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Ultra Super Critical Pressure Coal Fired Boiler

- State of the Art Technology Applications -

Yoshio Shimogori
BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 1
1. Improvement of Steam Conditions

2. Improvement of Material and


Manufacturing Technology

3. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No.1

4. Next-Generation USC Boiler

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 2
Fig.1 What is Super Critical
Super Critical means no distinction
between water and steam
3,500
600

3,000 Steam(Gas) 500

2,500

Temp.(oC )
Enthalpy*(kJ/kg)

Critical (22.06MPa)
2,000 400
Mix. Of Steam & Water

1,500
Saturated line 300

1,000
Water 200
Sub-Critical Super Critical
500
100
10 20 30
* Thermodynamic quantity Pressure(MPa)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 3
Fig.2 Ultra Super Critical (USC) Technology

Purpose High Plant Efficiency


High Efficiency Coal Utilization
Low Emission (CO2 etc.)
USC Condition
USC Super Critical Critical Point
Over SC Condition of Water
Example 24.1MPa/ 22.06MPa/
25.0MPa/ 538℃ or 566℃ 374℃
600℃/600℃

* Steam Condition shows Turbine inlet

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 4
Fig.3 Steam Conditions of Coal Fired Boiler Improvement by BHK

Hitachinaka No.1 (1000MW)


Tachibanawan No.2 (1050MW)
Haramachi No.2 (1000MW)
Matsuura No.2 (1000MW)
Nanao-Ohta No.1 (500MW) 25.0MPa/600/610oC
24.5MPa/600/600oC
Shinchi No.1 (1000MW)
Noshiro No.1 (600MW) 24.1MPa/593/593oC Canada (495MW)
Hekinan No.2 (700MW) USA (870MW)
24.1MPa/566/593oC
Matsuura No.1 (1000MW)
Takehara No.3 (700MW) Ultra Super Critical

24.1MPa/538/566oC Super Critical

1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010


Year

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 5
Fig.4 Improvement of Plant Efficiency

45 Sub critical Super critical USC


Gross Plant efficiency (%) HHV base

44

43

42

41

40
16.6MPa 16.6MPa 24.1MPa 24.1MPa 24.1MPa 24.1MPa 24.5MPa
538/538OC 538/566OC 538/566OC 566/566OC 566/593OC 593/593OC 600/600OC

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 6
Table 1 Boiler Type and Furnace Construction
NC Boiler (Vertical Type) Benson Boiler(Spiral Type)
Steam Feed
Water

DRUM

Furnace
Construction

Down Comer
Feed Water
Operating Pressure Sub-Critical Sub-Critical to Supercritical Region
(Constant or Sliding) (Sliding Pressure)
Applicable Steam Pressure Subcritical Supercritical & Subcritical
Through Furnace Enclosure Tubes
Temperature Uniformity Better Much Better
Mass Flow Rate Approx. 13% 100%
Sliding Pressure Operation ? YES YES (Wide Range)
Allowable Min. Load (%) 15 25 - 35 (OT Mode)
15 (Circ. Mode)
Load Change Rate Base Higher
Start-up Time (min.) (Hot start) 120 – 150 with TB By-pass 120 – 150 with TB By-pass
Furnace Enclosure Construction Vertical Spiral
Tube O/D (mm) 57.0 - 63.5 31.8 - 38.1
Max. Unit Capacity in Operation 600 MW 1,050 MW
Notes NC:Natural Circulation OT:Once-Through Circ.:Circulation O/D:Outside Diameter

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 7
Fig.5 Boiler Types Supplied by BHK Group

BENSON BENSON
NC UP (Two Pass Type) (Tower Type)

Boiler type

Capacity (MW) 50 ~ 600 350 ~ 1000 75 ~ 1050 ~ 930

Pressure Subcritical, Subcritical, Subcritical,


Subcritical Supercritical Supercritical Supercritical

Steam temp. (oC) Up to 571 Up to 571 Up to 613 Up to 580

Coal combustion PCF PCF PCF (Opposed, Tangential),


method (Opposed)(Opposed) Slag tap

Coal kind Bituminous, Sub-bituminous Bituminous, Sub-bituminous,


Lignite, Anthracite
Notes NC:Natural Circulation UP : Universal Pressure

Supplied by BBPS (Babcock Borsig Power Systems)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 8
Fig.6 Wide Range of Coal Qualities Fired

80 Lignite
Volatile Matter (dry ash free), %

70
Sub Bituminous
60 BItuminous

50

40

30

20

10 Anthracite

0
0 10 20 30 40
Net calorific value, MJ/kg

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 9
1. Improvement of Steam Conditions

2. Improvement of Material and


Manufacturing Technology

3. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No.1

4. Next-Generation USC Boiler

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 10
Fig.7 Development Progress of Ferritic CrMo Steel Pipes

Creep Rupture Strength (600oC/105h)


