves should be used

for approximation purposes only.

As the propellant utilization valve is moved from the open to the closed

position, a variation in engine thrust will result. The data to calcu-

late this effect are included in Table 3.2. Figure 3.3 and 3._ can be

used for rough approximations.

The engine balm_ce presented in Table 3.1 is based upon an auxtliary

power drive of _0 bhp, assuming a hydraulic pump is mounted to power a

hydraulic gimbal actuation system. A discussion of the pump drive pad is

presented in section lO.

Oxygen gas for vehicle tank pressurization is provided by an oxygen heat

exchanger. Hydrogen gas for pressurizing the vehicle hydrogen tank is

provided from a thrust chamber jacket bleed. Changes in tank pressuriza-

tion flowrate will affect engine balance (section 10).

Engane specific impulse and mixture ratio do not include the prop@llan_s

diverted for tank pressurization.

R-2661-lip 5. I

_IIM t_._l,lm.I _'Lal"ll RItv I ,Ill


frOCK ETI)YNE
A DIVISION OP" N_MTH AMtMICAN AVIATION, INC,

IABLE 3.1

.J-2 ENGINE NOHINAL P_I_FOEMANCE |'ARAHIs_fI_RS

(VALUES AI _INSIAGE ONLY)

Propel lanes

Liquid Oxygen Density_, lb/'cu ft 7l. 38

Liquid Hydrogen Density*, lb/cu ft t_ .tj 2

Thrust (altitude), lb 200, oO0

Spectflc Impulse (altitude), sec _26

Htxture Ratio, o/f 5.oo


Rated Duration, sec 25o

Oxidizer Weight Flowrate (pump inlet), lb/sec 395.15

Fuel Weight Fl,mrate (pump Inlet), lb/sec 81.2tj

Chamber Pressure (nozzle stagnation), psia 632

Expansion Area Ratio 27.5

0xidtzer Pump (centrifugal)

Inlet Pressure (nominal), psia 32

Discharge Pressure, psia 1019

Developed Head, ft 1992

Volumetric Flowrate, gpm 2893

Weight Flowrate, lb/sec {includes nominal propellant

utilization bypass) _60.15

Hinimum NPSH (pump znlet), ft a5 (Is. 5


psi)

Horsepower, bhp 260_

Nominal Speed, rpm 8947

Y
J
_Saturated liquid at normal boiling point

R-2661-_P 3,2
I_O C K E T DYZ_I [Z,
A OIv£t, iO_l OI r NORTH AMERICAN AV_ATIOP',+. I)_l_,

l"u('l Pump i+,\+++I)

i+Ile( t'),'_,ut, (I+umj_,ul). p,-1+t 25

[)] '4( ]l+it _t' Pl ('-_+t]t t+, ])> I_L 1 ()_8

])('_+(+]()l'tt] ll+'++.d+ t'l 5 _) .()I 5

I_<;l_Jrtwtt +_ Flo'+c+J_+" gpt,++ S2"5+)

h+'lgh( I"l,)_,t+a(( +, lb ,_'(: _1 .2;+

Pqlntmum '_PSII (p_ir,)p LuI+_I) It 13() ('_


l)S i )

llor._(,lm,,,_ r. bhp 6_t15

,_p(ed, +pm _(), fl 5 "3

Ox l(ttzet lut l) in( +

llll('t Pt(_s,.+titv+ ])_-'l_t ()8 8

Outlet Pressure, I),,t,_.

Inlet [ el!tl)e I at,t)l +, . _ 3'-)

Outlvt l_,mi>eral+ut(.+, 1' 0_

Aux t l ;ary Powel Available , bhp 50

Fuel ['utl)_n+.

It+let |J l t.'S >"LI I P , l,+ i_t 027.7

(}ull(+l PtqP,-sut( +. I-)-_l_t t.)_) 2

Inlet. ]emi)ett+t,_lt(,, l" l_C)(;'

Outl+.t I +,mp+,rat u_(, I" 859

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l;tJvI h,'J_hl l+'I()_,t_,tv, Jb _+_ 5.-53

++.,_+.

P... 2(.)(il '+P 3 -)


A DIVilIION OF" NOIql'rH AMI[MI¢AN AVIATION, INP_

tlydrogen Tank Pressurizal. iotr

Weight Flowrate, lb./sec 3. O0

'l_,mperature, F - 260

Oxygen l'ank Pressurtzati,Jn

Weight Flowrate, lb/sec 5.90

]_empe rature, F - 170

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F'Jgure l_gi,Je Thrust vs Eagine Mixture JLa_io for


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Figure 5._t. F ntsine Specific Impulse vs l ingine


,_lixtur'c t{atio for Variation in

Propellarit Iltilization
Valve Position

11-2(_(_ 1 -#it I -_.(t


IIOCKETDYNE
A IDIV/Jle_N O_ N_ilqTl_l AMi'IlgilCAN AVIATIOn*No IN_

J-2 KNGINE PI_FOP_2_CE AT VARIOUS AU[ ITUDES

The J-2 engine is designed for upper-stage vheicle application, and is

optimized for vacuum operation with a rel*atively large nozzle expansion

area ratio of 27.5:1. However, this engine has the advantage of capa-

bility of operation at altitudes down to sea level without the occurrence

of jet separation in the nozzle. This was achieved by advanced nozzle

des]gn. The J-2 engine can be test fired, acceptance tested, and fired

in clusters at sea level on ordinary test stands which do not have

altitude-simulating aspirators. This will result in greater accuracy in

test measurements, gimbal system checkout, and considerably greater con-

venience. The J-2 engine performance at various altitudes is indicated

in Fig. 3.1 and 3.2.

THRUST VARIATI0N RESULTLNG FROM PROPELLANT UTILIZATION

VALVE 0PI_AT I0N

The J-2 engine design provides for mixture ratio variations of IO.5 units

of mixture ratio. This variation produces a power variation to the

turbopump resultlng in a thrust variance. This variation with respect

to engine mixture ratio is presented in Fig. 3.3. For detailed analysis,

the influence coefficients will yield more accurate parameters. The _ix-

ture ratio limits under any condition are not less than _.0 or more

than 6.0.

R-2661-_P
3.10

FORM 6011+111-1 PLAT Ir Nl[V. I-III


IIOCKETDYNE
A OIVLIItON Olr t_ORTM AMIIqlCAN AVIATIOI%I+ INC.

INFLUKNCE COEFFICIENTS

Influence coefficients are presented in Table 5.2 These influence coef-

ficients possess adequate accuracy over the entire design operating range

of the J-2 engine for application to preliminary vehicle analyses.

SAMPLE CAI£ULATION USING TABLE 3.2 INFLI_-NCE COEFFICIENTS

The use of Table 3.2 influence coefficients for determining thrust of the

engine where operating conditions are

Fuel density a. 5_ lb/ft 5

Oxidizer density 71.58 lb/ft 5

Fuel pump inlet pressure 26 psia

Oxidizer pump inlet pressure 37 psia

Propellant utilization setting required for

_8.0 percent mixture

ratio shift

is shown in the following sample calculation.

Because the influence coefficients are linear, the total effect of sev-

eral influences acting simultaneously on an engine can be determined by

R-2661-_P 3,11

FORM llOI)-Ii-! PLATE RI[¥. I-IIII


Itoclr_ ETDYN E
A O|VIalON OIr _.mOMTH A_EMICAN AVIATION. #NC..

adding the individual effects of each influence. The change in engine

thrust would be

FL, F_ P_:- P FN Po - PoN PF - PFN


- + F + Fp +
FEN, PEN }P E Po N`. P o PFs r'

p -p (1)
o oN PU PU N

F'p * pu N Fpu
Po N o

where FE, PF J Po _ PF _ PO _ and PU are the actual values of engine thrust J

fuel density, oxidizer density, fuel pump inlet pressure, oxidizer ptmap

inlet pressure and propellant utilization control setting rempectively.

tEN, prN, PEN, PFN , PON , and PU N are the nominal values of these param-

eters, as listed in the table of influence coefficients.

F PF' F Po' FPF, FPo, and Fpu are the influence coefficients for engine

thrust found in the appropriate columns of the table of influence

coefficients.

The calculation for the example stated above would be as follows:

The percentage change in propellant utilization (PU) control setting to

give a specified change in mixture ratio is found from the equation

MP"E - FIRE N PU - PU N
(2)
HREN PU N (MRPU)

R-2661-_P 3.12

VONIA 1041.11.| I_,.ATE QtIV. I.Illl


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where MRpu is the influence coefficient for engine mixture ratio found
in the PU control setting column. For a i8.0 percent change in

MRE - HREN PU - PUN ,8.0 +8.0


= 18h.8 percent = +1.8h8
' FUN _ 0.0_33

Therefore, substituting appropriate values in Eq. 1 gives:

F E - 200,000
= _.34 - _.42o (+o.2_o2) + 71.)8 - 71.38 (+0.7502) +
200,000 _._20 71.38

26.00 - 2_.o0 (+0 0Oh, l) + _237.0o - 32.00 (+o 0280) +


25. O0 " 32. O0 "

1.848 (+0.0486)

F E - 200,000
200,000
= - (0.01810) (+0.2402) + (0) (--0.7502) +

(0.0400) (+0.0041)+ (0.1_3) (_00280)+

(1.8_8) (+0.0486) = , 0.09001 or 9.001 percent

Therefore

Fz = (200,000) (+0.09001) + 200,000

FE = +18,002 + 200,000 = , 218,002 Ib

"t The incremental thrust change has,been found to be +18,002 lb for the

conditione stated, yielding a final engine thrust, of 2t8,002 lb.

R-2661-kP 3.13

=_=,, _.m i , m, R_lr Qwv o qll


IIOCKETDYNE
A OiVlllION ¢)1 r I_IO$_TN AMirMtCiAN AViATIO_I. INCk

Nonlinear Corrections

A special computational procedure has been devised to extend the usefulness

of engine influence coefficients. This technique is used to allow non-

linear corrections to be made for certain parameters where the linear

approximation is not sufficiently accurate. An example of this method is

the c* correction. In this case, a plot of c* correction vs the change

in engine mixture ratio is included with the table of influence coeffi-

cients, Fig. 3.5.

The change in engine mixture ratio is computed for the changes in propel-

lant densities, pump inlet pressures, and with the assumption that the

c* correction is zero. With this change in engine mixture ratio, the c*

correction is read from the curve. This value of c* correction is used

with the other independent variables to compute the changes in the remain-

ing dependent variables.

For example, the change in engine mixture ratio used to effect the

9.001-percent thrust change in the preceding example was 8.00 percent,

the c* correction from Fig. 3.5 is -0.05 percent. The true change in

engine thrust is therefore:

(percent change in FE) = _9.001 -0.05 (+I.07_)

= +9.001 -0.05_ = +8.9_7 percent

Similarly, other nonlinear corrections would be applied as additional

terms in the summation of effects in an iterative procedure.

R-2661- _P 3.1q,

FORM lOl-I-t ISLATE I_lrv. 1-11


:,P

(d

P_

0
0

eo
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,r,,l

L_,

,x

ht

0 0 0 O_
-- N _. _'.
oi dI oI ?
IN3O8 _ 'NOllOBN_JOO
,O N I =IONVHO
IIO CK ETI)YN E
A OIV;SION OW NORTH AMtRICAN AVIATION. ;N_

OPERATING C_RACTERISTICS

OPF_ATING C[]AIb_CTF_IS TI CS

OPERATIONAL SEQUENCE

The operational sequencing of the engine is as follows, and is presented

in Fig. _.1. An engine schematic is presented in Fig. 4.2.

Start Sequence

The tank-head start technique, wherein the available tank pressures are

utilized to establish gas generator operation and subsequent mainstage

performance, is used to start the engine system. This start sequence is

described in detail in the following paragraphs.

The vehicle programmer furnishes a start signal which energizes the spark

exciters to initiate sparks in the gas generator and in the thrust cham-

ber augmented spark ignition (ASI) system. At the same time, the helium

supply solenoid is energized, opehing the regulator and supplying gas to

the system. The entire helium supply flows through a check valve, located

in the pneumatic package. (This check valve is provided to allow the pro-

pellant valves to remain open during engine operation in event of gas

supply system failure.) Purge gas flows into the thrust chamber oxi-

dize[' dome, the gas generator bleed valve closes, control gas flows to

the closing control ports of the main oxygen valve, the gas generator

oxygen transition valve, the gas generator valve, and the main hydrogen

valve. The control solenoid that supplies gas to the ASI oxygen and main

R-2661-4P _.1
_o

L_

+3

0,1
I
_" _H
>I_,
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_i_ £ II
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--_1 !_/I
i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i ul | ii

1t_-2(i61-4.1'
]I_EOCIK
A JOIVIIIIOIsl OF N'3

__ullll ._ I II I I I i

I
IE"[" DYI"q_ E
ITM _ERICAN AVIATION. eNC.

, ,,,,, m |, |

REVISED 5-15-6t

----4

}1

- - -,2,,_,w,_- )l

i ,

Figure _.2. J-2 Schematic l)iagt'a_


]:tOCKETI)Y_ E
A O;V,IIION OP" NONTM Ak4ENICAN AVIAT*ON. INO.

hydrogen valves is also energized. The main hydrogen valve closing con-

trol pressure is vented and opening control pressure becomes available

to both _he ASI oxygen valve and main hydrogen valve.

The main hydrogen valve opens to its first position and liquid hydrogen

flows through the thrust chamber jacket, through the injector, and out

of the thrust chamber. The ASI oxygen valve also opens and oxidizer flows

to the thrust chamber ASI. When the main hydrogen valve reaches its

first open position, ports integral with its actuating piston open and

allow opening control gas to flow to the gas generator valve and the

ASI hydrogen valve.

The gas generator valve opens allowing flow (under tank-head pressure)

of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the gas generator (continued

application of closing control pressure causes valve to allow for a

hydrogen lead into the combuator). Gas generator and thrust chamber

ignition is established.

The function of the gas generator oxygen transition valve, which is

closed throughout this period, is to limit temperature excursions and

power buildup in the gas generator. This is accomplished by allowing

an orificed flow through the valve while it is in the full closed

position.

Hot gas from the gas generator accelerates the propellant pumps, in-

creases the propellant discharge pressures, and provides hydraulic

power to the gimbaling system. The power output of the gas generator

remains_constant, and the propellant pump discharge.prdssures stabilize.

R-2661-_P _.lt

P'OItM eOll-I-! PLATE RI[V. 1.1111


ROCKETD¥_E
A DIVISlOI-¢ O_" NORTH AMKRICAN AVIATION. INC.

A pressure s_,ttch, located l_l t.hc ASi oxidizer l-,'d line, son._es the

lilt'teased turbopump {ll._{har,,t_, ptt._-_t)_e t;,,d mainstage ._lgn_l ].q tni-

t lat, t_d ((omlIlon fli_tl0.1 t*) a|l (li)-)e_,_tl _'I)_LInvs) l'hl_ slgrml energize._

the main oxygen v_Jve ct)ntrt)l_vo[_i _ d.lld il]]ow_ (_|)enlng cotltrol _ 1,o

flow to the maln oxygen aml mall) hydrogen propel lanL valves, and the

_ii_4 gt, ll_l'ilLor ()xldl/er IIiIAI._I| l___U \_O[_(' Simuitatleousl3-. (.losing con-

trol })te_sute i_ vented fIUL0 tlI_ _Lo-_ gt:lJt:iatoI (,xygen transi(.ioll val_,'e,

the gas gvrleratol vale, e, and the nlotn oxygen valve. Opening of the

ga._ ge-lieratol oxygen transition vltlw_ which i_ controlled by internally

restricting Lhe venting of l.he pneuma.tlC clo,,ing c_m_rol p_es_ure, con-

trois the temperature exc.ursion_ aud l)O_,'er buildup of t, be gas generator'

through Lransltiorl and into mainstage.

Ihe main oxygen valve open_ in approximately 300 msec and oxygen flo_,s

into the combustion chamber, t, he main hydrogen valve travels to iLs fill]

open posit;Ion (1_5 msec). ]'tie engine spark ignition system is de-

_nergized by a timing circuit _00 msec after the oxidizer valve control

valve is energized, r[he helium purge gas to the Lhrust chamber oxidizer

side is checked our by the higher combustion presuure of the thrust

chamber as smooth t.ransit_ou tnt,u m_lnstage operat, ion occurs.

(;as l)ressurizaLion f()t Lhe _eh_cle fuel taiik is suppitect from the thrust
_t
(.bomber hydrogen inject.or manttold. A check valve i_ _nstalled in the

l._ne t,o |)tt:_enI flow (If I't)el l_om lhe vvtlicle tank to the thrust chamber

assemhly prior to engine ._Lar't A dta[)htagm, designed to relieve at

pres_ure_ l_|.toln_,d dill ltl_ tile lIo.n_ltlt)ll I)ha._e, ts also provided t,o

guarant,ee again._t leakage tnt,(, the thrust (hamber.

Gas pt'eaauvlzatiun |'()i tile x,_+l|l(le oxldlTtr lank l,_ supplied fr.)m a beat

elf(hanger l))(.at, ed tl_ the ,)xidl_r pump l)tfh]lie (-'xh_tust duct HL1]iTIng

oxygen bled It(ira t, he high ptes._ute propellant, duct,.

It- 206 l-Ill' ", 5


tIOCK ETDY_ E

F A OIVtStON Ol =' NO_Tt_ A_-_I£_I_AN AViaTION. INC,

Re_ tar t

'[he ,I 2 engtn+, ]s (teslgt,ed for multtple restart. Restart, or multiple

_tait,. capablllt) t_ lttherent In tLe elet'trtcal tgnit, lon system for

thrust chamber and gas generator lgu_Ii()n lh(_ restart capability is

enhan(ed b_ a _Jml)llfled stat_ t,,chnlque whi(:h utilizes matn propellant

tank t)|e.-surv_, l_e_lalt ('al)ahlllty ha_ also been designed into Che

pneumatic _upplv system The helium ._phere l._ sized for two restarts

undt. r temperature and I)tes._ure _et_llalnt_ tts present(,d in se¢:tion 7.

Slar t.|ng I h .ru_l_

lhe in_tanlaneous rat, o .f th_usl tncrease will not ex(:eed tJO0 lb/msec

with max|.mt|m oversh[_ot on thrust buildup nol, exceeding 3 percent,, as

shown in Fig. t_.3 l'he comparable Ihrusl bualdup at sea lew-I is shown

jn Fig. _*.q

propel lant Con._umpt ton

During start, tng ttans_enl ,t _ e_Limat_-d thai. 1_0 lb of propellants

w|ll he congumed tn the period from _nttlal sl,art sigr_al until 90 percent

It|rust is attained

Cut,oft_ _equence

) rhe cu|off .-tgnal, received ft.m the vehicle programmer, energizes Che

F engine-secured

valises.
t. lm_r, attd de energlzea the propellant valve contr,._l

R-2661 -_P

ffOllM IOI-i.I PI,,A'fl I_I+, |,|l


l_t ( ) (_; 11[ I: T I) 91_"_ IZ

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R-2661 --_ I' /_.7


wF-

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IlO CK E T DYI"_T E
A OIVlllON OV NOMTI-4 AMIMICAN AVIATION, IN_

The gas generator valve opening ('ontrol gas flows through a vent lille to

the vent port of the ma_n fuel valve control valve h check valve is

located in tl, is vent line to prevent main fuel valve opening control gas

from circumventing the safety interlock of the fuel valve and opening

the gas generator valve prematurely The opening control pressure to

the ASI oxygen valve also vents througtl this line. The opening control

'pressure for the AS[ hvdroget, valve and the main hydrogen valve (first,

position) is also vented through this control valve. Simultaneously,

(:losing control p_essure IS applied to the main hydrogen valve and to

the gas generator valve (oxld]zer side only). Closing control pressure

is supplied to the oxidizer s_de of the gas generator valve only, to

stop the flow of oxidizer as quickly as possible and reduce the power

to the turbine, thereby minimizing the cutoff _mpulse. Closing control

pressure is also applJed to the main oxidizer valve and to the gas gen-

erator oxidizer transition valve. The control lines of the respective

propellant valves are restricted _o provide for suitable cutoff impul_se

and a fuel rich cutoff. At this point, all propellant flow ceases and

the engine thrust decays.

When the combustion pressure in the thrust chamber has decayed suffi-

ciently, the purge line check valve opens and purge gas flows to the

oxidizer dome. The engine secured timer de-energizes approximately 500

msec after the cutoff signal from the vehicle programmer, and the helium

supply solenoid control valve drops out. l he supply gas is cut off by

the regulator closure, purge gas stops flowing to the thrust chamber dome,

closing control pressure on the gas generator propellant bleed valves is

vented, and the bleed valves open.

R-2661-_P _.9
IIOCKETDY_E
A _IVISiON O_' NORTH AM_AICAN AVfATION. INC.

(uCotf Impulse

l'he cutoff impulse, m(-asuted t'iom rt:t-+,ipt of an electrical cutoff signal

at the r()t'ket. (+tlgttle. will i_()I val,¢ mote than -'-1500 lh-sec from an es-

Ioblished nominal and wtll n(,_ ,xceed 50,000 lb sec. Estimated thrust

dt.('av 1. presented )n F)_'. 8, 5.