30 - 40MPa 60MPa 100MPa 140MPa

2.25Cr1Mo 2.25Cr1.6WVNb
SA335P22 SA335P23
(HCM2S)
9Cr1Mo 9Cr2Mo
SA335P9 JIS:STPA27
(HCM9M)
9Cr1MoVNb 9Cr0.5Mo1.8WVNb
SA335P91 SA335P92
(Mod.9Cr1Mo) (NF616)

12Cr1MoV 12Cr1Mo1WVNb 11Cr0.4Mo2WCuVNb


X20CrMoV121 JIS:SUS410J2TP SA335P122
(HCM12) (HCM12A)

:Conventional
:Advanced

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 11
Fig.8 Allowable Stresses of Ferritic CrMo Steel Pipes

150

Allowable stress (MPa) SA335P91


(9%Cr)
SA335P92
100
(9%Cr)

SA335P23 SA335P122
(2.25%Cr) (11%Cr)
50

SA335P22
(2.25%Cr)
0
500 550 600 650 700
Temperature (oC)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 12
Fig.9 Development Progress of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube

Creep Rupture Strength (650oC/105h)

55 - 60MPa 90MPa 110 - 120MPa

18Cr8Ni 18Cr10NiTi 18Cr10NiNbTi


SA213TP304H SA213TP321H JIS:SUS321J1HTB
(Tempaloy A-1)
18Cr10NiNb 18Cr9Ni3CuNbN
SA213TP347H SA213-UNS30432
(SUPER304H)

21Cr32NiTiAl 20Cr25Ni1.5MoNbTi
Alloy800H JIS:SUS310J2TB
(NF709)

25Cr20Ni 25Cr20NiNbN
JIS:SUS310TB SA213TP310HCbN
(HR3C)

: Conventional
: Advanced

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 13
Fig.10 Allowable Stresses Advanced Stainless Steel Tubes

150
SA213TP310HCbN
(25%Cr:HR3C)
Allowable stress (MPa)
SA213UNS S304 32
100 (18%Cr:Super 304H )
JIS:SUS310J2TB
(20%Cr:NF709)

50
JIS:SUS321J1TB
(18%Cr:Tempaloy A1)

SA213TP321H
0 (18%Cr)
550 600 650 700 750
Temperature (oC)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 14
SA213UNS30332

SUS310J2TB

SA335P92 SA335P122

SA213TP310HCbN Fig.12 Macro Structures of


Narrow Gap TIG Weld

Fig.11 Macro Structures of


TIG Weld of Tube Materials

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 15
Fig.13 Steam Oxide Scale of Stainless Steel Tubes

Inner scale thickness (micro m)


50
Time:1,000h

40
SA213UNS S304 32 JIS:SUS310J2TB
(18%Cr:Super 304H) (20%Cr:NF709)
30
SA213TP347HFG
(18%Cr:Fine Grain)

20
A213TP310HCbN
(25%Cr:HR3C)
10 Shotblasted
A213UNS S304 32
0 (18%Cr:Super 304H)
550 600 650 700 750 800
Temperature (oC)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 16
Fig.14 Improvement Trend of Hitachi NR Series Burners
Guide sleeve
Flame Stabilizing
Guide sleeve Space Creator
Ring+Baffle Plate
Air register Flame Stabilizing Flame Stabilizing
Ring Ring

Swirler
Spin Vane P.C. Concentrator P.C. Concentrator

Dual Burner NR Burner NR2 Burner NR3 Burner


Delayed Combustion Rapid ignition(In Flame NOx Reduction)

Coal property
300 ppm(100%)
Fuel Ratio : 2.2
400 Nitrogen : 1.8%
Two Stage Combustion
NOx (6%O2,ppm)

175 ppm(60%)
300 150 ppm(50%) 125 ppm(40%)

200 (100 ppm(33%))


Dual Burner
(Conventional)
100 NR Burner NR2 Burner NR3 Burner
Coal property
Fuel Ratio:1.8
0
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Nitrogen:1.5%
Two Stage Combustion

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 17
1. Improvement of Steam Conditions

2. Improvement of Material and


Manufacturing Technology

3. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No.1

4. Next-Generation USC Boiler

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 18
Fig.15 Side View of Hitachi-Naka No.1 Boiler

Secondary Superheater Tertiary Superheater

Steam Separator
Reheater

Primary Superheater

Economizer
Coal
Bunker

NO Ports

Burners
DeNOx
Coal Feeders System

Air Heaters

Mills Boiler Circulation Forced Draft Primary Air


Pump Fans Fans

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 19
Table 2 Main Specification of Hitachi-Naka No.1

Generator Output 1000 MW


Babcock Hitachi Supercritical Sliding
Boiler Type Pressure Operation Benson Boiler

MCR Steam Pressure Main 24.5 MPa(g)