Caution is necessary when using the _hrust decay curve of Fig _._ in the

region of thrust talloff l_rom |'light test dat_a with liquid oxygen,/RP-1

et|gtfles, thv thrust tailoff is pr(mounct<d and exist,,q for a period of

approximately 2 sec b+,votld the estimat.ed thrust decay characterlsLics for

liquid oxvgen/RP-I. It is iecommended that stag|ng _equ_:ncing and t.hrust

loadnng should nov he specifically des|gned upon the estimated thrust

talloff character|_t|cs llresent,,d in _lg. /t.tl until J-2 engines experimental

data are available.

p.topellant Consumption During Cutoff

l_t is es(lmate:d that 100 lh of propellants wxll be eon._umed during thv

transient p_,r'lod from engtn*, culoff _ngnal to zero thrust.

l'urbopump Speed Decay at Shutc)ff

II Is ,,atlmated i,hat after enginv shut,off signal, the fuel turbopump _peed

will d_cline from the nnm|nal mniostagv speed of 26,435 rpm to 0 rpm in

10 ,,el' The' estimated decline of the _xldizer pump under the same condi

ft,)us I" from RqSO rpm io 0 rpm ill h set '[he estimated speed deuav is

has+d uW)n the pres,)nt'e of pl,)pellanls, a_ liquid, within bhe turhopump

It, caslng_ at t,utoff Ill the ab,qer)cv ()f vv,_(ou,_ drag title to th,, l)lO|)ellatil,,_,

lht, tim@ |'()) ,_|)(,od d(,r:av _()l.lld by (,t)n_idvrab]v Int'|',_a_,i-,d

R-2661-_P _' 4. I<)

_OPlllq III011+III.I PLATI IIIIV. I.II


!_ 0 ('-_ i1_ !_ _.'1 _ li_lb / _ 11__

,, 0
I
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I£flUH1 39V15NIVW dO 1NB3_13d


It-2661 -_ I' 4. i i
IIOCKETDYNE
A OIVlIION OI r NON41'M AMI[AtCAN AVIATION, ING.

WEIGHT AND INI_I'IA

WEIGH'[ AND [NF_I'[A DAIA

J-2 ENGINE WEIGHT AN_D GIMBALED MASS VALUES

The J-2 engtne weight, along with gimbaled mass values, and a sketch

showing gimbal axes are shown in 1able 5 1.

G_OSCOPIC MOMENT AND MOMI_T OF INERTIA

The gyroscopic moment., and moment of inertia data, are as follows:

1. total gyroscopic moment, 928 ft lb/radian/sec attitude change

(required to effect an engine attitude change)

2. Net gyroscopic moment, 290 ft lb/radian/sec attitude change

(moments at 90 deg to direction of engine attitude change)

3, Fuel turbopump gyroscopic moment, 609 ft lb/radian/sec

4. Oxidizer turbopump gyroscopic moment 319.0 ft lb/radian/'sec

The above values are based on the following factors:

. Fuel turbopump mainstage speed, 26.435 rpm (clockwise looking

afT,)

2. Oxldizer turbopump matnstage speed, 8950 rpm (counterclockwise

looking aft)
t

5.1

IrOIlllll IO1.1.1 PLATE MIY. 1-11


'I'MH, E 5.1

J-2 WEI6ItT, tAIJ\NCE, :_\1) INF_H_IA

,H,)ment, of Inertia*
Create: of' llra,, i ly,
2
Itl.

-I
X Z • XX /./
_r

Iyy ] [
Engine

I) ry 2()3H 2q. 5 5.2 (I.') ST __


25'Y_ i ¢J]7"
Burnou L 2152 28. 5'_ 7*

WeL 21¢)5 28.5 5.2 I).2 (,1t2"

Wet fiimbaled Mass 2U()7 5() 1 5.5 ] O.2 270** 110(_**

K = radi_s of gyra*l,m

*btmnent (,f irler'tia about specified (:enter of tgraviLy

_Moment of iIl(.*rtritt about, specified gimbaled _txis

COORDINATE

SYSTEM GIMBAL FUEL PUMP ....

|,,

....
;..+y
(ROLL)

( -rcm I,,

OXIDIZER PUMP

N0 T E : Po._itlve Directions
Indicated by Arrowheads

R-2661-4I' 5. '2
_' l_O CI_: ET I_YN E
A OtVi$10N OF NO_I"M AIVI[RiCAN AViA?ION, iN r_

L 5. Fuel turbopump polar moment of inertia, 0.220 slug ft 2 (wet

rotating mass)

_. 0xidLzer turbopump polar moment of inerltia, 0.3t_l slug ft 2

(wet rotating mass)

It will be noted that the fuel and the oxidizer pump rotate in opposite

directions tending to reduce the total precession moment below the total

gyroscopic moment required to effect an engine attitude change at a given

rate.

The estimated time for turbopump stoppage after engine cutoff signal is

discussed in section 4.

R-260I-_P 5.3

W_MM #OB_i-1 PLAT1[ MEV 1 gQ


IiO CK ETDY_ I_
_, DIVbSION O1 _" NOM"rM AMI_ICAN AVIATION. INC,.

_OUNTING

THRUST CONTROL (GIHBAL) SYSTI!_

G [RBAL BLOCK

The J-2 engine basic mount consists of a plain spherical-type gimbal

bearing to transmit engine thrust to the vehicle. Engine torque and

hanging loads are transferred by a bar extending through the sphere

center. A teflon fiberglass composition coating provides dry low-

friction bearing surfaces which are capable of operating in a vacuum at

design temperature limits.

Thrust is transmitted to the space frame structure through the trunion

spherical socket. The socket is contained in a heat-treated metal block

with two crossed keys set in a plane normal to the thrust and on the

vehicle side of the block. The keys absorb loads normal to the center-

line of thrust and torque loads imposed by the gimbaling actuators and

the vehicle gyrations. The thrust transmitting bearing surface and

attaching bolt holes lie within the quadrants between the keys. In

attaching the gimbal block to the stage structure a minimum of 90 per-

cent of the bearing surface should be utilized.

Gimbal blocks may be attached to the vehicle structure either by use of

bolts or by cap screws installed with heads on the engine side. A detail

of the gimbal block is shown in Fig. 2.1.

R-2661-_P . 6.1
1 ][_tO C I45 E T ][3PYN 1_
A DIVISION OW NORII'-I AME_;:_ICAINI AVSATIr._I_I. It_.

Lo ad,_

Maximum loads which will be transmitted to tile vehicle frame through the

gimbal block during fll, ght are as follows:

' Lineal Forces _KIP_ Moments (KIP IN.)

M__{x M ___ Mz

-_58 -502 ±60 _. ±28 5 ± 152 ±269


* 90

Table 5.1, section 5, presents parameters for coordinate system

or ient ation.

BFARING DUST AND MOISTURE PROTECTION

A gimbal boot has been provided to protect the bearing surfaces from dust.

water, and foreign materials. The boot has a bellows configuration with

the convolutions permitting the required gimbaling motion. A silicone

impregnated fiberglass material is used for the bellows section, and

molded silicone rubber seals at the two attach points. Both gimbal boot

attach points are on the gimbal assembly. This results in an integral

gimbal and boot assembly. Provisions have been made to permit installa-

tion or removal of the boot on the assembled engine with a minimum of

effort.

R-2661-_P 6.2
IIOCK ETDYT'_ E
& DIVISION GF NORTH A_4qlCAN AVIATION. Irq_.

G IMBALING SYST_

ACTUATOR ATTACH P0lh'rS

In addition to basic support from the gimbal block, the engine is sup-

ported by two gimbal actuators attached to the thrust chamber dome,

each 90 deg to the other with respect to the centerltne of thrust. A

detail of the gimbal attachment is shown in Fig. 2.1. The dome attach

points are located on a radius of 11.875 in. from the thrust centerline,

and provide for 1-in.-dia shear bolts or pins to be installed in double

shear through a spherical alignment bearing. Orientation and details of

the mounting attach points are shown in Fig. 2.1. The actuation envelope

and installation requirements are described in Fig. 6.1. The two actu-

ators are not supplied with the J-2 engine.

MOVEMENT

The engine is designed to withstand a 7-deg functional gimbal angle sim-

ultaneously or individually from each actuator, plus a I/2-deg actuator

overtravel position-stop allowance. The resultant corner position allow-

ance is for approximately I0 deg 25 min gimbaling. 0vertravel positive

stop provisions must be integral with the actuator.

The structural design of the engine permits functional gimbaling of 7 deg

only, as measured from the vehicle flight axis, in any plane or any

combination.

Forces transmitted to the gimbal block resulting from gimbal actuator

forces are presented in a prevlous paragraph of this section

R-2661 -hP 6.3


l'
.,-.A-A

//. 02 (,._'c,,

D I ITIR ICH -III'0 IT ¢.i.lJll,lllllRlIPl' 1000411


i I II ii ii I I II I II II • II

_v_m_._. __Tj_ ._.._-_r

,,_.,_._ ,::_--_,'z_
_'/,4f7_ PIN

--.............. _'- - ,_/_.


_I_ ........

ii iii ii I iii I L III I I II J . I III II ' El II I IIIII I I III I I II I II II I I I I


-1

Jo

• -, i,I

i l ii -- II I I I ¸¸ •
Ii L I I I[ I _ I I III . _ " I IIJ I _
i . ii ¸

Figure 6.1. 3-2 Envelope Gim_l


Ac(mstors
ROCKETBY_E
A _IV|_ION O _" No_rH AMEMICAN AVIATION. sNC.

ACCEI,FJ_AT ION AND VELOCIT't

The engine can withstand a maximum gil_ballng angular acceleration of


2
7b tad/see To achieve a maximum angular velocity of 50 deg/sec, with
2
a sinusoidal variatlon_ an available gtmbal acceleration of 2.25 rad/sec

is required. Tile acceleration value js based on a single-plane-actuated

simple-harmonic glmbal cycle through a lh-deg displacement angle from

one extreme to the opposite, and the maximum gimbal ailgle velocity of

30 deg sec occurring an 1he thrust chamber passes r_hrough the zero gimha[

angle position. The gimbaling angular acceleration ix the total engine

angular acceleration allowed. Angular acceleration of the vehicle

frame ix considered as lateral accelerations applied to the engine, and

t,o fall within the specified lateral acceleration limits.

ACCELERAT iONS (TRANSLATING)

With zero thrust from the d-2 engine, the engine will withstand a maxi-

mum forward acceleration of lO g, together with 0.5 g lateral accelera-

tion, or _ g forward acceleration together with I g lateral acceleration.

For the conditions of accelerations resulting from J-2 engine thrust,

the limits of combined forward and lateral accelerations for which the

engine is designed, are shown in Fig. 6.2.


J

G I.HBAL ING AND "_T2! I CLE LOADS

11
During the J-2 engine firing stage the engine is designed to g-imbal as

much as 2 deg while the vehicle accel,,rates up to the designed limit of

engine forward acceleration. The_designed limit of forward acceleratlon

R-2661-hP b.5
11,11_(_( 'i!_ If_.'i[-" il)'llk'.r'_b[ il :_

1.0
0 0.9

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0.3 i

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J % 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

STAGE ACCELERATION, 0/g

Fi gure .2. Lateral Acceleration v,_ Stage Acceleration


l:tO CE ETI)YN E
A OIV|llON OFt NONTN AMENIGAN AV,ATION, IN_.

with respect to engine gimhal angle is shown in Fig. 6.3. These limits

occur simultaneously with the lateral acceleration relationship to forward

acceleration shown in Fig. 6.2,

*FHRUST AL IGNMENT

The engine gimbal bearing assembly is capable of adjusting for lateral

displacement of the geometric thrust vector of 0.250 in. in any direc-

tion. The dynamic thrust vector may deviate from the geometric thrust

vector, angularly as much as 0 deg 30 min, and laterally as much as

0.250 in. in any direction, measured at the gimbal axis plane.

ACTUATOR LOADS

The maximum actuator load capacity which may be tolerated by the engine

mounting structure is _2,000 Ib each.

The minimum actuator loading allowance which should be made to permit

operation within model specification limits is 28,500 lb each.

The above given actuator load is based on the following factors:

1. Longitudinal acceleration, g 2.5

2. Lateral acceleration, g 1

3. Angular acceleration, rad/sec 2 2.25


) 76,300"
4. Gimbal bearing friction, in. lb

#All moments about gimbal center, moment arm 11.875 in.

R-2661-_P 6.7

FORM |01,11.1 PLAYE RI[V _-BI


6

J
4
Z
,,_
J
3
m
_E

I . .

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0

STAGE ACCELERATION, o/cJ

Figure6.5. Gimbal Angle vs Stage Acceleration

R-2661-zt t' 6 ._
IiO CK E T l}Yl_ E
/4 OIVIIIION OI r NOPlTI'I AMIEI_ICAN AV*ATION. INP_.

./

5. Gyrt)._(!opic load, in. lb at "_0 deg/sec 5700"

6. Thrust chamber misalignment, in

d I spl acemen _ 0.25

, Propellant inlet loa(llt_g

a_ Fluid static pressure, HI. lb 15,200"

b. Flex duct axial spring load, in. lb 27,500"

c. Flex duct bending spring load, in. lb 1400

A [_ODS_Abl lC LOAD LNG

Although the aerodynamic load carrying capability of the engine will be

influenced by the way the engine is oriented relative to the vehicle,

preliminary information based on a particuIar configuration may be use-

ful in the early stages of vehicle design. Therefore, the aerodynamic

load carrying capability of the engine has been investigated for a

particular installation in a clustered configuration with the oxidizer

and fuel inlets located on a radial line in the vehicle and the fuel

pump outboard. If the ,Z axis shown in sketch in Table 5.1 is outboard

in a radial direction, the largest, deflection of the engine into the

slip-stream will occur with the maximum pitch angle of approximately

10 deg about, the X axis. [n _his posit, ion the two 42,000 lb actuators

have a capability to resist an aerodynamic moment of 300,000 in. lb

about the X gimbal axis. [t is presumed that this moment results from

the impingement of air upon the aft portion of the thrust chamber. Nlth

'All moments about, gimbal center, moment arm 11.875 in.

R-2661-4P 0.9

_ORNI EOa,i-| PLATE NIV, T.SII


IZOCKETDYNE
la
A OIVIIIION OW NOM_I'H AMEM_CAN AVIATION. INC.

tbe present design of the tbrusl, chamber no difficulty would be encoun-

tered in sustaining both the dynamic pressure (approximately 430 lb/ft 2)

and the bending moments encountered if the total moment of the aero-

dynamlc load does not exceed 500,000 in. lb.

Engine plumbing above a plane 77 in. aft of the gimbal center has not

been designed to withstand airflow, as it is not expected to extend i_to

the airstream.

R-2661-_P 6,1()
l_tOC_ ETI)¥N E
A _lVl_lON OV NOIItTM AM_IICAN _VtAT_O_. |N_

PROPELLANT SYSTI_IS

PROPEIJ_ANTS AND PIq.ESS_TS

PROPELLANT AND PRESSD_A._T SPECIFICATIONS

The following specifications are applicable to the propellants and pres-

surants employed in the J-2 engine.

Liquid Oxygen MIL-P-25508B Dated 2R June 1960

Liquid Hydrogen MII,-P-27201 Dated 21 May 1959

Gaseous Helium Bureau of Mlnes Grade A

HELIUM

The moisture content of the helium employed in the J-2 pneumatic system

is extremely critical because of the low temperature environment result-

ing from the use of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. A

helium dew point maximum of -100 F, at atmospheric pressure, is a require-

ment. Foreign matter in the helium must be limited to a maximum _f

0.O1 mgfliter at 60 F and 1_.7 psia. Helium supplied to the engine pneu-

matic supply sphere must pass through a lO-micron nominal filter having

a 25-micron absolute rating. The h_elium supply sphere is sized to hold

enough gaseous helium for three starts (two restarts) if charged to

4500 psia at -100 F. Less helium may be loaded if only one start is

desired as shown in Fig. 7.1.

R-2661-_P 7.1
_[

__ hi'

r_

h,.
T

N_

_'3Wf_l_W3di_131

R-26G 1-_ I'


IIOC[ ]_TDYNI_
A OlVlSIOI40 O_ NOATH AMI[M|CAIM AVIATIO_k IN_

PROPELL_LNT PUMP INLET DUCTS

PROPELLANT DUCT CONNECTION FLANGE LOADS

The J-2 engine propellant inlet ducts connect to the vehicle frame feed

system ducts by bolted flange fittings. The two engine propellant ducts

are of flexible metal construction and are identical. Each duct consists

of two convoluted bending sections restrained by gimbal rings, one at

each end of the duct, and one convoluted central member designed to

absorb axial motion during engine gimbaling, l_hen under pressure, the

engine mounted flexible section is dependent upon the vehicle duct flange

for axial restraint. Accordingly, the vehicle duct flange at the engine

connection must be rigidly oriented with respect to the X, Y, and Z

axes.

Propellant pressurization and forces required to deflect the convolutions

during lO deg corner gimbaling result in the following maximum forces

imposed on the vehicle structure.

Lineal Forces (KIP) Moments (KIP-in.)


F.__x F_Z F__z M__x MY _i__z
Oxidizer Inlet Line ,2.1 +2._ +2 1 -+6._, +-_6.5 +6.
-13

Fuel Inlet Line +-1.2 +2._ ±1.2 ±2.7 +-;6.3 +-2.7


-8.1

Table 5.1 presents parameters for coordinate system orientation.

R-f661-_P 7.3

lrORlI lOll.l-! PI.AT w !1|¥. I-li


frOCK ETI)YN E
A OIVIS_ON O_ NORTM AM_SCAN AVIATION. IN¢_

The axial spring rate of an unpressurized inlet line is approximately

215 lb/;in. The bending spring rate for vehicle connecting end flange

tilt is h.75 ft-lb/deg,about a point 2 in. below the vehicle flange. For

the engine connecting end it is 5 42 ft-lb//deg about a point normally

2 in. below the vehicle flange. The inlet line customer connect flanges

are dimensioned to a nominal free position. The above spring rate may

be used to determine additional forces imposed by axial position change

of the flange.

DUCT LOCATION TOLERANCE

Vehicle flanges must be positioned and during engine operation remain

within the following tolerance with respect to the engine flange posi-

tion defined on the customer connect drawing:

I. Axial location (y axis): ±0.30 in.

2. Transverse location (xz plane): ±0.08 in. in any direction

3. Angular misalignment (out of xz plane): ±1/2 deg

h. Hisalignment of bolt pattern: As the duct is centered by the

attachment bolts, the bolt pattern is required to be concentric

with the inside diameter.

5. Rotational alignment of bolting flanges (about the y axis):

The vehicle connecting duct must be provided with bolt holes

to allow for adjustment of a minimum of _I deg angular mis-

alignment. During operation, rotational movement of the vehicle

duct flange about the duct centerline shall be limited to 0.2

deg relative to a plane through the pump axis and the engine

centerline.

R-2661-_P 7._

FOR M ilOll-II-I PLAT[ tq[V, I-I1[


l:tO CK E TDYN I_
A DIVlIIION OF r NONTI.4 AMClIII_..AN AV4AT_ON. INC.

| i J i i J

The engin_ [n|et flexible ducts are designed to withstand 500 gimbal

movement cycles, under the most adverse installation conditions listed

here, when tile ducts are at design operating pressure. Under zero pres-

sure, the ducis will withstand 3000 Oycles without fatigue failure.

A mnvement cycle is defined as the required duct deflection from its

neutral position to the maximum movement and return to neutral.

I!NGINE CONNECTING PROPELLANT DUCT SEAl,

Propellant duct flanges are designed for use _itil a Naflex-type self-

energizing double seal. This seal is designed expressly for the joint,

and has been tested to demonstrate its suitability while subjected to

the transverse and axial loadings to be encountered during engine

gimbaling. It should be noted that the thickness of the seal is not

included in the inlet duct lengths shown in Fig. 2.1.

R-2661-_P 7.5
IlO (_ K E T DY!P'_ E
DIVI61ON OP" NOMTH AMKPIICAN AVIATION. II_C.

PROPELIANT SYSTi_N PRESSURES

FUEL AND OXIDIZER SYSI_KNS

The engine fuel system is calibrated to a 25 psia nominal mainstage total

inlet pressure, and is designed to operate with a minimum NPSH of 130 ft

(_ psi) at the pump inlet. (NPSH is defined as the difference between

the pump Inlet total pressure-head and the fluid vapor pressure-head.) The

engine oxidizer system is calibrated to a 32 psia nominal mainstage total

inlet pressure, and is designed to operate with a minimum NPSH of+25 ft

(12.5 psi) at the pump inlet. Reduction of static fuel pressure at the

beginning of the start cycle will adversely effect the tank-head-start

characteristics. An increase of static pressure will cause excessive duct

stresses during engine shutdown surges. The flexible duct sections sup-

plied as part of the engine propellant system will each add a pressure

drop to the vehicle propellant feed system and therefore, must be con-

sidered by the vehicle manufacturer, in designing, to maintain the above

minimum NPSH values.

The pressure drop for the fuel pump inlet duct when in the nominal posi-

tion is 0.5 psi at the nominal flourate. At the same flowrate, with the

duct fully extended and offset, the pressure drop is 1 psi.

Pressure drop for the oxidizer pump inlet duct when in the nominal posi-

tion is 0.5 psi at the nominal flowrate. At the same flowrate, with the

duct. fully extended and offset, the pressure drop is 2.0 psi.

R-2661-_P 7.6
ROCKETI_Y_ E

SURGE AND PUMP INLET PRESSL_E

The engine inlet duct, ing, turbopump inlet casing, and turbopump mounting

struct_ure of tile [-2 engine are designed to withstand surge pressures of

lO0 psi above the nominal inlet, pressure in the oxidizer system and 50 psi

in the fuel system. In tetras of total pressure (surge plus nominal operat-

ing), tile limitations are 75 psia for the fuel inlet system and 132 psia

for' t,he oxidizer inlet system. It is therefore necessary, in every spe-

cific application of the 3-2 engine, to evaluate possible vehicle ducting

configurations in terms of elevation from engine connect, point, to propel-

lant tank dis(:harge and of ducting-run length and diameter. Elevations of

from 20 to 30 ft coupled with vehicle termfnal effective fluid accelera-

t_ions of 4 to 5 g result in significant static pressures with a fluid as

dense as liquid oxygen. The values of ducting-run length and diameter are

of importance in evaluating pressure surges which are acoustical phenomena.