Steam Main 600 oC


Temperature Reheat 600 oC

Economiser Inlet Feedwater Temp. 286.9 oC


Combustion System Pulverised Coal Fired
Draught System Balanced Draught System
Main Water Fuel Ratio Control and
Steam Temperature Staged Spray Attemperation
Control System Reheat Parallel Gas Dampering and
Spray Attemperation

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 20
Fig.15’ Side View of Hitachi-Naka No.1 Boiler

High strength material


SA335P122, SUPER304H

Optimized heating
surface arrangement

Parallel gas damper with


Spiral wall with
adequate heating surface
opposed firing

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 21
Fig.16 Steam and Water Temperature

30%ECR 50%ECR 75%ECR 100%ECR

650
Superheater Outlet
600

Steam and Water Temperature (oC) 550 Reheater Outlet

500

450
Superheater Inlet
400

350
Reheater Inlet
Economizer Outlet
300
Economizer Inlet

250

200
0 1000 2000 3000

Main Steam Flow (t/h)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 22
Fig.17 Reheater Outlet Steam Temperature during Load Change

100% Load Demand


650
Damper opening degree
3%/min (Reheater side)

50%

Reheater outlet
steam temperature
550
(oC) 0 30min. 0 30min.
Previous Design Hitachi-Naka No.1
with Gas Recirculation without Gas Recirculation

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 23
Fig.18 Combustion Test Results at 100% Load

100%ECR
8
Unburned Carbon in Ash (%)

Coal A Coal B Coal


6 Target Point Country Indonesia Australia
Fuel Ratio (-) 1.00 1.99
4 Ash(dry%) 9.3 7.4
B Coal
N(dry%) 1.3 1.8
2
A Coal Fixed Carbon
0 Fuel Ratio =
100 120 140 160 180 200 Volatile Matter

NOx at Boiler Outlet (ppm 6%O2)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 24
Fig.19 Flame of Hitachi NR 3 Burner at Minimum Load

Flame of Hitachi NR3


Burning B Coal at Minimum Load

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 25
1. Improvement of Steam Conditions

2. Improvement of Material and


Manufacturing Technology

3. 1000MW Hitachi-Naka No.1

4. Next-Generation USC Boiler

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 26
Fig.20 Target Steam Conditions of Next-Generation USC Developing Project

USA/VISION21 EU/THERMIE
Main Steam Temperature (oC)

AD700
750 ’98-’13

700
Germany/MARCKO DE2
’99-’03
650
Target for
Existing next generation
600
USC Boiler USC Boiler

550 Sub-Critical
Boiler

15 20 25 30 35

Main Steam Pressure (MPa)

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 27
Fig.21 Creep Rupture Strength for Material of Next Generation USC

Creep Rupture Strength (105hr,N/mm2 ) Alloy617 (52Ni22Cr)


200 HR6W (40Ni23Cr)
NF709 (25Ni20Cr)
SA335P122(11Cr2W0.4Mo)
150
Pipe Tube
100

50

0
600 650 700 750 800 850
Temperature (oC)

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Summary

Coal fired USC technology is established up to


600ooC class steam condition
Improvement of material and manufacturing
technology for boiler tubes and pipes increases
steam conditions
600ooC class USC Boiler , Hitachi-Naka unit No.1,
starts commercial operation with advance
technology such as low NOx, high combustion
efficiency and steam temperature control.
Investigation for next Generation USC 700ooC
class is started.

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 29
Feature of Supercritical Sliding Pressure Operation

Main Steam Press. (Mpa )


SLIDING PRESSURE OPERATION
30
Unit output control method by sliding pressure is as 25
follows. 20
15
By the sliding pressure in proportion to the generator
10
output, steam quantity at turbine inlet can be
changed at a constant volume flow while keeping 5
governing valve open. 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Turbine Load (%)

improvement degradation
Relative comparison of
A smaller governing valve loss enables improvement 5
Thermodynamic loss by
of high pressure turbine internal efficiency : A 4 falling in pressure
3 A

Heat Rate (%)


Decrease of feed water pump throughput : B 2
1
Boiler reheat steam temperature can be maintained
0 B
at higher level because of higher temperature in 1
high pressure turbine exhaust steam : C 2 C
3 0 20 40 60 80 100
In comparison to constant pressure operations, a sliding Turbine Load (%)
type enables much improvement in plant efficiency
under partial load operations. Improvement of Turbine Heat Rate
due to Sliding Pressure Operation

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 30
High Efficiency Coal Utilizations
(HHV) PFBC : Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion From : NEDO FORUM 2002
IGFC : Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Coal
55 Combined Cycle
IGCC : Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle
IGCC/IFGC
USC : Ultra Super Critical
Net Plant Efficiency (%)

50
Hyper Coal
Next Generation USC
30MPa 700/700oC
PFBC
45

Pulverized Coal Pulverized Coal


Bed Fluidized
40
USC USC Coal Gasification
24.1MPa 24.5MPa 30.6MPa Hyper Coal
538/538oC 600/600oC 630/630oC

1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030


BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. 31