Rocketdyne has developed a digital computer program for analyzing water-

hammer effects based on a solution to the one-dimensional wave equation.

This program has significant success in predicting pressure surging

caused by rapid valve closure in aeries piping systems. The input data

for this program are diameter, run length, wall thickness, modulus of

elasticity, and Poisson's ratio for the ducting; the free acoustic

velocity, adiabatic bulk modulus, and flowrate of the propellant; and

the propellant valve closing characteristic. Any questions concerning

proposed vehicle ducting layouts in regard to pressure surges should be

referred to Rocketdyne and be accompanied with the aforementioned duct-

ing data.

R-2661-4P 7.7
IIOCKETDYNE
A DIVISION OF r40_TH A_ERICAN AViATiON. INC.

To minimize cutoff impulse and maintain the specified close _olerances

on cutoff impulse variation, the J-2 engine employs rapid main propel-

lant valve closures; this results in b waterhammer pressure surges. The

nominal closing rate_ are 1OO msec for the main oxidizer valve and

200 msec for _ the maLn fuel valve. The system surge pressures have been

evaluated for the most rapid closure anticipated under propellant flow

and pressure conditions encountered at the maximum of mixture ratio con-

t rol when using 7-in. ID piping and run lengths of 15 ft for the fuel

and b.5 ft for the oxidizer ducting, As a result of these analyses, the

J-2 engine main oxidizer valve, butterfly type, has been designed to

follow a linear area decay characteristic on closing to minimize pres-

sure surges caused by rapid deceleration of over ttSO lb/sec of liquid

oxygen flow. The properties of hydrogen and the value of maximum fuel

flo_crate were such that the main fuel valve, also a butterfly type,

required no modification of the linear position characteristic associ-

ated with butterfly-type valves.

The maximum run lengths of propellant feed ducting which generate surges

safely below the maximum surge levels, at nominal inlet pressure condi-

tions, are 15 ft for the fuel system and 6.5 ft for the oxidizer system.

The maximum run lengths are based on the use of 7-in.-ID low-pressure

stainless-steel piping. The utilization of larger diameter ducting will

reduce the surge pressure as a result of decreasing the flow velocity;

however, the relation is not, direcf. [f structural requirements of pro-

po,_ed vehicles dictate run lengths greater than those mentioned, the

investigation of surge suppressing methods is recommended.

R-26bI-_P 7.8
IlO C I_ ETDYIE
,1_ D_vIssor_ OF" NORTH AMIEIm_AN AVIATION. IN_,

STXItHNG PUMP INLET tRES_bTtF_S

The 3-2 engine is unique among existing large liquid-propellant rocket

engines because of the utilization of the tank-head-start t_chnique.

This start technique avoids the (_se of- gas generating spinner cartridges,

start tanks, etc., with the attendant complexity and possible limita-

lions on restart capability. Because of the sensitivity of the engine

to turbopump inlet pressure levels during the initial starting transient,

the following paragraphs are provided to clarify the effects of starting

pump inlet pressures while employing the tank-head-start technique.

The J-2 engine program has employed a mathematical lumped-parameter model

as a tool to predict system starting transients prior to inception of

actual englne development testing. Through this analytical effort, gas

generator thermal excursions during the starting transient were thoroughly

analyzed with respect to turbopump inlet pressures. The necessity for

this analysis is discussed in the following paragraphs.

The control system for gas generator temperature and flowrates consists

of two fixed orifices, one each in the oxidizer and fuel lines. At

mainstage these orifices are adjusted for a gas generator mixture ratio

of approximately one. The pressure drops, including the control ori-

fices, which determine the fuel and oxidizer flowrates into the gas gen-

erator are those from the respective pump discharge volutes to the gas

generator chamber. At mainstage, the pressure drop across the gas

generator oxidizer line is less than that across the hydrogen line,

while at start, the nominal oxidizer pump inlet pressure is 32 psia and

the fuel pump inlet pressure is 25 psia. Therefore, for any given gas

generator chamber pressure, the presst_re drop across the gas generator

R-2661_4P 7.9
IIO C K E TDYI"_[ E
K
A IDtVlStON OF h_OIqT_l AMIEIqlCA/'_ A_bAT_Ot_. |NC.

feed lines (employing mainstage control orifices) is higher on the oxi-

dizer side, which means the oxidizer flowrate will be greater than the

fuel flowrate. A further tendency toward oxidizer-rich operation

results from the ratio of liquid oxygen density to liquid hydrogen den-

sity being 16:1. Additionally, the engine starting technique employs a

partially opened main fuel valve and a fully closed main oxidizer valve.

Following ignition in the gas generator and initial acceleration of both

turbopumps, the oxidizer pump discharge pressure increases more rapidl_

than that of the hydrogen pump because of operation against, a closed

main valve, and because the oxygen pump design speed is lower than that.

of the hydrogen pump. These conditions result in temperature excursions

in the gas generator.

To control the gas generator temperature excursions, a gas generator

oxygen transition valve is located in the gas generator oxidizer feed

line. This valve presents a high resistance to oxygen flow prior'to

opening the main propellant valves. This produces a higher pressure

drop in the oxidizer feed line during start and will preclude oxidizer-

rich gas generator operation and the resultant high temperatures.

Simultaneous with main oxidizer valve opening at the mainstage signal,

the transition valve moves at a controlled rate to its fully open posi-

tion to permit engine operation at the mainstage level.

Pr_or to initiatLon of the engine startang phase it is required that

the pump inlet, pressures be no less than the nominal mainstage values.

R-2661-4P 7.1o
RO CK ETDYI'_ E

PIqOPEIir,\N'I_ SYSTF14 PHLWAI,V_

]he ,I-2 engine has been designed under the assumption that the engine

ma_n propel lanl val_ex are tile only valves in lhe vehicle propellant

feed systems. Additional feed system valves, called prevalves, would

only be added 1o fulfill _ehlele t'equlvemenTs independent of the engine.

If prevalves are added, and if their cycle of operation is arranged so

that bottl the prew_lve anti the engine valve could be closed at the same

time lrapping liquid cryogenic propellant, then the vehicle manufacturer

must provide for pressure relief of the space bet.ween the valves. Pres-

sure would build up because of propellant thermal expansion. It. would

also build up because of flexible duct contraction if the engine is gim-

baled while in this condition. Total pressure limitation is presented

in the previous paragraphs on surge and pump inlet pressure. ]'hemal

expansion which takes place will aft'eet an engine fuel volume of 1.50

cuft and an oxidizer volume of l.tt8 cu ft. Engine gimbaling at the

specified rate, with a liquid-filled duct, will require a relief capac-

ity of 2.9 gal/sec.

The two propellants must be in contact witil the engine for at least

30 mln prior to engine operation, to assure thorough pump chilldown.

The prevalves must be opened 50 mln prior to firing if prevalves are

used to isolate the engine during extensive holds with tanked

propel lanl s ,

R-2661--4P 7.1i
IIOCKETD¥_E
A O_VISION Off NOrTh-4 AM_:IBIICAN AVCJC_T_ON, INC.

ELECTRICAL

d-2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEH

The J-2 electrical control system consists of 'a sequence controller to

properly sequence engine start and cutoff, a spark ignition system to

establish ignition in the gas generator and thrust chamber, and ml ASI

pressure switch to sense proper i_lltion 'and signal mainstage.

SB_UENCE CONTROLLER

The sequence controller is a complete solid-state design thereby elimi-

nating problems associated wilds mechanical relay contacts. Tile con-

troller performs the functions of circuit condition monitoring, protective

interlocks on critical circuits, and proper sequencing of the engine during

the start, cutoff, and restart phases of flight. Provisions have been made

to allow automatic clustering, automatic or manual mainstage initiation,

automatic or manual control of heater power, and internal multiplexing of

control system instrumentation signals.

SPARK IGNITION SYSTEH

Ignition is established in the gas generator and main chamber with re-

dundant high-tension spark ignition systems. The spark exciters transform

28 vdc into 15,000 v which dlscharges across the spark gap at a rate of 50

sparks per sec. Transmission cabling and connections are hermetically

sealed to ensure proper operatlon at high altitudes.

"t

R-2661-_P 8.1

FOAM _IOR I1-1 PLATE ffEV 5,_D


ROCK ETDYr'tIE
A DIVI_,I_T_I _F NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION. INr_

P0h_M Iff:QU IREMENTS

Direct current power is used for the following:

,
Heaters to maintain controller components at an operational

temperature while in an environmental temperature as low as

-250 F. (A temperature of -200 F is o_lticipated in the vehicle

engine compartment when propellants are tanked?) Heaters are

turned off when the engine is started. In the event it is in-

tended to utilize engine restart capabilities, the heaters will

re-energize on engine shutdown if a control signal is present

from the vehicle.

.
Energizing coatrol sequencing system

3. Propellant ignition systems

4. Control components solenoids

Alternating current must be provided by the vehicle system to power and

control the propellant utilization valve system (section 11).

Power definition and usage requirements for both dc and ac current are

presented in Fig. 8.1 and as follows:

Direct Current 24 to 30 vdc, 32 v max

Continuous 200 w (required for heater power

only during long hold periods;

heaters may be turned off at englne

start)

R-2661 -liP 8. '2


ROCi_ETD¥_ E
A _IVIS_ON OW NORTH AMI_ICAN AVIATION, JN_...

Start 1500 w for 5.7 sec (spark exciters

solenoid control)

Powered Flight M)O w (solenoid control power)

Alternatin_ Current 108 to 121 vac, _00 cps, 100 w

continuous for operation of the

propellant utilization system

A schematic diagram of the engine electrical system defining the engine

and vehicle connections to the engine is shown in Fig. 8.2.

NOTE: The control system is designed for a maximum no damage voltage %f


32 volts; satisfactory ignition and system timing will not be
obtained if the voltage is below 24 volts.

R-2661-_P 8.3
II_ (.) ( "I_ ! -"i" l) '%" ._ ! :_

24 TO 30 VOLT DC POWER USAGE

(IGNITERS AND SOLENOIDS)


1500
0"3
I..--
F-
I000
v

(Y
w 400 W. (SOLENOIDS)
5OO
o
200 (HEATERS ON)
0 J i

I --5.5 SEC

START ENGINE ENGINE


PROPELLANT START SHUTOFF
TANKING

108 TO 121 VAC, 400 CPS, SINGLE PHASE


POWER USAGE.

CONTINUOUS I00 W USE FROM TIME OF ENGINE


START TO SHUTOFF.

I:i;_Jr_, 8.1 lxlltine l:lectrical P_wer l{e(t_liremt, nt S{'hedule

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RO CK ETDYN E
& DIVISION Ol r NOIIITI"I AMIIIIICAN AVI/I_"I"|ON, INP--..

'"'-',141111111

INSTRUMENTATION

ENGINE SYSTEM INSTRIMENTATION

Instrumentation provided on the J-2 engine consists of propellant pump

discharge line flowmeters, pump speed signals, and various electrical

sequence signals. •

Signal pick-up for telemetering or other vehicle use is through a common

multiple pin connector used only for instrumentation connection and is

provided from the electrical pneumatic package. These are the only

instruments to be delivered as part of the engine. However, instrumen-

tation tap provisions also are made in anticipation of the users needs

for flight.

FLIGHT INSTRUMENTATION PROVISIONS

A list of recommended flight instrumentation is shown in Table 9.1

Flowmeters

The basic element of the flowmeter is a helical-vaned rotor which is

turned by propellant flow to measure flow velocity. The rotor is free-

turning on an anti-friction bearing system. The flow diameter is closely

controlled to permit accurate determination of the volumetric flowrate.

The hydrogen meter ha8 a four-vane rotor producing four electrical

impulses per revolution and turns approximately 3600 rpm at nominal flow.

R-2661-z_P 9.1
1:_0 C K E T D¥ I'_ E
A DIVISION OF NO_ITH AMIr_I_ICAN AVIATION, I_P_-_

TABLE 9.1

RECOMMENDED J-2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTATION

Parameter

Electrical Control System Signals

Engine Bus Voltage 0 to 32 vdc

Control Box Temperature -500 to 200 F

Liquid Oxygen Pump Speed 0 to 11,000 rpm

Hydrogen Pump Speed 0 to 50,000 rpm

ASI Pressure Switch Pickup

Helium Supply Solenoid Energized

ASI Spark Ignition System Energized

GG Spark Ignition System Energized

Mainstage Ready Signal

Oxygen Control Solenoid L_ergized

Cutoff Signal

Fuel Control Solenoid Energized

Primary Fligh_ Instrumentation Signals

Thrust Chamber Pressure 0 to 800 psia

Helium Supply Pressure 0 to 5000 psia

Gas Generator Pressure 0 to 800 psia

Propellant Utilization Valve Position 0 to 2000 ohm

Hydrogen Turbine Inlet Temperature 0 to 2000 F

Helium Supply Temperature -tOO to 100 F

_Reference zone 6 and 9 on Fig. 8.2 electrical system schematic

R-2661-_P 9.2
IlO CK E T DYI'q_ I_
A DIV_8_ON OF" NOMTM AMKRICAN AVIAT#O_. IN r"

TABLE 9.1

(Continued)

Parameter

Liquid Oxygen High-Pressure Duct 0 to 1500 psia


Pressure

Liquid Oxygen High-Pressure Duct -300 -+20 F


Temperature

Liquid Oxygen Flow

Hydrogen High-Pressure Duct Pressure 0 to 1500 psia

Hydrogen High-Pressure Duct -_25 ±10 F


Temperature

Hydrogen Flow

Gas Generator Liquid Oxygen Injection 0 to 100 psia


Pressure

Gas Generator Fuel Injection Pressure 0 to 1000 psia_

Main Liquid Oxygen Injection Pressure 0 to 1000 psia

Main Fuel Injection Pressure 0 to 1000 psia

Liquid Oxygen Turbine Inlet Pressure 0 to 150 psia

Engine Regulator Outlet Pressure 0 to 500 psia

Balanced Piston S ump Pressure 0 to 500 psia


(Hydrogen Pump)

Main Liquid Oxygen Valve Position 0 to 2000 ohm

_ain Hydrogen Valve Position 0 to 2000 ohm

Hydrogen Temperature at Thrust -650 to 50 F


Chamber Tapoff

Gas Generator Valve Position O to 2000 ohm

Fuel Pump Inlet Pressure 0 to 100 psia

Fuel Pump Inlet Temperature -_25 -+10 F

Oxidizer Pump Inlet Pressure 0 to 150 psia

Oxidizer Pump Inlet Temperature -500 *20 F

R-2661-_P 9.3
flOCK ETDY_E
A OIVISLON OF _'_ORTH AMI_IC_*N AV_ATZQN. IN_--_

The oxidizer meter has a six-vane rotor producing six electrical'impulses

per revolution and turns approximate]y 2h00 rpm at nominal flow. These

signals are made available to the vehicle telemetering system as a 1 volt

peak-to-peak signal for the oxidizer flo_meter and a 2 volt peak-to-peak

signal for the fuel flowmeter.

PUHP INLET PRL_SURE MEASURI_IENT

To fully evaluate the propulsion system during flight, the vehicle manu-

facturer must supply instrumentation for measuring the oxidizer and fuel

pump inlet pressures and temperatures. These parameters are not included

on the engine because of space limitations. It is therefore suggested

that the vehicle manufacturer locate provisions for them in the vehicle

duct, as close as practical to the engine flange.

TURBOPUHP SPEED INDICATORS

Turbopump speed for both turbopumps is indicated by the output of an a-c

generator. The current frequency varies directly with pump speed and is

based on 12 cycles per pump revolution. The generator voltage of 100 my

is amplified to 0.5 v and used in the engine sequence control system as

well as in the turbopump overspeed shutoff system. The signal is made

available to the vehicle telemetering system as a 0.5 vac (variable fre-

quency current).

R-2661-hP 9.h
,J l_tO CK ]ETDYNE
A OIVIIIIO;,I OR NOATN AMI_'IIIICAN AVIATION, IN,_,,.

INSTRUMI_TATION PR'_SURE PORT PLUGS

Engines will be delivered with ports of a configuration as shown on

Fig. 9.1 and 9.2. They wi]l be sealed with a Rocketdyne Naflex seal,

P/N 404659, for nominal and low temperature applications, with a Naflex

P/N _0_661 for temperatures above, 160 F. It is recommended that these

seals he replaced with a new seal of the same type each time the plug is

removed. "

A plug as shown in Fig. 9.3 is provided with a vent hole which aligns

with the intermediate vent between two concentric seal surfaces on the

Naflex seal. This tylke plug will be provided with ports as shown in

Fig. 9.2. All other ports will be provided with blank plugs. An AND

10050-2 port is provided in the plug head connecting to the seal vent.

This port is plugged with an FIS9015-2 plug, or a dimensional equivalent

plug and an KS-29513 0-ring seal or a Rocketdyne P/N RD 261-6001-0001

solid copper gasket. Seal selection is based on fitting temperature.

The AND I0050-2 plug will permit the engine user to check for primary

seal leakage under the special plug by connecting a I/8-in. tube to the

port and routing it to a measuring or indicating device.

_J

R-2661-_P 9.5
/
56O -+ OO5
J'O 032 DIA TO INTERSECT

. /- ---_,AND 10050- 2 PORT

,/
!

tfh 1.05 BOSS OIA / "------DRILL NO. 50(0.065 TO 0075)


/ TH ROUG H

NOTE THIS DESIGN TO BE USED WITH FITTINGS AT LOCATIONS WHERE IN FLIGHT


INSTRUMENTATION IS REQUIRED,

BOSS OUTLINE SHOWN REPRESENTS ATYPICAL PART. ACTUAL OUTLINE TO


BE DETERMINED BY COMPONENT DESIGNER.

Fig.re _).1 . l),n,:l,l_.-..,-al Vented lnsl,r_m._l ai.io. I_oss

ll-2(m i-PiP 9. _,
lt,E£_q[ "1._ E_.'II" lid"lit i'_ Ill

FOR APPLICATION AS A WELDED BOSS TO COMPONENT OR TUBING WALLS USE


RP260-1003 CONFIGURATION EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE DEMENSIONED OR
INDICATED HERE.

I {ACCEPTABLE OUTLINE OF
j-.--- t RP 260 - 1003 BOSS

05 BOSS OlA -j "".... -, [ ."J


_-- ..... 0 010 R MAX
//

DRILL W (0386} THROUGH


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r
THROUGH

NOTE:
THIS DESIGN TO BE USED IN LOCATIONS WHERE CUSTOMER INSTRUMEN'fA-
TION IS NOT EXPECTED TO BE REQUIRED.

FOR USE WITH: STATIC PRESSURE PROBES (LOW FREQUENCY), THERMO.


COUPLES, AND RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE SENSOR
(ROSEMONT)

PLUG TO BE INSTALLED WHEN INSTRUMENTATION IS REMOVED

I"J,..r;:l'e H.Q . Do_.hle-.,u&l [ll_trl_lellt, a[ ion lr3os_

R-26fl l -hl' 9.7


/, "" %(---0.360 ÷0.005
- 0.000

TAP DRILL 0.530 DEEP 7-# ........ 0032 DIAMETER

0.937+_o.oo,_-I , _' _.
/
/
/

L--ONN)

DR_ LL BLIND HOLE --,_ _i "#


",. / _ ...... O. 440 "'_-
MACHINE PER
AND IOO50- 2
i ',\
EXCEPT AS NOTED ----_
: _---DRiLL NO 50 (0.065 TO 0075) 2 HOLES

I' i I " "--i__,5 DEG


0.594 ..... F-T'_I -

'_ _--- 0.032 +-O.oI5R


0.000 2 PLACES
/' - ' T .....T-- i
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",__ FTHREAD 7/16 - 2UNF-3


,// 0.457 4- O.OI5.--J /
lPER MIL-S- 7742
/ 4.5 4- DEG -_
/
/ (TYP 2 PLACES)
/
4----0,364 +0002 RELIEF DIA
FLAT AND SQUARE -0003
WITH 7/16 THREAD
WITHIN O.001 TIR MATERIAL:
321 CRESS BAR
Q Q - S - 763
CLASS 321
COND. A

PLUG USED TO SEAL J2 ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION BOSSES WHICH ARE NOT TO BE


USED AFTER ENGINE DELIVERY

AND 10050-2 BOSS IS PROVIDED TO VENT-OFF LEAKAGE OF CRYOGENIC PROPEL-


LANTS THROUGH THE BASIC NAFLEX SEAL P/N 404659 USED WITH PLUG

Fi._,,re 9.3. Instr_mt, nta,ion l'ort }'lu:.:

R-26h I -;, }'


flOCK ETDYr_E
A OIVIIION OF NORTM AMKRICAN AVIATION. IN_--._

ACCESSORY PROVISIONS

ACCESSORIES

ACCESSORY DRIVE PAD

An accessory drive pad is located on the turbine exhaust manifold of the

oxidizer turbopump. The pad is an adaptation of the AND 20002 standard

drive pad. The basic differences are as follows:

1. An increase of the bolt circle to 6.00 in. dis and the outside

to 6.90 in. dis.

2. No bearings or seals are supplied at the accessory pad.

The accessory is to be connected directly to the turbine shaft by means

of a Rocketdyne provided quill. The use of this_quill drive requires a

female spline on the accessory. Details of the pad requirements for the

accessory are shown in Fig. 10.1. The turbine manifold temperature will

be approximately 610 F and the accessory will be subjected to the gas

pressures within the manifold. This pressure will be approximately 50 psia

and will consist of hydrogen rich steam. The rotational speed of this
t620
accessory drive is 8950 -4_0 rpm during mainstage with rotation being

clockwise viewing the engine drive pad. Torque on this accessory drive

shall be held at an absolute minimum at start. The point in the start

sequence at which the significant power may be drawn from this pad is

a sub.ject of review with Rocketdyne.


)
The engine will be delivered with the accessory pad blanked off. The

quill shaft will be separately packaged.

R-2661-4P 10.1
F -6.90 DIAMETER - _---I,_f-_ SPLINE
INTERNAL
0.020 R MAX(REF)--. + 0.000 .... "

"'- " -----_'44.122, - 0 002 (REF)/f_--


0.287 --1 i

'_0_0-' ..... "_-iil _ 51+-O'O05AFTERsPoTFACE

0.900 DEPTH _ AO.411 __.0.010 DIA 6 HOLES


OF SPLINE ; "_---
ACCESSORY UNIT EQUALLY SPACED ON A
6.00 B.C.

NOTES: I. THIS SKETCH NOT TO SCALE


2. PUMP PAD' PER AND 10262 TYPE _ - H EXCEPT AS SHOWN.

D 3. THIS
RMS
SURFACE
CONCENTRIC
TO BE FLAT WITHIN
FINISH WITHIN
0.004
5.375
TIR
DIA.
AND TO HAVE A 32,/7

® 4. PUMP TO BE SUPPLIED WITH AN INTERNAL SPLINE 20/30 PITCH,


30 DEG PRESS ANGLE. 16 TEETH 0800 PD (THEOR)

5. OIL DRAIN HOLES TO BE OMITTED.

Figure 1().1 Detail of Accessory to Mate With


EzLgine Accessory Drive

I{-2(_61-4 t' 10.2


ItOCKETDYr_E
A OtVlSION OI p NOIqTM AMICAICAN AVIATION. INC..

The engine performance balance allows for 30 hp to be extracted from the

pad while the engine is operating at mainstage turbine speed, Exceeding

this power value will result in a reduction in other performance figures.

itowever, tile pad and drive system is structurally suitable for 100 hp

extraction at mainstage speed.

The 30 hp value is based on nominal power requirements to gimbal the

engine at model specification limits. If hydraulic power is selected,

it is assumed that peak loads in the hydraulic system are absorbed by a

properly selected vehicle system accumulator.

The following limits of drive pad capabilities must be observed:

I. Maximum starting torque I00 in. Ib

2. Maximum running torque 700 in. ib

3. Maximum accessory weight 25 ib

_. Maximum overhung moments 125 in. Ib

The estimated liquid oxygen pump speed buildup during the engine start

transient is presented in Fig. 10.2.

HYDROGI_ TANK PRESSLrRIZAT[0N SYSTI_I

The engine wlll supply hydrogen gas for tank pressurization at a rate of

3.00 Ibjsec at a temperature of -260 F at the nominal engine Operating

level and nominal propellant utilization valve setting. The pressurant

will be obtained by bleeding hydrogen from the thrust chamber cooling

jacket upstream of the injector.

R-2661-_P 10.3
14_ _ 417 TM K 1t::2 _1 _ l)_lk" _ •
,. :_ _ _, . _ , -., r4 _ _. A._,r i_,_ ,_,, A _ _- , ,_ _-.

bL

• 1 4-,

§
I/4dkl '033d$ dV4nd N3_,XO 01n01-1
ltO CI(ETI)YNE

OXYGEN TANK PRESSL_IZATION SYSTI_

The engine will supply oxygen gas for tank pressurization at a rate of

3.90 lb/sec at a temperature of -170 F at the nominal engine operating

level and nominal propellant utilization valve setting. The pressurant

will be obtained from an oxygen heat exchanger located in the oxidizer

pump turbine exhaust gas duct.

PRESSURIZATION SYSTI_4 FLOWRATE VARIATION

Variation of pressurization system flowrates will alter the engine

operating level. The incremental changes in engine performance due

to independently decreasing the tank pressurization flowrates from their

nominal values to zero are:

H_drogen System Oxygen System

Engine Thrust, lb +1500 -1300

Engine Specific Impulse, sec 41.25 +0.55

Engine Hixture Ratio. -0.I0 -0.02

The design of the oxygen pressurization system is such that a zero flow-

rate condition cannot be tolerated by the engine. Accordingly, a minimum

flowrate of approximately 1.0 15/sec through the heat exchanger is nec-

essary. Figure 10.5 presents the estLmated liquid oxygen heat exchanger

operating line.

In computing vehicle tanking mixture ratio, the tank pressurization flow

requirements should be added to the engine propellant consumption as engine

mixture ratio and specific impulse do not include the pressurization

flowrates.

R-2661-_P 10.5

¢
FORM SOl-t-| PLATIE _V, |-lll
|4t()( ;K |£'I TM I)_ __ • Z

70O

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LIJ BASED ON NOMINAL ENGINE
(.9 GAS SIDE TEMPERATURES
Z
,,_ AND PRESSURES
"r"
0 3O0
X
l.iJ

I 2 3 4 5

EXCHANGER LIQUID OXYGEN FLOW, LB/SEC

Figure 10.3. Liquid 0xyge. Heat Exchanger


Operating Line

tt-2661-t_p I0.0
_0 qE7]I_ II -21 _ !1_ _bl- _ II_
A L) I'ylFICZ, r_ _F N_)RThl _:_lC _ri A'#IAT_N Ih4C

CON_fItOLS

PROPELI_,IN_[ ' I_ ILI ZATION CONTROL

PROPELI_LNT U_ILIT_._T I0N CONTROL SYST}3q

IL

Tile propellant utilization (PU) control system is a device for obtaining

maximum utilization of vehicle propellants by adjusting _le engine mix-

ture ratio to simultaneously exhaust tile supply of both vehicle tanks.

_al exzLmple of its operation is presented in the following paragraph.

When the vehicle propellant level signal system indicates that tile oxi-

dizer supply is being re,duced faster than scheduled, it is intended that

the vehicle control system will transmit a valve opening s£gnal to the

PU system serw)motor. This will cause the PU valve to open the oxidizer

pump bypass line and therefore increase the rate of oxidizer circulation

around the pump. This condition results in a decrease in oxidizer flow

from the vehicle tank. Response time of the propellant utilization valve

is 1 see for full travel from stop to stop.

The PU valve and its servomotor are supplied with the J-2 engine. A

position feedback potentiometer with 2000 ohm resistance is supplied ill-

tegral with the PU valve assembly.

A mtxture ratio varlat, lon limit of 10 percent above or 10 percent below

nominal has been provided. Nominal flow through the valve is 65 lb/see
*55
of oxygen. The valve has modulating capacity to vary the flowrate to -b5
ib,'see.

R-2601-_P 11.1
IiOCKETDYNE
A OIVIIIION OW NOMY_.4 AMKAICAN AVIAYION, IN_

Figure 11.1 shows a schematic of the electromechanical PU system. Mech-

anical elemenls and the vehicle manufacturers portion of the system are

not necessarily represented by the schematic.

Electrical power requirements are as follows:

Servomotor

Input, vac llO

Frequency, cps _00

Power required, w 100

Power source vehicle propellant utilization controller

A propellant, utilization system of the nature provided for is one method

of obtaining good utilization of vehicle propellants; however, the use

of this system is not mandatory with the J-2 engine should adequate

utilization be obtained by engine close calibration or by other means.

J-2 engine performance could be improved by deletion of the PU system.

R-2661-_P 11. '2

IWORM 60lli. III.I PLAT[ RIrV l,flll


VALVE POSITION
INDICATOR POT

VEHICLE
PROPELLANT
LEVEL SIGNAL
SYSTEM ¢ %__

I I
! o
II

I I
CONTROL
WINDING
VEHICLE
SYSTEM ' I
CONTROL i:
AMPLIFIER 1 !
I
!
!
,I

WINDING _ )

POWER _

SERVOMOTOR

PUMP BYPASS

)
kk_p
OXIDIZER
ENGINE SUPPLIED

COMPONENTS_
0

ll.l . Fropelleull, Itilization ;_: sLem ,;c:ema5ic

11.3
I_tOCK ETDY_E
A OIVIIION Olin" NON"rM AMERICAN AVIATION. INC.

HANDLING

PROPOSI_) A]!_OSPACE GROUND EQUIPM]_qT

Aerospace ground equipment (AGE) proposed for use with the J-2 engine is

as follows:

CHECKOUr EQUIPM_T

1. Pneumatic Panels

2. Flowraters

3. Test Panel

4. Control Panel

5. Overspeed Trip Checkout Unit

6. Spark Ignition System Checkout Unit

HANDLING EQUIPMENT

I. Engine Handier

2. Handling Sling

3. Sling Adapter No. I

4. Sling Adapter No. 2

5. Security Cover (Moisture and Dust Repellant)

R-2661-_P 12.1

POMM _SOS-D.I PLATE R|V I-BE


flOCK ETDY_E
A OIVlSIO_ OV NOMTM AM_6CAN AVIATION, I_

6. Turbopump Inlet Support (Fuel)

7. Turbopump Inle} Support (Oxidizer)

8. Thrust Chamber Protective Pad

TEST EQUIPHEWr

1. Thrust Chamber Throat Plug

2. Turbine Exhaust Plug

3. Liquid Oxygen Inlet Test Plate

h. Fuel Inlet Test Plate

ROCKET ENGINE HANUFACTURERS HANDBOOK

In accordance with the J-2 engine contract, Rocketdyne will prepare

operating instructions for the purpose of directing engine maintenance,

detail handlinsand usage. These instructions will be issued through

the cognizant government agency.

STORAGE

The engine may be stored or transported at temperatures between -20 and

+140 F. Reliability and engine life will not be degraded after three

years of storage in this temperature range when maintained in accordance

with conditions set forth in the r,ocket engine manufacturers handbook

(for maintenance).

R-2661-_P 12.2
IiO C K I5 T I)Yl'_ I_
A. DIVISION OI r NO_T_-_ AMwIqlCAN AVIATION. I_1 e_

DOMESTIC SHIPPING

The engine will be shipped mounted to a handling fixture which is designed

to mount on Air Force Transportation Trailer FSN NRAD 1_50-7_6-1119 (Air

Logistics Type 1210). Unless it is otherwise stipulated, the engine will

be mounted t,o the trailer, shrouded for protection from the elements, and

lashed to the carrier vehicle.

Dimensions of the engine envelope, mounted to the handling fixture, are

as follows:

Length, in. 116

Width, in. 80

Height, in. 88

Dimensions of the engine envelope, mounted to the trailer, are as follows:

Length, in. 152

Width, in. 96

Height, in. 120

HANDLING LOADS

The engine is designed to withstand handling loads of _ g in any direction.

R-2661-$P 12.3
flOCK ETDYr'_ E
A OiVIIION Off' NOI_TH AMg_ICAN AViATiON. ING.

ENGINE BU ILDVP

The handling fixture used in shipping is suitable with some limitations

for use as a workstand in the users facility. The limitation of this

use is imposed by ttle horizontal engine positioning and by absence of,a

rotational provision.

For buildup or for storage in a vertical position, the engine may be

rested on a flat pallet provided as aerQspace ground equipment.

The engine is equipped with fittings for attachment of vertical and hori-

zontal hoisting equipment ot provide flexibility in positioning the engine

for buildup, loading, or installation. A cable is provided for vertical

handling and a sling for horizontal handling. To transfer from horizontal

to vertical positioning, two hoists are required.

Horizontal hoist fittings are located in the X coordinate axis plane on

the positive side. The handling fixture mounting fittings are in the

same plane on the opposite side. The engine axes are shown in Table 5.1.

HANDLING DURING INSTALLATION

The previously described horizontal position sling is the only provision

made on the J-2 engine for installation in a vehicle although the engine

is suitable for standing vertically in a flat and hoisting into position

with a lift truck. When using the horizontal sling for multiengine in-

stallation, it is assumed the vehicle stage will be angularly located to

, facilitate moving the engine into position with the X plane positive

side up. It is recommended that engine handling procedures he coordinated

with Rocketdyne engineering representatives.

R-2661-_P 12.4

ffORM IOIIl.ll.| PLAT Ir RIrV 1-18


IIOCKETDY_E
A _IVIIION OP" NORTH AME_$CAN AVIATION. INC,

BLEEDS, VL_TS, AND DRAINS

SEAL AND BLEED CONFIGUI4ATION

DRAIN, B.LEED, AND V_T PORTS

All separable hot gas and propellant flanges, and connections in the

J-2 engine configuration, are equipped with a dual static seal cbntBin-

ing an intermediate drain port to provide a leakage measurement capa-

bility (Fig. 13,1). #terns 1 through 35 (Table 13.1) are of this type.

The threaded 1/8 in. drain port may he routed overboard through a leak-

age measuring device.

The dynamic seal drain ports on both main propellant valves are equipped

with vent port check valves (Table 13.1 items 36 through 39). I{ydrogen

leakage from the main propellant valve into an enclosed boattail (i.e.,

prior to stage separation) is precluded by utilization of a burst dia-

phragm in the valve design. Because the main oxidizer valve shaft seal

vent ports are located below the main gate lipseal, liquid oxygen leakage

from these vent ports can only occur through failure of the main gate

seal.

To ensure the quality of propellants (all liquid) required at the gas

generator for engine starting, propellant bleed valves (liquid oxygen

and hydrogen) are located at the gas generator inlets. The liquid oxygen

R-2651-kP 13.1

VOMM EO_-B_I PLATE MEU 1-18


i_li()( "11(, • "1" i)'lllk " 7_b." • ;

,2

R-2[)61-hP 13, '2


ROCKETDY_E
A OIVl$1ON OI_" NOATH AMerICAN AVIATION. _NC.

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IIO CK ET DYI"_ E
A DIVISION Off NORTH AME_ICAN AV=ATION. 10"_

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R-2061 -_P I'_. !_


IiOCK ETDY_E
A DOVtIION OI j" NOmTM AMtAICAN AVtATION, INC.

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R-2661-_P 15.5

FORM eOIIl-II-f PLATIt RIV 1.1111


flOCK ETD¥_ E
A DIVISION OI r NOI_+TH AMrRICAN AVIATION. It,,l_._

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.e+t

,--,,4

2 *e.q
O

.,.._ -e,.+

I .,-.4

e",
o+ +,-,+

++

1t-2661-_P 1"5, _,
HOCK E T DYlq_ E
A OIVISION OI r NONT)'I AMClIIICAN AVIATION. 'NC*

bleed line (Table 13.1, Stem 40) and the fuel bleed line (Table 13.1,

item _1) are to be plumbed through a customer connection to the vehicle

skin and overboard. Provision for venting these lines to atmosphere,

prior to engine start,, must be provided by the vehicle contractor.

Two bleed lines from the liquid oxygen turbopump (Table 13.1, items 42

and _3) must be bled to a point of identical back pressure. These

bleeds drain two side-by-side cavities, one containing hot turbine gases

and the other liquid oxygen. The oxidizer pump seal bleed will be

plumbed overboard through a customer connection, and the liquid oxygen

pump turbine seal bleed will be plumbed to atmosphere along the thrust

chamber contour in the vicinity of the chamber exit.

The hydrogen turbine hot gas bided line (Table 13.1, item _) will be

plumbed to atmosphere along the thrust chamber contour £n the vicinity

of the chamber exit.

R-2661-_P I_.7
l_tO CK ETDY_E
A OIVISlloN lOP NlooRTH AMEIIIICAN AVIATION. IN_

CUSTOMER CONNI_CT IONS

CONNECT POINTS

External connect points are as follows:

1. Power input, dc

2. Power input, ac

3. Vehicle signals

Engine Start, step function of 2.0 sec duration

Engine Cutoff, step function of 2.0 sec duration

I,
4. Clustering Connection

Enables operation of a single engine or a cluster configuration

5. Instrumentation

Provide_ necessary information on control system condition

to ground support equipment or the vehicle

6. Helium ground fill, _500 psi

7. Hydrogen gas to pressurize vehicle_hydrogen tank

8. Oxygen gas to pressurize vehicle oxygen tank

9. Fuel inlet duct flange

10. Oxidizer inlet duct flange

11. Gimbal block

12, Gimbal actuator attach mounts

R-2661-_P 14. I
IIO CK ETI}YN IE
A r_lViSl_N O_ Ir NOI_II"H _MIERICArq AViATiON. INC.

l_uel lurholmm p seal purge

14 _'uel l.urblne ._eal I)urge

15 Oxygen l,u_blne _eal purge

ib Fuel' t_urbopump seal bleed

17 Oxygen turbopump _eal bleed

_8 Gas generator fuel hleed valve vent

19 Gas generator o×ygen bleed valve vent

To attain the degree of reliability required of the J-2 engine system,

leakage from separable connections of ducts, lines, housings, etc., will

be minimized tllrough the use of brazing techniques

Stub tubes are provided where practical for brazing engine plumbing to the

vehicle to extend reliability to vehicle-to-engine connections, AlIowanc(,

is made on the engine for two subsequent tube disconnecting cuts and re-

brazes. If more reb_azing operattons than this are required, it is

expected tt_at provisions will be made on the vehicle plumbing to permJt

the _equt_od tmmher

Fitzure II_ 1 ._hows the stub length_ of tube required 1o make various nt,mbet._

of lebraTe_. Figure lh+2 st}+J_,'s llle space requirements for a brazed .j+)]nt

in ,_ari[,u+, t,ublng size_ when Ro<'ket,(tyne brazing sleeves and inductaon

heattng ('otis at( + u,_e(I

I'hose heat, lng ('oil assemhlte_ hold the tubes in i}ostlion t%r brazing, pl(;+,J<l+ +

1'._ coolant gas fl.w through lhe electrodes, and provide for flow of il]ol I

ga,_ (,vet lh+. ,io]nt; _'hile at elevated temperature, rhe coil assembly is
¢

su]/aI}le t'ot t],_+.- wxth a [:3 kva tt_(h]ctJ()n heating unit.

ti-2t)b I -,'t1' 1 ', :.'


lilt()( -I( l-'.'l'l)l," ?qi_lL

'- - G3, G4 ,Gs - .a. _----SIZED AND


CLEANED AREA

- H - -• BRAZED TUBE
JOINT
7 FOR INDUCTION-

V//K\"{',.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\_

J D
...... )__

' TUBE STU_B (321 CRES)


[//z/z///[_ x__ WELDED JOINTS FOR

---2 REBRAZES
REBRAZES

/ /---
/
4 REBRAZES

i
Nora i hal
Tub {' ii_ ()()(}
-. I)()()
9ize, in

o.155 {). hST (). M)9


{). 260 {). q()8 O. ()hO

5 l() (). 322 (). 5()0 {). 81(,


o. 5,_5 o. 351 0. ()8()
12 o. 5lo {). 02 5 7.3o 3
5 S (I.655 ().6HT T. 8&4
3 '( () 7b() {).78I 9.11t

V8 {)._83 () .{}Oh 1() .(;51


l L .O 10 l. (}(){} l l. 8 I0
I-i a 1. 155 l. 1')5 12.5{}3
I-I _t 1.2()0 ] . _')t 15.191
i

1-'5 8 1.-;ST 1.575 15.8T,"


I-1 2 1 510 l. 3()()
---=4

Hinimum Values
NOTF,_:
1. I,(:n_lh._ in{:lu(|(, multil)l{, cut,,)ff and rebraz(, CO|ISL'I(_II_|{,iOII

I)
I] i._ equal Lo lvn_t_h of sle(,v(, Lo allow for" COml)lVI(' sl{'{,;(_

_L]d(,-o_} in tight, l,)cat, ions ..()()-_;


,I r(,I)r(.,_dn(,_ ih(, fini._he(I siz(,d dimension {N{))); . ()I{)_.()()_l<
,)l ,
D l)ia)n,,ter C{) i)(' round within ().{)()] inch

Fi_<ure 1', • I. %lub "Iu.)e' l,cngth

II-2()() 1-4P
A" ! , LENGTH
' U--Iw
/,-"x _ ,C" (/ , LENGTH _ : i
,, } / _ _ / ) OF UNION -/ f----t -- -- . --_ 1

4/",,\ j_2 ! ] T•

,, T /' j' -.......


f-- --
c-4
, *--J
--
})
I _ F;=.E_ "- DIAMETER / I ; 'X_ "
[{_--i'l_ [] I"---CLEARANCE LINE / I -4-- --_'r- C#
FOR REMOVING /-X t-*,-J--k--- EWN%'FcE
K C.'4EL
/ ' ' WORK COIL '_, i/' DIAME-TF_P,

/ _---,I ENDS WITH ELECTRO- _--COAXIAL CABLE


t_ ...... CHEMICALLY ETCHED _----
MARKS ON TUBING

I/ (: [ F+. 00()
- 0() 5

I, 8 I. 388 l .6a7 O. '_57 () 9()5


l, h I. 513 l. 718 O. 'd),s () m_3
5 t(' 1. 375 I. 750 O. 5o() 0 hOl
3,,s l .63_ 1.7_1 O. 55t () qTO
1 2 1.703 1.s75 (i.025 0 oi()
5 _ l. 8_', 1.q37 (t. (),s7 0 75-_
't 2.2()3 2.281 O.781 II 0 F,t)O
7 _ 2.o3_ 2.650 () 9()() 71,'8 l ()q3
t 3 O13 1
3.00(I 1 000 i. 17(;
1-1,_ 5.13s 3. 125 I 125 I.SU,
l-I h 3.263 3.2"_) l 25o I. :,(,q
I-3, X 5.38S 3. 575 I 7,75 i. 39:_
l -t,2 3. 513 3. 500 I _-R}() 1. T ')f)

NOTE:
1. A dimension_ based on swaged tube (liameT_er (hl .loini

area) o[" nominal diameter +0 01() +'003 ]¢(JSultanL tflb,'


• - .0OO"
to sle,,ve radial clearance is 0.0005 t,o ().0025 in.
0
_° I)-im,msions A, B, C, arid E represent acceptance minimum
va ]- 11 (} S.

Pi_ire lPt .2. Brazed Joint Space Ilequirem(:nts

R-2()()I-4P I It . +'l